Sunteți pe pagina 1din 27

where

adverb

[hwair, wair]

1. in or at what place?: Where is he? Where do you live? 2. in what position or circumstances?: Where do you stand onthis question? With out money, where are you? 3. in what particular respect, way, etc.?: Where does this affectus? 4. to what place, point, or end? whither?: Where are you going? 5. from what source? whence?: Where did you get such a notion?
conjunction

6. in or at what place, part, point, etc.: Find where he is. Findwhere the trouble is . 7. in or at the place, part, point, etc., in or at which: The bookis where you left i t. 8. in a position, case, etc., in which: Where ignorance is bliss,'tis folly to be wise. 9. in any place, position, case, etc., in which; wherever: Usethe ointment wher e pain is felt. 10. to what or whatever place; to the place or any place towhich: I will go whe re you go.
pronoun

12. what place?: Where did you come from? 13. the place in which; point at which: This is where the boatdocks. That was wher e the phone rang.
noun

14. a place; that place in which something is located or occurs:the wheres and hows of job hunting.

Idiom 15.

Slang . where the most exciting, prestigious,or profitable activ ity or circumstance is to be found. Origin: before 900; Middle English quher, wher, Old English hwr; cognatewith Dut
where it's at,

ch waar, Old High German hwr; akin to Old Norse hvar,Gothic hwar Can be confused: 1. we're, were, where ; 2. where,wherefore (see usage note at the current entry ).

what [hwuht,
pronoun

hwot, wuht, wot;

unstressed hwuht, wuht]

1. (used interrogatively as a request for specific information):What is the matt er? 2. (used interrogatively to inquire about the character,occupation, etc., of a person): What does he do? 3. (used interrogatively to inquire as to the origin, identity,etc., of somethin g): What are those birds? 4. (used interrogatively to inquire as to the worth, usefulness,force, or impor tance of something): What is wealth withoutfriends? 5. (used interrogatively to request a repetition of words orinformation not ful ly understood, usually used in ellipticalconstructions): You need what?
adjective

18. (used interrogatively before nouns): What news? What clothesshall I pack? 19. whatever: Take what supplies you need.
adverb

20. to what extent or degree? how much?: What does it matter? 21. (used to introduce a prepositional phrase beginning with with): What with s torms and all, their return was delayed. 22. Obsolete . for what reason or purpose? why?
interjection

23. (used in exclamatory expressions, often followed by aquestion): What, no s alt?


conjunction

24. Older Use . as much as; as far as: He helps me what he can. Idioms 25. but what, Informal . but that; but who; who or that not:Who knows but wh at the sun may still shine. 26. Say what? Slang . (used especially among teenagers) What'sthat you say? Would you repeat that? 27. So what? Informal . (an expression of disinterest,disinclination, or contemp t.) 28.
what for,

a. why: What are you doing that for? b. a punishment or scolding. 29. what have you, other things of the same kind; so forth:money, jewels, stocks, and what have you.

what's [hwuhts,

hwots, wuhts,wots;

unstressed hwuhts, wuhts

1. contraction of what is or what has: What's the matter? What'sbeen done? 2. contraction of what does: What's she do for a living? Usage note See contraction.

World English Dictionary


what (wt, ( unstressed ) wt) determiner 1a. used with a noun in requesting further information aboutthe identity o .r categorization of something: what job does hedo? b. ( as pronoun ): what is her address? c. ( used in indirect questions ): does he know what man didthis? ; tell me what he said 2a. the (person, thing, persons, or things) that: wephotographed what an .imals we could see b. ( as pronoun ): bring me what you've written ; come whatmay 3(intensifier; used in exclamations): what a good book! . adv 4in what respect? to what degree?: what do you care? . pron 5not standard which, who, or that, when used as relativepronouns: this i .s the man what I saw in the park yesterday 6what about what do you think, know, feel, etc, concerning? . 7what for . a. for what purpose? why? b. informal a punishment or reprimand (esp in the phrasegive ( a pers on ) what for ) 8what have you someone, something, or somewhere unknownor unspe .cified: cars, motorcycles, or what have you 9what if . a. what would happen if? b. what difference would it make if? 1what matter what does it matter? 0 . 1informal what's what the true or real state of affairs 1 . interj 1informal don't you think? don't you agree?: splendid party,what? 2 .

usage The use of are in sentences such as what we need aremore doctor s is common, although many people think is shouldbe used: what we ne ed is more doctors

when [hwen,
adverb

wen;

unstressed hwuhn, wuhn]

1. at what time or period? how long ago? how soon?: When arethey to arrive? When did the Roman Empire exist? 2. under what circumstances? upon what occasion?: When is aletter of condolen ce in order? When did you ever see such acrowd?
conjunction

3. at what time: to know when to be silent. 4. at the time or in the event that: when we were young; whenthe noise stops. 5. at any time; whenever: He is impatient when he is keptwaiting. 6. upon or after which; and then: We had just fallen asleep whenthe bell rang. 7. while on the contrary; considering that; whereas: Why areyou here when yo u should be in school?
pronoun

8. what time: Till when is the store open? 9. which time: They left on Monday, since when we have heardnothing.
noun

10. the time of anything: the when and the where of an act.

when's
[hwenz, wenz] Show IPA 1. contraction of when is: When's the show over? 2. contraction of when does: When's the next train leave? 3. contraction of when has: When's he ever been an authority?

when (wn) adv 1.a. at what time? over what period?: when is he due? b. ( used in indirect questions ): ask him when he's due 2.say when to state when an action is to be stopped or begun,as when someone is pouring a drink 3.( subordinating ) at a time at which; at the time at which; justas; afte r: I found it easily when I started to look seriously 4.although: he drives when he might walk 5.considering the fact that: how did you pass the exam whenyou'd not w orked for it? 6.at which (time); over which (period): an age when men weremen n 7.( usually plural ) a question as to the time of some occurrence usage When should not be used loosely as a substitute for inwhich after a noun which does not refer to a period of time:paralysis is a condition in which (not when ) parts of the bodycannot be moved

who [hoo]
pronoun; possessive whose; objective whom.

1. what person or persons?: Who did it? 2. (of a person) of what character, origin, position, importance,etc.: Who doe s she think she is? 3. the person that or any person that (used relatively torepresent a specified or implied antecedent): It was who youthought. 4. (used relatively in restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses torepresent a spe cified antecedent, the antecedent being aperson or sometimes an animal or personified thing): Any kidwho wants to can learn to swim. 5. Archaic . the person or persons who. Idiom 6.

as who should say,

:07

Archaic . in a manner of speaking; so tosay.

Can be confused: who, whom (see usage note at the currententry ).

who's
1. contraction of who is: Who's there? 2. contraction of who has: Who's seen it? Can be confused: who's, whose (see usage note at whose). who (hu) pron 1which person? what person? used in direct and indirectquestions: he can' .t remember who did it ; who met you? 2used to introduce relative clauses with antecedents referring tohuman be .ings: the people who lived here have left 3the one or ones who; whoever: bring who you want . [hooz]

why [hwahy,

wahy]

adverb, conjunction,noun, plural whys, interjection adverb

1. for what? for what reason, cause, or purpose?: Why did youbehave so badly?
conjunction

2. for what cause or reason: I don't know why he is leaving. 3. for which; on account of which (usually after reason tointroduce a relative clause): the reason why he refused to go. 4. the reason for which: That is why he returned.
noun

5. a question concerning the cause or reason for whichsomething is done, ac hieved, etc.: a child's unending howsand whys. 6. the cause or reason: the whys and wherefores of atroublesome situation.
interjection

7.

(used as an expression of surprise, hesitation, etc., orsometimes a mere e xpletive): Why, it's all gone! why (wa) adv 1a. for what reason, purpose, or cause?: why are you here? . b. ( used in indirect questions ): tell me why you're here pron 2for or because of which: there is no reason why he shouldn'tcome . n , whys 3( usually plural ) the reason, purpose, or cause of something(esp in the .phrase the whys and wherefores )

do
[doo; unstressed doo, duh] Show IPA verb andauxiliary verb, present singular 1st person do, 2nd do or (Archaic ) doest or dost, 3rd does or ( Archaic ) doeth ordoth, present plural do; past s ingular 1st person did, 2nddid or ( Archaic ) didst, 3rd did, past plural did; past
1

participle done; present participle doing; noun, pluraldos, do's. verb (used with object)

1. to perform (an act, duty, role, etc.): Do nothing until youhear the bell. 2. to execute (a piece or amount of work): to do a hauling job. 3. to accomplish; finish; complete: He has already done hishomework. 4. to put forth; exert: Do your best. 5. to be the cause of (good, harm, credit, etc.); bring about;effect.
verb (used without object)

23. to act or conduct oneself; be in action; behave. 24. Slang . to rob; steal from: The law got him for doing a lot ofbanks. 25. to proceed: to do wisely. 26. to get along; fare; manage: to do without an automobile.

27. to be in health, as specified: Mother and child are doing fine. EXPAND

:04

auxiliary verb

32. (used in interrogative, negative, and invertedconstructions): Do you like m usic? I don't care. Seldom do wewitness such catastrophes. 33. Archaic . (used in imperatives with you or thou expressed;and occasionally as a metric filler in verse): Do thou hasten tothe king's side. The wind did blow, the rain did fall. 34. (used to lend emphasis to a principal verb): Do visit us!
noun

35. Informal . a burst of frenzied activity; action; commotion. 36. Informal . a hairdo or hair styling. 37. British Slang . a swindle; hoax. 38. Chiefly British . a festive social gathering; party. Verb phrases 39. do by, to deal with; treat: He had always done well by hisfamily. 40.
do for,

a. to cause the defeat, ruin, or death of. b. Chiefly British . to cook and keep house for; manage orprovide for. 41. do in, Informal . a. to kill, especially to murder. b. to injure gravely or exhaust; wear out; ruin: The tropicalclimate did them in. c. to cheat or swindle: He was done in by an unscrupulousbroker. 42. do over, to redecorate. 43. do up, Informal . a. to wrap and tie up. b.

to pin up or arrange (the hair). c. to renovate; launder; clean. d. to wear out; tire. e. to fasten: Do up your coat. f. to dress: The children were all done up in funny costumes. EXPANDIdioms 46. do a number on (someone). number ( def. 39 ) . 47.
do away with,

a. to put an end to; abolish. b. to kill. 48.

do
[doh] Show IPA noun, plural dos. Music . 1. the syllable used for the first tone or keynote of a diatonicscale. 2. (in the fixed system of solmization) the tone C. Comparesolfa ( def. 1 ) , ut. Origin: 174555; < Italian, inverted variant of ut; see gamut
2

do.
do
1

(du, ( unstressed ) d, d)

vb (often intr; foll by for ) , does , doing , did , done 1to perform or complete (a deed or action): to do a portrait ;the work is d .one 2to serve the needs of; be suitable for (a person, situation,etc); suffice: t .here isn't much food, but it'll do for the two ofus 3( tr ) to arrange or fix: you should do the garden now . 4( tr ) to prepare or provide; serve: this restaurant doesn't dolunch on Su .ndays 5( tr ) to make tidy, elegant, ready, etc, as by arranging oradorning: to d

.o one's hair 6( tr ) to improve (esp in the phrase do something to or for ) .

does
1

[dohz] Show IPA

noun

a plural of doe.

does
2

[duhz] Show IPA

verb

a 3rd person singular present indicative of do1 .

do
1

[doo; unstressed doo, duh] Show

IPA verb andauxiliary verb, present singular 1st person do, 2nd do or( Archaic ) doest or dost, 3rd does or ( Archaic ) doeth ordoth, present plural do; past s ingular 1st person did, 2nddid or ( Archaic ) didst, 3rd did, past plural did; past
participle done; present participle doing; noun, pluraldos, do's. verb (used with object)

1. to perform (an act, duty, role, etc.): Do nothing until youhear the bell. 2. to execute (a piece or amount of work): to do a hauling job. 3. to accomplish; finish; complete: He has already done hishomework. 4. to put forth; exert: Do your best. 5. to be the cause of (good, harm, credit, etc.); bring about;effect. EXPAND
verb (used without object)

23. to act or conduct oneself; be in action; behave. 24. Slang . to rob; steal from: The law got him for doing a lot ofbanks. 25. to proceed: to do wisely. 26. to get along; fare; manage: to do without an automobile. 27. to be in health, as specified: Mother and child are doing fine. EXPAND
auxiliary verb

32.

(used in interrogative, negative, and invertedconstructions): Do you like m usic? I don't care. Seldom do wewitness such catastrophes. 33. Archaic . (used in imperatives with you or thou expressed;and occasionally as a metric filler in verse): Do thou hastento the king's side. The wind did blow, the rain did fall. 34. (used to lend emphasis to a principal verb): Do visit us!
noun

35. Informal . a burst of frenzied activity; action; commotion. 36. Informal . a hairdo or hair styling. 37. British Slang . a swindle; hoax. 38. Chiefly British . a festive social gathering; party. Verb phrases 39. do by, to deal with; treat: He had always done well by hisfamily. 40.
do for,

a. to cause the defeat, ruin, or death of. b. Chiefly British . to cook and keep house for; manage orprovide for.

did
[did] Show IPA
verb

simple past tense of do1 .

do
1

[doo; unstressed doo, duh] Show

IPA verb and auxiliary verb, present singular 1stperson do, 2nd do or ( Archaic ) doest or dost, 3rd does or( Archaic ) doeth or doth, present plural do; past s ingular1st person did, 2nd did or ( Archaic ) didst, 3rd did, pastplural did; past
participle done; present participle doing;noun, plural dos, do's. verb (used with object)

1. to perform (an act, duty, role, etc.): Do nothing until youhear the bell. 2. to execute (a piece or amount of work): to do a hauling job. 3. to accomplish; finish; complete: He has already done hishomework. 4. to put forth; exert: Do your best. 5. to be the cause of (good, harm, credit, etc.); bring about;effect. EXPAND
verb (used without object)

23. to act or conduct oneself; be in action; behave. 24. Slang . to rob; steal from: The law got him for doing a lot ofbanks. 25. to proceed: to do wisely. 26. to get along; fare; manage: to do without an automobile. 27. to be in health, as specified: Mother and child are doing fine. EXPAND
auxiliary verb

32. (used in interrogative, negative, and invertedconstructions): Do you like m usic? I don't care. Seldom do wewitness such catastrophes. 33. Archaic . (used in imperatives with you or thou expressed;and occasionally as a metric filler in verse): Do thou hastento the king's side. The wind did blow, the rain did fall. 34. (used to lend emphasis to a principal verb): Do visit us!
noun

35.

Informal . a burst of frenzied activity; action; commotion. 36. Informal . a hairdo or hair styling. 37. British Slang . a swindle; hoax. 38. Chiefly British . a festive social gathering; party. Verb phrases 39. do by, to deal with; treat: He had always done well by hisfamily. 40.
do for,

a. to cause the defeat, ruin, or death of. b. Chiefly British . to cook and keep house for; manage orprovide for. 41. do in, Informal . a. to kill, especially to murder. b. to injure gravely or exhaust; wear out; ruin: Thetropical climate did them in. c. to cheat or swindle: He was done in by an unscrupulousbroker. . do (so) definition
1. tv. to make someone tired. : That tennis game really did me in. 2. tv. to cheat someone; to take (so) in. : The scam artists did thewidow in by talking her into giving them all the m oney in her bankaccount. 3. tv. to kill someone. : The crooks did the bank guard in.

DID 1. data item description 2. direct inward dial

Modal Verbs
Here's a list of the modal verbs in English: can could may might will ought to

would must shall should Modals are different from normal verbs:

1: They don't use an 's' for the third person singular. 2: They make questions by inversion ('she can go' becomes 'can she go?') 3: They are followed directly by the infinitive of another verb (without 'to')

Probability:
First, they can be used when we want to say how sure we are that something happened / is happening / will happen. We often call these 'modals of deduction' or 'speculation' or 'certainty' or 'probability'. For example:

It's snowing, so it must be very cold outside. I don't know where John is. He could have missed the train. This bill can't be right. 200 for two cups of coffee!

Ability
We use 'can' and 'could' to talk about a skill or ability. For example:

She can speak six languages. My grandfather could play golf very well I can't drive

Obligation and Advice


We can use verbs such as 'must' or 'should' to say when something is necessary or unnecessary, or to give advice. For example:

Children must do their homework. We have to wear a uniform at work. You should stop smoking.

Permission
We can use verbs such as 'can', 'could' and 'may' to ask for and give permission. We also use modal verbs to say something is not allowed. For example:

Could I leave early today, please? You may not use the car tonight. Can we swim in the lake?

Habits
We can use 'will' and 'would' to talk about habits or things we usually do, or did in the past. For example:

When I lived in Italy, we would often eat in the restaurant next to my flat. John will always be late!

Modal Verbs of Obligation


We can use have to + infinitive, must + infinitive and should + infinitiveto express obligation (something you have to do). Present have to / dont have to Positive strong obligation (possibly from outside)

Negative no obligation

Children have to go to school.

I dont have to work on Sundays.

(sometimes have got to)

You dont have to eat anything you dont like.

must / mustnt

strong obligation (possibly based negative obligation on the speakers opinion) You mustnt smoke here. I must study today. mild negative obligation or advice

should / shouldnt

mild obligation or advice

You should save some money.

You shouldnt smoke so much.

Be careful about the difference between mustn't and don't have to! Mustn't means it's not allowed, or it's a bad idea:

You mustn't eat so much chocolate, you'll be sick

Don't have to means you don't need to do something, but it's fine if you want to do it:

I don't have to get up early at the weekend (of course, if I want to get up early, that's fine, but I can stay in bed if I want

Past had to / didnt have to

Positive obligation in the past

Negative no obligation in the past

I had to go to wear a school uniform when I was a child. -

We didnt have to go to school on Saturdays.

must* should have + pp / shouldnt have + pp

changes to 'had to'

a past action which didnt a past action which didnt happen: the advice / regret is too happen: the advice / regret is too late late

You should have gone to bed earlier, now you have missed the train.

You shouldnt have taken that job., it was a bad idea.

* Remember must have done is a modal verb of deduction or speculation, not obligation in the past. For example: Julie must have left. Her coats not here. Seemodals of probabilty for more information.

Modal Verbs of Ability


When we talk about ability, we mean two things. First, we mean general ability. This is something that once you have learned you can do any time you want, like being able to read or swim or speak a language, for example. The other kind of ability is specific ability. This mean something that you can or can't do in one particular situation. For example, being able to lift something heavy, or find somewhere you are looking for.

Present:
can / cant (for both general and specific ability)

I can play the piano. She can speak English. He cant drive hes too tired. We cant come now.

Past:
could / couldnt (for general ability)

I could read when I was four. She could speak French when she was a child, but now she has forgotten it. He couldnt dance at all until he took lessons. My grandfather couldnt swim.

was able to / couldnt (for specific ability)


When the computer crashed yesterday, I was able to fix it.(not I could fix it) She was able to pass the exam, even though she hadnt studied much.(not she could pass) He called us because he couldnt find the house. I couldnt open the window.

could + have + past participle (an ability someone had in the past, but didnt use)

I could have played the piano well but I didnt practise enough. We could have come earlier. She could have studied law, but she preferred to become a secretary.

Future:
will / wont be able to (general ability)

At the end of the course, you will be able to make your own website. He wont be able to speak Japanese in a week! It will take months.

can / can't (specific ability)


I can help you tomorrow I can't come to the party

Modal Verbs of Probability


We can use these modal verbs (also called modals of deduction, speculation or certainty) when we want to make a guess about something. We choose the verb depending on how sure we are.

1: Talking about the present: must / might / could / may / can't


must + infinitive might / might not + infinitive could / could not + infinitive may / may not + infinitive cant + infinitive

For example: I am waiting for Julie with another friend, David. I ask: 'Where is Julie?' David guesses:

She must be on the bus. (I'm fairly sure this is a good guess) She might come soon. (maybe) She could be lost. (maybe) She may be in the wrong room. (maybe) She cant be at home. (I'm fairly sure this isn't true)

Notice that the opposite of must is cant in this case.

Will / won't
We use will and wont when we are very sure:

Shell be at work now.

Should / shouldnt
Should and shouldn't are used to make an assumption about what is probably true, if everything is as we expect:

They should be there by now. It shouldnt take long to drive here.

This use of should isnt usually used for negative events, instead use will:

The underground will be very busy now (not: 'should be').

Can
Can is used for something that is generally possible, something we know sometimes happens:

Prices can be high in London.

Can is not used to talk about specific possibilities:

He could be on the bus (not: 'can be').

2: Using modal verbs to talk about the past: must / might / could / may / can't + have + past participle

must have + past participle might / might not have + past participle could / couldnt have + past participle may / may not have + past participle cant have + past participle

For example: You: Where was Julie last night? David:


She must have forgotten about our date. She might have worked late. She could have taken the wrong bus. She may have felt ill. She cant have stayed at home.

Will / wont + have + past participle


Will and won't / will not + have + past participle are used for past certainty (compare with present use of 'will' above):

The parcel will have arrived before now.

Should + have + past participle


Should + have + past participle can be used to make an assumption about something that has probably happened, if everything is as we expect (compare with present sue of 'should' above):

The train should have left by now

Could
We can use could to talk about a general possibility in the past (compare with the use of 'can' above):

Prices could be high in the sixteenth century.

This is not used to talk about specific possibilites in the past:

He could have been working late (not: 'could be', which is present)

All the auxiliary verbs except be, do and have are called modals. Unlike other auxiliary verbs modals only exist in their helping form; they cannot act alone as the main verb in a sentence. Be, do, and have also differ from the other auxiliaries in that they can also serve as ordinary verbs in a given sentence.

The modal verbs are:CAN / COULD / MAY / MIGHT / MUST / SHALL / SHOULD / OUGHT TO / WILL / WOULD

Modal Can

Example They can control their own budgets. We cant fix it. Can I smoke here? Can you help me?

Uses Ability / Possibility Inability / Impossibility Asking for permission Request Asking for permission. Request Suggestion Future possibility Ability in the past Asking for permission Future possibility Present possibility Future possibility

Could

Could I borrow your dictionary? Could you say it again more slowly? We could try to fix it ourselves. I think we could have another Gulf War. He gave up his old job so he could work for us.

May

May I have another cup of coffee? China may become a major economic power.

Might

We'd better phone tomorrow, they might be eating their dinner now. They might give us a 10% discount.

Must

We must say good-bye now. They mustnt disrupt the work more than necessary.

Necessity / Obligation Prohibition Saying whats right or correct

Ought to

We ought to employ a professional writer.

Shall (More

Shall I help you with your luggage?

Offer Suggestion Asking what to do Saying whats right or

common in Shall we say 2.30 then? the UK than the US) Should Shall I do that or will you? We should sort out this problem at once.

correct I think we should check everything again. Recommending action Profits should increase next year. Uncertain prediction Will I cant see any taxis so Ill walk. I'll do that for you if you like. Ill get back to you first thing on Monday. Profits will increase next year. Would Would you mind if I brought a colleague with me? Would you pass the salt please? Would you mind waiting a moment? "Would three o`clock suit you?" - "Thatd be fine." Would you like to play golf this Friday? Instant decisions Offer Promise Certain prediction Asking for permission Request Request Making arrangements Invitation Preferences

Modal Verbs

CAN SHALL

COULD SHOULD

MAY OUGHT TO

MIGHT MUST

WILL NEED

WOULD DARE

When do we use modals?

To talk about someone's ability (or inability) to do something

example: "We can find your house without the street plan." "She can't have a daughter that old!"

To talk about an action that is necessary (or impossible, or not necessary)

example: "You must always have your driver's licence when you are driving your car." "You needn't carry your passport around with you."

To talk about a situation that is possible (or impossible)

example: "Do be careful with that glass, the baby might knock it over"

A modal verb always has the same form:

There is no past form (-ed), no present participle (ing) and no 3rd persons singular (-s).

Modal verbs come before the example: "May I come to your house for tea?" subject in questions: Negative forms: Modal verbs have n't or not after them in the negative. example: "mustn't" - "needn't".

PRESENT FORM can may will shall must ought to need

PAST FORM could might would should -