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1. Coverage Related Call Drops 2. Handover related Call drops 3. Interference-related Call Drops 4. Antenna System- related Call Drops 5. Transmission-related Call Drops 6. Parameter related Call Drops

1 COVERAGE RELATED CALL DROPS a. If the coverage area becomes smaller after the BTS starts services, check the following items: - Ambient environment of the BTS antennas - Changes in the propagation environment - Whether there are VSWR alarms and diversity receive alarms on the Site Maintenance Terminal System - Whether VSWR is less than 1.5 - Whether TMA is operational - Antenna tilt and azimuth - BTS transmit power - Whether BTS receive sensitivity is normal - Whether the parameter associated to coverage are set properly - Whether noise floor is high due to interference and poor electromagnetic environment.

b. If the coverage problems are caused by expansion of the BTS capacity, check the following items: - Whether the configuration of combiners changes after capacity expansion - Whether appropriate antennas are selected - Whether new antennas are installed in accordance with the requirements- The location of the BCCH transmit antenna of the omnidirectional double transmit antennas.- For directional double transmit antennas, whether the pitch and the azimuth of the antenna are consistent- The output power on top of the cabinet for different TRXs when the maximum coverage configuration is used. c. If the coverage problems are caused by swapping or new construction, check the following items: - Whether the azimuth and height of the antennas is the same as those before swapping - Whether the tilt of the directional antenna is the same as that before swapping - Whether the power on top of the cabinet for the BTS before and after swapping are consistent. - Whether the BTS receiver sensitivity is normal. - Whether the noise floor is high due interference and poor electromagnetic environment - Whether there are VSWR alarms and main diversity receive alarms on the

Site Maintenance Terminal System - Whether the parameters associated with coverage are set properly. - Check whether the antennas are installed in accordance with the requirements after the BTS is put into operation or after new construction. - Whether appropriate antenna are selected - That there are inverse connections in the antenna system - Whether the TMA is operational - The power on top of the cabinet for different TRXs when maximum coverage configuration is used. Common problems that affect coverage 1. Water running into antennas 2. Passive intermodulation antennas 3. Inappropriate antenna types 4. Tower influence on the omnidirectional antennas 5. Inappropriate installation of the directional antennas 6. Inappropriate installation of the omnidirectional antennas 7. Problems associated with connection of the antenna systems, combiners and dividers, and CDU. 8. TMA problems 9. BTS front-end module fault (Isolator, duplexer, filters,)

Parameters that affect coverage areas TRX power level, TMA power attenuation factor, MS maximum transmit power control level, MS minimum receive signal level, and RACH minimum access level, max_tx_bts, rxlev_access_min

Effective tilt should be check. Mount position should be check. Check for link budget imbalance Main parameters that may affect the call drop rate: Radio link timeout and SACCH multi-frames RACH busy threshold and RACH minimum access level. MS minimum receiving signal level Call re-establishment permitted. 2- HANDOVER RELATED CALL DROPS It aims to make sure that the drive test and traffic measurement data meet specifications. Common handover problems: a. Unsuccessful handover The MS fails to initiate a handover when the signal in the cell is weak or signal quality is poor. Take the following into consideration: - Handover conditions are met - There is a candidate cell that meets the handover conditions. Adjust the relevant parameters based on the following causes:

- The handover thresholds are set too low - No neighboring cell relation is set - Handover hysteresis is set inappropriately. - The BTS clock expires b. Handover problems caused by hardware failure Replace the faulty hardware. c. Handover problems caused by inappropriate data configuration. - In independent MSC networking mode, check whether the signaling settings are consistent in the local and the peer MSCs - In the co-MSC networking mode, check whether the signaling settings are consistent in the BSCs from different manufacturers. - If the handover failure applies to only one cell, then analyze the problems base on the actual situation. - Check the timers related to the handover such as T3105,Ny1, T3103 and T3124 How to locate the handover problems 1) Check whether the fault lies in one cell or in all cells (the faulty cells are neighboring cells of a cell or the faulty cells a BSC or an MSC). 2) Check whether the configuration data is adjusted before the problem occurs 3) Check whether the problem is caused by hardware faults. 4) Register handover performance measurement counters and TCH performance measurement counters. 5) Perform drive test in the faulty cell and analyze the signaling. mproper Neighbor planning. CO-BCCH-BSIC issues in Neigh. Parameter Check. HSN clash. SL value. LAC boundary. DAC value mismatch. Syn mismatch. Overshoot. HW Issues. Low Coverage Try to retune neighbors Avoid CO-BCCH-BSIC neighbors. Avoid extra neighs. Delete long distance neighs. Check neighs are defined form both ends. If there are high fail delete and recreate neighs. Parameter Check: 1. Retune SL.It can change bw -90,-95,-105. 2. Check HSN. 3. Check SYN. 4. Retune LDR, LUR, IDR, IUR. 5. Retune LMRG, QMRG, PMRG. Overshoot: When neighs are far away then chances of HO fail increases. In this case ping-pong HI takes place by which fail takes place. So it the inter distance is high its batter to del that kind of neigh.

LAC Boundary Check LAC boundry. High fail takes place there will be Inter BSC cells. High fail takes place there will be Inter MSC cells. Define proper LAC in neigh cells. HW Issues: Clear HW issues. Check TRXs. Check outages. Check BOIA Card. Because if it is faulty incoming and outgoing HO will be fail. Handover Types Decision Criteria Intercell HO 1. RXQUAL_XX > L_RXQUAL_XX_H due to Quality 2. RXLEV_XX < L_RXLEV_XX_IH 3. XX_TXPWR = Min (XX_TXPWR_Max,P) HO due to Level 1. RXLEV_XX > L_RXLEV_XX_H 2. XX_TXPWR = Min(XX_TXPWR_Max,P) HO due to Distance 1. MS_BS_DIST > MS_Range_Max HO due to 1. RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RXLEV_MIN(n) Power Budget + Max (0,MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P) 2. PBGT(n) > HO_MARGIN(n) Intracell HO 1. RXQUAL_XX > L_RXQUAL_XX_H due to Quality 2. RXLEV_XX > L_RXLEV_XX_IH RXLEV_MIN threshold for cell to accept incoming handover L_RXLEV_XX_H threshold for initiating outgoing handover due to signal level relation with RXLEV_MIN will determine hysteresis L_RXLEV_XX_IH threshold for initiating inter / intracell quality HO Maximum allowable BS-MS distance Default: MS_Range_Max=61 (bits Timing Advance,TA) 1. RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RXLEV_MIN(n) + Max(0,MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P) 2. PBGT(n) = RXLEV_NCELL(n)-(RXLEV_DL+PWR_C_D) +Min(MS_TWPWR_MAX(n),P)-Min(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n),P) > HO_MARGIN(n) Power Control Quality-triggered PC a. e.g. L_RXQUAL_XX_P = 4 b .Triggers a power increase at poor quality e.g. U_RXQUAL_XX_P = 1 c.Triggers a power reduction at good quality Virtually disabled by setting to highest RXQUAL value d. Level criterion is more suitable for power reduction Level-triggered PC e.g. L_RXLEV_XX_P = 25 (-85 dBm) h. Triggers a power increase at bad level . e.g. U_RXQUAL_XX_P = 35 (-75 dBm)

Analysis of Interference problems It greatly affects the speech quality and handover. Call drop or congestion may be also caused. Its analysis involves: - Uplink interference analysis: when the traffic volume is low compared with the interference band - Downlink interference analysis: If the Received Signal Quality is lower (RXQUAL) than the predefined threshold and Receive Signal level (RXLEV) is higher than the predefined threshold. If RXQUAL and RXLEV are lower than the predefined thresholds. The interference sources of the GSM network are: 1. Intra-network interference 2. interference from repeaters 3. interference from other high-power communication equipment 4. Hardware faults. The location and troubleshooting are: 1. Determine the cells that have interference on the basis of KPIs 2. Check the OMC alarms 3. Check the frequency planning 4. Check the cell parameter setting 5. Perform drive test 6. Eliminate the interference based on analysis and check the results.

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