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Pump Vibration Troubleshooting Piedmont Chapter by William D. Marscher, P.E. President & Technical Director
Pump Vibration Troubleshooting
Piedmont Chapter
by William D. Marscher, P.E.
President & Technical Director
Mechanical Solutions, Inc.
www.mechsol.com
Whippany NJ
May 13, 2011
The Centrifugal Pump (End Suction) Open Impeller Piedmont Chapter Discharge Shrouded Impeller Vane Shroud Seal
The Centrifugal Pump (End Suction)
Open Impeller
Piedmont Chapter
Discharge
Shrouded Impeller
Vane
Shroud
Seal
Hub
Flow
Suction
Impeller
Shaft
Casing
Impeller Piedmont Chapter Volute Tongue Impeller rotation versus the volute tongue Discharge Nozzle
Impeller
Piedmont Chapter
Volute
Tongue
Impeller
rotation
versus the
volute
tongue
Discharge
Nozzle
Potential for Cavitation from Pressure Depression at Impeller Eye Piedmont Chapter No Cavitation Cavitation
Potential for Cavitation from
Pressure Depression at Impeller Eye
Piedmont Chapter
No
Cavitation
Cavitation
Scope Traces of Cavitation Event Piedmont Chapter Cavitation Event v Microphone SPL 85dB Inboard Pressure
Scope Traces of Cavitation Event
Piedmont Chapter
Cavitation Event
v
Microphone SPL 85dB
Inboard Pressure
+/-150 psi pk
Outboard Pressure
+/-150 psi pk
Inboard Accel on
Suction Wall +/- 300 G pk
Time (msec) =>
Axially Split Case Dbl. Suction Pump Piedmont Chapter • 180 degree “drip pocket” allows bearing
Axially Split Case Dbl. Suction Pump
Piedmont Chapter
• 180 degree “drip
pocket” allows bearing
hsg and stuffing box to
flex downward due to
pressure pulsations,
e.g. at 1x or vane pass
• Double suction
impeller typically
equalizes thrust side-
to-side, but at off-
design is prone to axial
shuttling
• Suction recirc & cav have been issues
Boiler Feedwater Ring-Section Pumps Piedmont Chapter “Donut” Pump with Balance Disk • 180 Less robust
Boiler Feedwater Ring-Section Pumps
Piedmont Chapter
“Donut” Pump with
Balance Disk
• 180 Less robust than barrel
pump, but fewer Fn
problems.
• Designs where thrust disk
totally replaces oil
lubricated thrust bearing
have encountered rub and
binding problems during
process upsets
Hero or Enemy? The Thrust Balancing “Disk” Piedmont Chapter Can have rubs at start-up or
Hero or Enemy?
The Thrust Balancing “Disk”
Piedmont Chapter
Can have rubs at start-up or during
severe process transients, may permit
“axial shutting”.
Pacific BFI Barrel Pump Piedmont Chapter Barrel Pump with Balance Drum and Stiff Shaft •
Pacific BFI
Barrel Pump
Piedmont Chapter
Barrel Pump with
Balance Drum and
Stiff Shaft
• 180 degree “drip
pocket” allows bearing
hsg Fn near vane pass
• Pedestals weaken with
age, structural modes
drift into 1xRPM
resonance
• Diffuser “strong-back”
plates can resonate at
vane pass
Pacific RLIJ Piedmont Chapter Barrel Pump with Balance Drum, and Thin Shaft • Rotor critical
Pacific RLIJ
Piedmont Chapter
Barrel Pump with
Balance Drum, and
Thin Shaft
• Rotor critical speeds
sensitive to Lomakin
Effect and therefore
wear ring & drum
clearances
• Pedestals weaken with
age, structural modes
drift into 1xRPM
resonance
Ingersoll-Rand C Piedmont Chapter Barrel Pump with Balance Disk • Balance disk is theoretically prone
Ingersoll-Rand C
Piedmont Chapter
Barrel Pump with
Balance Disk
• Balance disk is
theoretically prone to
“control system”
phasing instabilities,
causing axial shuttling
• Pedestals weaken with
age, structural modes
drift into 1xRPM
resonance
Worthington WNC Piedmont Chapter Barrel Pump with Composite Balance Drum/ Disk • Balance disk portion
Worthington WNC
Piedmont Chapter
Barrel Pump with
Composite Balance
Drum/ Disk
• Balance disk portion may
have Ax shuttling
• 180 degree “drip pocket”
bearing hsgs have Fn’s
near vane pass
• Develops rotating stall easily at
lower flows
• Pedestals weaken with
age, structural modes
drift into 1xRPM Fn
• Design is particularly prone to
thermal differential growth top v.
bottom causing rotor binding/
rubs
Axial Split Case Pumps: e.g. Bingham MSD Piedmont Chapter Axially Split Case Issues: • Acoustics
Axial Split Case Pumps:
e.g. Bingham MSD
Piedmont Chapter
Axially Split Case
Issues:
• Acoustics in x-over
• Top casing half
“humps, allowing
interstage jet leakage
• Axial shutting at off-
design conditions
• High sensitivity of 1 st
bend mode to center
bushing clearance
Pumps for Wastewater Applications Piedmont Chapter • Excitation of structural natural frequencies – 1X, 2X,
Pumps for Wastewater Applications
Piedmont Chapter
• Excitation of structural natural frequencies
– 1X, 2X, Vane Pass
• Packing vs. mechanical seals
• Material selection
– ‘Wear’ parts – rings, etc.
– ‘Non-Wear’ parts – casings and impellers
• Vertical with intermediate shafting
• Submersible
– Wet pit
– Dry pit
Chemical & Pharmaceutical Process Pumps Piedmont Chapter • Nozzle Loads – Distortion – Stress in
Chemical & Pharmaceutical
Process Pumps
Piedmont Chapter
• Nozzle Loads
– Distortion
– Stress in non-metallic pumps
• Bearings – low precision
– Affect on rotor behavior
• Baseplates
– Flexibility
• Seals
– Nozzle loads effect on mechanical seals
– Packing – over-tightening
• Product lubricated bearings in mag drive and canned
motor pumps
Slurry Pumps Piedmont Chapter • Similar issues to process pumps, distortion due to nozzle loads
Slurry Pumps
Piedmont Chapter
• Similar issues to process pumps, distortion due to nozzle
loads is less
• Material selection and specification
– Abrasive pumpage
– Special coatings and liners
Piedmont Chapter Vertical Turbine Pump (VTP) Issues: • Above ground “Reed Freq” • VFD as
Piedmont Chapter
Vertical Turbine Pump
(VTP) Issues:
• Above ground “Reed Freq”
• VFD as a “shaker”
• Lineshaft is “violin string”
• Shaft enclosure tube Fn’s
• Disch nozzle loose joints
• Sump vortices or odd flows
• Column piping acoustics
Vertical Pump Shaft Thrust Effects Piedmont Chapter
Vertical Pump Shaft Thrust Effects
Piedmont Chapter
The “Concept” of Imbalance Piedmont Chapter
The “Concept” of Imbalance
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter Vibration Problem No. 1: 1x Running Speed
Piedmont Chapter
Vibration
Problem No. 1:
1x Running
Speed
What Is Resonance? Piedmont Chapter
What Is Resonance?
Piedmont Chapter
Vibration & Phase vs. Frequency Natural Frequency Piedmont Chapter
Vibration & Phase vs. Frequency
Natural Frequency
Piedmont Chapter
Shaft Response to Imbalance Piedmont Chapter
Shaft Response to Imbalance
Piedmont Chapter
Shaft Response to Imbalance Piedmont Chapter
Shaft Response to Imbalance
Piedmont Chapter
Balance: Single vs. Two Plane Piedmont Chapter
Balance: Single vs. Two Plane
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter Angular Misalignment
Piedmont Chapter
Angular Misalignment
Piedmont Chapter Offset Misalignment
Piedmont Chapter
Offset Misalignment
Piedmont Chapter Vibration Problem No. 2: 1x & 2x .Running Speed
Piedmont Chapter
Vibration
Problem No. 2:
1x & 2x
.Running Speed
Piedmont Chapter Observing Alignment Continuously with “Dodd Bars”
Piedmont Chapter
Observing Alignment
Continuously with “Dodd Bars”
High Energy Density Equipment Alignment Limits Piedmont Chapter 1.5 Offset, hub- 1.0 to-hub, mils 0.5
High Energy Density Equipment
Alignment Limits
Piedmont Chapter
1.5
Offset,
hub-
1.0
to-hub,
mils
0.5
0
0 1800 3600
10000
20000
Speed (rpm)
Piedmont Chapter Flow Through Elbows (Courtesy Cheng Fluid Systems, Inc.)
Piedmont Chapter
Flow
Through
Elbows
(Courtesy Cheng
Fluid Systems, Inc.)
Stationary Piping Load Sources Piedmont Chapter
Stationary Piping Load Sources
Piedmont Chapter
Piping Acoustic Natural Frequencies Piedmont Chapter
Piping Acoustic Natural Frequencies
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter “Lomakin Effect” in Centrifugal Pumps
Piedmont Chapter
“Lomakin Effect”
in Centrifugal Pumps
Concept of the “Wet Critical Speed Piedmont Chapter
Concept of the “Wet Critical Speed
Piedmont Chapter
Lomakin Effect Piedmont Chapter
Lomakin Effect
Piedmont Chapter
Lomakin Result: Critical Speeds Shift Up Piedmont Chapter
Lomakin Result:
Critical Speeds Shift Up
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter Approximate Calculation of Lomakin Stiffness R= Radius L= Length C= Radial . clearance
Piedmont Chapter
Approximate Calculation of
Lomakin Stiffness
R= Radius
L= Length
C= Radial
.
clearance
P=Pressure
.
drop
= fric factor
Some Key Issues in Lomakin Effect Strength: Piedmont Chapter
Some Key Issues in
Lomakin Effect Strength:
Piedmont Chapter
Wild Cards: Swirl & Grooving Piedmont Chapter
Wild Cards: Swirl & Grooving
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter Impeller Radial Support Forces: Sulzer/ EPRI Tests /x /x
Piedmont Chapter
Impeller
Radial
Support
Forces:
Sulzer/ EPRI
Tests
/x
/x
Some Typical Exciting Frequencies Piedmont Chapter
Some Typical Exciting Frequencies
Piedmont Chapter
Rolling Element Bearing Parameters Piedmont Chapter
Rolling Element Bearing Parameters
Piedmont Chapter
Rolling Element Bearing Frequencies Piedmont Chapter - +
Rolling Element Bearing Frequencies
Piedmont Chapter
-
+
Lateral Excitation Forces (Sulzer) Piedmont Chapter
Lateral Excitation Forces (Sulzer)
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter Vibration Problem No. 3: High Vane Pass
Piedmont Chapter
Vibration
Problem No. 3:
High Vane Pass
Piedmont Chapter Vibration Problem No. 4: High Harmonics of Run Speed
Piedmont Chapter
Vibration
Problem No. 4:
High Harmonics
of Run Speed
Marked-up Copy of Pump Curves Piedmont Chapter
Marked-up Copy of Pump Curves
Piedmont Chapter
Flow Rate and the “Angle-of-Attack” Piedmont Chapter
Flow Rate and the “Angle-of-Attack”
Piedmont Chapter
Vane Stalling at Low Flows Piedmont Chapter
Vane Stalling at Low Flows
Piedmont Chapter
Example of Stalled Blade Piedmont Chapter
Example of Stalled Blade
Piedmont Chapter
Onset of Internal Recirculation Piedmont Chapter Discharge Recirculation Suction
Onset of Internal Recirculation
Piedmont Chapter
Discharge Recirculation
Suction
Vibration & Pulsation vs. Flowrate Piedmont Chapter
Vibration & Pulsation vs. Flowrate
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter An Unexpected Hydraulic Problem: Rotating Stall
Piedmont Chapter
An Unexpected Hydraulic Problem:
Rotating Stall
Four Stage High Speed Boiler Feed Pump Piedmont Chapter
Four Stage High Speed Boiler Feed Pump
Piedmont Chapter
Rotating Stall Pulsation Spectrum Piedmont Chapter
Rotating Stall Pulsation Spectrum
Piedmont Chapter
Stall Vibration vs. Speed Piedmont Chapter
Stall Vibration vs. Speed
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter Vibration Problem No. 5: Subsynchronous (below 1x)
Piedmont Chapter
Vibration
Problem No. 5:
Subsynchronous
(below 1x)
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter Rotor Dynamics Critical Speeds & Mode Shapes Forced Response Stability
Piedmont Chapter
Rotor Dynamics
Critical Speeds & Mode Shapes
Forced Response
Stability
Rotordynamics Is Best Evaluated by Computer Piedmont Chapter
Rotordynamics Is Best
Evaluated by Computer
Piedmont Chapter
Typical Rotor Vibr. Response vs. Speed Exhibits Several Natural Frequencies Piedmont Chapter
Typical Rotor Vibr. Response vs. Speed
Exhibits Several Natural Frequencies
Piedmont Chapter
Avoiding Resonance w/ Campbell Diagram Piedmont Chapter
Avoiding Resonance w/ Campbell Diagram
Piedmont Chapter
Rotordynamic Critical Speed Map Piedmont Chapter
Rotordynamic Critical Speed Map
Piedmont Chapter
Forward vs. Backward Precession Piedmont Chapter
Forward vs. Backward
Precession
Piedmont Chapter
Typical Torsional Critical Speeds and Worst Case Excitations Piedmont Chapter x2/POLES
Typical Torsional Critical Speeds
and Worst Case Excitations
Piedmont Chapter
x2/POLES
Typical Vibration Problems Piedmont Chapter
Typical Vibration Problems
Piedmont Chapter
Instrumentation Options Piedmont Chapter
Instrumentation Options
Piedmont Chapter
Converting Vibration vs. Time to Vibr vs. f with “FFT”: Fast Fourier Transform Piedmont Chapter
Converting Vibration vs. Time to Vibr vs. f
with “FFT”: Fast Fourier Transform
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter Meaning of RMS vs. Peak Vibration
Piedmont Chapter
Meaning of
RMS vs. Peak
Vibration
Vibration Measure Numbers Piedmont Chapter
Vibration Measure Numbers
Piedmont Chapter
Vibration Measurement Format Piedmont Chapter
Vibration Measurement Format
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter Housing vs. Shaft Vibration: Which Should Be Measured?
Piedmont Chapter
Housing vs. Shaft
Vibration:
Which Should Be
Measured?
Natural Frequency Piedmont Chapter
Natural Frequency
Piedmont Chapter
Approximating Natural Frequency Piedmont Chapter
Approximating Natural Frequency
Piedmont Chapter
Vibration “Mode Shapes” Piedmont Chapter
Vibration “Mode Shapes”
Piedmont Chapter
Finding Nat. Freq. Resonances with a “Waterfall” Plot of Stacked FFT’s from Test Piedmont Chapter
Finding Nat. Freq. Resonances with a
“Waterfall” Plot of Stacked FFT’s from Test
Piedmont Chapter
Approximate Identification of Natural Frequencies Piedmont Chapter
Approximate Identification
of Natural Frequencies
Piedmont Chapter
A Modal Field Test In-Progress on an Operating Pump Piedmont Chapter
A Modal Field Test In-Progress on
an Operating Pump
Piedmont Chapter
Short Force Application Excites Wide Frequency Band Piedmont Chapter
Short Force Application
Excites Wide Frequency Band
Piedmont Chapter
Principle of Time Averaging Piedmont Chapter
Principle of Time Averaging
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter Rotor Impact Testing Case History
Piedmont Chapter
Rotor Impact Testing
Case History
Piedmont Chapter 14 Stage Axially Split Case Pump
Piedmont Chapter
14 Stage
Axially Split Case Pump
Piedmont Chapter Time Averaging Field Example: Watch the Harmonics Disappear In the End, Natural Frequencies
Piedmont Chapter
Time Averaging Field
Example: Watch the
Harmonics Disappear
In the End, Natural
Frequencies Are Clear
Piedmont Chapter Impact Test Critical Speeds of 14 Stage Pump Rotordynamic Result
Piedmont Chapter
Impact Test
Critical Speeds of
14 Stage Pump
Rotordynamic
Result
First Critical Speed, Dbl. Suction SS Pump Piedmont Chapter
First Critical Speed, Dbl. Suction SS Pump
Piedmont Chapter
Sources of Damaging Forces in Centrifugal Pumps Piedmont Chapter
Sources of Damaging Forces
in Centrifugal Pumps
Piedmont Chapter
Typical Failures in Centrifugal Pumps Piedmont Chapter
Typical Failures in Centrifugal Pumps
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter Risk of Accepting Bad vs. Risk of Rejecting Good
Piedmont Chapter
Risk of
Accepting Bad
vs. Risk of
Rejecting Good
Piedmont Chapter Stuffing Box & Bearing Skew Case Histories
Piedmont Chapter
Stuffing Box & Bearing Skew
Case Histories
Piedmont Chapter Cartridge Pump Seal Rub Example
Piedmont Chapter
Cartridge Pump
Seal Rub
Example
Piedmont Chapter Vibration Problem #6: Repeating Impacts
Piedmont Chapter
Vibration
Problem #6:
Repeating
Impacts
Double Suction Pump “Breathing” Tilts Stuffing Boxes Piedmont Chapter
Double Suction Pump
“Breathing” Tilts Stuffing Boxes
Piedmont Chapter
FEA Model of Twisting Pump Bearing Housing Piedmont Chapter
FEA Model of Twisting
Pump Bearing Housing
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter Vertical Pump Failure Case Histories
Piedmont Chapter
Vertical Pump Failure
Case Histories
Typical Structural Vibrations of VTP’s Piedmont Chapter
Typical Structural Vibrations of VTP’s
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter Six Vertical Pumps on Platform, with Column Exposed to Air
Piedmont Chapter
Six Vertical Pumps on
Platform, with Column
Exposed to Air
Vertical Pump Column Vibration with & without Water in Column Piedmont Chapter 1xN 1xN |
Vertical Pump Column Vibration
with & without Water in Column
Piedmont Chapter
1xN
1xN
|
|
|
|
|
|
With Water
Without Water
Piedmont Chapter Multistage Pump Inboard Bearing Chronic Failure Case History
Piedmont Chapter
Multistage Pump
Inboard Bearing Chronic Failure
Case History
Pump with Inboard Bearing Failures Piedmont Chapter
Pump with Inboard Bearing Failures
Piedmont Chapter
Shaft Orbits of Problem Pump Piedmont Chapter
Shaft Orbits of Problem Pump
Piedmont Chapter
Vibration Spectra for Problem Pump Piedmont Chapter
Vibration Spectra for Problem Pump
Piedmont Chapter
Impact Test Results Showing Shaft Critical Speed at 5280 rpm Piedmont Chapter
Impact Test Results Showing Shaft
Critical Speed at 5280 rpm
Piedmont Chapter
“What If” Analysis for Problem Pump Piedmont Chapter
“What If” Analysis for Problem Pump
Piedmont Chapter
Bearing Groove Change from 0.040 in. Deep to 0.010 in. Deep Piedmont Chapter Vibration decreased
Bearing Groove Change from
0.040 in. Deep to 0.010 in. Deep
Piedmont Chapter
Vibration
decreased a
factor of ten
Vibration Spectrum After Bearing Fix Piedmont Chapter
Vibration Spectrum After Bearing Fix
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter Use of Dynamic Absorbers in Constant Speed Equipment to Decrease Vibration Motion
Piedmont Chapter
Use of Dynamic Absorbers
in Constant Speed Equipment
to Decrease Vibration Motion
Dynamic Absorber Design- Vertical Pump/Motor Piedmont Chapter
Dynamic Absorber Design- Vertical Pump/Motor
Piedmont Chapter
Effect of Dynamic Absorber on Vibration Piedmont Chapter
Effect of Dynamic Absorber on Vibration
Piedmont Chapter
Gear Box Noise & Wear Problem Piedmont Chapter
Gear Box Noise & Wear Problem
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter
Piedmont Chapter
Conclusions Piedmont Chapter 1.There’s More to Pump and System Vibrations than You Might Expect 2.Keys
Conclusions
Piedmont Chapter
1.There’s More to Pump and
System Vibrations than You
Might Expect
2.Keys to Success: Knowledge,
Experience, the Right Tools
3.Good Condition-Based
Methods & Instrumentation Are
Getting Better