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Prepared by: Paolo Bautista
Prepared by: Paolo Bautista
Prepared by: Paolo Bautista
Prepared by: Paolo Bautista
Prepared by: Paolo Bautista
Prepared by: Paolo Bautista
Preliminaries  We wish to test whether a particular assumption/claim regarding the population is true
Preliminaries  We wish to test whether a particular assumption/claim regarding the population is true
Preliminaries  We wish to test whether a particular assumption/claim regarding the population is true
Preliminaries  We wish to test whether a particular assumption/claim regarding the population is true

Preliminaries

We wish to test whether a particular assumption/claim regarding the population is true or not.

Null Hypothesis (H0) original assumption

Alternative Hypothesis (H1)

Determine a critical value to determine whether or not to reject Ho

Errors  Type I Error – reject H0 when in fact it is true 
Errors  Type I Error – reject H0 when in fact it is true 
Errors  Type I Error – reject H0 when in fact it is true 
Errors  Type I Error – reject H0 when in fact it is true 

Errors

Type I Error reject H0 when in fact it is true Type II Error fail to reject H0 when it is false

 

Null Hypothesis is True

Null Hypothesis is False

Fail to Reject

Correct Decision

Type II Error (β)

Reject

Type I Error (α)

Correct Decision

Steps in Hypothesis Testing 1. Write the null and alternative hypotheses. 2. Indicate the level
Steps in Hypothesis Testing 1. Write the null and alternative hypotheses. 2. Indicate the level
Steps in Hypothesis Testing 1. Write the null and alternative hypotheses. 2. Indicate the level
Steps in Hypothesis Testing 1. Write the null and alternative hypotheses. 2. Indicate the level

Steps in Hypothesis Testing

1.

Write the null and alternative hypotheses.

2.

Indicate the level of significance.

3.

Determine the critical value/s.

4.

Compute the test statistic.

5.

Decide the conclusion of the test.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING One Population  One Mean  Case 1  Case 2  One
HYPOTHESIS TESTING One Population  One Mean  Case 1  Case 2  One
HYPOTHESIS TESTING One Population  One Mean  Case 1  Case 2  One
HYPOTHESIS TESTING One Population  One Mean  Case 1  Case 2  One

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

One Population

One Mean

Case 1

Case 2

One Proportion

One Variance

Two Populations

Difference of Two Means

Case 1 to 3

Paired Means

Difference of Two

Proportions

Difference of Two Variances

Testing for One Mean  Case 1: σ is known, or n ≥ 30 
Testing for One Mean  Case 1: σ is known, or n ≥ 30 
Testing for One Mean  Case 1: σ is known, or n ≥ 30 
Testing for One Mean  Case 1: σ is known, or n ≥ 30 

Testing for One Mean

Testing for One Mean  Case 1: σ is known, or n ≥ 30  Z-test

Case 1: σ is known, or n ≥ 30

Z-test will be used

Testing for One Mean  Case 1: σ is known, or n ≥ 30  Z-test
Testing for One Mean  The test statistic is given by
Testing for One Mean  The test statistic is given by
Testing for One Mean  The test statistic is given by
Testing for One Mean  The test statistic is given by

Testing for One Mean

The test statistic is given by

Testing for One Mean  The test statistic is given by
Example 1  A manufacturer of sports equipment has developed a new synthetic fishing line
Example 1  A manufacturer of sports equipment has developed a new synthetic fishing line
Example 1  A manufacturer of sports equipment has developed a new synthetic fishing line
Example 1  A manufacturer of sports equipment has developed a new synthetic fishing line

Example 1

A manufacturer of sports equipment has developed a new synthetic fishing line that he claims has a mean breaking strength of 8 kilograms with a standard deviation of 0.5 kilograms. Test the hypothesis that μ =

8 kg against the alternative that μ ≠ 8 kg if a random

sample of 50 lines is tested and found to have a mean breaking strength of 7.8 kg. Use a 0.01 level of significance.

Identify the proper hypotheses  The manager of the Danvers-Hilton Resort Hotel stated that the
Identify the proper hypotheses  The manager of the Danvers-Hilton Resort Hotel stated that the
Identify the proper hypotheses  The manager of the Danvers-Hilton Resort Hotel stated that the
Identify the proper hypotheses  The manager of the Danvers-Hilton Resort Hotel stated that the

Identify the proper hypotheses

The manager of the Danvers-Hilton Resort Hotel stated that the

mean guest bill for a weekend is $600 or less. A member of the

hotel’s accounting staff noticed that the total charges for guest bills have been increasing in recent months. The accountant will

use a sample of weekend guest bills to test the manager’s claim.

The manager of an automobile dealership is considering a new bonus plan designed to increase sales volume. Currently, the mean sales volume is 14 automobiles per month. The manager wants to conduct a research study to see whether the new bonus plan increases sales volume. To collect data on the plan, a sample of sales personnel will be allowed to sell under the new bonus plan for a one-month period.

Identify the proper hypotheses  A production line operation is designed to fill cartons with
Identify the proper hypotheses  A production line operation is designed to fill cartons with
Identify the proper hypotheses  A production line operation is designed to fill cartons with
Identify the proper hypotheses  A production line operation is designed to fill cartons with

Identify the proper hypotheses

A production line operation is designed to fill cartons with laundry detergent to a mean weight of 32 ounces. A sample of cartons is periodically selected and weighed to determine whether underfilling or overfilling is occurring. If the sample data lead to a conclusion of underfilling or overfilling, the production line will be shut down and adjusted to obtain proper filling. Because of high production-changeover time and costs, a director manufacturing must convince management that a

proposed manufacturing method reduces costs before the

new method can be implemented. The current production method operates with a mean cost of $220 per hour. A research study will measure the cost of the new method

over a sample production period.

Case 2: σ unknown, AND n < 30  t-test will be used  The
Case 2: σ unknown, AND n < 30  t-test will be used  The
Case 2: σ unknown, AND n < 30  t-test will be used  The
Case 2: σ unknown, AND n < 30  t-test will be used  The

Case 2: σ unknown, AND n < 30

t-test will be used

Case 2: σ unknown, AND n < 30  t-test will be used  The t-values

The t-values have n 1 degrees of freedom

The test statistic is given by

30  t-test will be used  The t-values have n – 1 degrees of freedom
Example 2  Test the hypothesis that the average content of containers of a particular
Example 2  Test the hypothesis that the average content of containers of a particular
Example 2  Test the hypothesis that the average content of containers of a particular
Example 2  Test the hypothesis that the average content of containers of a particular

Example 2

Test the hypothesis that the average content of containers of a particular lubricant is 10 liters if the contents of a random sample of 10 containers are 10.2, 9.7, 10.1, 10.3, 10.1, 9.8, 9.9, 10.4, 10.3, and 9.8 liters. Use

a 0.01 level of significance and assume that the

distribution of contents is normal.

Testing for One Proportion  Z-test will be used  The test statistic is given
Testing for One Proportion  Z-test will be used  The test statistic is given
Testing for One Proportion  Z-test will be used  The test statistic is given
Testing for One Proportion  Z-test will be used  The test statistic is given

Testing for One Proportion

Testing for One Proportion  Z-test will be used  The test statistic is given by
Testing for One Proportion  Z-test will be used  The test statistic is given by

Z-test will be used The test statistic is given by

Testing for One Proportion  Z-test will be used  The test statistic is given by
Example 3  A commonly prescribed drug on the market for relieving nervous tension is
Example 3  A commonly prescribed drug on the market for relieving nervous tension is
Example 3  A commonly prescribed drug on the market for relieving nervous tension is
Example 3  A commonly prescribed drug on the market for relieving nervous tension is

Example 3

A commonly prescribed drug on the market for relieving nervous tension is believed to be only 60% effective. Experimental results with a new drug administered to a random sample of 100 adults who

were suffering from nervous tension showed that 70

received relief. Is this sufficient evidence to conclude that the new drug is superior to the one commonly prescribed? Use a 0.05 level of significance.

Testing for One Variance  A chi-square test will be used  The test statistic
Testing for One Variance  A chi-square test will be used  The test statistic
Testing for One Variance  A chi-square test will be used  The test statistic
Testing for One Variance  A chi-square test will be used  The test statistic

Testing for One Variance

Testing for One Variance  A chi-square test will be used  The test statistic is
Testing for One Variance  A chi-square test will be used  The test statistic is

A chi-square test will be used

Testing for One Variance  A chi-square test will be used  The test statistic is

The test statistic is given by

Testing for One Variance  A chi-square test will be used  The test statistic is
Example 4  A manufacturer of car batteries claims that the life of his batteries
Example 4  A manufacturer of car batteries claims that the life of his batteries
Example 4  A manufacturer of car batteries claims that the life of his batteries
Example 4  A manufacturer of car batteries claims that the life of his batteries

Example 4

A manufacturer of car batteries claims that the life of his batteries has a variance equal to 0.81 years. If a random sample of 10 of these batteries have a variance of 1.44 years, is there evidence that the variance

exceeds 0.81 a year? Use a 0.05 level of significance

Testing the Difference of Two Means  Case 1:  Z-test will be used 

Testing the Difference of Two

Means

Testing the Difference of Two Means  Case 1:  Z-test will be used  The

Case 1:

Z-test will be used

The test statistic is given by:

Testing the Difference of Two Means  Case 1:  Z-test will be used  The
Testing the Difference of Two Means  Case 1:  Z-test will be used  The
Example 5  A manufacturer claims that the average tensile strength of thread A exceeds
Example 5  A manufacturer claims that the average tensile strength of thread A exceeds
Example 5  A manufacturer claims that the average tensile strength of thread A exceeds
Example 5  A manufacturer claims that the average tensile strength of thread A exceeds

Example 5

A manufacturer claims that the average tensile strength of thread A exceeds the average tensile strength of thread B by less than 12 kilograms. To test this claim, 50 pieces of each type of thread are tested

under similar conditions. Type A thread had an

average tensile strength of 86.7 kilograms with a standard deviation of 6.28 kilograms, while type B thread had an average tensile strength of 77.8 kilograms with a standard deviation of 5.61 kilograms. Test the manufacturer’s claim using a 0.05 level of significance.

Case 2: σ 1 = σ 2 unknown, AND n 1 <30 and n 2

Case 2: σ 1 =σ 2 unknown, AND n 1 <30 and n 2 <30

t-test will be used.

The test statistic is given by

n 2 <30  t-test will be used.  The test statistic is given by 
n 2 <30  t-test will be used.  The test statistic is given by 

The degrees of freedom to be used is

n 2 <30  t-test will be used.  The test statistic is given by 
Example 6  A course in mathematics is taught to 12 students by the conventional
Example 6  A course in mathematics is taught to 12 students by the conventional
Example 6  A course in mathematics is taught to 12 students by the conventional
Example 6  A course in mathematics is taught to 12 students by the conventional

Example 6

A course in mathematics is taught to 12 students by the conventional classroom procedure. A second group of 10 students was given the same course by means of programmed materials. At the end of the semester the

same examination was given to each group. The 12

students meeting in the classroom made an average

grade of 85 with a standard deviation of 4, while the 10 students using programmed materials made an

average of 81 with a standard deviation of 5. Test the

hypothesis that the two methods of learning are equal using a 0.10 level of significance. Assume the population to be approximately normal with equal

variances.

Case 3: σ 1 ≠σ 2 unknown, AND n 1 <30 and n 2 <30

Case 3: σ 1 ≠σ 2 unknown, AND n 1 <30 and n 2 <30

t-test will be used

The test statistic is given by

and n 2 <30  t-test will be used  The test statistic is given by

The degrees of freedom is given by

and n 2 <30  t-test will be used  The test statistic is given by
Example 7  An improved manufacturing process is developed. The quality-control tests show that the
Example 7  An improved manufacturing process is developed. The quality-control tests show that the
Example 7  An improved manufacturing process is developed. The quality-control tests show that the
Example 7  An improved manufacturing process is developed. The quality-control tests show that the

Example 7

An improved manufacturing process is developed. The quality-control tests show that the old process has an average score of 12.8 with a standard deviation of 2.5 based on a sample of 8 observations, while the new

process shows an average score of 14.2 with a standard

deviation of 1.6 based on a sample of 10 observations. Use a 0.05 level of significance to determine whether there has been a significant increase in the average scores of the new process, assuming unequal variances.

Paired Observations  t-test will be used  The test statistic is given by 
Paired Observations  t-test will be used  The test statistic is given by 
Paired Observations  t-test will be used  The test statistic is given by 
Paired Observations  t-test will be used  The test statistic is given by 

Paired Observations

Paired Observations  t-test will be used  The test statistic is given by  The

t-test will be used

The test statistic is given by

 t-test will be used  The test statistic is given by  The degrees of

The degrees of freedom to be used is n 1, where n is the number of pairs

Example 8  To determine whether membership in a fraternity is beneficial or detrimental to
Example 8  To determine whether membership in a fraternity is beneficial or detrimental to
Example 8  To determine whether membership in a fraternity is beneficial or detrimental to
Example 8  To determine whether membership in a fraternity is beneficial or detrimental to

Example 8

To determine whether membership in a fraternity is beneficial or detrimental to one’s grades, the following grade-point averages were collected over a period of 5 years:

averages were collected over a period of 5 years:  Assuming the populations to be normal,

Assuming the populations to be normal, test at the 0.05 level of significance whether membership in a fraternity is detrimental to one’s grades.

Testing for Two Proportions  Z-test will be used  The test statistic is given
Testing for Two Proportions  Z-test will be used  The test statistic is given
Testing for Two Proportions  Z-test will be used  The test statistic is given
Testing for Two Proportions  Z-test will be used  The test statistic is given

Testing for Two Proportions

Testing for Two Proportions  Z-test will be used  The test statistic is given by

Z-test will be used The test statistic is given by

Testing for Two Proportions  Z-test will be used  The test statistic is given by
Testing for Two Proportions  Z-test will be used  The test statistic is given by
Example 9  A vote is to be taken among the residents of a town
Example 9  A vote is to be taken among the residents of a town
Example 9  A vote is to be taken among the residents of a town
Example 9  A vote is to be taken among the residents of a town

Example 9

A vote is to be taken among the residents of a town and the surrounding county to determine whether a civic center will be constructed. To determine if there is a significant difference in the proportion of town

voters and county voters favoring the proposal, a poll is

taken. If 120 of 200 town voters favor the proposal and 240 of 500 county residents favor it, would you agree that the proportion of town voters favoring the proposal is higher than the proportion of county voters? Use a 0.025 level of significance.

Testing for Two Variances  F-test will be used
Testing for Two Variances  F-test will be used
Testing for Two Variances  F-test will be used
Testing for Two Variances  F-test will be used

Testing for Two Variances

Testing for Two Variances  F-test will be used

F-test will be used

Testing for Two Variances  F-test will be used
Testing for Two Variances  F-test will be used
Example 10  Verify if the assumption of equal variance in Example 6 is valid
Example 10  Verify if the assumption of equal variance in Example 6 is valid
Example 10  Verify if the assumption of equal variance in Example 6 is valid
Example 10  Verify if the assumption of equal variance in Example 6 is valid

Example 10

Verify if the assumption of equal variance in Example 6 is valid by conducting a test of hypothesis. Use a 0.10 level of significance.

p-value approach  The p-value is the probability that we obtain the sample data, assuming
p-value approach  The p-value is the probability that we obtain the sample data, assuming
p-value approach  The p-value is the probability that we obtain the sample data, assuming
p-value approach  The p-value is the probability that we obtain the sample data, assuming

p-value approach

The p-value is the probability that we obtain the sample data, assuming the null hypothesis is true. We reject Ho if the p-value is small.

Usually, we use the level of significance as a comparison value.

Estimation and HT
Estimation and HT
Estimation and HT
Estimation and HT

Estimation and HT