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Vapour Powered Cycles

Prepared by 1 PM Muhammad Abd Razak FKM, UiTMPP

VAPOUR POWERED CYCLE From the previous chapter The Carnot cycle is the most efficient cycle operating between two temperature limits (TH & TL). But it is not practical for power cycles. Why??? Process 1-2 : the heat transfer process in the saturation region is severely limited. (eg 374C for water and as P , hfg ) Process 2-3: The turbine cannot handle steam with a high moisture content which will cause erosion and wear on the blades. Process 4-1: not practical to design a compressor that handles two 2 phases(L+V)

The impracticalities of the Carnot cycle are removed by modifying the cycle to the Rankine Cycle: State 4 is allowed to becomes saturated liquid fully. Compression is in the liquid state, therefore less power needed. Heat addition is now at constant pressure (instead of constant temperature & pressure) Heat addition into the cycle can be increased by superheating at constant pressure.

2 qin 1 qout 4 3

Rearranging the state points.

Ideal Rankine Cycle

The Ideal Rankine Cycle now consist of : 1 2 Isentropic compression in liquid state 2 3 Constant pressure heat addition 3 4 Isentropic expansion 4 1 Constant pressure heat rejection

(in a pump) (in a boiler) (in a turbine) (in a condenser)


Then Net work, Heat supplied wnet = w = w34 + w12 = (h3 h4) - (h2 h1) q23 = (h3 h2)

The Ideal Rankine Cycle thermal efficiency


wnet (h3 h4 ) (h2 h1 ) = = qin (h3 h2 )

And .this is a criteria of performance Note: The term (h2 h1) is the pump work which is very small compared to the turbine work and sometimes is ignored.

Other criteria of performances are the work ratio

work ratio =

net work output gross work output

wturbine w pump wturbine

(h3 h4 ) (h2 h1 ) work ratio = (h3 h4 )

the specific steam consumption (ssc) which is the amount of steam required to produce a unit power output

1 ssc = = (h3 h4 ) m( w34 )


DEVIATION OF ACTUAL VAPOUR POWER CYCLES FROM IDEALIZED ONES The actual vapour power cycle differs from the ideal Rankine cycle due to irreversibilities in various components. 2 main sources are : Fluid friction (normally ignored) heat loss to the surroundings (deviation from adiabatic & isentropic process)

Isentropic efficiency of pump

isentropic efficiency of turbine

HOW TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE RANKINE CYCLE The thermal efficiency can be improved by: increase of the average temperature of heat addition to the working fluid in the boiler decrease the average temperature of heat rejection from the working fluid in the condenser


1. Superheating the Steam to Higher Temperatures Through superheating the steam: Increase in heat input Increase of the net work decreases the moisture content of the steam at the turbine exit Most importantly, increase in thermal efficiency The superheat temperature is limited by metallurgical considerations.


2. Increasing the Boiler Pressure For a fixed turbine inlet temperature: the cycle shifts to the left the moisture content of steam at the turbine exit increases. This side effect can be corrected by reheating the steam.

3. Lowering the Condenser Pressure The condenser usually operates below the atmospheric pressure. Side effect: increases the moisture content of the steam at the turbine.


THE IDEAL REHEAT RANKINE CYCLE To take advantage of the increased efficiencies at higher boiler pressure and overcome the problem of excessive moisture of the turbine, we can Superheat the steam to higher temperature. Expand the steam in the turbine in two stages with reheating (at constant pressure) in between.


A single reheat in a modern power plant improves the cycle efficiency by 4 to 5%. The reheat temperatures are very close or equal to the turbine inlet temperature. THE IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE CYCLE Heat transfer to the feedwater from 2-2 is at a relatively low temperature. This lowers the average heataddition temperature and thus the cycle efficiency.



Some steam is extracted from the turbine at various points (eg at 6) and is used to heat the feedwater. The device where the feedwater is heated by regeneration is called a regenerator, or a feedwater heater (FWH). Heat is transferred from steam to the feedwater either by mixing the two fluid streams directly (open feedwater heaters) or without mixing them (closed feedwater heaters).


An open (or direct-contact) FWH is basically a mixing chamber the steam extracted from the turbine mixes with the incoming feedwater, releasing its latent heat to the feedwater. the mixture leaves the heater as saturated liquid at the heater pressure. For a unit mass of steam supply to the boiler, the amount extracted at 6 is y kg. SFEE for the FWH

1 h3 = y h6 + (1 y ) h2 1 h3 = y h6 + h2 y h2 h3 h2 y = h6 h2

For the regenerative cycle

1 kg y kg

1 kg

1-y kg 1-y kg