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HINDI SKELETON GRAMMAR


Rupert Snell
HINDI URDU FLAGSHIP, UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
rupertsnell@mail.utexas.edu
The essential grammatical rule and/or paradigm from each main section of Teach Yourself
Hindi (units 114) is set out in very briefly here in note form.
1.1 PERSONAL PRONOUNS & THE VERB TO BE [r-r]
= ma h I am = ham ha we are
+ t hai you are += r tum ho you are
+ yah hai he/she/it/this is r p ha you are
+ yah hai he/she/it/that is + ye ha he/she/these/they are
+ ve ha he/she/those/they are
1.2 QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
Questions that expect a yes/no answer are formed by prefixing +r ky to a statement:
+ r= vah Rm hai. He is Rm.
+r + r= ky vah Rm hai? Is he Rm?
1.3 NOUNS
Masculine nouns ending in - change to -e in the plural: kamr > kamre.
Other masculine nouns, and rj, pit, cc, net, do not change in the plural.
Feminine nouns ending in -i or - change to -iy in the plural: be > beiy.
Other feminine nouns add - in the plural: mez > mez.
1.4 ADJECTIVES
Adjectives ending in - change to -e in the masculine plural: ba > bae;
and to - in the feminine (singular and plural): ba.
Adjectives not ending in - (e.g. sf, kh l ) do not change with number or gender.
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1.5 THE SIMPLE SENTENCE
Standard word-order follows the patterns shown:
+ =+r- =rr ,-r yah makn cho (nah) hai. This house is (not) small.
+ =rr =+r- ,-r yah cho makn (nah) hai. This is (not) a small house.
2.1 INTERROGATIVE WORDS
+r ky what?
+r- kaun who?
+ =r/+ = /+ =r kais/kaise/kais what kind of? what like?
++-r/++- /++-r kitn/kitne/kitn how much, how many?
The function of ky here is different from that shown in 1.2 above.
2.2 AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH MIXED GENDERS
When referring to a mixed group of males and females, adjectives show masculine gender:
+ =+ r =++r =-+ ye lake aur lakiy lambe ha. These boys and girls are tall.
When referring to mixed inanimate objects, adjectives take the gender of the nearest noun:
+ =+ r == =-+r ye jte aur cappal sast ha. These shoes and sandals are cheap.
2.3 SOME CONVERSATIONAL FEATURES
The Hindi politeness code uses the p/tum/t system to express degrees of familiarity (see 2.4).
The honorific j can be added to titles and names: pait j, arm j, Kaml j.
The word namaste is an all-purpose greeting and leave-taking; namaskr is a synonym.
The word bh also comes immediately after the word it emphasises.
2.4 MORE ON ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS
The honorific system of Hindi shows a progression of formality or politeness in the pronoun
sequence t (intimate) tum (familiar) p (formal). Both tum and p are grammatically plural.
The use of an honorific plural is maintained in the third person also: thus tum, p, ve and ye can
all refer either to an individual or to a group. Adjectives, verbs and masculine nouns agree
accordingly; but feminine nouns do not show an honorific plural.
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+ --+r-r ve hindustn ha. He/she is Indian / They are Indian.
r + = p kaise ha? How are you?
+= = + r tum acche bee ho. You are a good son / good sons.
+ = +r ==r +r- ve lamb mahil kaun ha? Who is that tall lady?
3.1 SIMPLE POSTPOSITIONS
Postpositions are equivalent to English prepositions: m in, par on, tak up to, se
by/with/from, ko to/at. But being postpositions, they follow the words they govern.
3.2 NOUNS WITH POSTPOSITIONS
A noun changes from direct to oblique case when governed by a postposition.
Masculine nouns ending in - change to -e in the oblique singular, and to - in the oblique
plural: kamr > kamre m, kamr m.
Other masculine nouns, and all feminine nouns, are unchanged in the oblique singular, but have
- in the oblique plural: makn > makn m, makn m.
Nouns ending shorten this to u in the oblique plural: hind > hindu.
Nouns ending change this to iy in the oblique plural: dm > dmiy.
3.3 ADJECTIVES IN THE OBLIQUE CASE
The grammatical case (i.e. direct or oblique) of an adjective agrees with the noun it qualifies. But
the only adjectives to show this change are masculine adjectives in -; these change to -e in the
oblique, whether singular or plural: ba > bae.
3.4 PRONOUNS IN THE OBLIQUE CASE
Pronouns also have oblique forms: yah > is; vah > us; ye > in; ve > un.
+ + r =+r- yah ba makn this big house > := + =+r- = is bae makn m in this big house
+ + =r+ ve bhe log those old people > - + =r+r +r un bhe log ko to those old peopl e
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4.1 WAS & WERE
The past tense of the verb r-r hon to be:
masculine singular r th masculine plural the
feminine singular t th feminine plural t th
4.2 +r to; SO, AS FOR
Firstly, to is a conjunction meaning so: +r r r = to p grez ha? So youre English?
In a second meaning, to highlights one thing as contrasted with an implied alternative:
+=r +r =r+ kamr to hk hai. The rooms OK [but the foods terrible].
+=r =r+ +r kamr hk to hai. The rooms OK [but its not that great].
4.3 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
Comparisons are made by using ordinary adjectives (there are no -er, -est forms), together with
the postposition = se than.
The object of comparison takes = se :
r= =r+r = = +r Rm St se lamb hai. Rm is taller than Sit.
=r+r r= = =rr St Rm se cho hai. Sita is smaller (shorter) than Rm.
Superlatives are expressed with sabse:
r= =+= = +r Rm sabse lamb hai. Rm is (the) tallest.
Other expressions: aur (or zyd) more, kam less:
+ ++r+ r/+rr = +r Yah kitb aur/zyd mahg hai. This book is more expensive.
+ ++r+ += = +r Yah kitb kam mahg hai. This book is less expensive.
4.4 SOME CONSTRUCTIONS WITH +r ko
Whereas English has the self as subject in sentences such as I like Hindi, I have a cold, in
Hindi the thing possessed or experienced often becomes the grammatical subject, and the
experiencer takes +r ko:
=+r =+r= usko zukm hai To him/her a cold is = He/she has a cold.
=+r =r== hamko mlm hai To us it is known = We know.
==+r -r = mujhko hind pasand hai To me Hindi is pleasing = I like Hindi.
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4.5 THE VOCATIVE CASE
The vocative (the case for addressing someone) is the same as the oblique, except that the plural
ending is not nasalised (-o not - ): bee son!; dosto friends!.
5.1 THE INFINITIVE VERB
The infinitive verb (e.g. to speak in English) consists of stem + infinitive ending -r :
+r=-r to speak has stem +r= + ending --r.
5.2 COMMANDS AND REQUESTS
Infinitive + + r+
s-r s sr fs
r-r r rr r:
+-r + +r +tf
: -r : :r :tf
Important irregular verbs include +-r. -r. = -r. r-r see p. 64.
Negative commands (i.e. do not) use - or =+ +r - +=|. r=r =+ +r=r
An infinitive used as an imperative often relates to a future occasion r= = -=-+ +-r
5.3 POSSESSION WITH +r
The postposition +r/+r/+ acts like the English apostophe s, standing between the possessor
and the possessed: r= +r -r= Rams name, or the name of Ram.
+r is a postposition, so requires preceding oblique case (= + ); it also agrees as an adjective with
the thing possessed:
=+ +r +- the boys sister
= =r: +r =r+r my brothers key
=r +- +r -r= my sisters name
+r + r-+ Prataps friends
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5.4 +r WITH THE INDIRECT AND DIRECT OBJECT
a) with indirect objects: r= +r =r r=| (r= indirect object; =r direct object).
b) with direct objects perceived as specific, especially a person: r= +r + =rr call Ram;
:= =r+r +r =| keep this key. In many contexts, +r is optional: + + r. or :=
+ +r r
5.5 ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF THE OBLIQUE PRONOUNS + +r
These are straightforward alternatives with no further grammatical implications: = = = = =+r etc.
Learn the list, p. 68.
6.1 THE IMPERFECTIVE PRESENT TENSE
The tense for habitual or regular action, I speak (as opposed to continuous I am speaking,
which comes in Unit 8.) It consists of imperfective participle (stem + +r. e.g. +r= + +r = +r=+r
plus auxiliary ( . etc.).
= -r +r=+r I speak Hindi.
=++r -+ = =r+r The girls go to school.
= =r+ = + We lived (used to live) in India.
Masculine gender prevails in a mixed group of people r= r =r+r =r +r rhte Te .
The auxiliary can be dropped in the negative:
= -r -r +r=+r I dont speak Hindi.
If is dropped from a feminine verb such as + +r=+r when making it negative, the nasal from
the dropped jumps onto the participle: + -r +r=+r
r= +r -r r+r means Ram knows Hindi (lit. Hindi comes to Ram); this usage applies
with knowledge of languages only. But a similar usage works with an infinitive verb: r= +r +rr
==r-r r+r Ram knows how to drive a car Ram can drive.
6.2 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
These behave as adjectives, agreeing with nouns in number and gender = r =. = r +-. =
rr = Learn the list on p. 77.
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6.3 -r ONES OWN
-r replaces possessive pronouns (=+r etc.) in a clause like he reads his (own) book, in
which he and his refer to one and the same person + -r ++r+ +r .
General rule: if the English his (etc.) has the implicit sense his own, use -r
6.4 COMPOUND POSTPOSITIONS
These are simply postpositions consisting of two words a noun or adverb preceded either by
+ / +r or by a possessive pronoun:
r= +r += towards Ram -+ =r with them
r+ =| for you :=+ +r after this
When referring to = . + . =. + = and -r, no +r appears with a compound postposition:
= / + / =r / +-r / - =r. =|. +r etc.
6.5 PRONOUNS REVISITED
A summary of the pronouns encountered so far, e.g. = I, = = me, = r my, mine, -r ones
own, +r- who?, += whom?, +=+r whose?, +r what?.
7.1 THE PAST IMPERFECTIVE
The tense for habitual or regular action in the past: I lived or I used to live. (This tense is not
used for completed, one-off actions such as I went, I ate; these come in Unit 11.)
Its the same as the present imperfective (6.1) but substitutes the past auxiliary (r etc.) for the
present auxiliary ( . etc.).
= -r +r=+r r I used to speak Hindi.
+ -=r = +r r She lived, used to live, in Delhi.
= -+r= = +r= ++ We used to work in a hospital.
7.2 +r and + a
(a) +r anyone, someone
+r: anyone there?
+r: -r nobody
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+r some, a certain (usually singular)
+r: r=r some fellow
+r: +r some car
+r about, approximately (with a number)
+r: = =r+ some ten people
+r: : +r some fifteen cars
+r changes to f+et in the OBLIQUE:
+=r = = in some house
(b) +a something, some
+ = + some milk (uncountable noun, singular)
+ = += some rooms (countable noun, plural)
+ = +r=r Say something!
+ = -r nothing
+ a doesnt change in the OBLIQUE:
+ = =r = in some houses
7.3 =r| IS WANTED / NEEDED
The person who wants takes +r, and the thing wanted is the subject of the verb.
-+r =r =r| They want/need money [no auxiliary in present tense]
r= +r =r =r| r Ram wanted/needed money [r agrees with =r
m
]
r= +r =r+ =r| r Ram wanted/needed tea [r agrees with =r+
f
]
7.4 ORDINAL NUMBERS
Ordinal numbers (first, second etc.) are formed from cardinal numbers (one, two...) + -+r .
e.g. r = five > r =+r fifth, = ten > =+r tenth.
Exceptions: =r first; =r second; +r=r third; =rr fourth; ==r sixth.
They agree as adjectives: =r =+. +r=r r=r. =+ = =
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7.5 AGGREGATIVES
These are expressions indicating groups of a number. They are made up of the cardinal number
+ -r (except r > r-r ).
+r-r =+ all three boys =rr =r+ thousands of people
=r+r - all seven days r-r r=r both men, the two men
7.6 CONJUNCT VERBS
These are verbs made up of two words: an adjective/noun + +-r (transitive) or r-r (intrans.).
=r = clean =r = +-r to clean. + +=r =r= ++r
He cleans the room.
= =

beginning = = +-r to begin. = +r= == ++r
I begin work.
+ closed + r-r to be closed +r- =r= +r + r+r
The shop closes in the evening.
8.1 CONTINUOUS TENSES
These tenses give the sense of an ongoing action English ing verbs.
Formed from stem + r/r/ + auxiliary: = +r= r I am speaking.
+ =r r She is sleeping.
= =r-r -r +-r r , I am not preparing food.
= +r =- We were listening to the radio.
+ += r They are coming tomorrow. [Future time, as in English.]
8.2 EXPRESSIONS FOR TO HAVE
In the absence of a verb to have, Hindi has 3 main ways of showing ownership:
Afflictions, feelings: +r ==+r =+r= I have a cold.
= +r r=r + We hope that...
Possessions: + +re r= + r= +: +-+r Ram has many pictures.
= r= =r -r I dont have any money.
Houses, relatives: +r =+ r =+r- He has two houses.
= r += I have two children.
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8.3 SOME ADVERBIAL PHRASES
Adverbs are often made up of oblique noun without postposition (or if you like to think of it
this way, with an invisible ghostposition):
e f:- that day :- f:-r these days f+a= er= last year
Some adverbs consist of noun+ e :
f+= e with difficulty rer-t e with ease, easily r+r- e attentively
Some adverbs are like postpositions with the + removed:
r outside =+ up -t down
8.4 WHATS TODAYS DATE? r= +r +rr= +r
Dates use cardinal numbers: = = - tenth of June; : =-+r fifteenth of January.
But first and second of the month use ordinal numbers: =r +-+. =r -+-+. Feminine
agreement of =r. =r is with +rr = date (understood, not stated).
Here are the months (not listed in the book):
=-+r =+r =r= = = =: =- ==r: +-+ =+ + +++ -+ + = +
8.5 WORD ORDER
Here is an example of a sentence with a standard word order:
= + +=r +r + = =r +r
subject adverb indirect object direct object verb
I every week to the children some money give.
Changing this order will emphasize the element brought closer to the end of the sentence:
= +=r +r + = =r + +r I give the children some money every week.
= + + = =r +=r +r +r I give the children some money every week.
Question words normally come just before the verb:
+= =r+ +r + r Where do you live?
r +=r +r =r +r + Why do you give the children money?
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9.1 THE FUTURE TENSE
The future is made up of stem + the following endings (- changing to- and -e as usual)
= = +r= +r
+. +. + -eg +. +. + +r= +r
r. + + -ge r. + . + +r= +
+ = -oge += +r=r+
9.2 FUTURE TENSE IN THE AUXILIARY VERB
The auxiliary verb r-r is often used in the future:
+ += r r + They will be coming tomorrow.
+ +=r+r +r= r + They will be speaking Gujarati.
9.3 PRESUMPTIVE USES OF THE FUTURE
As in English, a future tense can indicate an assumption or presumption about the present.
+ ++ -rr= r + They will be (= are sure to be) very angry.
+ =r+r r+r Hell be (= is bound to be) a Punjabi.
This is also used with imperfective and continuous tenses:
r ==+r == =r-+ r + You must surely know me.
+ =r r r r+r Hes sure to be coming in a moment.
9.4 THE EMPHATIC r
r gives a restrictive emphasis (meaning only), or stresses a particular word or phrase. It
comes directly after the word it emphasises:
r= -r r +r=+r Ram speaks Hindi only.
r= r -r +r=+r Only Ram speaks Hindi.
Some pronouns and adverbs combine with r to give special forms: see p. 116.
9.5 SOME EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY
++=r ++= =r+ many people
++=r =++r many girls
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Compare: ++ =r =r+ very rich people (rather than many rich people)
The words + +. +rr. ++ etc., meaning much, many etc., may give the sense of too much,
especially when used together, or with r. + + + +rr This is too much.
9.6 THE INFINITIVE AS VERBAL NOUN: =r-r TO GO, GOING
An infinitive verb (e.g. +r=-r to speak) can function like a noun: -r +r=-r r=r- To
speak Hindi is easy, or Speaking Hindi is easy, in which +r=-r is the subject of the verb .
When followed by a postposition, an infinitive ending (+r=-r changes to oblique -e (+r=- = )
just as +=r changes to += = .
== r +r=-r = I like speaking Hindi. (+r=-r is the subject of )
r +r=- = +r =r+r What is the point in speaking Hindi?
Expressions of purpose are formed with an oblique infinitive with or without postposition (+
=|. sometimes +r: = r=r sIKne ,+ =| = - =r r I am going to London (in order) to
learn English.
10.1 THE SUBJUNCTIVE
Formed as the future tense minus +r ending, the subjunctive expresses possibility, requests etc.;
it uses - (rather than -r ) in the negative.
= =r + = May I sit too?
r +r - + = . +r + = Would you please sit here, not there.
10.2 THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN THE AUXILIARY VERB
The subjunctive of r-r is often used as an auxiliary, again to give a maybe sense:
+ = =r: +r =r-+ r They may know my brother.
+ =- r r She may be listening.
10.3 THE VERB =r-r
The verb =r-r means to want to and is used with a direct-case infinitive, like =r-r
= = =r-r =r+r I want to go home.
=-r+r =r r-r =r+r Sunita wants to come too.
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When a person wants another to do something, the construction is =r-r + + subjunctive:
= =r+r + r= +r I want Ram to stay right here.
+ =r+ + = =r +r= They want us to speak too.
10.4 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (1)
Conditional sentences have two clauses: an + (if) clause and a +r (then) clause.
gr =+ r= =r to =r+ If he has money then its OK.
gr += =rr to +r r If you wish, stay here. [English omits then.]
Choice of verb types (including subjunctive, future etc.) depends on context.
10.5 THE SUFFIX +r=r
The suffix +r=r ,+r=r. +r=. +r=r is used in the following ways:
noun + -+r=r = noun: + milk > ++r=r milkman
adverb + -+r=r = adjective: r= nearby > r=+r=r ,= nearby (house)
With an oblique infinitive, +r=r has the following uses:
-r +r=- +r= Hindi speakers
-r +r=- +r= =r+ Hindi-speaking people
= =r =r- +r=r r I was just going (I was on the point of going).
11.1 TRANSITIVITY
Because transitive and intransitive verbs behave differently in the past tense, its important to
understand the difference between them.
Transitive verbs are those which can take a direct object: I saw the dog, I saw.
Intransitive verbs are those which cant take a direct object: I walked home, I walked.
As a rough-and-ready test, try turning the sentence round as a passive (which will only work
with transitive verbs): we can say the dog was seen, but we cant say home was walked.
Because this test doesnt always work, its best to check verbs in the glossary: transitive verbs
are marked with a little
N
, like this: +-r
N
.
Please correct the first paragraph of section 11.1: it should end ...because these verbs are
intransitive !
HINDI SKELETON GRAMMAR
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11.2 PERFECTIVE TENSES INTRANSITIVE VERBS
The perfective tense describes one-off actions in the past: I got up, I ran, I arrived.
The participle is made up of stem + -, -e, - , (=r. = . =r. =r Verbs whose stems end in -
, like r-r to come, add a + before the masculine singular - ending: r+r came.
= r+r (masc.), r: (fem.) I came
+ r+r he came
=/+=/r/+ r| (masc), r: (fem.) we/you/you/they came
came is changed to has come by using the auxiliary
= r+r I have come
+ r: She has come
= r| We have come
came is changed to had come by using the auxiliary r
= r+r r I had come
+ r: r She had come
= r| We had come
The verb =r-r has the irregular participle ++r. +:. +|. +:
11.3 PERFECTIVE TENSES TRANSITIVE VERBS
Remember that the perfective tense describes one-off actions in the past: I saw, I ate.
The participle here is the same as for intransitive verbs (11.1): =r. =r+r
Transitive verbs such as =r-r take the - construction (=- =r-r =r: he ate sugar, in which
the verb is feminine to agree with =r-r) Verbs which take the - construction take it even when
an object is not expressed: =- =r+r he/she ate.
If the object is followed by +r. the verb shows no agreement at all but is in the masculine
singular: =- =r-r +r =r+r he ate the sugar.
The word - is a postposition and therefore takes the oblique case; some pronouns have special
oblique forms for use with - = - ,not = =. :-r - ,not :-. -r - ,not -
The verb +-r has the irregular participle ++r. +r. +|. +r . -r and = -r are also irregular.
HINDI SKELETON GRAMMAR
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12.1 =r+ HAVING GONE, AFTER GOING
The absolutive is formed from the verb stem + + =r+. =+. =+ It means having
done, and its main use is for the first of two verbs in sequence:
+r=r =r=+ + += = r+r He opened the door and came into the room. (having opened...)
=r-r =r+ =r:| Eat before you go. (having eaten...)
In speech, less commonly in writing, + becomes + ,=r+ . =+ . =+ . +-r has ++ only.
12.2 WHATS THE TIME?
+=+ for minutes past the hour; +=- = for minutes to the hour.
r- for quarter-to the hour; =+r for quarter-past; =r for half-past.
= +=+ r = =- Its five minutes past ten.
= +=- = r = =- Its five minutes to ten.
r- = += a quarter to ten
=+r = += a quarter past ten
=r = += half past ten
++- += at what time?
++- += +r +=r What is the time?
12.3 =+-r. r-r. = +-r
These three verbs are used with the stem of a preceding verb to mean can, manage to and
have already done respectively:
Verb stem + =+-r : to be able to do. = =+ == =++r I can write a letter.
Verb stem + r-r : to manage to do. = =+ -r == r+r I didnt manage to write the letter.
Verb stem + =+-r : to have finished doing. = =+ == =+r Ive already written the letter.
The - construction is never used with these verbs.
12.4 COMPOUND VERBS (1)
Compound verbs are Hindis spin-doctors: the meaning of a verb is given a particular slant by
having a second verb attached to it. The main meaning is given by the first verb in stem form: the
second verb loses its literal meaning but supplies a particular emphasis. This section introduces 3
spin verbs:
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=r-r giving a sense of finality or completeness
= -rgiving a sense of benefit coming towards the doer
-r giving a sense of benefit going away from the doer
=r =r-r to eat up + +r-r ==r= =r ++r
= - = -r to have a listen + +r-r =- =r
-r to pass, give, hand == + +r+= r
The - construction is used only when both compounded verbs require it.
12.5 VERBS IN COMBINATION
These are like compound verbs (12.4), except that both of the verbs involved retain their literal
meaning.
=r =r-r to go back + = =r =r|+r Hell go back home.
= =r-r to take (away) + +=r = =rr Take this chair (away).
= r-r to bring -r +r = r:| Bring your radio.
13.1 =+++ WHEN...THEN (RELATIVE CLAUSES 1).
Relative constructions have two paired clauses. This first type is when...then clauses:
+rr ++r + ,or +r = ++ When the train stops well get out.
e +rr +r + e = +r = Since the train stopped we have been standing here.
++ +rr - ++r + ++ +r r Stay here until the train stops.
vt +rr ++r + + =+r =r=+ Whenever the train stops they open the window.
e t +rr +r + e t =- =+r =r=r As soon as the train stopped he opened the window.
13.2 INFINITIVE + =r|. SHOULD, OUGHT
Expressions for should, ought use infinite verb + =r|; the person under compulsion takes +r
So I should go is ==+r =r-r =r|
If the verb takes an object (as in I should speak Hindi, where Hindi is the object of speak),
the verb agrees with the object.
HINDI SKELETON GRAMMAR
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== -r +r=-r =r| I should speak Hindi. (+r=-r fem.)
== -r +r=-r =r| r I should have spoken Hindi. (+r=-r and r both fem.)
But when the object takes +r. the verb is masculine singular:
== + + +r- but == :- +r +r +r-r r I had to wash these clothes.
Remember that =r| and =r-r differ in both construction and meaning:
== =r-r =r| = +- = =r-r -r =r+r I should go but I dont want to go.
13.3 INFINITIVE + r-r / -r I AM TO, MUST
The construction here is similar to that of =r| (13.2), but the meaning is I have to rather than
I should. r-r gives a fairly neutral sense of compulsion; -r suggests a stronger
compulsion, exerted by forces beyond ones control.
== -r +r=-r I am to speak Hindi.
== -r +r=-r +r I have to speak Hindi. [regularly imperfective +r ]
== -r +r=-r r I had to speak Hindi. [an isolated occasion perfective r ]
== -r +r=-r +r I shall have to speak Hindi. [future +r }
13.4 =r+ THE ONE WHO... (RELATIVE CLAUSES 2)
Expressions like the man who, the shop which use the relative pronoun =r; this commonly
pairs up with a second clause whose subject is + or + In the oblique, =r becomes ==
(singular), =- (plural).
r =r+ +r = . + r =++ The people who are standing outside can come in.
f- =r+r +r +r= . + =r =++ The people who have work can go.
r =r+ += r| . - =r =r| The people who came yesterday need money.
13.5 ==-r TO BE AVAILABLE (TO GET)
The sense to be available is conveyed by the verb ==-r It also gives the sense to get with
the thing received as subject of the verb.
r= +r +-rr =_r ==r Ram received your letter. [=_r subject ]
+r =+r ==+ Newspapers are available here. [ =+r subject]
= |+ =-+r +=r ==r We got a cheap room. [+=r subject]
+r +=+r + = -r == +r You wont get anything here. [+ = -r subject]
HINDI SKELETON GRAMMAR
18
13.6 =+-r HOW DOES IT STRIKE YOU? (DO YOU LIKE?)
The verb =+-r to strike, to adhere often conveys sensations, experiences etc.; the experiencer
takes +r
to strike, effect =+r == ,+r=. = =+r We felt hungry (thirsty, cold).
to appeal -=r r+r + =r =++r How do you like Delhi?
to take time +r r- = r= +r r = =+ It took Ram two hours to get here.
to appear, seem + rr -rr= =++r He appears a bit angry.
to appear, seem ,== =++r + It seems (to me) that...
14.1 THE PASSIVE +r=r =r-r TO BE SPOKEN
The passive (to be spoken, to be done as opposed to the active to speak, to do) consists of the
perfective participle + =r-r. e.g. +r=r =r-r to be spoken, ++r =r-r to be done.
=+ ==r ++r The letter was written.
+ = == =r= +-r+r ++r r This house was built last year.
r-r +=r= +r: =r| +r Both shirts will be washed.
Adding +r after the subject makes the verb revert to masc. singular.
r-r +=r=r +r +r+r =r|+r Both shirts will be washed.
14.2 TRANSITIVITY AND THE PASSIVE
If you take a transitive verb (e.g. +-r-r to make) and make it passive (+-r+r =r-r to be made),
you have the equivalent of an intransitive active verb (+--r). There may however be a slight
difference in the inference of the two.
14.3 r-r - =+r IT BEGAN RAINING TO BEGIN TO
A sense of something beginning spontaneously is expressed with the oblique infinitive (e.g.
- rather than the direct -r + =+-r
r-r - =+r It began to rain. + =- =+r She started laughing.
= =r=- =+ We began to think. + +r-r +r- =+r He began singing a song.
HINDI SKELETON GRAMMAR
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14.4 = = =r- r : LET ME GO! TO ALLOW
The sense to allow to, to let is expressed with the oblique infinitive (e.g. =r- rather than the
direct =r-r + -r The person allowed takes +r.
=+r =r- r Let him go. =- = =r- +r We let him go.
+= +r = =- r Let the child play. + ==+r +r=- -r + They wont let me speak.
14.5 =+-r+-r AS MUCH AS (RELATIVE CLAUSES 3)
f+-r =r-r += =r+ r. +-r =rr Eat as much food as you want.
=+r f+-t +r r-r =r|. +-t +r -r The window is not as big as it should be.
14.6 = =r+ =r AS...SO (RELATIVE CLAUSES 4)
er =r-r +r ==+r + er +r == +r Where can you get food like you can get here?
et =_r +=- ==r + et r = =r == +r Ill write a letter just like the one you wrote..
14.7 =r +r WHERE...THERE (RELATIVE CLAUSES 4)
Following the two-clause construction =r+ etc., relative expressions of place use the adverbs
=r +r