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Is Is the the Moon Moon sighting sighting necessary necessary every every month? month? QQ
Is Is the the Moon Moon sighting sighting
necessary necessary
every every month? month?
QQ SS KhanKhan
TTanveeranveer PubliPublicaticationonss,, MMumbaiumbai -- 7878

Is the Moon sighting necessary every month?

Is the Moon sighting necessary every month? Q Q S S Khan Khan B.E. (Mech.) Mobile

QQ SS KhanKhan

B.E. (Mech.)

Mobile No. +91 9320064026 Email: hydelect@vsnl.com

TTanveeranveer PubliPublicaticationonss,, MMumbaiumbai -- 7878
TTanveeranveer PubliPublicaticationonss,, MMumbaiumbai -- 7878
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Is the Moon sighting necessary every month?

Author:

Q.S. Khan

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every month? Author: Q.S. Khan B.E. (Mech.) ISBN NO. 9 7 8 - 9 3 -

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Introduction to some of the Books written by Mr. Q.S. Khan

Introduction to some of the Books written by Mr. Q.S. Khan Law of success for both

Law of success for both the Worlds, ;”kkph xq:fdYyh

Human beings are combination of matter and energy. That is body and soul. Similarly prosperity is also combination of matter and positive energy, that is actual possession of wealth and blessing of God.

Majority of peoples are unaware of the mental and spiritual side of prosperity. Hence they struggle through out their career and remain failure even at the end of their life.

career and remain failure even at the end of their life. “Law of Success for both

“Law of Success for both the Worlds”. This book has been written to introduce you both the aspect of prosperity, that is earning wealth along with blessing. This book is in most simple language. It refers to the teachings of reputed and time tested self-help motivational books of the world, along with views of author. If a young entrepreneur dose not have time and access to read many books, this book will atleast introduce him to all those subjects. This book is already translated and printed in Marathi, and under process of printing in Hindi language.

How to prosper the Islamic way

1500 years ago holy Quran described or predicated many scientific facts and figures, which are proved scientifically in last 200 years. Such as Big-bang theory, many fact about Geology, Embryology, Astronomy etc. Similarly it has also described many management rules for success in business and in general life.

"How to prosper the Islamic way" is an effort to collect all those management rules which if followed will guarantee a sure success in business and in general life. This book is also translated into Urdu.

and in general life. This book is also translated into Urdu. Design and manufacturing of Hydraulic

Design and manufacturing of Hydraulic Presses.

into Urdu. Design and manufacturing of Hydraulic Presses. Nowadays most of the Industrial machines work on

Nowadays most of the Industrial machines work on hydraulic system. Then also the Industrial hydraulic technology is almost unknown in India. That mean there is no specialised course on industrial hydraulic in engineering colleges.

Author (Q.S.Khan) is in field of design and manufacturing of hydraulic machine since 1987, and has working experience of about 24 year. Depending on his experience he has written many books on Hydraulic subject, which will be very useful to the maintenance engineer and engineering students.

Hajj Guide

maintenance engineer and engineering students. Hajj Guide Hajj is a great prayer. But as it is

Hajj is a great prayer. But as it is done only once in life time, hence generally people avoide learning anything about it. And when people get chance of performing hajj then due to their business and day to day activity they hardly get time to learn rites of hajj. This problems Author himself faced in 2004. So after returning from Hajj he wrote a simple, to the point, down to earth, and practical book, for quick preparation and learning of Hajj.

Said book is considered best among other Hajj book, with respect to it’s simplicity and convenience of understanding, and about 10,000 copies are distributed every year at the time of hajj season. This book is translated and transliterated in Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, and Gujarati.

Teachings of Vedas and Quran? ifo= osn vkSj bLyke /keZ

Teachings of Vedas and Quran? ifo= osn vkSj bLyke /keZ Politicians of India has created too

Politicians of India has created too much hatred and mis-understandings between Hindu and Muslim community.

This book has been written to reduce communal hatred and mis-understanding between these two communities.

This book describes many Islamic details which are described in holy Vedas, such as details of Hazrat Adam, Hazrat Nooh, predictions of Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh), details of holy Kaaba, history of sacrifice of Hazrat Ismail. 80 Shloks of Vedas which has same meaning as that of verses of holy Quran is also described in this book.

This book has been appreciated by Hindu community.

fo=osn fo=osn vkSjvkSj LLyykkee dfYd dfYd vorkj vorkj dkSu dkSu gSa\ gSa\ eDdk eDdk ;k
fo=osn fo=osn
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LLyykkee
dfYd dfYd vorkj vorkj dkSu dkSu gSa\ gSa\
eDdk eDdk ;k ;k eDrs'oj\ eDrs'oj\
gt+jr gt+jr uwg uwg ;k ;k euw\ euw\
ujk'kal ujk'kal dkSu dkSu gSa\ gSa\
iq:"k iq:"k es/kk es/kk ;k ;k cdjh&bZn\ cdjh&bZn\
dqjvku dqjvku vkSj vkSj osnksa osnksa esa esa D;k D;k lekurk lekurk gS\ gS\

One simple Question

If we observe for ten year that when moon set half an hour after sun-set, then before setting of moon we are able to see it. On eleventh year, by time table you know that moon is going to set after half an hour after sun set. But you can not see moon due to cloud, than tell me, will you consider confidently and surly as moon has been sighted. Or you will say that as I have not seen moon personally than how can I be sure that moon is seen. If you say I will not accept it as seen, then kindly analyze following verse of Holy Quran.

“Surely, the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day, there are signs for men of understanding. Those who remember Allah while standing, sitting, and lying on their sides and meditate on the creation of the heavens and the earth, then say: Our Rabb! You have not created this in vain. Glory to You! Save us from the punishment of fire.” (Holy Quran 3:190-191)

Be a men of understanding and analyze divine machinery of Allah. Kindly read this book and then take decision.

4
4

Index

Topic

Page No.

1. How perfect is the movement of Sun and Moon?

6

2. Movement of Sun and Moon in their orbits.

7

3. Why Sun and Moon arises from Horizon?

8

4. Why does Moon waxes and vanes?

10

5. Why does Sky look blue?

13

6. Why does the time of rising and setting of Sun changes continuously?

14

7. Solution of Moon sighting problem.

17

8. How much is ‘Minimum Delay Period’ at present?

19

9. Time table of Sun & Moon for some cities of the world.

a. Saharanpur (India)

21-25

b. Lucknow (India)

26-30

c. Mumbai (India)

31-36

d. Kolkata (India )

37-42

e. London (England)

43-48

f. Makkah (Saudi Arab)

49-54

g. Madina (Saudi Arab)

55-60

h. Cairo (Egypt)

61-66

i.

i

Los Angeles (U.S.A.)

67-72

j.

Kuala Lumpur (Malasia)

73-78

10. Our Observation (Khalilabad)

81

5
5

Article – 1

In the name of Allah, the beneficent and the most merciful.

How perfect is the movement of sun and moon?

1. Allah declares in Holy Quran:

“No doubt Your lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then he settled himself on the throne. He convert night into day. It is He who has created, All obays His commandment. Every creature belong to Him and He is ruler of universe. Allah is the cherisher and sustainer of the world. ” (Holy quran 7: 54)

2. “The sun and the moon follow predetermined timetable. (Surah Rahman 55, verse 5).

3. “Oh Mohammed(s a w)! they ask you about the phases of Moon. Tell them it is to asertain dates and to know the

time of Hajj pilgrimage. (SurahAl Baqrah, verse 5).

4. “ A sign (of Allah) for them (human being) is the night. When Allah pull out light from day, darkness spreads every where. Sun also follows a fixed course of movement. These system is fixed by the Allah. Who is almighty and all knowing. And We (Allah) has fixed phases of moon also. While thinning it becomes like a strand of a old date tree branch. Neither sun can speed up his speed to arise before moon nor night can fall before rise of a day. All are swimming in their fixed orbits.” (Surah Yaseen, Verse 37-40).

In surah Yaseen verse No. 37-40 of holy Quran Allah says “We have fixed phases of moon.” That mean when moon

It will

100% follow it's time table. In same verse Allah says “Sun also follow a fixed course of movement.” That's means

Sun also has got a fixed time table of it's movement. Sun can not speed up his motion, to arise on horizon and end night before it’s natural time.

Hence with reference to Holy Quran we can confidently says that motion of Sun and moon are extremely perfect. And they follow a predefined fixed time table.

will rise and set are all fixed and has a perfect time table. Moon can not slow down or move fast at it’s own.

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6

Article – 2

Movement of Sun & Moon in their orbite

Sun is a star. Stars shine at their own. Sun is also shining by burning its won fuel.

Eight planets orbits around Sun which are known as; Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. All of them reflect the light of sun. Mercury completes its Revolution around the sun in 87.969 Days and the last planet Neptune completes its Revolution around the sun in 165 Years.

The orbits of planets around the sun is not exactly circular but oval.

There are satellites around most of the planets which orbits around them.

Satellites orbits around planets. Planets orbits around sun (star) and sun along with all planets orbits around a far away center called Solar Apex. Sun along with it’s planet travel at speed of 200 km/second.

Which means that everything in solar system is moving (working) according to the perfect system of almighty Allah like the parts of a perfect machine.

Allah describes this fact in holy Quran, “No doubt Your lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then he settled himself on the throne. He convert night into day. It is He who has created them All obays His commandment. Every creature belong to Him and He is ruler of universe. Allah is the cherisher and sustainer of the world.” (suratul Aaraf verse 54).

The following picture is taken from NASA center of America, which shows the whole Galaxy along with Millions of stars, their planets and satellites revolving around a center. In this picture the sun is less than a particle, therefore it is not visible.

Science has

proved this fact of Holy Quran. Even if science could not prove it, then also the creator of universe knows more

Allah almighty has stated in surah Rahman that sun and moon are

precisely moving in their orbite.

about His creations than science. What He says can never be wrong.

Galaxy rotating around the centre, in which millions of stars like our Sun are there.

More

pictures

are

available

on

the

website given below:

there. More pictures are available on the website given below: www.news.wisc.edu.newsphotos/milkyway.html

www.news.wisc.edu.newsphotos/milkyway.html

Fig. 1

n u S d n u o r a h t Earth (Planet) r a
n
u
S
d
n
u
o
r
a
h
t
Earth (Planet)
r
a
E
The The Sun Sun
(Star) (Star)
f
o
n
o
i
t
a
t
o
R

The Moon

(Sattelite

of Earth)

Rotation of Moon around the Earth Earth orbits around the Sun, and Moon orbits around the Earth

Fig. 2

7
7

Article – 3

Why Sun and Moon arises from Horizon?

Imagine that you are sitting in train but some distance away from the window of a compartment, and you are looking out of that window. If you are facing the engine side of train, then you will find that everything out side of the window is running in backward direction. But actually everything is standstill and you are moving ahead.

Likewise we see the sun in the sky rising from east and setting in the west, actually it is due to rotation of the Earth on its Axis from west to East. Following picture will help you to understand this phenomenon.

Light of sun in morning on horizon Our vision It is we Earth is rotating
Light of sun in morning
on horizon
Our vision
It is we
Earth is rotating
on its Axis
Sun

In this position of earth your eyes could look at the light of drawn on the sky. Sun is invisible from your eyes. (Actually sun is 110 times larger than earth but it is far away from the earth, therefore it looks small. the above picture is only for explanation purpose.)

Earth is rotating on its Axis
Earth is rotating
on its Axis

It is we

Sun
Sun

With the rotation of earth you could see a little part of sun. At this time you feel that the sun is rising.

Fig. 3

Fig. 4

8
8

The basic difference in the rotation and revolution of earth and moon is that; Earth rotate on its won Axis in 24 hours and revolves around the sun in 365.25 days. While moon rotate on its Axis in 27.322 day, and revolves around the Earth also in 27.322 days.

From Earth we could witness sun and moon rising and setting because rotating movement of earth on its Axis from West to East direction. The time period of moons rotation on its axis and revolution around earth is exactly same therefore from Earth we could see its one side only. Its other side is never visible from Earth.

Sun is stationery for earth, and earth completes its rotation in 24 hours at it’s own axis therefore we find the sun at the same position in which it was 24 hours earlier. Which means that at whatever time sun rises today, after 24 hours it will rise again at the same time. There will be difference of about 1 minute depending on position of earth in it’s orbite.

IF the moon would have stationary for the earth, then it would have risen and set like the sun, after 24 hours. But moon revolves around the earth and completes its revolution in about 27.322 Days and its revolution is in the same direction in which Earth rotates i.e. from West to East therefore the time of raising and setting of moon is 50 minutes more every day, and this difference also keep on changing.

Earth is rotating on its Axis
Earth is rotating
on its Axis
Sun
Sun
Earth is rotating on its Axis Sun It is we This is the noon time and

It is we

Earth is rotating on its Axis Sun It is we This is the noon time and

This is the noon time and sun is exactly above your head. You are not slipping down because earth's gravity is pulling everything towards its centre.

Fig. 5

Earth is rotating on its Axis Sun It is we At this position you will
Earth is rotating
on its Axis
Sun
It is we
At this position you will feel as Sun is setting.

Fig. 6

Earth is rotating on its Axis This is the time of mid night. It is
Earth is rotating
on its Axis
This is the time of mid night.
It is we
Sun
Sun
9
9

Fig. 7

Article – 4

Why does Moon waxes and vanes?

1. Sun is a star in which hydrogen gas is burning continuously due to fusion reaction. Therefore it is always remain bright or emit light and it gives brightness to others too.

2. Planets and satellites do not glow at their own, therefore when the sunlight falls on them, then only they

become visible, otherwise they remain invisible. If sun light fall only on some part of planet, than only that much position will become visible and other remain invisible. On the first day of the month the moon is very thin (crescent) because very small illuminated surface of moon is toward us hence he can see very small portion of it. But in fact full moon remain present on horizon. but we could not see it’s un-illuminated surface.

Moon seen like this on first of every Islamic month.

Moon seen like this on first of every Islamic month. 2 1 But, fact is that
2 1
2
1

But, fact is that we could not see the non-illuminated portion of Moon, but it is still on it’s place.

Fig. 8

The vanning and waxing of moon could be understood by following explanations.

Suppose you are sitting at center of a close room with total darkness. There is a torch on one side of room. A ball is hanging from center of roof, but could be rotated on all side of you.

Fig. 9 Black Black Ball Ball Black Ball Tourch This is you Now suppose when
Fig. 9
Black Black
Ball Ball
Black
Ball
Tourch
This is you
Now suppose when the
ball is in between you
and torch then neither
torch nor the ball will be
invisible to you. Only a
ring of light around the
ball will be visible. This
is the example of
complete sun eclipse.
Ring of light
Black
Black
Ball
Ball
This is you
If the ball moves a
little towards right
side, then you will
observe following
view.
Tourch
Fig.10
10
10
Black Black Ball Ball Tourch This is you
Black Black
Ball Ball
Tourch
This is you

If you get the ball at your right hand side, then view will be like this.

Fig.11

Black Black Ball Ball Tourch This is you
Black Black
Ball Ball
Tourch
This is you

If

Ahead then view will be like

little,

the

ball

moves

fig no.12.

Fig.12

Black Black Ball Ball Tourch This is you
Black Black
Ball Ball
Tourch
This is you

If the ball moves to your other side, then the full surface of ball at which the light of torch falls will be visible to you. (This is the condition of moon on full moon night.)

Fig.13

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11

When Moon is between Sun and Earth, we can not see it’s illuminated surface. Hence Moon can not be seen in sky. As it moves on side gradually, we are able to see it’s more and more illuminated surface. When it moves completely on other side, then we are able to see full moon.

S u n Moon Earth

Sun

Moon Earth
Moon
Earth
Sun Moon Earth

Sun

Moon Earth
Moon
Earth
Sun Moon Earth

Sun

Moon Earth
Moon
Earth
Sun Moon Earth

Sun

Moon Earth
Moon
Earth
Sun Moon Earth

Sun

Moon Earth
Moon
Earth

Fig.14

Fig.15

New Moon

Fig.16

Fig.17

Fig.18

Full moon on 14 th nights of lunar month.

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Article – 5

Why does sky look blue?

When light passes through prism it’s rays get divided into seven colours of rays due to refraction. We also observe these seven colours in the rainbow. The order of these colours are violet, indigo, Violet, Green. Yellow, Orange, Red. In these colours wave length of Red colours rays has the longest wave length and blue rays has the smallest wave length. When sunlight passes through atmosphere, the light rays of bigger wave length passes through atmosphere directly. But molecules of air absorb the light of smaller wave length and then scatter it in every direction. This action is called Rayleigh scattering. As specially blue rays are absorbed and scattered after absorption therefore sky looks blue.

It is this blue rays of light because of which sky look blue otherwise there is nothing of blue colour in the space. There is no air in space hence from Moon as well as from space sky looks black.

and red at sun set.

When light passes through atmosphere, it’s blue colour get absorb, hence sun look yellow. At evening time when light passes through dense air, it’s complete violet, indigo and blue ray get absorbed hence sun looks as per the remaining dominated rays colour that is red.

Rayleigh scattering process is also the reason because of which sun look yellow at day time

From moon and space sun looks white.

Why we can not see stars at the day time?

In the sunlight the air around the earth is blue and bright and stars are less bright than this bright atmosphere, therefore we cannot see them in daylight. But during total eclipse of sun the bright stars could be seen during the Day.

Why we can not see moon during the day time?

It is the same reason for the moon also which causes the stars not to be seen during the day. On the day of ‘Amavas’ (No moon night) the moon moves in the sky somewhat ahead of the sun or side by side, but we cannot see it. Then on the second or third day when the setting time of sun and moon has a difference of 40 to 50 minutes, then we can view moon on horizon. Between 7 to 14 day after new moon the surface area of moon on which sun light falls sufficiently large enough, hence even at day time also we can see moon’s illuminated or reflected surface.

On first day we can observe only small illuminated part on of moon surface.

can observe only small illuminated part on of moon surface. This portion of moon is not

This portion of moon is not visible because, sun light is not falling on it. Otherwise it exist at its position.

After how much delay if moon set after sun than could be view is very important period. By knowing this period of delay. We can solve our monthly moon viewing problem to ascertain new lunar month.

of delay. We can solve our monthly moon viewing problem to ascertain new lunar month. Fig.
of delay. We can solve our monthly moon viewing problem to ascertain new lunar month. Fig.

Fig. 19

Horizon

Sun after settingknowing this period of delay. We can solve our monthly moon viewing problem to ascertain new

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Article – 6

Why does the time of rising and setting of Sun change continuously?

Axis of earth is not exactly verticle.

Axis of earthNorth Pole South Pole Fig.20

North Pole

Axis of earth North Pole South Pole Fig.20

South Pole

Axis of earth North Pole South Pole Fig.20

Fig.20

Earth is inclined 23º on one side of its Axis and revolves around the sun.

Earth is inclined 23º on one side of its Axis and revolves around the sun.

Fig.21

There will be 24 hour’s day and summer season at north pole. In this position when earth is our extreme left side of sun and 24 hours night and winter season at South Pole.

Sun light reaches on north pole through out the day.

Sun
Sun

Sun light can not reach on South pole.

Fig.22

Earth rotates on its Axis in 24 hours to complete one rotation, and revolves around the sun to complete one circle in 365.25 Days. We can see in the above picture (in figure No. 22) that when earth rotates on its Axis, all the time the sunlight always reaches to the North pole and South pole always remain in dark. That is why it is shown in above picture that in this position when earth in on the left side of the sun then the duration of day is 24 hours at North Pole, and duration of night is 24 hours at South Pole. In the same position of earth if we move from South Pole to North Pole then the night decreases from 24 to 23 or 22 hours etc and Day and night become equal (12 hours each) at equator, and as we move up in the north of equator then the night become shorter and day become longer. In Sweden and Denmark day is longer than 18 hours while night is shorter than 6 hours. Therefore Muslims in those countries in month of Ramzan go to Mosques for ‘Iftaar’ and return after taking ‘Sahar’ meal. Nights are so short that after offering prayers of Maghrib, Isha and Taraweeh it is the time of dawn.

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North Pole Sun South Pole In this position at North Pole night is 24 hours
North Pole
Sun
South Pole
In this position at North Pole night is 24 hours long and it is winter season and at south pole it is
24 hours day and summer season.

In this picture when earth is on the right side of sun, the night at North Pole is 24 hours long and the day at South Pole is 24 hours long. And in between these two poles according to the distance from poles the day and night will have difference of time proportionately.

In these two extreme right or left end positions of earth the increase and decreases in timing of day and night depends upon the position of earth around the sun in it’s orbit

Day and night increase and decrease because the earth is inclined 23 degrees on its Axis. Therefore its part which is near the sun has longer days and shorter nights with summer season and in the other part of world which is away from the sun has longer nights and shorter days along with winter season. This system of changing seasons is useful and necessary for mankind.

For example in summer season the sea water evaporates and rises in the form of cloud and the whole world gets rainfall. Without the change of seasons and the system of increasing and decreasing days and nights, it will be impossible to live on this earth.

Since timing of rising and setting of the sun is changing during the whole year because earth is inclined 23 degrees on its Axis, but the time of rising and setting of the sun is same today on 2 October 2010 as it was on 2 October 2009 and it will remain the same next year on 2 October 2011 and it was the same time thousands of years ago as well as thousands of years to come. This means that time changes during the whole year but it returns on the same position at the year end.

nd

nd

nd

Does the time of rising and setting of the moon also change? Moon revolves around the earth in 27.322 days (full revolution) and it also rotate on axis in 27.322 days. As it’s rotation and revolution around earth is same hence we see only one face or side of moon. Moon revolve around earth in same direction in which earth rotates, hence moon can not complete one revolution around earth in 24 hour. but it take about 50 minute more. Hence Moon rises about 50 minutes late daily which means that today's time of rising and setting of moon will not be the same as tomorrow since it will rise and set 50 minutes late tomorrow and this difference of 50 minutes also keep on changing. Therefore the time of rising and setting also changes everyday And will not remain same next year on this day.

Is it possible to predict the rising and setting of the moon? Yes, it is. As the time of rising and setting of the sun can be predicated for one thousand year of past as well as future, in the same way predication of time table of rising and setting of the moon is also possible up to the accuracy of few second. And even today we can predict for next one thousands years. There are some websites which continuously show position of sun and moon with accuracy of few second, for example:

15
15

(www.timeanddate.com- www.moonphaseinfo.com)

The rising and setting time of sun and moon is continuously changing, but this change is not haphazard, abnormal or unsystematic. Sun and moon move like, a perfect machine part of a perfect divine machine of the lord of universe and accuracy of their movement is within few second. This fact Allah (swt) said in holy Quran in following words.

The sun and the moon perfectly follow a courses (exactly) computed; (Surah Rahman 55, verse5)

Whatever time is described for setting and rising of moon in today’s time table. Moon will not rise or set one second prior and later than this time. Hence we can 100% rely on the accuracy of moon time table.

Will Ramadan be of 29 or 30 days?

In present era in which science is so much advance, it is a surprising fact that we can not predict that on which day we will be able to see the new moon.

Since 1995 I was trying to solve this problems. My effort was to develop an automatically rotaling Telescope, which will exactly follow the course of moon. That means Telescope will continuously keep on pointing moon throughout the day. At day time we may not be able to see moon due to sun-light, but after sun set as soon as horizon become slightly dark, immediately we will be able to see the new moon.

Because of two reason I could not develop that Automatic Telescope. First reason is change in delay time of moon setting. That means every day moon sets at delay of 50 minutes. But this fifty minute also keep on changing throughout the year. And second reason is moon don't pass exactly on same course throughout the year. But its rising and setting place also keep on changing. I contacted electronic engineer and Nehru science center of mumbai. But they were not having much interest in solving my problem, even those I was ready to pay.

On evening of 28 th Ramzan (in 2010), I was going through newspaper, to know iftar time. I searched Sun rise and Sun set time table in paper and found it. After reading sunset time, I also surfed the remaining detail in that column. Which gave timing of high and low tide of sea, and moon setting and rising time. As soon as I read moon timing, my mind start wondering whether moon also has fixed rising and setting time? And if yes then can we solve moon sighting problem by it’s time table?

La haula wala quwata-illa billa hill Aliyyill-Azeem

One of the meaning of this verse is “capability to do good and refrain from sin is due to blessing of Allah and Allah is Great.”

No doubt it was blessing of Allah, that just by time table and without any Telescope and calculations I was able to solve moon sighting problem as per Islamic tradition (Hadees). How I solved this problem we will read in next chapter.

16
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Article – 7

Solution of Moon sighting problem

We daily observe sunrise and sunset. As on today 2-10-2011 whatever is time of sunrise and sunset, after one year on 2-11-2012 it will be exactly same time. Even for next 100 years also on 2nd October the sunrise and sunset time will be same (with accuracy of few second) This statement is true and their should not be any doubt about it.

We do iftar after full day fasting after sunset. If we do iftar even one minute before sunset then our fasting will be invalid. So sunset timing for iftar is very critical. Than also we blindly rely on Time table of sunset and sunrise.

Do we do anything wrong?

No. There is nothing wrong in relying on Almanac. On the contrary if we don't rely on Almanac and try to see sunset personally, then it will be a foolishness.

Same thing happens with Subah-sadiq (early morning) also. Those scholar who cared about Muslim society, after deep thinking, observation, consultation, and experience decided that 90 minute before sun rise the Subah-sadiq ends. We all follow it. There is nothing wrong in such assumption.

If anyone takes objection about the way in which time for subhah sadique was fixed. Then in such case neither the person who fixed the timing of Subah-sadiq nor who takes the objection has any proof or data or any basis to prove himself. Fixing timing for Subah-sadiq is totally on experience basis.

For example. If time table say that Subah-sadiq will end at 4.10 a.m. then neither at 4.09 a.m. any star will appear in sky nor at 4.11 a.m. any white light or white thread will appear on horizon. And in big city even by observing sky for full night we can not judge subah-sadique, because horizon always remain bright due to excessive city lighting.

As initiative of fixing the time of Subah-sadiq was for convenience of common people, Hence we all accept it willingly.

About moon also we all should have such open mind and heart. As per my experience moon sighting problem may be solved in following way:

There is a time table for rising and setting time of sun which is 100% reliable. In same way there is time table for rising and setting time of moon, which is also 100% reliable.

2. Sun rises and sets everyday. In the same way moon also rises and sets everyday but in day time we cannot see moon in sky due to sunlight.

3. On the last day of Islamic month when the sun rises, the moon also rises, but after some interval of time. Moon remains with sun in sky for the whole day, but remain invisible due to sunlight. When sun sets, it also sets after sometime, but since the light at horizon reduces due to sun set, hence we can see moon before it sets.

4. After sunset at what minimum interval or delay period moon sets than it become visible is a very important information.

5. If we note down this minimum interval regularly, then on the basis of our observation we can confidently claim that if the moon sets so much time after sunset then it will be visible before it sets. (We will call this minimum late setting period as minimum delay period.)

6. We have already got the time table of the rising and setting time of sun and moon valid for 1000 years, which is 100% reliable. If we find out the minimum delay period (MDP). That mean after what minimum period if moon sets after sun than if could be sighted. According to this interval(MDP) we can confidently say that in the distant future when the moon could be sighted , and we confidently predict the first day of Islamic month.

17
17

7. On the basis of our new finding, that is minimum delay period, if we analyze our past. Then we will know how many time we missed fasting of first day and how many time we kept fasting on the day of Eid-ul-fitre.

(as per my analyze between 1990 to 2000 we did many time. And my observation chart is included in this book)

8. Whatever method I have described above. In this method we see moon with our naked eyes. Neither we use any Telescope, nor Astrology for moon sighting. Hence on basis of our personal observation we decided the minimum time period. That means we decide that after what interval if moon sets after sun than if could be seen. We record and freeze this minimum delay time. In future if moon set after sun exactly as per minimum delay time or an interval more than MDT, than without sighting moon due to cloud etc, if we assume as moon has been sighted and take it first day if islamic month then we don't oppose to the commandment of our beloved prophet Mohammed (s.a) who said “start you fast and end it after sighting the moon.” Because our observation and judgement is based on purely on moon sighting and not on prediction by science or Astrology.

9. I humbly request scholar and thinker to kindly study this method. And do something to solve this uncertainty problem of moon sighting.

10. As per Hazrat Umar Ibne Aasee, prophet Mohammed (pbuh) said, "If a ruler make a decision on basis of (ij- tehaad), analysing the laws of islam. And if his decision comes out to be true, than he get double blessing. And if it comes out to be wrong, than he get single blessing." (Bukhari shareef -2146)

11. So to solve a serious religious problem if scholars takes a decision with right intension, (as they have taken for Subah-sadiq) and if it don’t contradic Islamic teaching, then they should not be afraid of punishment. Insha- allah, Allah will reward them as per their intension even if they are not 100% perfect.

12. May Allah bless us wisdom to understand Islam and follow it too.

13. On web site www.timeanddate.com you can study time table of moon & sun. There are number of such site where you can get their precise time table.

18
18

Article –8

How much is “Minimum Delay Period at present” (in 2011)?

To solve this moon sighting problem. I requested Moulana Salem of Darul-uloom-Islamic of Basti (Dist) Uttarpradesh (India) to provide me detail about on which date we started fasting and which date we celebrate Eid-ul-fitr. He gave me such detail of last 10 years. When I anaysed these details, I found that on 23 oct 2006 moon set 29 minute after sun-set and people have sighted it. It was 29th day of Ramayan. On 30 August 2011, Eid-ul-fitr celebrated through out india. On that day moon set 29 minutes after sun in Jammu and Kashmir. Hence at present minimum delay period or MDP is 29 minute. For your kind reference I have included those detail in this book.

SUN & MOON TIME TABLE FOR 30th AUGUST 2011

No.

Name of Cities

Sun rise time

Sun set time

Moon rise

Moon set

Difference Between setting of Sun & Moon (minutes)

time

time

 

1. Srinagar

06:02

19:00

07:15

19:29

00:29

 

2. Saharanpur

05:55

18:45

07:03

19:19

00:34

 

3. Delhi

05:58

18:46

07:05

19:21

00:35

 

4. Lucknow

05:45

18:29

06:49

19:06

00:37

5.

Kolkata

05:18

17:56

06:18

18:37

00:41

6.

Mumbai

06:23

18:55

07:22

19:42

00:47

7.

Banglore

06:09

18:32

07:03

19:24

00:52

8.

Tiruvanthapuram

06:14

18:32

07:05

19:28

00:56

SUN & MOON TIME TABLE FOR KHALILABAD FOR FEW SELECTED DAYS.

No.

 

Date

Islamic

Sun rise

Sun set

Moon rise

Moon set

Difference Between setting of Sun & Moon (minutes)

   

Date

time

time

time

time

1.

7

th Jan. 1999

29

th of

06.48

17.20

07.01

17.55

35

 

Ramdhan (Moon of Eid)

2.

4

th Oct. 2005

29

th of

05.52

17.41

06.27

18.11

30

 

Shaban (Moon of Ramdhan)

3.

23 rd Oct. 2006

29

th of

06.01

17.22

06.51

17.51

29

Ramazan (Moon of Eid)

19
19

29 minute MDP is new record. We are studying this system since 2010. I request you to join me in this research work. I have included in this book time table of sun & moon rise for 2005 to 2015. I request you to kindly analyze the data of last five year. and make note and observation of MDP up to 2015. Then on basis of our analysis and observation we can reach to some correct decision. For regular observation also I am enclosing five years time table for coming years. So you can also make record at your end to ascertain the MDP.

If we skip one day of Ramjan then if could not be compensated even by keeping first for whole life. Keeping fast or Eid-ul-fitr is Prohibited (Haram). Hajj could not be performed an 8th or 10th Zilhija. Hence these dates are extremely important.

20
20
SUN AND MOON TIME TABLE FOR SAHARANPUR (INDIA) Saharanpur
SUN AND MOON TIME TABLE
FOR SAHARANPUR (INDIA)
Saharanpur

Kindly get old record of 1st day of Islamic month from 2005 to 2011, and see on those 1st day what was minimum delay period.

Kindly keep record of 1st day of Islamic month from 2012 to 2015, and see on 1st day what is minimum delay period.

After analysing old record and new observation we will be able to conclude the universal minimum delay period. And on basis of this minimum delay period we will be able to ascertain the 1 st day of Lunar Islamic month in future.

 

SUN & MOON TIME TABLE - 2007 For Saharanpur (India)

MONTHS

Dates

Sun

Sun

Moon

Moon

Difference between Sun Set & Moon Set

Comment

Rise

Set

Rise

Set

 

19

07:16

17:45

07:31

17:56

00:11

 

20

07:16

17:46

08:14

19:06

01:20

 

21

07:15

17:47

08:52

20:14

02:27

 

22

07:15

17:48

09:26

21:20

03:32

 
 

17

06:58

18:10

06:46

17:53

(-) 00:17

 

18

06:58

18:10

07:22

19:02

00:52

 

19

06:57

18:11

07:56

20:10

01:59

 

20

06:56

18:12

08:29

21:18

03:06

 

JANUARYFEBRUARYJULYAUGUST

MARCH

19

06:26

18:30

06:24

18:55

00:25

 

20

06:25

18:31

06:58

20:06

01:35

 

21

06:23

18:31

07:33

21:17

02:46

 

22

06:22

18:32

08:13

22:29

03:57

 

APRILMAY

17

05:52

18:48

05:26

18:51

00:03

 

18

05:51

18:48

06:06

20:04

01:16

 

19

05:50

18:49

06:47

21:18

02:29

 

20

05:48

18:50

07:37

22:30

03:40

 
 

17

05:26

19:07

05:22

20:05

00:58

 

18

05:25

19:08

06:16

21:15

02:07

 

19

05:25

19:08

07:18

22:17

03:09

 

20

05:24

19:09

08:24

23:09

04:00

 

JUNE

15

05:18

19:22

04:59

19:59

00:37

 

16

05:18

19:22

06:03

20:56

01:34

 

17

05:19

19:23

07:10

21:44

02:21

 

18

05:19

19:23

08:17

22:24

03:01

 
 

14

05:28

19:23

04:52

19:35

00:12

 

15

05:29

19:23

05:58

20:18

00:55

 

16

05:29

19:22

07:03

20:54

01:32

 

17

05:30

19:22

08:05

21:25

02:03

 
 

13

05:46

19:03

05:52

19:25

00:22

 

14

05:46

19:03

06:51

19:54

00:51

 

15

05:47

19:02

07:28

20:21

01:19

 

16

05:47

19:01

08:43

20:47

01:46

 

SEPTEMBER

11

06:02

18:31

05:39

18:23

(-) 00:08

 

12

06:02

18:30

06:34

18:49

00:19

 

13

06:03

18:28

07:28

19:16

00:48

 

14

06:03

18:27

08:22

19:43

01:16

 
 

11

06:19

17:54

06:16

17:46

(-) 00:08

 

12

06:19

17:53

07:10

18:15

00:22

 

13

06:20

17:52

08:06

18:47

00:55

 

14

06:21

17:51

09:02

19:23

01:32

 

OCTOBERNOVEMBERDECEMBER

10

06:40

17:27

06:56

17:24

00:03

 

11

06:41

17:26

07:53

18:04

00:38

 

12

06:42

17:26

08:50

18:50

01:24

 

13

06:43

17:25

09:44

19:42

02:17

 
 

09

07:04

17:20

06:44

16:47

(-) 00:33

 

10

07:04

17:20

07:39

17:37

00:17

 

11

07:05

17:21

08:31

18:33

01:12

 

12

07:06

17:21

09:18

19:32

02:11

 
21
21
 

SUN & MOON TIME TABLE - 2008 Saharanpur (India)

MONTHS

Dates

Sun

Sun

Moon

Moon

Difference between Sun Set & Moon Set

Comment

Rise

Set

Rise

Set

 

08

07:17

17:36

07:15

17:24

(-) 00:12

 

09

07:17

17:37

07:59

18:25

00:48

 

10

07:17

17:37

08:38

19:27

01:50

 

11

07:17

17:38

09:13

20:29

02:51

 
 

07

07:07

18:01

07:12

18:18

00:17

 

08

07:06

18:02

07:45

19:21

01:19

 

09

07:05

18:03

08:17

20:23

02:20

 

10

07:05

18:04

08:47

21:16

03:22

 

JANUARYFEBRUARYMARCHDECEMBER

07

06:39

18:23

06:15

18:08

00:15

 

08

06:38

18:24

06:47

19:12

00:48

 

09

06:37

18:24

07:18

20:28

01:54

 

10

06:36

18:25

07:52

21:26

03:01

 
 

06

06:03

18:42

05:58

19:06

00:24

 

07

06:02

18:42

06:25

20:17

01:35

 

08

06:01

18:43

07:07

21:30

02:47

 

09

06:00

18:43

07:56

22:42

03:59

 

MAY

05

05:34

19:00

04:56

19:05

00:05

 

06

05:33

19:00

05:43

20:20

01:20

 

07

05:32

19:01

06:38

21:32

02:31

 

08

05:31

19:02

07:41

22:37

03:35

 

JUNE

04

05:19

19:18

05:19

20:17

00:59

 

05

05:19

19:18

06:27

21:18

02:00

 

06

05:18

19:18

07:38

22:10

02:51

 

07

05:18

19:19

08:49

22:53

03:34

 
 

03

05:23

19:25

05:13

19:56

00:31

 

04

05:24

19:25

06:26

20:44

01:19

 

05

05:24

19:25

07:37

21:24

01:59

 

06

05:25

19:25

08:43

21:59

02:34

 

APRILNOVEMBER

JULYAUG

01

05:39

19:13

05:14

19:17

00:04

 

02

05:39

19:12

06:23

19:54

00:42

 

03

05:40

19:11

07:28

20:27

01:16

 

04

05:41

19:11

08:30

20:57

01:46

 

AUGUSTSEP

/ SEP

31

05:56

18:43

06:14

18:55

00:12

 

01

05:57

18:42

07:14

19:25

00:43

 

02

05:57

18:41

08:13

19:54

01:13

 

03

05:58

18:40

09:12

20:25

01:45

 

/ OCT

29

06:12

18:08

06:01

17:54

(-) 00:14

 

30

06:13

18:06

06:59

18:24

00:18

 

01

06:13

18:05

07:57

18:57

00:52

 

02

06:14

18:04

08:56

19:32

01:28

 

OCTOBER

29

06:31

17:35

06:45

17:31

00:04

 

30

06:32

17:34

07:43

18:09

00:35

 

31

06:33

17:34

08:41

18:52

01:18

 

01

06:34

17:33

09:36

19:39

02:06

 
 

27

06:55

17:20

06:33

16:49

(-) 00:31

 

28

06:56

17:20

07:29

17:35

00:15

 

29

06:56

17:20

08:22

18:25

01:05

 

30

06:57

17:20

09:11

19:19

01:59

 
 

27

07:14

17:28

07:08

17:14

(-) 00:14

 

28

07:14

17:28

07:53

18:10

00:42

 

29

07:15

17:29

08:33

19:06

01:37

 

30

07:15

17:30

09:09

20:03

02:33

 
 

SUN & MOON TIME TABLE - 2009 For Saharanpur (India)

MONTHS

Dates

Sun

Sun

Moon

Moon

Difference between Sun Set & Moon Set

Comment

Rise

Set

Rise

Set

 

26

07:13

17:52

07:10

17:57

00:05

 

27

07:13

17:53

07:43

18:54

01:01

 

28

07:12

17:53

08:14

19:50

01:57

 

29

07:12

17:54

08:43

20:46

02:52

 
 

25

06:50

18:16

06:45

18:39

00:23

 

26

06:49

18:17

07:14

19:37

01:20

 

27

06:48

18:17

07:44

20:36

02:19

 

28

06:47

18:18

08:15

21:37

03:19

 

JANUARYFEBRUARYJULYAUGUSTSEPTEMBER

26

06:17

18:35

05:44

18:25

(-) 00:10

 

27

06:15

18:35

06:15

19:26

00:51

 

28

06:14

18:36

06:49

20:31

01:55

 

29

06:13

18:37

07:28

21:37

03:00

 

APRILMAY

25

05:53

18:53

05:23

19:21

00:28

 

26

05:42

18:54

06:06

20:31

01:37

 

27

05:41

18:54

06:56

21:39

02:45

 

28

05:40

18:55

07:54

22:44

03:49

 
 

24

05:22

19:12

04:43

19:19

00:07

 

25

05:21

19:12

05:39

20:28

01:16

 

26

05:21

19:13

06:43

21:30

02:17

 

27

05:21

19:13

07:53

22:25

03:12

 

JUNE

23

05:20

19:24

05:30

20:11

00:47

 

24

05:20

19:24

06:43

21:02

01:38

 

25

05:20

19:25

07:56

21:46

02:21

 

26

05:21

19:25

09:06

22:24

02:59

 
 

22

05:33

19:19

05:30

19:36

00:17

 

23

05:33

19:19

06:43

20:17

00:58

 

24

05:34

19:18

07:54

20:54

01:36

 

25

05:35

19:18

09:00

21:28

02:10

 

MARCHOCTOBERNOVEMBERDECEMBER

20

05:50

18:56

05:29

18:47

(-) 00:09

 

21

05:51

18:55

06:38

19:23

00:28

 

22

05:51

18:54

07:45

19:57

01:03

 

23

05:52

18:53

08:50

20:31

01:38

 
 

19

06:06

18:20

06:29

18:26

00:06

 

20

06:07

18:19

07:34

19:01

00:42

 

21

06:07

18:18

08:38

19:38

01:20

 

22

06:08

18:17

09:41

20:19

02:02

 
 

18

06:24

17:46

06:20

17:33

(-) 00:13

 

19

06:24

17:45

07:24

18:12

00:27

 

20

06:25

17:44

08:26

18:55

01:11

 

21

06:26

17:43

09:27

19:43

02:00

 
 

17

06:46

17:23

07:13

17:34

00:11

 

18

06:47

17:23

08:12

18:24

01:01

 

19

06:48

17:22

09:06

19:18

01:56

 

20

06:49

17:22

09:54

20:14

02:52

 
 

16

07:09

17:22

06:58

17:09

(-) 00:13

 

17

07:09

17:23

07:48

18:04

00:41

 

18

07:10

17:23

08:33

19:00

01:37

 

19

07:10

17:23

09:12

19:56

02:33

 
22
22
 

SUN & MOON TIME TABLE - 2010 For Saharanpur (India)

MONTHS

Dates

Sun

Sun

Moon

Moon

Difference between Sun Set & Moon Set

Comment

Rise

Set

Rise

Set

 

15

07:16

17:42

07:11

17:49

00:07

 

16

07:16

17:43

07:48

18:45

01:02

 

17

07:16

17:44

08:20

19:39

01:55

 

18

07:16

17:45

08:50

20:32

02:47

 
 

14

07:01

18:07

06:53

18:27

00:20

 

15

07:00

18:08

07:21

19:20

01:12

 

16

06:59

18:09

07:49

20:13

02:04

 

17

06:58

18:10

08:17

21:07

02:57

 

JANUARYFEBRUARYMARCHAPRILMAYJULYSEPTEMBERDECEMBER

16

06:29

18:28

06:21

19:02

00:34

 

17

06:28

18:29

06:50

19:58

01:29

 

18

06:27

18:30

07:22

20:55

02:25

 

19

06:25

18:30

07:57

21:54

03:24

 
 

14

05:55

18:46

05:23

18:47

00:01

 

15

05:54

18:47

05:57

19:47

01:00

 

16

05:52

18:47

06:36

20:48

02:01

 

17

05:51

18:48

07:21

21:49

03:01

 
 

14

05:27

19:05

05:15

19:39

00:34

 

15

05:27

19:06

06:05

20:41

01:35

 

16

05:26

19:07

07:02

21:39

02:32

 

17

05:26

19:07

08:05

22:32

03:25

 

JUNE

12

05:18

19:21

04:49

19:27

00:06

 

13

05:18

19:21

05:51

20:24

01:03

 

14

05:18

19:22

06:57

21:15

01:53

 

15

05:18

19:22

08:06

22:00

02:38

 
 

12

05:27

19:23

05:46

19:52

00:29

 

13

05:28

19:23

06:57

20:35

01:12

 

14

05:28

19:23

08:07

21:14

01:51

 

15

05:29

19:22

09:15

21:51

02:29

 
 

10

05:44

19:06

05:44

19:08

00:02

 

11

05:45

19:05

06:55

19:46

00:41

 

12

05:45

19:04

08:04

20:23

01:19

 

13

05:46

19:03

09:11

21:00

01:57

 

AUGUSTOCTOBER

08

06:00

18:34

05:39

18:16

(-) 00:18

 

09

06:01

18:33

06:49

18:54

00:21

 

10

06:01

18:32

07:58

19:33

01:01

 

11

06:02

18:31

09:06

20:14

01:43

 
 

08

06:17

17:57

06:42

18:05

00:08

 

09