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Tracking van elektrofysiologische katheters door toepassing van Condensation

Begeleider: dr. ir. Stijn De Buck

Promotoren:

Peter Vanden Berghe

prof. dr. ir. Frederik Maes prof. dr. ir. Paul Suetens

Table of Contents Introduction Methods Results Discussion Conclusion

Introduction Ablation procedure Problem Existing solutions New solution

Ablation Procedure
Abnormal electric activity Ablation

Figures adapted from Wikipedia.org

Problem
Fluoroscopy Catheters Heart Anatomical model Catheters Heart

Info?

Existing solutions
EM-tracking Extra hardware: expensive Accuracy? Augmented Reality Loss of 3-D information Catheter position unknown Tracking on fluoroscopy images Catheter modeled as 2-D object No direct link between bi-plane images
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Solution
3-D model of catheter Link between images through projection Tracking via Condensation algorithm ADVANTAGES: No extra hardware 3-D position of catheter Parametrisation of real phisical position/ orientation/shape

Methods General idea Catheter model Condensation algorithm

General idea
3-D catheter model: parameterization of position/ orientation/shape Condensation algorithm Sampleset contains samples Sample = instance of catheter model P-value = likelihood of sample being on catheter

Catheter model
How it appears How it is parameterized
3 position parameters: (X,Y, Z) of reference point 3 orientation parameters: (A,B,Z) angles k shape parameters: via PCA-model 6+k parameters

How it is modeled

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Catheter model - PCA shape model


Normalization
Position/orientation

Singular Value Decomposition

Projection on shape space

Zero mean

k shape parameters
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Catheter model - Summary


3 position parameters

3 orientation parameters

k shape parameters
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Condensation algorithm
# 1 2 3 4 5 6 Step Initialization Generate sampleset Drift Diffusion Evaluation Prediction Function
Init. sampleset + P-values Evolve sampleset Model deterministic change Model random change Calculate P-values Predict catheter location

Implementation
Uniform initialization Proportional to P-value Not implemented Random + deterministic change Mean blackness of projected circle points Based on P-values

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Condensation algorithm
Step Initialization Generate sampleset Drift Diffusion Evaluation Prediction Function
Init. sampleset + P-values Evolve sampleset Model deterministic change Model random change Calculate P-values Predict catheter location

Implementation
Uniform initialization Proportional to P-value Not implemented Random + deterministic change Mean blackness of projected circle points Based on P-values

Sampleset: Uniform over parameter domain P-Values: Uniform

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Condensation algorithm
Step Initialization Generate sampleset Drift Diffusion Evaluation Prediction Function
Init. sampleset + P-values Evolve sampleset Model deterministic change Model random change Calculate P-values Predict catheter location

Implementation
Uniform initialization Proportional to P-value Not implemented Random + deterministic change Mean blackness of projected circle points Based on P-values

Proportional to P-value

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Condensation algorithm
Step Initialization Generate sampleset Drift Diffusion Evaluation Prediction Function
Init. sampleset + P-values Evolve sampleset Model deterministic change Model random change Calculate P-values Predict catheter location

Implementation
Uniform initialization Proportional to P-value Not implemented Random + deterministic change Mean blackness of projected circle points Based on P-values

Current data insufficient to model deterministic motion


max

Variatie

X
min 0 1 2 3 Tijd in seconden 4 5 6

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Condensation algorithm
Step Initialization Generate sampleset Drift Diffusion Evaluation Prediction Function
Init. sampleset + P-values Evolve sampleset Model deterministic change Model random change Calculate P-values Predict catheter location

Implementation
Uniform initialization Proportional to P-value Not implemented Random + deterministic change Mean blackness of projected circle points Based on P-values

Deterministic drift Random motion

Modeled as Gaussian diffusion on every parameter

Sigma per parameter in percent of range


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Condensation algorithm
Step Initialization Generate sampleset Drift Diffusion Evaluation Prediction Function
Init. sampleset + P-values Evolve sampleset Model deterministic change Model random change Calculate P-values Predict catheter location

Implementation
Uniform initialization Proportional to P-value Not implemented Random + deterministic change Mean blackness of projected circle points Based on P-values

BG-filtering

P-value = Mean blackness of projected circle points


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Condensation algorithm
Step Initialization Generate sampleset Drift Diffusion Evaluation Prediction Function
Init. sampleset + P-values Evolve sampleset Model deterministic change Model random change Calculate P-values Predict catheter location

Implementation
Uniform initialization Proportional to P-value Not implemented Random + deterministic change Mean blackness of projected circle points Based on P-values

Method A: Method B: Method C:


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Results Datasets Validation PCA-model Variation model parameters Calculation time Parameter optimization Tracking Results + Video

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Datasets
Patient X Training set 72 images PCA-model 30 images PCA validation Parameter optimization 13 images PCA validation Tracking validation

Intra-patient set

Patient Y

Inter-patient set

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Validation PCA-model

Refpoint = most prox. el.


4.5 4 3.5 Gemiddelde Afstand (mm) 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 k 6 7 8 9 Gemiddelde Afstand (mm) Trainingset Intrapatient data Interpatient data 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

Refpoint = most dist. el.


Trainingset Intrapatient data Interpatient data

5 k

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Variation model parameters


Variation of first principal component

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Calculation time
Calculation time ~ number of samples Not realtime in Matlab (3 frames/s = 0.33s/frame) 10-20 x gain needed for realtime (C++ ?)

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Parameter optimization
Reference point Diffusion (sigma) Number of PCs (k) Number of samples Prediction method Most prox. el. sigma = 20% k=1 Higher is better Highest P-value (A)

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Tracking Results
Success rate = # Predictions with P-value > 0.3 3-D Distance = Mean euclidean distance

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Tracking video
Intra-patient

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Tracking Video
Inter-patient

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Discussion 3-D Catheter model Tracking Condensation Applications

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3-D Catheter model


Contribution 3-D model: physical shape, position, orientation Direct link between bi-plane images Challenges PCA-model based on 1 patient Only 1 catheter type Future work? More patients = less patient-specific Different catheter types (only data needed)
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Tracking
Contribution Promising results Background filtering Challenges Few images for validation Future work? Better validation on more images

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Condensation
Contribution Evaluation function: simple and effective Tracking 3-D object on two 2-D images Challenges Lack of drift component Future work? Modeling of drift (or ECG-triggered images)

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Applications
Localization of catheters on bi-plane fluoroscopy Direct visualization in 3-D anatomical model possible Visualization of electrophysiological measurements on anatomical model

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Conclusion New 3-D catheter model Tracking using both bi-plane images Use of Condensation Evolution towards real-time tracking with direct application in cathlab

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Questions?