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Ships Machinery An overview of machinery and systems

Ships Machinery
Purpose Systems Types of machinery Piping and fittings Pressure vessels Purpose

Ships serve an important economic need of transporting goods


Cheapest mode of transport Large quantities over long distances Relatively safe

Thus the important attributes are:


Ability to hold cargo safely Ability to travel long distances e.g. sea distance between India and USA is about 10,000 nautical miles (approx. 18,000 km)

Ships machinery serves


Propulsion needs Cargo handling needs Supports life at sea

Machinery Systems
Propulsion System Power Generation System Steering and navigation Steam Generation Cargo handling systems
Air conditioning and refrigeration system Domestic systems All above systems consist of various diesel engines, pumps, compressors, motors, heat exchangers, piping, pipe fittings, controls etc.

Propulsion Arrangements Conventional Propellers


Propeller Nozzles Steerable Thrusters

Variable Pitch Propellers


Vertical axis propellers Water jet propulsion

Propulsion Systems Diesel Engines Most commonly used, for its economy, ease of operation, ready availability, ease of etc. Steam turbines On special ships like gas carriers, large oil tankers etc, for their compact size, high reliability Electrical drives On special ships like dynamical position ships for their ready availability, multiple installation etc. Gas turbines Mostly used in naval ships and surface ships for their power to size ratio Nuclear plants Mostly used in naval ships for their long range Diesel Engines Slow speed engines (Typically below 300 rpm) Two Stroke engines Medium Speed Engines For Stroke engines High Speed engines Four Stroke engines Slow Speed Diesel Engines

Medium Speed Diesel Engine

Propulsion Gearing
Gears are needed to step down the rpm, of propeller shaft. This is because propellers efficiency drops at higher rpm May also cause damage to propeller

Twin input and single out put configuration is possible. Diesel Engine Choice of diesel engine is dictated by
Power to size ratio Degree of required maneuverability Size of the engine room Type of propulsion Required service speed Power Generation System Typically consist of alternators driven by prime movers Prime movers are: Diesel Engines Steam turbines Switch boards Distribution Protection Control Typical Switchboard Typical Generator Set Support Systems Cooling Water System Fresh Water SystemSea Water System Lube Oil System Fuel Oil SystemBilge & Ballast SystemCompressed Air System Feed water & Condensate SystemHydraulic System

Diesel Engine Lubrication System

Fuel Oil System Starting Air System Starting Air System Cooling Water System

Reduction Gear Lube System

MAIN AIR COMPRESSOR

Pistons, cylinder Heads and jackets


connecting rods, Bearings, crankshafts Inlet & outlet valves Cooling spaces/coolers/pipes Safety Devices - Relief valves/Bursting discs/High Temperature alarms Water Tube Boilers Smoke Tube Boilers Principal Mountings