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August 7


Semester 2 project

Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn is turned into cloth or other fine crafts. Knitted fabric consists
of consecutive rows of loops, called stitches. As each row progresses, a new loop is pulled through an existing loop. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them. This process eventually results in a fabric, often used for garments. Knitting may be done by hand or by machine. There exist numerous styles and methods of hand knitting. Different yarns and knitting needles may be used to achieve different end products by giving the final piece a different colour, texture, weight, and/or integrity. Using needles of varying shape and thickness as well as different varieties of yarn can also change the effect.

History and culture

The word is derived from knot and ultimately from the Old English cnyttan, to knot.[13] . Knitting is often done in a group with other knitters. Although knitting may have had a reputation as hobby one does alone, it is becoming more and more of a social activity. Knitting guilds and other knitting groups or knitting clubs are becoming exceedingly popular. One of the earliest known examples of knitting was cotton socks with stranded knit color patterns, found in Egypt from the end of the first millennium AD.[14] Originally a male-only occupation, the first knitting trade guild was started in Paris in 1527.[15] With the invention of the knitting machine, however, knitting "by hand" became a useful but non-essential craft. Similar to quilting, spinning, and needlepoint, knitting became a leisure activity. Hand-knitting has gone into and out of fashion many times in the last two centuries, and at the turn of the 21st century it is enjoying a revival. According to the industry group Craft Yarn Council of America, the number of women knitters in the United States age 2535 increased 150% in the two years between 2002 and 2004. [16] The latest incarnation is less about the "make-do and mend" attitude of the 1940s and early 50s and more about making a statement about individuality as well as developing an innate sense of community. During the 1940s, English knitting rose in popularity while Continental knitting fell. This is due to the fact that continental knitting originated within Germany and was spread by immigrants. During World War II, continental knitting fell out of style due to its relationship with Germany. It wasn't until Elizabeth Zimmermann publicized continental knitting in the 1980s that it again was popularized. [17] Additionally, many contemporary knitters have an interest in blogging about their knitting, patterns, and techniques,[18] or joining a virtual community focused on knitting, [19] such as Ravelry, affectionately known as Rav to fiber-lovers around the world. There are also a number of popular knitting podcasts, such as the Manic Purl Podcast and the Savvy Girls Podcast. Contemporary knitting groups may be referred to in the U.S. as a "Stitch 'N Bitch" where a group of knitters get together to work on projects, discuss patterns, troubleshoot their work and just socialize.[20] In the UK, the term has been "knitting circle" since the early 20th century.

Courses and Wales
Like weaving, knitting is a technique for producing a two-dimensional fabric made from a one-dimensional yarn or thread. In weaving, threads are always straight, running parallel either lengthwise (warp threads) or crosswise (weft threads). By contrast, the yarn in knitted fabrics follows a meandering path (a course), forming symmetric loops (also called bights) symmetrically above and below the mean path of the yarn. These meandering loops can be stretched easily in different directions, which gives knitting much more elasticity than woven fabrics; depending on the yarn and knitting pattern, knitted garments can stretch as much as 500%. For this reason, knitting was initially developed for garments that must be elastic or stretch in response to the wearer's motions, such as socks and hosiery. For comparison, woven garments stretch mainly along one direction (the bias) and are not very elastic, unless they are woven from stretchable material such as spandex. Knitted garments are often more form-fitting than woven garments, since their elasticity allows them to follow the body's curvature closely; by contrast, curvature is introduced into most woven garments only with sewn darts, flares, gussets and gores, the seams of which lower the elasticity of the woven fabric still further. Extra curvature can be introduced into knitted garments without seams, as in the heel of a sock; the effect of darts, flares, etc. can be obtained with short rows or by increasing or decreasing the number of stitches. Thread used in weaving is usually much finer than the yarn used in knitting, which can give the knitted fabric more bulk and less drape than a woven fabric. If they are not secured, the loops of a knitted course will come undone when their yarn is pulled; this is known as ripping out, unravelling knitting, or humorously,frogging (because you 'rip it', this sounds like a frog croaking: 'rib-bit'). To secure a stitch, at least one new loop is passed through it. Although the new stitch is itself unsecured ("active" or "live"), it secures the stitch(es) suspended from it. A sequence of stitches in which each stitch is suspended from the next is called a wale. To secure the initial stitches of a knitted fabric, a method for casting on is used; to secure the final stitches in a wale, one uses a method of binding off. During knitting, the active stitches are secured mechanically, either from individual hooks (in knitting machines) or from a knitting needle or frame in hand-knitting.

Structure of stockinette, a common knitted fabric. The meandering red path defines one course, the path of the yarn through the fabric. The uppermost white loops are unsecured and "active", but they secure the red loops suspended from them. In turn, the red loops secure the white loops just below them, which in turn secure the loops below them, and so on.

Alternating wales of red and white knit stitches. Each stitch in a wale is suspended from the one above it.

Weft and warp knitting

There are two major varieties of knitting: weft knitting and warp knitting.[3] In the more common weft knitting, the wales are perpendicular to the course of the yarn. Inwarp knitting, the wales and courses run roughly parallel. In weft knitting, the entire fabric may be produced from a single yarn, by adding stitches to each wale in turn, moving across the fabric as in a raster scan. By contrast, in warp knitting, one yarn is required for every wale. Since a typical piece of knitted fabric may have hundreds of wales, warp knitting is typically done by machine, whereas weft knitting is done by both hand and machine.[4] Warp-knitted fabrics such as tricot and milanese are resistant to runs, and are commonly used in lingerie. Weft-knit fabrics may also be knit with multiple yarns, usually to produce interesting color patterns. The two most common approaches are intarsia and stranded colorwork. In intarsia, the yarns are used in well-segregated regions, e.g., a red apple on a field of green; in that case, the yarns are kept on separate spools and only one is knitted at any time. In the more complex stranded approach, two or more yarns alternate repeatedly within one row and all the yarns must be carried along the row, as seen in Fair Isle sweaters. Double knitting can produce two separate knitted fabrics simultaneously, e.g., two socks; however, the two fabrics are usually integrated into one, giving it great warmth and excellent drape.

Basic pattern of warp knitting. Parallel yarns zigzag lengthwise along the fabric, each loop securing a loop of an adjacent strand from the previous row.

Knit and purl stitches

In securing the previous stitch in a wale, the next stitch can pass through the previous loop from either below or above. If the former, the stitch is denoted as a knit stitch or a plain stitch; if the latter, as a purl stitch. The two stitches are related in that a knit stitch seen from one side of the fabric appears as a purl stitch on the other side. The two types of stitches have a different visual effect; the knit stitches look like "V"'s stacked vertically, whereas the purl stitches look like a wavy horizontal line across the fabric. Patterns and pictures can be created in knitted fabrics by using knit and purl stitches as "pixels"; however, such pixels are usually rectangular, rather than square, depending on the gauge of the knitting. Individual stitches, or rows of stitches, may be made taller by drawing more yarn into the new loop (an elongated stitch), which is the basis for uneven knitting: a row of tall stitches may alternate with one or more rows of short stitches for an interesting visual effect. Short and tall stitches may also alternate within a row, forming a fish-like oval pattern.

In the knit stitch on the left, the next (red) loop passes through the previous (white) loop from below, whereas in the purl stitch (right), the next stitch enters from above. Thus, a knit stitch on one side of the fabric appears as a purl stitch on the other, and vice versa.

Two courses of red yarn illustrating two basic fabric types. The lower red course is knit into the white row below it and is itself knit on the next row; this produces stockinettestitch. The upper red course is purled into the row below and then is knit, consistent with garter stitch.

In the simplest knitted fabrics, all of the stitches are knit or purl; this is known as a garter stitch. Alternating rows of knit stitches and purl stitches produce what is known as a stockinette pattern. Vertical stripes (ribbing) are possible by having alternating wales of knit and purl stitches; for example, a common choice is 2x2 ribbing, in which two wales of knit stitches are followed by two wales of purl stitches, etc. Horizontal striping (welting) is also possible, by alternating rows of knit and purl stitches. Checkerboard patterns (basketweave) are also possible, the smallest of which is known as seed stitch: the stitches alternate between knit and purl in every wale and along every row. Fabrics in which the number of knit and purl stitches are not the same, such as stockinette, have a tendency to curl; by contrast, those in which knit and purl stitches are arranged symmetrically (such as ribbing, garter stitch or seed stitch) tend to lie flat and drape well. Wales of purl stitches have a tendency to recede, whereas those of knit stitches tend to come forward. Thus, the purl wales in ribbing tend to be invisible, since the neighboring knit wales come forward. Conversely, rows of purl stitches tend to form an embossed ridge relative to a row of knit stitches. This is the basis of shadow knitting, in which the appearance of a knitted fabric changes when viewed from different directions.[5] Typically, a new stitch is passed through a single unsecured ("active") loop, thus lengthening that wale by one stitch. However, this need not be so; the new loop may be passed through an already secured stitch lower down on the fabric, or even between secured stitches (a dip stitch). Depending on the distance between where the loop is drawn through the fabric and where it is knitted, dip stitches can produce a subtle stippling or long lines across the surface of the fabric, e.g., the lower leaves of a flower. The new loop may also be passed between two stitches in the present row, thus clustering the intervening stitches; this approach is often used to produce a smocking effect in the fabric. The new loop may also be passed through two or moreprevious stitches, producing a decrease and merging wales together. The merged stitches need not be from the same row; for example, a tuck can be formed by knitting stitches together from two different rows, producing a raised horizontal welt on the fabric. Not every stitch in a row need be knitted; some may be left as is and knitted on a subsequent row. This is known as slip-stitch knitting.[6] The slipped stitches are naturally longer than the knitted ones. For example, a stitch slipped for one row before knitting would be roughly twice as tall as its knitted counterparts. This can produce interesting visual effects, although the resulting fabric is more rigid, because the slipped stitch "pulls" on its neighbours and is less deformable. Slip-stitch knitting plays an important role in mosaic knitting, an important technique in handknitting patterned fabrics; mosaic-knit fabrics tend to be stiffer than patterned fabrics produced by other methods such as Fair-Isle knitting.[7] In some cases, a stitch may be deliberately left unsecured by a new stitch and its wale allowed to disassemble. This is known as drop-stitch knitting, and produces a vertical ladder of see-through holes in the fabric, corresponding to where the wale had been.

Right- and left-plaited stitches

Both knit and purl stitches may be twisted: usually once if at all, but sometimes twice and (very rarely) thrice. When seen from above, the twist can be clockwise (right yarn over left) or counterclockwise (left yarn over right); these are denoted as right- and left-plaited stitches, respectively. Hand-knitters generally produce right-plaited stitches by knitting or purling through the back loops, i.e., passing the needle through the initial stitch in an unusual way, but wrapping the yarn as usual. By contrast, the left-plaited stitch is generally formed by hand-knitters by wrapping the yarn in the opposite way, rather than by any change in the needle. Although they are mirror images in form, rightand left-plaited stitches are functionally equivalent. Both types of plaited stitches give a subtle but interesting visual texture, and tend to draw the fabric inwards, making it stiffer. Plaited stitches are a common method for knitting jewelry from fine metal wire

The stitches on the right are right-plaited, whereas the stitches on the left are left-plaited.

Within limits, an arbitrary number of twists may be added to new stitches, whether they be knit or purl. Here, a single twist is illustrated, with left-plaited and right-plaited stitches on the left and right, respectively.

. Float Stitch A float stitch or welt stitch (Fig.A) is composed of a held loop, one or more float loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle (M) holding its old loop fails to receive the new yarn that passes, as a float loop, to the back of the needle and to the reverse side of the resultant stitch, joining together the two nearest needle loops knitted from it. A single float stitch has the appearance of a U-shape on the reverse of the stitch. Structures incorporating float stitches tend to exhibit faint horizontal lines. Float stitch fabrics are narrower than equivalent all-knit fabrics because the wales are drawn closer together by the floats, thus reducing width-wise elasticity and improving fabric stability.

The Tuck Stitch

A tuck stitch is composed of a held loop, one or more tuck loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle holding its loop also receives the new loop, which becomes a tuck loop because it is not intermeshed through the old loop but is tucked in behind it on the reverse side of the stitch(Fig.C). Its side limbs are therefore not restricted at their feet by the head of an old loop, so they can open outwards towards the two adjoining needle loops formed in the same course. The tuck loop thus assumes an inverted V or U-shaped configuration. The yarn passes from the sinker loops to the head that is intermeshed with the new loop of a course above it, so that the head of the tuck is on the reverse of the stitch

Successive Tucks and Floats on the Same Rib Needle

Successive tucks on the same needle are placed on top of each other at the back of the head of the held loop and each, in turn, assumes a straighter and more horizontal appearance and theoretically requires less yarn. Under normal conditions, up to four successive tucks can be accumulated before tension causes yarn rupture or needle damage. The limit is affected by machine design, needle hook size, yarn count, elasticity and fabric take-down tension

Fully Fashioned Knitting

Completely created knitting devices are flat knitting devices that produce customized pre-shaped items of a knitted clothing. Instead of knitting a whole rectangle-shaped piece of material, guidelines from a knit design on a value card or computer file guide a fully-fashioned knitting unit's tiny needles to add or drop appears to create customized

two perspective forms appropriate to the preferred completed clothing framework. The items appear from the machine ready to be made together. Fully-fashioned knitting cuts down on the amount of material required to make a garment by eliminating selvage, the remnants that would be left after cutting from a rectangular fabric sheet. For example, a sweater requires at least four pieces of fabric: two sleeves, the front piece, and the back piece. Prior to fully-fashioned machine techniques, a full sheet of material would have to be produced, each of the four pieces would be cut out, and the remaining fabric would be discarded. With full-fashioning, the machine produces only the four required pieces. The necessary techniques for changing the fabric width or diameter are achieved by: Changing knit structure (e.g. rib to interlock) Varying the structural elements (stitch length, weft insertion, knit, tuck, float) Shaping through loop transfer Wale fashioning by 'needle parking' Segmented takedown for varying rates of takedown across the width of the fabric. These knit alternatives above may also be used to modify the framework of each item to make restricted curve (such as convexity at the breast of a sweater) in the relatively 2-dimensional result. A new creation of fully-fashioned devices, known as finish clothing knitting devices, result effortless 3-dimensional apparel by knitting linked tubular forms. All weft knits fall into three basic categories: rib knits, which are a combination of knit and purl stitches; purl knits, which are made with purl stitches alone, and jersey knits, which are made with knits stitches on the front and purl stitches on the reverse (see the drawings above).

Double knit
Description: Made with two sets of yarns, this doubleconstructed fabric has fine ribs running lengthwise on both sides. Usually looks same on fabrics face and reverse, making it reversible. Fancy double knits may have novelty stitch on fabrics face and fine ribs on reverse. Properties: Heavy, firm; usually has almost no stretch in either direction. Good shape retention; cut edges dont curl. Best use: Tailored garments, like jackets, suits, or sheath dresses. If particular double knit has some crosswise stretch, adjusting pattern (by cutting it slightly smaller in body girth) may be necessary.

Description: Compound fabric made by inter-knitting, or interlocking, two simple ribbed fabrics, each made with single yarn. Has fine ribs running lengthwise. Fabrics face and reverse look same, making it reversible. Properties: Almost no lengthwise stretch; more crosswise stretch than double knits or jerseys; fairly good shape retention. Raw or cut edges dont curl; unravels only from end last knitted. Best use: Wonderful for T-shirts, turtlenecks, casual skirts and dresses, and childrens wear. Because of its crosswise stretch, use pattern designed for interlock knits, or be prepared to adjust pattern.

Jersey knit
Description: Also referred to as plain knit or single knit. Has distinct right and wrong sides, with fine ribs running lengthwise on fabrics face, and semicircular loops running across reverse. Many variations of stitches and fibers create wide variety of single knits, ranging from delicate openwork to heavy, thick piled fabric. Properties: Little or no lengthwise stretch, varying amounts of crosswise stretch. Curls to fabrics right side; cut edges unravel only from end knitted last. Best use: Jersey with little or no crosswise or lengthwise stretch (like most wool jerseys) can be used for skirts, blouses, and dresses without pattern adjustments. Jersey with crosswise stretch requires pattern adjustments or pattern designed for crosswise stretch. Purl knit Description: Double-faced, reversible fabric produced by intermeshed rows of knit and purl stitches, which appear as loops in crosswise direction. Sometimes called Links-Links, from the German word links (left), since knitting machines mechanism always moves to left. Properties: Usually heavy and bulky; stretches in both directions. Cut edges do not curl. Best use: Sweater-type garments, outerwear. Rib knit Description: Double-faced, reversible fabric with distinct vertical ribs on both sides, produced by alternating knit and purl stitches. Ribs can be small (1x1, that is, one knit stitch followed by one purl stitch), thick, (2x2 or 3x3), or uneven (1x3, for example).

Properties: Little or no lengthwise stretch, but lots of crosswise stretch and good, natural recovery. Cut edges do not curl. Best use: Because of its elasticity, ideal for trimming other knits (and wovens). Garments made from rib knits are usually close-fitting and therefore use a pattern designed for knits.

warp knit fabrics

Because of the multiple-needle configuration of warp-knitting machines, the warp knit fabrics produced can be very complex and intricate in structure; and they dont fall neatly into groups or categories as weft knits do. Milanese Description: Made from two sets of yarns knitted diagonally. Face has fine vertical rib, and reverse has diagonal structure. Properties: Lightweight, drapey, smooth texture, extremely run-resistant. Best use: Historically used for gloves and lingerie; makes lovely, soft blouses and eveningwear. May be a little difficult to find, but worth looking for. Raschel Description: Raschel-knitting machine produces wide variety of fabrics and can incorporate conventional or novelty yarns, thereby creating interesting textures and surface designs. Knits can be fine and lacey, highly patterned, and even piled. Properties: Runs gamut from dense and compact to open and lofty; can be either stable or stretchy, and single-faced or reversible. Best use: Almost any garment. Assessing amount of stretch, give, and recovery in a raschel knit is essential, since its nature is so diverse. Tricot Description: Face has fine lengthwise ribs; reverse has crosswise ribs. Some machines can produce complex patterns, and some can incorporate a weft insertion (extra yarn inserted crosswise) for added texture or color. Properties: Some lengthwise stretch; almost no crosswise stretch. Usually soft and drapey; cut edges tend to curl. Best use: Besides traditional use for lining and lingerie, can be used for blouses and dresses. Its essential to assess stretch of particular tricot for given project. warp and weft Warp knitting is resistant to runs, and is commonly used as a lingerie fabric. Weft knitted fabrics can be produced in either tubular or flat form. Weft knitted fabric is usually highly elastic and highly drapable, which makes it suitable for a wide range of apparel applications. The main advantage of warp knitted fabric is that it is not easy to unravel like weft knitted fabric. However, this fabric is not as elastic as weft knitted fabric. Let us now study in detail the two basic types of knitting: Weft Knitting Warp Knitting Weft Knitting The process of hand knitting is known as weft knitting and it can also be done by machines. In weft knitting, the work progresses back and forth, that is width-wise. In each cycle which is known as course, a new row of stitches is formed. In each row there may be a number of stitches depending upon the width of the fabric to be knitted. Each stitch of the row is built-up intermeshing with the previously held stitches of the previous row. The vertical row of stitches or loops hanging vertically from the needles is known as wale. Weft knitted fabric is produced in either flat or tubular form. Types of Weft Knitted Stitches There are three fundamental stitches in weft knitting: Plain-knit Stitch Purl Stitch Rib Stitch Plain-Knit Stitch The basic form of knitting is the Plain Knit. This stitch can be produced in flat knit, tubular, or circular forms. The

flat knit is also called jersey stitch. In plain knitted stitch, each loop is drawn through other loops to the right side of the fabric. The loops form vertical rows, also called wales, on the fabric face, giving it a sheen, and crosswise rows, also called courses, on the back. The plain-knit stitch produces relatively lightweight fabric compared with the thicker fabrics produced by other stitches. Purl Stitch This stitch is also known as the links/links stitch. It is made on flatbed and circular machines by needles using hooks on both ends. The hooks alternately draw loops to the front of the fabric in one course, and to the back in the next course. It is a slow and costly technique. Purl-stitched fabric looks the same on both sides and resembles the reverse of the plain knit. Because the purl stitch has crosswise stretch and excellent lengthwise stretch, it is widely used in kids' and infant wear. Rib Stitch The Rib knitted stitch is produced either on a flat rib machine or a circular rib machine. Rib knitted fabric has alternating rows of plain and purl stitches constructed so that both the face and back of the fabric look alike. Rib construction is costlier because of the greater amount of yarn needed. Weft Knitted Fabric is usually highly elastic and highly drapeable and these two properties make the fabric suitable for a wide range of apparel applications. Weft knitted fabric is considered to be comfortable both for outer garments and undergarments.

Warp Knitting While a weft-knitted fabric consists of horizontal parallel courses of yarn and requires only a single yarn, warp knitting requires one yarn for every stitch in the row or course. The basic feature of warp knitting is that these yarns make vertical parallel wales. It differs from weft knitting in that each needle loops its own thread. The term 'warp knitting' refers to machine knitting. The needles produce parallel rows of loops simultaneously that are interlocked in a zigzag pattern. The stitches on the face of the fabric appear vertically and the stitches at the back appear horizontally as floats at a slight angle. These floats are also called Laps or Underlaps, and are a distinguishing identification of warp knits. Types of Warp Knitted Stitches There are six fundamental stitches in warp knitting: Tricot Knit Milanese Knit Simplex Knit Raschel Knit Ketten Raschel Knit Crochet Knit Tricot Knit Tricot fabric is soft, wrinkle resistant and has good drapability. Tricot knits are used for a wide variety of fabric weights and designs. Some examples of tricot fabric are lingerie, loungewear, sleepwear, blouses, shirts, dresses, slacks etc. Milanese Knit The milanese stitch produces a fabric very similar to tricot. It can be identified by the fine rib on the face and a diagonal pattern on the back. However, milanese fabric is superior to tricot in smoothness, elasticity, regularity of structure, split and tear resistance. Simplex Knit Simplex fabric is made of fine yarn and is relatively dense and thick. It is a small part of warp knit production. Simplex fabric is used to make gloves, handbags, sportswear and slip covers. Eyelets and other openwork can also be produced on the simplex machine. Raschel Knit The raschel knit ranks in importance of production with tricot but it make varieties of products ranging from veilings, laces, power nets for foundation garments, to carpets. Raschel knitting is done with heavy yarns and usually has an intricate lace-like pattern.

Ketten Raschel Knit This is also known as the chain raschel. The machine can be equipped to produce raised pattern effects in one or more colors. The fabric is finer, has a better hand, superior elasticity and cover. Crochet Knit This basic stitch is used in hand-crochet. This construction is used in a wide variety of fabrics ranging from nets and laces to bedspreads and carpets

Properties of fabrics

Schematic of stockinette stitch, the most basic weft-knit fabric

The topology of a knitted fabric is relatively complex. Unlike woven fabrics, where strands usually run straight horizontally and vertically, yarn that has been knitted follows a loopy path along its row, as with the red strand in the diagram at left, in which the loops of one row have all been pulled through the loops of the row below it. Because there is no single straight line of yarn anywhere in the pattern, a knitted piece can stretch in all directions. This elasticity is unavailable from woven fabrics, which only stretch along the bias. Many modern stretchy garments, even as they rely on elastic synthetic materials for some stretch, also achieve at least some of their stretch through knitted patterns.

Close-up of front of stockinette stitch

Close-up of back of stockinette stitch, also same appearance asreverse stockinette stitch

The basic knitted fabric (as in the diagram, and usually called a stocking or stockinette pattern) has a definite "right side" and "wrong side". On the right side, the visible portions of the loops are the verticals connecting two rows, arranged in a grid of V shapes. On the wrong side, the ends of the loops are visible, both the tops and bottoms, creating a much more bumpy texture sometimes called reverse stockinette. (Despite being the "wrong side," reverse stockinette is frequently used as a pattern in its own right.) Because the yarn holding rows together is all on the front, and the yarn holding side-by-side stitches together is all on the back, stockinette fabric has a strong tendency to curl toward the front on the top and bottom, and toward the back on the left and right side. Stitches can be worked from either side, and various patterns are created by mixing regular knit stitches with the "wrong side" stitches, known as purl stitches, either in columns (ribbing), rows (garter, welting), or more complex patterns. Each such fabric has different properties: a garter stitch has much more vertical stretch,

whileribbing stretches much more horizontally. Because of their front-back symmetry, these two fabrics have little curl, making them popular as edging, even when their stretch properties are not desired. Different combinations of knit and purl stitches, along with more advanced techniques, generate fabrics of considerably variable consistency, from gauzy to very dense, from highly stretchy to relatively stiff, from flat to tightly curled, and so on.

The most common texture for a knitted garment is that generated by the flat stockinette stitchas seen, though very small, in machine-made stockings and T-shirtswhich is worked in the round as nothing but knit stitches, and worked flat as alternating rows of knit and purl. Other simple textures can be made with nothing but knit and purl stitches, including garter stitch, ribbing, and moss and seed stitches. Adding a "slip stitch" (where a loop is passed from one needle to the other) allows for a wide range of textures, including heel and linen stitches, and a number of more complicated patterns.

Close-up of ribbing

Some more advanced knitting techniques create a surprising variety of complex textures. Combining certain increases, which can create small eyelet holes in the resulting fabric, with assorted decreases is key to creating knitted lace, a very open fabric resembling lace. Changing the order of stitches from one row to the next, usually with the help of a cable needle or stitch holder, is key to cable knitting, producing an endless variety of cables, honeycombs, ropes, andAran sweater patterning. Entrelac forms a rich checkerboard texture by knitting small squares, picking up their side edges, and knitting more squares to continue the piece. The appearance of a garment is also affected by the weight of the yarn, which describes the thickness of the spun fibre. The thicker the yarn, the more visible and apparent stitches will be; the thinner the yarn, the finer the texture.

Plenty of finished knitting projects never use more than a single color of yarn, but there are many ways to work in multiple colors. Some yarns are dyed to be eithervariegated (changing color every few stitches in a random fashion) or self-striping (changing every few rows). More complicated techniques permit large fields of color (intarsia, for example), busy small-scale patterns of color (such as Fair Isle), or both (double knitting and slip-stitch color, for example). Yarn with multiple shades of the same hue are called ombre, while a yarn with multiple hues may be known as a given colorway a green, red and yellow yarn might be dubbed the "Parrot Colorway" by its manufacturer, for example. Heathered yarns contain small amounts of fibre of different colours, while tweed yarns may have greater amounts of different colored fibres.

There are many hundreds of different knitting stitches used by knitters. A piece of knitting begins with the process of casting on (also known as "binding on"), which involves the initial creation of the stitches on the needle. Different methods of casting on are used for different effects: one may be stretchy enough for lace, while another provides a decorative edging Provisional cast-ons are used when the knitting will continue in both directions from the cast-on. There are various method employed to "cast on," such as the "thumb method" (also known as "slingshot" or "long-tail" cast-ons), where the stitches are created by a series of loops that will, when knitted, give a very loose edge ideal for "picking up stitches" and knitting a border; the "double needle method" (also known as "knit-on" or "cable cast-on"), whereby each loop placed on the needle is then "knitted on," which produces a firmer edge ideal on its own as a border; and many more. The number of active stitches remains the same as when cast on unless stitches are added (an increase) or removed (a decrease). Most Western-style knitters follow either the English style (in which the yarn is held in the right hand) or the Continental style (in which the yarn is held in the left hand).

There are also different ways to insert the needle into the stitch. Knitting through the front of a stitch is called Western knitting. Going through the back of a stitch is called Eastern knitting. A third method, called combination knitting, goes through the front of a knit stitch and the back of a purl stitch. [21] Once the knitted piece is finished, the remaining live stitches are "cast off". Casting (or "binding") off loops the stitches across each other so they can be removed from the needle without unravelling the item. Although the mechanics are different from casting on, there is a similar variety of methods. In knitting certain articles of clothing, especially larger ones like sweaters, the final knitted garment will be made of several knitted pieces, with individual sections of the garment knit separately and then sewn together. Seamless knitting, where a whole garment is knit as a single piece, is also possible. Elizabeth Zimmermann is probably the best-known proponent of seamless or circular knitting techniques. Smaller items, such as socks and hats, are usually knit in one piece on double-pointed needles or circular needles. (See Circular knitting.)

Mega Knitting Tools

The process of knitting has three basic tasks: 1. the active (unsecured) stitches must be held so they don't drop 2. these stitches must be released sometime after they are secured 3. new bights of yarn must be passed through the fabric, usually through active stitches, thus securing them. In very simple cases, knitting can be done without tools, using only the fingers to do these tasks; however, knitting is usually carried out using tools such as knitting needles, knitting machines or rigid frames. Depending on their size and shape, the rigid frames are called knitting boards, knitting rings (also called knitting looms) or knitting spools (also known as knitting knobbies, knitting nancies, or corkers). There is also a technique of knitting with a crochet hook that has a cord attached to the end, to hold the stitches while they're being worked. This technique is called knooking.[24] Other tools are used to prepare yarn for knitting, to measure and design knitted garments, or to make knitting easier or more comfortable.


Knitting needles in a variety of sizes and materials. Different materials have varying amounts of friction, and are suitable for different yarn types.

There are three basic types of knitting needles (also called "knitting pins"). The first and most common type consists of two slender, straight sticks tapered to a point at one end, and with a knob at the other end to prevent stitches from slipping off. Such needles are usually 1016 inches (250410 mm) long but, due to the compressibility of knitted fabrics, may be used to knit pieces significantly wider. The most important property of needles is their diameter, which ranges from below 2 to 25 mm (roughly 1 inch). The diameter affects the size of stitches, which affects the gauge of the knitting and the elasticity of the fabric. Thus, a simple way to change gauge is to use different needles, which is the basis of uneven knitting. Although knitting needle diameter is often measured in millimeters, there are several different size systems, particularly those specific to the United States, the United Kingdom and Japan; a conversion table is given at knitting needle. Such knitting needles may be made out of any materials, but the most common materials are metals, wood, bamboo, and plastic. Different materials have different frictions and grip the yarn differently; slick needles such as metallic needles are useful for swift knitting, whereas rougher needles such as bamboo offer more friction and are therefore less prone to dropping stitches. The knitting of new stitches occurs only at the tapered ends. Needles with lighted tips have been sold to allow knitters to knit in the dark.

Double-pointed knitting needles in various materials and sizes. They come in sets of four, five or six.

The second type of knitting needles are straight, double-pointed knitting needles (also called "DPNs"). Doublepointed needles are tapered at both ends, which allows them to be knit from either end. DPNs are typically used forcircular knitting, especially smaller tube-shaped pieces such as sleeves, collars, and socks; usually one needle is active while the others hold the remaining active stitches. DPNs are somewhat shorter (typically 7 inches) and are usually sold in sets of four or five.

Circular knitting needles in different lengths, materials and sizes, including plastic, aluminum, steel and nickel-plated brass.

Cable needles are a special case of DPNs, although they usually are not straight, but dimpled in the middle. Often, they have the form of a hook. When cabling a knitted piece, a hook is easier to grab and hold the yarn. Cable needles are typically very short (a few inches), and are used to hold stitches temporarily while others are being knitted. Cable patterns are made by permuting the order of stitches; although one or two stitches may be held by hand or knit out of order, cables of three or more generally require a cable needle. The third needle type consists of circular needles, which are long, flexible double-pointed needles. The two tapered ends (typically 5 inches (130 mm) long) are rigid and straight, allowing for easy knitting; however, the two ends are connected by a flexible strand (usually nylon) that allows the two ends to be brought together. Circular needles are typically 24-60 inches long, and are usually used singly or in pairs; again, the width of the knitted piece may be significantly longer than the length of the circular needle. A developing trend in the knitting world is interchangeable needles. These kits consist of pairs of needles with usually nylon cables or cords. The cables/cords are screwed into the needles, allowing the knitter to have both flexible straight needles or circular needles. This also allows the knitter to change the diameter and length of the needles as needed. The ability to work from either end of one needle is convenient in several types of knitting, such as slipstitch versions of double knitting. Circular needles may be used for flat or circular knitting.

Cable Needles

Cable needles are a specific design, and are used to create the twisting motif of a knitted cable. They are made in different sizes, which produces cables of different widths. When in use, the cable needle is used at the same time as two regular needles. It functions by holding together the stitches creating the cable as the other needles create the rest of the stitches for the knitted piece. At specific points indicated by the pattern, the cable needle is moved, the stitches on it are worked by the other needles, then the cable needle is turned around to a different position to create the cable twist.

Common defects in knit

Bands and Streaks There are different kinds of bands and streaks that may occur in knitting. Some of the popular defects are as follows: Barrie Effect: A Barrie effect has the appearance of a stripe with shaded edges. It is horizontal in weft knits and vertical in warp knits. The barrie effect is caused by various factors like: Lack of uniformity in yarn size, color or luster. Mush tension on the yarns during knitting one section of the fabric. Uneven shrinkage or other finishing defects. Bowing: A line or a design may curve across the fabric. This bowing is the distortion caused by faulty takeup mechanism on the knitting machine. Streak or Stop Mark: A straight horizontal streak or stop mark in the knitted fabric is due to the difference in tension in the yarns caused by the machine being stopped and then restarted. Skewing: Skewing effect is seen as a line or design running at a slight angle across the cloth. Needle Lines: Needle lines or vertical lines are due to a wale that is either tighter or looser than the adjacent ones. This is caused by needle movement due to a tight fit in its slot or a defective sinker. Stitch Defects There are various kinds of stitch defects like: Boardy: The knitted fabric becomes boardy (a stiff or harsh hand) when the stitches have been knit very tightly. Cockled or puckered: If the knitted fabric is cockled or puckered, it is due to uneven stitches or uneven yarn size. Dropped Stitch: This is an un knitted stitch caused either by the yarn carrier not having been set properly or the stitch having been knitted too loosely. Run or ladder: A run or ladder indicates a row of dropped stitches in the wale. Hole: A large hole or a press off is the result of a broken yarn at a specific needle feed so that knitting cannot occur. Tucking: This is the result of an unintentional tucking in the knitted fabric. This is also called the bird's eye defect. Float: This is caused by a miss stitch which is the result of failure of one or more needles to have been raised to catch the yarn.

applyin color to fibre yarn or fabric or parts thereof usully immersesd in a bath of dye , it is chemical rxt bw a fibre n dye so dat d fabric is taken on d color of d dye 2 achieve unique is used at various stages of production to add color to textile and increae product valve . spcly dye houses operates either on a commission baisa or purcahase gray good and finis them b4 selling dem 2 apperal color and d other prodt manufacture. Textile r dyed using wide range of dye stuff and equipments.desired to dye is old method ,natural coloring is used frm many yrs ,with d exception of pigment bidera sys d type of dyestuff 2 be chosen to suit for d fibre substance becoz foramation bw physical n chemical bound of dye, fibre depend on both physical and chemical structure of dye n binders. Dyes :the first method is by dying the textile material in an aqueous soln the process invole dyestuff .it is a higly complex substance which both chemically or physically with an equally complex textile fiber , it is a colorant that become molecules dispread in the aqueous medium

pigment 'dyes'
are typically made from insoluble pigments which have no attraction to the fiber. On their own, they would just wash out. They must be glued to the fiber. The glue is provided by the binder in the paint. A fabric paint may be diluted with water as recommended by the manufacturer, but excessive dilution will result in there being an inadequate amount of glue to keep the pigment attached to the fiber, so colorless extender should be used for thinning beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Any fabric paint may be used for pigment dyeing, with appropriate dilution.

Natural dyes
are dyes or colorants derived from plants, invertebrates, orminerals. The majority of natural dyes are vegetable dyes from plant sources roots, berries, bark, leaves, and wood and other organic sources such as fungi and lichens. Jigger dying In the dyeing on jigger machines the cloth revolves on two main rollers , The open-width fabric passes from one roller through the dyebath at the bottom of the machine and then onto a driven take-up roller on the other side. When all the fabric has passed through the bath, the direction is reversed . Each passage is called an end. Dyeing always involves an even number of ends. The dye bath has one or more guide rollers , around which the cloth travels , and during this immersion achieves the desired contact with the dye liquor. During this passage the fabric picks up adequate quantity of dye liquor , excess of which is drained out but still a good quantity is held in the fabric . During rotation of rollers this dye penetrates and diffuse into the fabric. The real dyeing takes place not in the dye liquor but when the cloth is on the rollers, since only a very small length of fabric is in the dyebath and major part is on the rollers . Therefore the speed of cloth during immersion in dye liquor has a very little effect on percentage of shade produced.

The padding operation itself consists of two essential steps: thorough impregnation by immersion of the absorbent fabric in a dye solution containing a wetting agent, followed by squeezing of the wet fabric between rollers to expel air and replace it with dye liquor, as well as expressing surplus liquor back down the sloping fabric surface to the pad trough. The cloth to be padded is taken up by either from the folded form or from the batched condition and fed to the padding machine over a set of guide rollers. The fabric is straighten in warp as well as weft directions .It is necessary to attach and end piece on both the sides of batch.

The fabric to be padded should be padded should be pretreated , free from loose fly ,waste ,oily matter , flat , crease free and with opened-out selvedges. To obtain consistency of shade it is most important that the fabric running speed and the length of immersion of fabric in the dye liquor remain constant throughout the padding run. The three main types of automatic level control are: 1. Float switches: these are reliable and are unaffected by foam but they are relatively bulky 2. Conductivity probes: these are small and neat but foaming of the pad liquor adversely affects their performance 3. Differential pressure detectors: those with a hollow tube projecting downwards from the liquor surface are difficult to clean and the preferred type is that with a closed diaphragm set in the base of the vessel. 4. The control of pad liquor temperature is highly desirable to achieve consistent results. Introduction

The winch or beck dyeing machine

is oldest form of piece dyeing machine. The construction is comparative simple and therefore economical to purchase and operate. It is suitable for practical all types of fabric, especially light weights, which can normally withstand creasing when in rope form as woolen and silk fabric, loosely woven cotton and synthetic fabrics, circular and warp knitted fabrics. This a dyeing machine for fabrics in rope forms with stationary liquor and moving material. Features and Parameters: The machine operates at a maximum temperature 95-98C The liquor ratio is generally quite high (1:20-1:40) This is a dyeing machine for fabrics in rope form with stationary liquor and moving material. In winch machines, a number (1-40) of endless ropes or loops of fabrics of equal length (about 50-100m) are loaded with much of their length immersed in folded form inside the dye bath. As for all forms of rope dyeing, the fabric must be fairly resistant to length ways creasing. A perforated separating compartment, positioned at a distance of 15-30 cm from its vertical side creates an inter space for heating and for adding reagents. Heating can be supplied by means of direct or indirect stem heating. The rope passes from the dye bath over two elevated reels. The first roller is free-running (jockey or fly roller) and the second is winch reel. The winch reel not only controls the rate of movement of the fabric rope, but also the configuration of the rope in the dye bath. The winch reel does not grip the fabric positively, but by the weight of the wet fabric and the friction between the reel and fabric. Now-a-days stainless reels with corrugated and broken surface for increase frictional forces are used. The maximum motion speed of the fabric must be approximately 40m/min. The winch dyeing method is suitable for all fabrics, expects those which tend to originate permanent creases or which could easily distort under the winch stretching action.

Stock dying Is refer to fibre dying , the fibre is completely packed in perforated containers and in dye liquors is circulated inside out at an elevated temrature.its is costly method of dying level of product is relatively low. It result in excellent pentartion into the fibre

and eveness of color throughout . the element of fashion risk is high REASON FOR STOCK DYING gives hether like color effect, wollen fabric dyed balck n gray can be blended wid undyes or white wollen fabroc or cotton fabric to produce soft hether like shade of gray. Ex tweed

Top dying Dying of wool which are long in lenth to produce soft hether like color effect is known as top dying .lose roops of wool from the combining machines are wound on perforated cylinders and enclosed in a tank with d dye . the dye is circulated back n forth thru the wollen fibers Yarn dying Is the dying of yarn b4 det hav ben woven or knitted into fabrics . yarn may be dyes in diff forms that is skewing packing , bean. The fabric is made of dye yarn is called dyes

Skening syeing It consist of immersing large ;oosely wound hanks of yarns into dye container.those loose arrangement of yarns allow for excellent dye penetration and results in softa , lofty yarns which may be used 4 hand knitting.It is a very expensive form dying methods the skwing are hangover a roller or ring Package dying: in package dying are wound on spools or cones and then dyed the package of yarn are stacked on perfo rods in a rack and dip in tank wher dye is forced outward from the rod under pressure through the spools and back to packages toward center in order penetrate the entir yarn. It dont retain softness and lofty ness Beam line is donefor warp yarn it is a larger vision of pacg dying(ditoo as above)Its is used when fabric ar woven wid dyed warped

Jet dyeing Useless wter , nrg , chemical , shrter dying cycle , capacity 1400pnds.fabric is plced in a heated tube and soln reforced through it , dye recirculatd fluid move faster then cloth

Garment dyeing When the finished textile product such as hosiery or sweaters are dyed, it is called garment dyeing. A number of garments are packed loosely in a nylon net and put into a dyestuff filled tub with a motor driven paddle. The dye is thrown upon the garments by the moving paddles' effect. Garment dyeing is the dyeing of the completed garments. The types of apparel that can be dyed are mostly non-tailored and simpler forms, such as sweaters, sweatshirts, T-shirts, hosiery, and pantyhose. The effect on sizing, thread, zippers, trims and snaps must be considered. Tailored items, such as suits or dresses, cannot be dyed as garments because the difference in shrinkage of the various components and linings disort and misshape the article. Garment dyeing is done by placing a suitable number of garments (usually about 24 sweaters or the equivalent, depending on the weight) into large nylon net bag. The garments are loosely packed. From 10 to 50 of the bags are placed in large tubs containing the dye bath and kept agitated by a motor driven paddle in the dye tub. The machine is appropriately called a paddle dryer.

Warp Beam Dyeing Beam dyeing is the much larger version of package dyeing. An entire warp beam is wound on to a perforated cylinder, which is then placed in the beam dyeing machine, where the flow of the dye bath alternate as in the package dyeing. Beam dyeing is more economical than skein or package dyeing, but it is only used in the manufacture of woven fabrics where an entire warp beam is dyed. Knitted fabrics, which are mostly produced from the cones of the yarn, are not adaptable to beam dyeing.

Piece Dyeing The dyeing of cloth after it is being woven or knitted is known as piece dyeing. It is the most common method of dyeing used. The various methods used for this type of dyeing include jet dyeing. Jig dyeing, pad dyeing and beam dyeing. ost dyed fabric is piece-dyed since this method gives the manufacturer maximum inventory flexibility to meet color demands as fashion changes. In terms of overall volume, the largest amount of dyeing is performed using beck and jig equipment (Figure 11). Beck dyeing is a versatile, continuous process used to dye long yards of fabric. About 1,980 pounds (900 kg) of fabric can be dyed on beck equipment at a time. The fabric is passed in rope form through the dyebath. The rope moves over a rail onto a reel which immerses it into the dye and then draws the fabric up and forward to the front of the machine. This process is repeated as long as necessary to dye the material uniformly to the desired color intensity. Jig dyeing uses the same procedure of beck dyeing, however, the fabric is held on rollers at full width rather than in rope form as it is passed through the dyebath (Corbman, 1975). This reduces fabric tendency to crack or crease. Jig dyeing equipment can handle 550 pounds (250 kg) of fabric. Other piece dyeing methods include jet dyeing and pad dyeing. Fabric can be jet-dyed (at up to 1,100 pounds (500 kg)) by placing it in a heated tube or column where jets of dye solution are forced through it at high pressures. The dye is continually recirculated as the fabric is moved along the tube. Pad dyeing, like jig dyeing, dyes the fabric at full width. The fabric is passed through a trough containing dye and then between two heavy rollers which force the dye into the cloth and squeeze out the excess (Corbman, 1975). Figure 11 illustrates the beck, jig, and jet methods for dyeing.

Textile printing
is the process of applying colour to fabric in definite patterns or designs. In properly printed fabrics the colour is bonded with the fiber, so as to resistwashing and friction. Textile printing is related to dyeing but, whereas in dyeing proper the whole fabric is uniformly covered with one colour, in printing one or more colours are applied to it in certain parts only, and in sharply defined patterns. In printing, wooden blocks, stencils, engraved plates, rollers, or silkscreens can be used to place colours on the fabric. Colourants used in printing contain dyesthickened to prevent the colour from spreading by capillary attraction beyond the limits of the pattern or design. Traditional textile printing techniques may be broadly categorised into four styles: Direct printing, in which colourants containing dyes, thickeners, and the mordants or substances necessary for fixing the colour on the cloth are printed in the desired pattern. The printing of a mordant in the desired pattern prior to dyeing cloth; the color adheres only where the mordant was printed. Resist dyeing, in which a wax or other substance is printed onto fabric which is subsequently dyed. The waxed areas do not accept the dye, leaving uncoloured patterns against a coloured ground. Discharge printing, in which a bleaching agent is printed onto previously dyed fabrics to remove some or all of the colour. Resist and discharge techniques were particularly fashionable in the 19th century, as were combination techniques in which indigo resist was used to create blue backgrounds prior to block-printing of other colours.[1] Most modern industrialised printing uses direct printing techniques. Direct printing In direct printing, a large cylindrical roller picks up the fabric, and smaller rollers containing the color are brought into contact with the cloth. The smaller rollers are etched with the design, and the number of rollers reflects the number of colors. Each smaller roller is supplied with color by a furnisher roller, which rotates in the color trough, picks up color, and deposits it on the applicator roller. Doctor blades scrape excess color off the applicator roller so that only the engraved portions carry the color to the cloth. The cloth is backed with a rub- berized blanket during printing, which provides a solid surface to print against, and a layer of gray cloth is used between the cloth and the rubber blanket to absorb excess ink.

Discharge Printing In this approach, the fabric is dyed in piece and then it is printed with a chemical that destroys the colour in the designed areas. Sometimes, the base colour is removed and another colour is printed in its place. The printed fabric is steamed and then thoroughly washed. This approach is on decline these days. Discharge printing is performed on piece-dyed fabrics. The patterns are created through removal, rather than addition, of color, hence most discharge printing is done on dark backgrounds. The dyed fabric is printed using discharge pastes, which remove background color from the substrate when exposed to steam. Colors may be added to the discharge paste to create different colored discharge areas (EPA, 1996). ResistPrinting In this technique, a resist paste is imprinted on the fabric and then it is dyed. The dye affects only those parts that are not covered by the resist paste. After dyeing, the resist paste is removed leaving a pattern on a dark background. resist printing encompasses several hand and low-volume methods in which the pattern is applied by preventing color from penetrating certain areas during piece-dyeing. Examples of resist printing methods include batik, tiedyeing, screen printing, and stencil printing. Methods are used to "resist" or prevent the dye from reaching all the cloth, thereby creating a pattern and ground. The most common forms use wax, some type of paste, or a mechanical resist that manipulates the cloth such as tying or stitching. Another form of resist involves using a chemical agent in

a specific type of dye that will repel another type of dye printed over the top. The most well-known varieties today include tie-dye and batik. stencil printing The art of stenciling is very new. It has been applied to the decoration of textile fabrics from time immemorial by the Japanese, and, of late years, has found increasing employment in Europe for certain classes of decorative work on woven goods for furnishing purposes. The pattern is cut out of a sheet of stout paper or thin metal with a sharp-pointed knife, the uncut portions representing the part that is to be reserved or left uncoloured. The sheet is now laid on the material to be decorated and colour is brushed through its interstices. It is obvious that with suitable planning an all over pattern may be just as easily produced by this process as by hand or machine printing, and that moreover, if several plates are used, as many colours as plates may be introduced into it. The peculiarity of stenciled patterns is that they have to be held together by ties, that is to say, certain parts of them have to be left uncut, so as to connect them with each other, and prevent them from falling apart in separate pieces. For instance, a complete circle cannot be cut without its center dropping out, and, consequently, its outline has to be interrupted at convenient points by ties or uncut portions. Similarly with other objects. The necessity for ties exercises great influence on the design, and in the hands of a designer of indifferent ability they may be very unsightly. On the other hand, a capable man utilizes them to supply the drawing, and when thus treated they form an integral part of the pattern and enhance its artistic value whilst complying with the conditions and the process.For single-colour work a stenciling machine was patented in 1894 by S. H. Sharp. It consists of an endless stencil plate of thin sheet steel that passes continuously over a revolving cast iron cylinder. Between the two the cloth to be ornamented passes and the colour is forced on to it, through the holes in the stencil, by mechanical means.


is the process of depositing many small fiber particles (called flock) onto a surface. It can also refer to the texture produced by the process, or to any material used primarily for its flocked surface. Flocking of an article can be performed for the purpose of increasing its value in terms of the tactile sensation, aesthetics, color and appearance. It can also be performed for functional reasons including insulation, slip-or-grip friction, and low reflectivity Flocking is the application of fine particles to adhesive coated surfaces. Nowadays, this is usually done by the application of a high-voltage electric field. In a flocking machine the "flock" is given a negative chargewhilst the substrate is earthed. Flock material flies vertically onto the substrate attaching to previously applied glue. A number of different substrates can be flocked including; textiles, fabric, woven fabric, paper, PVC, sponge, toys, automotive plastic. The majority of flocking done worldwide uses finely cut natural or synthetic fibers. A flocked finish imparts a decorative and/or functional characteristic to the surface. The variety of materials that are applied to numerous surfaces through different flocking methods create a wide range of end products. The flocking process is used on items ranging from retail consumer goods to products with high technology military applications. Uses Flocking is used in many ways. One example is in model building, where a grassy texture may be applied to a surface to make it look more realistic. Similarly, it is used by model car builders to get a scale carpet effect. Another use is on a Christmas tree, which may be flocked with a fluffy white spray to simulate snow. Other things may be flocked to give them a velour texture such as t-shirts, wallpaper, gift/jewellery boxes, or upholstery. Besides the application of velvety coatings to surfaces and objects there exist various flocking techniques as a means of color and product design. They range from screen printing to modern digital printing in order to refine for instance fabric, clothes or books by multicolor patterns. Presently, the exploration of the flock phenomenon can be seen in the fine arts.

Flocking in the automotive industry is used for decorative purposes and may be applied to a number of different materials. Many rally cars also have a flocked dashboard to cut down on the sun reflecting through the windscreen. A view on the present state-of-the-art of flocking can be found in the first international exhibition "Flockage: the flock phenomenon" in the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum in Bournemouth.[1] In the photographic industry, flocking is one method used to reduce the reflectivity of surfaces, including the insides of some bellows and lens hoods. It is also used to produce light-tight passages for film such as in135 film cartridges. Flock consists of synthetic fibers that look like tiny hairs. Flock print feels somewhat velvet and a bit elevated. The length of the fibers can vary in thickness which co-determines the appearance of the flocked product. Thin fibers produce a soft velvety surface, thicker fibers a more bristle-like surface

Ink-Jet printing Ink-jet printing is a noncontact printing method in which droplets of colorant solution are propelled toward a substrate and directed to a desired spot. Ink jet is an emerging technology in the textile industry and has not yet been adopted for widespread commercial use. The dye types most amenable to ink-jet printing of textiles are fiber reactive, vat, sulfur, and naphthol dyes.