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GSM Handover Algorithm

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GSM Handover Algorithm www.huawei.com
GSM Handover
Algorithm
www.huawei.com

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

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Foreword Handover is a key technology of mobile communication system and make continued conversation possible.

Foreword

Handover is a key technology of mobile communication system and make continued conversation possible.

Handover algorithm in Huawei product is flexible and powerful.

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Objectives Upon completion of this co urse, you will be able to: Outline the types

Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

Outline the types of handover Master handover judgment flow

Understand algorithm of different handovers Explain HO data configuration

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Contents 1. Introduction of Handover 2. HO Algorithm Process Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.,

Contents

1. Introduction of Handover

2. HO Algorithm Process

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Contents 1. Introduction of Handover 2. HO Algorithm Process Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.,

Contents

1.

Introduction of Handover

2.

HO Algorithm Process

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Purposes of HO

To keep a continuous communication with a moving MS

To improve network service performance To reduce the call drop rate

To reduce the congestion rate

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Handover can maintain the communication continuity of MS which moves across different cells and lower the call drop rate and provide better communication service.

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Classification by Reason

Classification by Reason
Classification
by
Reason
No DL MR Emergency HO Timing Advance (TA) HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO Bad Quality
No DL MR Emergency HO
Timing Advance (TA) HO
Interference HO
Rx_Level_Drop HO
Bad Quality (BQ) HO
EDGE HO
PBGT HO
Layer HO
MS Fast Moving HO
Concentric Cell HO
AMR HO

1

Emergency HO

2

Enhanced Dual Band HO

3

Load HO

4

Normal HO

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Classification by Synchronization

MSC NSS Network MSC BSC BSC BSC BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS CELL Case 2
MSC
NSS Network
MSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
CELL
Case 2
Case 3
Case 4
Case 5
Case 1

Synchronous Handover: the target BTS shall not send PHY INFO message Asynchronous Handover: the target BTS shall send PHY INFO message

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Synchronous handover: source and target cell belong the same BTS

Asynchronous handover: source BTS

and target cell belong the different

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Classification by Equipment and Channel

IntraIntra –– CellCell HOHO InterInter –– CellCell HOHO TCHTCH →→ TCHTCH IntraIntra –– BSCBSC HOHO
IntraIntra –– CellCell HOHO
InterInter –– CellCell HOHO
TCHTCH →→ TCHTCH
IntraIntra –– BSCBSC HOHO
SDCCHSDCCH →→ SDCCHSDCCH
IntraIntra –– MSCMSC HOHO
SDCCHSDCCH →→ TCHTCH
(Direct(Direct Retry)Retry)
InterInter –– MSCMSC HOHO
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Contents 1. Introduction of Handover 2. HO Algorithm Process Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.,

Contents

1.

Introduction of Handover

2.

HO Algorithm Process

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Contents 2. HO Algorithm Process 2.1 General HO Process 2.2 Measure and Measur ement Result

Contents

2. HO Algorithm Process

2.1 General HO Process

2.2 Measure and Measurement Result Report

2.3 Measurement Report Preprocessing

2.4 Handover Judgment

2.5 Handover Implementation

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General HO Process

 

MS Goes into Dedicated Mode

1

Measure and Measurement Result Report

2

Measurement Report Preprocessing

3

Handover Judgment

4

Handover Implementation

MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode

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General HO Process

 

MS Goes into Dedicated Mode

1

Measure and Measurement Result Report

2

Measurement Report Preprocessing

3

Handover Judgment

4

Handover Implementation

MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode

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Measurement Report

Uplink MR includes uplink receiving level and quality.

Downlink MR includes downlink receiving level, downlink receiving quality of the serving cell and other downlink receiving levels from the neighbor cells.

and other downlink receiving levels from the neighbor cells. The downlink measurement report of the neighbor

The downlink measurement report of the neighbor cell (BCCH)

The downlink MR The uplink MR Serving cell Neighbor cell
The downlink MR
The uplink MR
Serving cell
Neighbor cell
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In dedicated mode, the system performs handover and power control judgment based on measurement reports. The downlink MR are reported to the network via uplink SACCH channel.

Downlink--In dedicated mode, MS reports MR via uplink SACCH channel periodically. The report includes the receiving level, received quality, TA, power class and whether DTX is used. At the same time, MS will perform pre-synchronization to neighbor cell defined by the system to obtain BCCH frequencies and BSIC, measure their received signal level and report the six max. neighbor cells with the highest received signal level.

Uplink--The uplink measurement report is measured by BTS, including the receiving level and receiving quality from the MS.

Both parts are sent by BTS to BSC for further processing at the same time.

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Measurement Report

Measurement Report Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page15
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There are two values in the measurement report: FULL MR and SUB MR.

FULL--Averaging 100 TCH bursts (except the four idle frames in the four 26- multiframes)

SUB--Averaging 12 bursts (four SACCH bursts and eight TCH bursts in specific position).

SUB should be selected when the Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) function is activated.

RXQUAL level in MR

Huawei value

BER behind

0

0

Less than 0.2%

1

10

0.2% ~ 0.4%

2

20

0.4% ~ 0.8%

3

30

0.8% ~ 1.6%

4

40

1.6% ~ 3.2%

5

50

3.2% ~ 6.4%

6

60

6.4% ~ 12.8%

7

70

Greater than 12.8%

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Period of Measurement Report

The downlink MR is sent to BTS in SACCH uplink The interval is 480ms/per time when MS is on TCH The interval is 470ms/per time when MS is on SDCCH

480ms

12TCH 1SACCH 12TCH 1 Idle
12TCH
1SACCH
12TCH
1 Idle

4 TCH Multi- frames

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SACCH is a bidirectional channel.

It

sends the downlink measurement report to BTS in uplink SACCH.

It

sends SYS.INFO. 5 and SYS. INFO. 6 to MS in downlink SACCH.

1. The SACCH measurement report period varies with the channel occupied by MS in dedicated mode.

2. When associated with SDCCH, SACCH measurement period is 470ms, this is because there is an entire SACCH message block in 2 SDCCH 51-multiframes.

3. When associated with TCH, SACCH measurement period is 480ms, this is because there is an entire SACCH message block in 4 TCH 26- multiframes

A complete measurement report is formed by four consecutive SACCH bursts. In SDCCH channel the four bursts are transmitted continuously. In TCH channel there is only one SACCH burst in each 26-multiframe, therefore only four 26-multiframe can constitute a complete measurement report.

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General HO Process

 

MS Goes into Dedicated Mode

1

Measure and Measurement Result Report

2

Measurement Report Preprocessing

3

Handover Judgment

4

Handover Implementation

MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode

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MR Preprocessing

Interpolation Filtering Recover the lost measurement report Smooth the instantaneous fading point MR Preprocessing
Interpolation
Filtering
Recover the lost
measurement report
Smooth the instantaneous
fading point
MR Preprocessing
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MR preprocessing consists of two steps: interpolation and filtering.

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MR Interpolation

MR MR MR No. n+4 MR MR No. n Missing by some reasons Continuous MR
MR
MR
MR
No. n+4
MR
MR
No. n
Missing by
some reasons
Continuous MR Flow
n Missing by some reasons Continuous MR Flow … … Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.,
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MR Interpolation – recover the lost measurement report

BTS may fail to receive the MR from MS, and it needs to recover the lost measurement reports. If the lost MR amount is within the allowed range (Allowed MR Number Lost), then recovers the lost MR according to the specific algorithm.

Service cell: linear algorithm

Neighboring cell: the lowest value defined in GSM specification (-110dBm)

The continuity of measurement report is judged by measurement report number. Each measurement report has a serial number. If the serial numbers of received measurement reports are not consecutive, there must be missing measurement reports, and the system will make them up according to the interpolation algorithm.

As shown in the diagram, the network receives measurement reports n and n+4, whose serial numbers are not consecutive, so the system will make up for the missing measurement reports n+1, n+2 and n+3 with a certain algorithm.

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Continuous MR Flow

MR Filtering

MR …
MR
MR MR MR MR Filter----Average several consecutive MRs
MR
MR
MR
MR
Filter----Average several
consecutive MRs
MR
MR
MR MR MR Filter----Average several consecutive MRs MR Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All
MR MR MR Filter----Average several consecutive MRs MR Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All
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Filtering smooth the instantaneous fading point

Calculate the average value within the filter window

When the network receives the measurement report, it can not judge the current condition of MS according to just one measurement report due to the signal fluctuation. Therefore, filtering, a more suitable method is applied.

Different filters are applied in receiving level, receiving quality and TA of uplink and downlink.

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Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing

Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page21
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[MR Preprocessing]

Value Range: Yes, No

Default Value: No

Description: This parameter indicates whether the BTS pre-processes the MR.

This parameter determines the location where power control is performed. If this parameter is set to Yes, power control is performed by the BTS. Otherwise, the power control is performed by the BSC.

When this parameter is set to No, the MR is processed by the BSC, in which case, both Transfer original MR, Transfer BS/MS power class and Sent Freq of preprocessed MR are invalid.

When this parameter is set to Yes, the load over Abis interface and that over the BSC are reduced, thus shortening the response time and improving the network performance.

[Transfer Original MR]

Value Range: Yes, No

Default Value: No

Description: This parameter indicates whether the original MR is transferred to the BSC after the BTS pre-processes the MR.

When the parameter is set to Yes, the BTS transfers to the BSC both the processed MR and the original MR.

Remarks:In case of 4:1 configuration, this parameter must be set to No if SDCCH/8 is greater than 2.

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Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing

Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page22
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[Transfer BS/MS Power Class]

Value Range: Yes, No

Default Value: Yes

Description: This parameter indicates whether the original BS/MS power class is transferred to the BSC.

Remarks:When MR pre-processing is enabled, uplink and downlink balance measurement is affected if this parameter is set to No. In addition, power compensation handovers, such as PBGT handovers, load handovers, and Concentric Cell handovers, may become abnormal.

[Sent Freq of Preprocessed MR]

Value Range: Do not Report, Twice every second, Once every second, Once every two seconds, Once every four seconds

Default Value: Twice every second

Description: This parameter indicates the frequency that the BTS transfers the preprocessed MR to the BSC. After the MR is preprocessed by BTS, the BTS transfers the preprocessed MR to the BSC. For example, if this parameter is set to Twice every second, the BTS transfers the preprocessed MR to the BSC twice per 0.5 second.

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Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing

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[Allowed MR Number Lost]

Value Range: 0~31

Default Value: 4

Description: This parameter indicates the number of MRs allowed to be lost in succession. When this threshold is not reached, the lost MR is estimated via the linear interpolation basing on the first and the last MRs received. When this threshold is reached, all previous MRs are discarded, and calculations are made again when new MRs are received.

Remarks: MRs fail to be decoded correctly when the signal strength in the serving cell is poor. When this threshold is reached, all previous MRs are discarded and handover may fail. Thus, it is advised to assign this parameter with a greater value to enable emergency handover.

[Filter Length for TCH Level]

Value Range: 1~31

Default Value: 4

Description: This parameter indicates the number of MRs used for averaging the TCH signal strength.

This parameter helps to avoid sharp drop of signal levels caused by Raileigh Fading and to ensure correct handover decisions.

Remarks: When this parameter is too large, the impact of sudden changes is reduced, and the response is delayed, thus affecting the network performance.

[Filter Length for TCH Qual]

Value Range: 1~31

Default Value: 4

Description: This parameter indicates the number of MRs used for averaging the TCH signal quality.

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Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing

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[Filter Length for SDCCH Level]

Value Range: 1~31

Default Value: 2

Description: This parameter indicates the number of MRs used for averaging the SDCCH signal strength.

It is recommended that you assign this parameter with a lower value because the SDCCH occupation time is shorter than the TCH occupation time.

[Filter Length for SDCCH Qual]

Value Range: 1~31

Default Value: 2

Description: This parameter indicates the number of MRs used for averaging the SDCCH signal quality.

It is recommended that you assign this parameter with a lower value because the SDCCH occupation time is shorter than the TCH occupation time.

[Filter Length for Ncell RX_LEV]

Value Range: 1~31

Default Value: 4

Description: This parameter indicates the number of MRs used for averaging the signal strength in neighboring cells. This parameter helps to avoid sharp drop of signal levels and to ensure correct handover decisions.

Remarks: When this parameter is too large, the impact of sudden changes is reduced, and the response is delayed, thus affecting the network performance.

[Filter Length for TA]

Value Range: 1~31

Default Value: 4

Description: This parameter indicates the number of MRs used for TA averaging.

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General HO Process

MS Goes into Dedicated Mode Measure and Measurement 1 Result Report 2 MR. Preprocessing 3
MS Goes into
Dedicated Mode
Measure and Measurement
1
Result Report
2
MR. Preprocessing
3
Handover Judgment
4
Handover Implementation
MS Goes into New
Dedicated Mode
Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO OM Forced HO Load HO Normal HO
Penalty Processing
Ranking Processing
Enhanced Dual Band HO
OM Forced HO
Load HO
Normal HO
Direct Retry
Edge HO
Emergency HO
No DL MR HO
MS Fast Moving HO
TA HO
Layer HO
Interference HO
PBGT HO
Rx_Level_Drop HO
Concentric Cell HO
Bad Quality HO
AMR HO
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Penalty Processing

Punish on the target cell Emergency HO Fails (TA&BQ)HO Punish on the original cell AMR
Punish on the
target cell
Emergency
HO Fails
(TA&BQ)HO
Punish on the
original cell
AMR HO
Fails
Penalty
MS Fast
Moving
HO
Concentric
Intra-cell
Punish on other high
priority layer cells
Cell HO
HO
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There are several kinds of penalty process

Penalty on target cell when a HO fails.

Penalty on source cell when an emergency HO (BQ and TA ) is performed.

Penalty on other high priority layer cells after fast moving HO is performed.

Penalty for concentric cell HO

Penalty for intra-cell HO

Penalty for AMR HO

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Penalty for Handover Failure

Punish the target cell when a HO fails. This is to avoid the MS to select this cell again in next HO judgment.

Cell A BTS HO Fail BTS BSC Cell B
Cell A
BTS
HO Fail
BTS
BSC
Cell B
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When MS fails to handover to a target cell, a penalty will be given on the signal level of this target cell during a so called “handover failure penalty time” period. That is, when ranking the neighbor cells in the cell list, the corresponding neighbor cell with a failure record within the penalty time will be penalized by cutting certain value on the reported signal level.

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Data Configuration of Penalty for Handover Failure

Data Configuration of Penalty for Handover Failure Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights
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[Penalty Level after HO Fail]

Value Range: 0~63

Unit: dB

Default Value: 30

Description: This parameter indicates the penalty level given to a target cell. A penalty level is given to a target cell to avoid further attempts when a handover fails due to any of the following reasons:

Cell congestion

A message indicating internal handover refusal is received.

A message indicating Um interface handover failure is received during out- going BSC handover.

A message indicating Um interface handover failure is received during internal handover.

Remarks: This parameter is valid only before the penalty time of handover failure expires.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-29

Data Configuration of Penalty for Handover Failure

Data Configuration of Penalty for Handover Failure Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights
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[RscPenaltyTimer]

Value Range: 0~255

Unit: Seconds

Default Value: 5

Description: This parameter indicates the length of the penalty timer for handover failure between adjacent cells due to cell congestion.

[UmPenaltyTimer]

Value Range: 0~255

Unit: Seconds

Default Value: 10

Description: This parameter indicates the length of the penalty timer for handover failure between adjacent cells due to failed air interface connection.

[CfgPenaltyTimer]

Value Range: 0~255

Unit: Seconds

Default Value: 255

Description: This parameter indicates the length of the penalty timer for handover failure between adjacent cells due to incorrect data configuration.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

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Penalty for Emergency Handover

Punish the original cell when an emergency HO ( due to BQ and TA) occurs.

Cell A BTS BQ&TA HO BSC Cell B
Cell A
BTS
BQ&TA HO
BSC
Cell B
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In case of BQ emergency handover, the original serving cell will be penalized (called signal level penalty by BQ HO ), during BQ HO penalty time, to avoid MS to be handed back to the original serving cell again within certain time.

It is the same for TA handover, i.e. the original serving cell is penalized (signal level penalty by TA HO ) during TA HO penalty time.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-31

Data Configuration of Penalty for Emergency Handover

Data Configuration of Penalty for Emergency Handover Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights
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[Penalty Level after BQ HO]

Value Range: 0~63

Unit: dB

Default Value: 63

Description: This parameter indicates the penalty level given to the original serving cell where emergency handover is performed due to bad quality. After emergency handover is performed due to bad quality, the receive level of the original serving cell is decreased by the penalty level. Thus, other cells are given higher priority and handover to the original serving cell is not allowed.

Remarks: This parameter is valid only before the penalty time of handover due to bad quality expires.

[Penalty Time after BQ HO (s)]

Value Range: 0~255

Unit: Seconds

Default Value: 15

Description: This parameter indicates the penalty time given to the original serving cell where emergency handover is performed due to bad quality. During the penalty time, the receive level of the original serving cell is decreased by the penalty level. Thus, other cells are given higher priority and handover to the original serving cell is not allowed.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-32

Data Configuration of Penalty for Emergency Handover

Data Configuration of Penalty for Emergency Handover Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights
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[Penalty Level after TA HO]

Value Range: 0~63

Unit: dB

Default Value: 63

Description: This parameter indicates the penalty level given to the original serving cell where emergency handover is performed due to TA. After emergency handover is performed due to TA, the receive level of the original serving cell is decreased by the penalty level. Thus, other cells are given higher priority and handover to the original serving cell is not allowed. This parameter is valid only before the penalty time of handover due to TA expires.

[Penalty Time after TA HO(s)]

Value Range: 0~255

Unit: Seconds

Default Value:30

Description: This parameter indicates the penalty time given to the original serving cell where emergency handover is performed due to TA. During the penalty time, the receive level of the original serving cell is decreased by the penalty level. Thus, other cells are given higher priority and handover to the original serving cell is not allowed.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-33

Penalty for MS Fast-moving Handover

Giving penalty on the other three layers(Non-umbrella Layer ) after MS handovers to Umbrella cell
Giving penalty on the other three layers(Non-umbrella Layer ) after MS
handovers to Umbrella cell by fast-moving-HO.
This is to keep MS staying in the umbrella cell and avoid frequent HO.
Back?Back? NoNo way!way!
Umbrella
Micro cell
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Purpose of such penalty: When MS crosses continuously several micro cells, it handover to the umbrella cell with lower hierarchical priority level, to avoid too frequent handovers which will affect the communication quality between those cells. At the same time, penalty is started to avoid handover back to original cell again. A possible example is that a fast moving car is running on a highway.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-34

Data Configuration of Penalty for MS Fast-moving Handover

Data Configuration of Penalty for MS Fast-moving Handover Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All
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[Penalty on MS Fast Moving HO]

Value Range: 0~63

Unit: dB

Default Value:30

Description: This parameter indicates the penalty given to the level in a neighboring cell when an MS is moving fast. Only the cells in the umbrella layer can give penalty to the cells in other three layers.

Remarks: This parameter is valid only before the penalty time of fast moving expires.

[Penalty Time on Fast Moving HO]

Value Range: 0~255

Unit: Seconds

Default Value: 40

Description: This parameter indicates the period during which penalty is performed on the neighboring cells of the fast moving MS. During this period, penalty on the neighboring cells (on only the other three layers except the umbrella layer) of fast moving MS is valid.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-35

Penalty for Concentric Cell

A new concentric cell HO is prohibited within a penalty time after a

concentric cell HO failure.

Do not attempt again after N failed HO(U->O)!
Do not
attempt again
after N failed
HO(U->O)!
Overlaid Underlaid Do not attempt again during penalty time after one failed HO(O->U)!
Overlaid
Underlaid
Do not attempt
again during
penalty time
after one failed
HO(O->U)!
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Huawei concentric cell HO failure means the failure of handover from the Underlaid to the Overlaid, or from the Overlaid to the Underlaid.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-36

Data Configuration of Penalty for Concentric Cell

Data Configuration of Penalty for Concentric Cell Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights
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[Penalty Time after UtoO HO Fails(s)]

Value Range: 10~255

Unit: Seconds

Default Value: 40

Description: After a UL to OL handover fails, no UL to OL handover request is allowed before the penalty time expires.

[Penalty Time after OtoU HO Fails(s)]

Value Range: 0~255

Unit: Seconds

Default Value: 10

Description: After an OL to UL handover fails, no OL to UL handover request is allowed before the penalty time expires.

[MaxRetry Time after UtoO Fail]

Value Range: 0~8

Default Value: 3

Description: This parameter indicates the threshold of UL to OL handover failures. UL to OL handover is not allowed if the number of handover failures reaches this threshold.

Remarks: When this parameter is set to 0, not this threshold but the penalty time restricts the permission of handover.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-37

Penalty for Enhanced Concentric Cell

A new U O HO is prohibited within a penalty time after a O U HO is performed successfully.

Overlaid Do not attempt back too fast! Underlaid
Overlaid
Do not
attempt back
too fast!
Underlaid
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This penalty is valid only for Enhanced Concentric Cell.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-38

Data Configuration of Penalty for Enhanced Concentric Cell

Data Configuration of Penalty for Enhanced Concentric Cell Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All
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Page38

[Penalty Time of UtoO HO(s)]

Value Range: 0~255

Unit: Seconds

Default Value: 10

Description: This parameter indicates the penalty time for forbidding ping-pong handovers. After an OL to UL handover is performed, UL to OL handover is not allowed before the penalty time expires. If this parameter is set to 0, a UL to OL handover is allowed when required.

Remarks: This parameter is valid only when Enhanced Concentric Cell is allowed.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-39

Penalty for Intra-cell HO

A new intra-cell HO is prohibited if it occurs too frequently.

Intra-cell HO Time 4th. 3rd. 2nd. 1st. Penalty time
Intra-cell
HO Time
4th.
3rd.
2nd.
1st.
Penalty time

0 3

7

12

Max. consecutive HO times: 3

Forbidden time after Max. times: 20s

Interval for consecutive HO Jud: 6s

32

T (s)

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Because of the co-channel interference and other interference, the voice quality of a MS on certain frequency may lower than the handover threshold, now, the voice quality can be satisfied if the MS hands over to another frequency in the same cell. On the other side, the signaling flow of this kind of intra-cell handover is less and handover successful ratio is higher.

But under some specific condition (for example: several frequency are all interfered in a cell), then continual intra-cell handover may occurred. So it is necessary to control the frequency of intra-cell handover.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-40

Data Configuration of Penalty for Intra-cell HO

Data Configuration of Penalty for Intra-cell HO Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights
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Page40

[Max Consecutive HO Times]

Value Range:1~20

Default Value: 3

Description: This parameter indicates the maximum number of consecutive intra-cell handovers allowed. If the interval of two continuous intra-cell handovers is less than a specified threshold, the two handovers are regarded as consecutive handovers.Intra-cell handover is forbidden if the number of consecutive handovers exceeds this threshold.

[Forbidden Time after Max Times]

Value Range: 1~200

Unit: Seconds

Default Value: 20

Description: This parameter indicates the timer that starts when the threshold of maximum consecutive intra-cell handovers is reached. Intra-cell handovers is allowed only when the timer expires.

[Interval for Consecutive HO Jud.]

Value Range: 1~200

Unit: Seconds

Default Value: 6

Description: This parameter indicates the period for judging whether two continuous intra-cell handovers are consecutive.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-41

Data Configuration of Penalty for AMR FR HR Handover Failure

Configuration of Penalty for AMR FR HR Handover Failure Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
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[Penalty Time after AMR TCHF-H HO Fails(s)]

Value Range: 0~255

Unit: Seconds

Default Value: 30

Description: This parameter indicates the penalty time for AMR full rate to half rate (FR-to-HR) handovers. Before the timer expires, no AMR FR- to-HR handover request is allowed if the previous full-half handover fails due to channel unavailability or channel mismatch.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-42

General HO Process

MS Goes into Dedicated Mode Measure and Measurement 1 Result Report 2 MR. Preprocessing 3
MS Goes into
Dedicated Mode
Measure and Measurement
1
Result Report
2
MR. Preprocessing
3
Handover Judgment
4
Handover Implementation
MS Goes into New
Dedicated Mode
Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO OM Forced HO Load HO Normal HO
Penalty Processing
Ranking Processing
Enhanced Dual Band HO
OM Forced HO
Load HO
Normal HO
Direct Retry
Edge HO
Emergency HO
No DL MR HO
MS Fast Moving HO
TA HO
Layer HO
Interference HO
PBGT HO
Rx_Level_Drop HO
Concentric Cell HO
Bad Quality HO
AMR HO
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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-43

Ranking Processing

Basic ranking
Basic ranking
Network feature adjustment
Network feature adjustment
M rule 16 bits ranking K rule The ranking result: target cell selection of handover
M rule
16 bits ranking
K rule
The ranking result: target cell selection of handover
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Ranking processing of cells are major parts of the HO judgment.

The ranking result is used for target cell selection of handover.

The ranking processing includes:

Basic ranking

M rule

K rule (Integrated with 16bits ranking, will be discussed together with 16bits ranking)

Network feature adjustment

16 bits ranking

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-44

M Rule Begin Yes Finish to all neighbor cells? End No No Yes No No
M Rule
Begin
Yes
Finish to all
neighbor cells?
End
No
No
Yes
No
No
An BSC external neighboring
cell& the current channel is
SDCCH ?
Direct retry?
[Inter-BSC SDCCH HO Allowed]
(S) is Yes?
Delete the cell from
the cell list?
Yes
Yes
Yes
the cell overload ?
No
RX_LEV_DL(n) < [Min DL Power
on HO Candidate Cell](n)+
[Min Access Level Offset](s->n)?
Delete this cell from
the cell list
Yes
No
RX_LEV_UL(n) < [Min UP Power on
HO Candidate Cell](n)+
[Min Access Level Offset](s->n)?
Yes
No
For service cell:
M rule will remove the neighbor
cells from the candidate cell list
according to the flow.
Min Access Level Offset=0
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M rule will remove the cells from the candidate cell list according to the following conditions:

Under the condition of non-direct retry, if Inter-BSC SDCCH HO Allowedis No, and this is an external neighboring cell, and the current channel is SDCCH

If the cell is overload

RX_LEV_DL < Min DL Power on HO Candidate Cell + Min Access Level Offset

RX_LEV_UL < Min UL Power on HO Candidate Cell + Min Access Level Offset

For service cell: Min Access Level Offset is 0.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-45

Data Configuration of M Rule

Data Configuration of M Rule Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page45
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Page45

[Inter-BSC SDCCH HO Allowed]

Value Range: Yes, No

Default Value: No

Description: This parameter indicates whether an inter-BSC SDCCH handover is allowed. An inter-BSC SDCCH handover is triggered when an MS succeeds in requesting SDCCH but fails to request TCH in a BSC.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-46

Data Configuration of M Rule

Data Configuration of M Rule Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page46
Data Configuration of M Rule Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page46
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Page46

[Min UP Power on HO Candidate Cell]

Value Range: 0~63 (-110 dBm to -47 dBm) Default Value: 10

Description: The M criterion supports the minimum value constraint of uplink received level of the neighbor cell. Expected uplink level of the neighbor cell >= (the minimum uplink power of the candidate cell for handover + the minimum access level offset)The M criterion is satisfied only when the expected downlink level of the neighbor cell >= (the minimum downlink power of the candidate cell for handover + the minimum access level offset).0-63 with 0 indicating -110 dBm and 63 indicating -47 dBm.

[Min DL Level on Candidate Cell]

Value Range: 0~63 (-110 dBm to -47 dBm)

Default Value: 15

Description: This parameter indicates the lower threshold of downlink receive level when a cell becomes a candidate cell.

Remarks: This parameter must be appropriately specified. If it is too high, some desired cells may be excluded from the candidate cells. If it is too low, an unwanted cell may become the target cell, thus leading to handover failures or call drops. A cell can become a candidate cell only when the receive level minus this parameter is greater than the minimum access level offset.

[Min Access Level Offset]

Value Range: 0~63

Unit: dB

Default Value: 0

Description: This offset is based on the Min DL level on Candidate Cell. For different adjacent cells, different offsets can be defined. Only when the receiving level of an adjacent cell > Min DL Level on Candidate Cell + Min Access Level Offset, then this cell become a candidate cell.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-47

Network Feature Adjustment

After network feature adjustment, all the candidate cells have their own 16 bits value.

The smaller the value is, the higher the handover priority and position of the cell are in the candidate cell list, then it is possible to be the candidate cell.

The Highest Weight The Lowest 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7
The
Highest
Weight
The
Lowest
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
1
4
3
2
Weight
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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-48

Network Feature Adjustment

The 1 st ~3 rd bits

The bit value indicates the priority of downlink receiving level according to the cell signal level and the penalty process taking place beforehand.

The values come from max. 6 candidate cells and 1 serving cell according to the level ranges from 000~110. The value for the cell with the strongest signal level is 000, for the cell with second strongest signal level is 001 and so on.

Actually that is the core of K rule.

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-49

Network Feature Adjustment

The 4 th bit: [Inter-cell HO hysteresis] bit. Yes No serving cell? Always set to
The 4 th bit: [Inter-cell HO hysteresis] bit.
Yes
No
serving cell?
Always set to 0
RX_LEV_DL (n) >=
RX_LEV_DL (s) +
[Inter-cell HO hysteresis] (s->n) ?
Yes
Set to 0
No
Set to1

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

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Service cell: always 0

Neighboring cell: when RX_LEV_DL (n) >= RX_LEV_DL (s) + Inter-cell HO hysteresis, bit 4 th is set to 0. Otherwise, set to 1

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-50

Data Configuration of Inter-cell HO Hysteresis

Data Configuration of Inter-cell HO Hysteresis Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
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[Inter-cell HO Hysteresis]

Value Range: 0~63

Unit: dB

Default Value: 5

Description: This parameter indicates the handover hysteresis between adjacent cells of the same layer. The purpose of setting this parameter is to reduce the "Ping-Pong" handovers. The value of this parameter is invalid if cells are not on the same layer. 4 dB for populous urban areas and 8 dB for suburbs.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-51

Network Feature Adjustment

The 5 th ~10 th bits

The bit value is decided according to their position in Huawei hierarchical network structure.

Huawei cell layers can be divided into 4 layers and each layer can be further divided into 16 different priorities.

So there are 64 different priorities in Huawei hierarchical cell structure.

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-52

Hierarchical Cell Structure

Layer 4 Umbrella Cell GSM 900 (low) GSM 900 GSM 900 Layer 3 GSM900 Cell
Layer 4
Umbrella Cell
GSM 900
(low)
GSM 900
GSM 900
Layer 3
GSM900 Cell
GSM1800
GSM1800
GSM1800
Layer 2
GSM1800 Cell
GSM900
GSM900
GSM900
GSM900
Layer 1
Micro Cell
(high)
GSM1800
GSM1800
GSM1800
GSM1800
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The handover algorithm of Huawei divides the whole network into four layers, each of which further divided into 16 levels. The lower the layer is, the higher the handover priority level will be. The “Micro Cell” layer has the highest priority level.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-53

Data Configuration of Cell Hierarchical

Network Structure

Data Configuration of Cell Hierarchical Network Structure Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights
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[Cell Layer]

Value Range:1~4 (mapping to the PICO layer, the MICRO layer, the MACRO layer, and the UMBRELLA layer)

Unit: Layer

Default Value: 3

Description: The framework of Huawei network is divided into four layers: Umbrella layer, Macro layer, Micro layer, and Pico layer. Each layer is designed with 16 priorities. The Umbrella layer refers to the GSM900 layer with a large coverage area. It implements the high-layer coverage and the connection of MSs moving at a high speed. The Macro layer carries most traffic on the GSM900 band. The Micro layer carries most traffic on the DCS1800 band. It solves the problem of insufficient resources. The Micro layer is a main cell layer for dual-band MSs in the future. The Pico layer is a microcell layer on the GSM900 and DCS1800 bands. It meets the requirements for the provisioning of traffic at hot spots and dead zones.

Remarks: You can set multiple priorities (a maximum of 16 priorities) for each layer. From the aspect of traffic priority, if the layer and level of a cell is low, the priority is high.

[Cell Priority]

Value Range:1~16

Unit: Level

Default Value:1

Description: This parameter controls handover between cells at the same layer. Generally, the cells at the same layer have the same priority. If the cells at the same layer have different priorities, the cell with a smaller value has a higher priority.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-54

Network Feature Adjustment

The 11 th bit: The bit value is decided by cell-load-sharing criterion.

This bit is affected by 14 th bit.

Yes 11 th bit is System load>=[System Flux Threshold for Load HO](s) or [Load HO
Yes
11 th
bit is
System load>=[System Flux Threshold for Load HO](s) or
[Load HO Allowed](s) =No ?
turned off
No
Yes
No
serving cell?
No
No
Cell load >= [Load
HO Threshold](s)?
cell load >=[ Load Req.
on Candidate Cell](n)?
Yes
Yes
set to 0
set to 1
set to 1
set to 0

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

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The 11 th bit: bit value is decided by cell-load-sharing criterion. And this bit will be turned off when the system load is higher than System Flux Threshold for Load HO or Load HO Allowed is set to NO

Service cell: if cell load >= Load HO Threshold, bit 11 th is set to 1. Otherwise, set to 0

Neighboring cell: if cell load >= Load Rep. on Candidate Cell, bit 11 th is set to 1. Otherwise, set to 0

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-55

Data Configuration of Cell-load-sharing

Data Configuration of Cell-load-sharing Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page55
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[Load HO Allowed]

Value Range: Yes, No

Default Value: No

Description: This parameter indicates whether a traffic load-sharing handover is allowed. Load-sharing helps to reduce cell congestion, improve the success rate of assignment, and balance the traffic load among cells. Load-sharing functions only within the same BSC or in cells of the same layer. It applies to only TCH. If load handover is frequently required, TRX configuration and network planning should be properly adjusted.

Remarks: In areas with tight frequency reuse, extra interference may occur if Load HO Allowed is set to Yes.

[System Flux Threshold for Load HO]

Value Range: 0~11

Default Value: 10

Description: System Flux Threshold for Load HO is obtained based on message load, CPU load, and so on. The system flow level is the current flow control level of the system.

0~11:It is the system flux control level when the alarm module send out alarms information. Level 11 is the highest and level 0 is the lowest.

A load handover is allowed only when the system flow is lower than this threshold. Otherwise, unexpected situations may occur. Therefore, this parameter must be set properly.

Flow control threshold for the CPU to start to discard the channel access messages and paging messages: 80%

Flow control threshold for the CPU to discard all the channel access messages and paging messages: 100%

CPU usage smaller than 80% corresponds to level 0. CPU usage equal to or greater than CPU flow control threshold 80% corresponds to level 2.

An increase of 5% means an increase of 2 levels.

Level 10 is the highest. The level value can be 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-56

Data Configuration of Cell-load-sharing

Data Configuration of Cell-load-sharing Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page56
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[Load HO Threshold]

Value Range: 0~100(%)

Default Value: 85

Description: When the load handover is switched on, it is recommended that the Load HO Threshold is set to 85.The cell load refers to TCH usage. When the cell load exceeds the value of Load HO Threshold, the BSC starts the load handover. That is, the BSC starts the load handover after the TCH in the cell are proportionally occupied.

Remarks: Even if the Load HO Allowed is set to Yes, the Load HO Threshold and Load Req. on Candidate Cell affect the queuing of the candidate cell handover. Therefore, when the cell is overloaded, the handovers such as PBGT cannot be performed if this parameter is not properly set.

[Load Req. on Candidate Cell]

Value Range: 0~100(%)

Default Value: 75

Description: If the cell load is lower than the value of this parameter, the cell accepts users that are handed over to the cell due to their cell load. If the cell load is not lower than the value of this parameter, the cell refuses the users.

Remarks: The same as that of Load HO Threshold

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-57

Network Feature Adjustment

12 th bit and 13 th bit: Whether share the same BSC or MSC. Yes
12 th bit and 13 th bit: Whether share the same BSC or MSC.
Yes
No
serving cell?
Yes
No
Both 12 th and 13 th set to 0
Is [Co-BSC/MSC Adj]
(s)yes?
Turn off
12 th &13 th bit
Yes
No
Co-BSC?
Yes
No
Co-MSC?
12 th set to 0
13 th set to 0
12 th set to 1
13 th set to 0
12 th set to 1
13 th set to 1

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

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12 th bit: if neighbor cell is co-BSC with the serving cell, 12 th bit is set to 0. Otherwise, set to 1

13 th bit: if neighbor cell is co-MSC with the serving cell, 13 th bit is set to 0. Otherwise, set to 1

Service cell: is always set to 0

These two bits will be turned off when Co-BSC/MSC Adj. is set to NO

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-58

Data Configuration of Co-BSC&MSC

Data Configuration of Co-BSC&MSC Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page58
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Page58

[Co-BSC/MSC Adj]

Value Range: Yes, No

Default Value: Yes

Description: This parameter indicates whether the sequence of candidate cells is adjusted. After the sequence is adjusted, the handover within the same BSC/MSC takes priority.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-59

Network Feature Adjustment

The 14 th bit: [Inter-layer HO Threshold/Hysteresis] adjustment bit. Yes No serving cell? RX_LEV_DL >=
The 14 th bit: [Inter-layer HO Threshold/Hysteresis] adjustment bit.
Yes
No
serving cell?
RX_LEV_DL >= [Inter-layer HO
Threshold](s) – [Inter-layer HO Hysteresis](s)?
RX_LEV_DL >= [Inter-layer HO
Threshold](n) + [Inter-layer HO Hysteresis](s->n)?
Yes
Yes
No
No
set to 0
set to 0
Bit 14 th set to 1, and bit
5 th ~13 th are turned off

The 15 th /16 th bits are reserved

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

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The 14th bit: Layer HO threshold adjustment bit

Serving cell: RX_LEV_DL >= Inter-layer HO Threshold Inter-layer HO Hysteresis, bit 14 th is set to 0

Neighboring cell: RX_LEV_DL >= Inter-layer HO Threshold + Inter-layer HO Hysteresis, bit 14 th is set to 0.

If the above criterion is not met, then bit 14 th is set to 1. At the same time, bit 5 th - 13 th bits are turned off.

The 15 th /16 th bits are reserved

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-60

Data Configuration of Layer HO Threshold Adjustment

Data Configuration of Layer HO Threshold Adjustment Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights
Data Configuration of Layer HO Threshold Adjustment Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights
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[Inter-layer HO Threshold]

Value Range: 0~63(-110 dBm to -47 dBm)

Default Value: 25

Description: In BSC handover algorithm, the M criterion is used to rank the handover candidate cells. The M criterion includes 16 bits. This parameter is one bit of the 16 bits and it affects the rank of a candidate cell. When the downlink level of a cell is lower than this threshold, the cell takes low priority as far as comprehensive sequence is concerned.

Remarks: Make sure that the receive level of the destination cell is higher than this threshold in inter-layer handover or load handover. Otherwise, the MS may be handed from a cell with heavy load and high level (high priority cell) to a cell with light load and low level (low priority cell), thus leading to call drops.

[Inter-layer HO Hysteresis]

Value Range: 0~63

Unit: dB

Default Value: 3

Description: This parameter indicates the hysteresis of an inter-layer or inter-priority handover. It is used to avoid inter-layer ping-pong handovers. Actual Inter-layer HO Threshold of a serving cell = Inter-layer HO Threshold C Inter-layer HO hysteresis Actual Inter-layer HO Threshold of a neighboring cell = Inter-layer HO Threshold + Inter-layer HO hysteresis

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-61

General HO Process

MS Goes into Dedicated Mode Measure and Measurement 1 Result Report 2 MR. Preprocessing 3
MS Goes into
Dedicated Mode
Measure and Measurement
1
Result Report
2
MR. Preprocessing
3
Handover Judgment
4
Handover Implementation
MS Goes into New
Dedicated Mode
Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO OM Forced HO Load HO Normal HO
Penalty Processing
Ranking Processing
Enhanced Dual Band HO
OM Forced HO
Load HO
Normal HO
Direct Retry
Edge HO
Emergency HO
No DL MR HO
MS Fast Moving HO
TA HO
Layer HO
Interference HO
PBGT HO
Rx_Level_Drop HO
Concentric Cell HO
Bad Quality HO
AMR HO
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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-62

No DL MR HO

When the quality of Um interface become worse and worse, it is for the worse uplink quality that MS can not deliver downlink MR, while the downlink quality is not bad enough for MS to receive the downlink message normally.

Bad uplink quality Serving Cell Neighboring Cell
Bad
uplink
quality
Serving Cell
Neighboring Cell
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When the quality of Um interface become worse and worse, it is for the worse uplink quality that MS can not deliver downlink MR, while the downlink quality is not bad enough for MS to receive the downlink message normally. Under this kind of urgency condition, in order to save this call, the network send handover command to MS.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-63

Position of No DL MR HO

MS Goes into Dedicated Mode 1 Measure and Measurement Result Report 2 MR. Preprocessing No
MS Goes into
Dedicated Mode
1
Measure and Measurement
Result Report
2
MR. Preprocessing
No DL MR HO
3
Handover Judgment
4
Handover Implementation
MS Goes into New
Dedicated Mode
Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO OM Forced HO Load HO Normal HO
Penalty Processing
Ranking Processing
Enhanced Dual Band HO
OM Forced HO
Load HO
Normal HO
Direct Retry
Edge HO
Emergency HO
MS Fast Moving HO
TA HO
Layer HO
Interference HO
PBGT HO
Rx_Level_Drop HO
Concentric Cell HO
Bad Quality HO
AMR HO
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Attention: After MR. Preprocessing, the No DL MR handover is triggered if trigger condition is satisfied.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-64

No DL MR HO No UL_Qua. (after filtering) >=[No Dl Mr.Ul Qual HO Limit](s)? Begin
No DL MR HO
No
UL_Qua. (after filtering)
>=[No Dl Mr.Ul Qual
HO Limit](s)?
Begin
Yes
No
[No Dl Mr. HO
Allowed](s) Yes ?
Yes
Only one
No
cadidate cell?
Yes
No
No
serving cell?
Report 1 DL MR at least?
Yes
Yes
No
Select the candidate cell
with the highest priority,
exluding serving cell
[Intracell HO Allowed](s)?
No
<=[Cons.No Dl Mr.
Ho Allowed Limit](s)?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Within Penalty Time
No
No Dl Mr. in
current Mr.?
Yes
No
Trigger
No DL Mr. HO
signal quality filter length:
End
For TCH:[Filter Length for TCH Qual]
For SDCCH:[Filter Length for SDCCH Qual]
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Triggering condition

No DL information in current MR

Stored UL Rx_Qual Value Number >= Filter Length for TCH/SDCCH Qual

UL Rx_Qual >= No DL MR HO UL Rx_Qual Threshold

Number of Lost DL MR < Cons. No DL MR HO Allowed Limit

Object cell selection

Prefer neighboring cell

If choose the service cell, it cannot in the penalty time for intra-cell handover.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-65

Data Configuration of No DL MR HO

Data Configuration of No DL MR HO Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights
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[No Dl Mr. HO Allowed]

Value Range: Yes, No

Default Value: No

Description: This parameter is used to control the handover algorithm without downlink measurement report. If this parameter is set to 0, the no handover algorithm without downlink measurement report is disabled. Therefore, handover decision without downlink measurement report is not allowed in this cell. If this parameter is set to 1, the no downlink measurement report handover algorithm is enabled. Therefore, handover decision without downlink measurement report is allowed in this cell.

[No Dl Mr. Ul Qual HO Limit]

Value Range: 0~70 (mapping to RQ (0~7)×10)

Default Value: 60

Description: This parameter indicates the uplink receive quality threshold of triggering an emergency handover when no measurement result on downlink channels is contained in the MR. The emergency handover is allowed only when the filtered uplink receive quality crossed this threshold. When an emergency handover is triggered, inter-cell handover takes priority. Intra-cell handover, however, is triggered if no candidate cell is available and intra-cell handovers are allowed.

[Cons. No Dl Mr. HO Allowed Limit]

Value Range: 0~64

Default Value: 8

Description: This parameter indicates the upper threshold of consecutive MRs containing no downlink measurement result for a call. Each call is configured with a global timer, which counts the number of consecutive MRs containing no downlink measurement. When the timer exceeds this threshold, the handover is disabled and the timer is reset.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-66

TA(Time Advance) HO

Handover

Triggering Handover Triggering Zone or
Triggering
Handover Triggering Zone
or

TA(s)

TA(n)

[TA Threshold](n)

Time

[TA Threshold](s)

Serving Cell Neighboring Cell
Serving Cell
Neighboring Cell
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Because a MS is far away from its serving BTS, the practice TA value is more than TA threshold configured in data configuration, TA handover is triggered.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-67

TA(Time Advance) HO Begin No [TA HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes Select the cell with
TA(Time Advance) HO
Begin
No
[TA HO Allowed]
Yes ?
Yes
Select the cell with the
highest priority in the
cadidate cell list
No
End
The actual TA >=
[TA Threshold](s)?
Yes
serving cell?
No
Yes
[TA Threshold]
(n,in the same BTS)
<= [TA Threshold](s)
Yes
No
Any neighbour cell
exist?
Yes
No
No
Suitable cell
exist?
Yes
Trigger
TA handover
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Triggering condition

The actual TA >= TA Threshold

Object cell selection

The cell must be of the highest priority in the candidate cell sequence and meet the following restrictions.

Restriction

The service cell cannot be the object cell.

HO is not allowed when TA Threshold of the neighboring cell with the same BTS is equal or smaller than that of the service cell.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-68

Data Configuration of TA HO

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[TA HO Allowed]

Value Range: Yes, No

Default Value: Yes

Description: The parameter indicates whether a Timing Advance (TA) handover is allowed. A TA handover is triggered when the TA is higher than the triggering threshold. TA is calculated based on the distance between the MS and the BTS. The longer the distance is, the greater the TA is.

[TA Threshold]

Value Range: 0~255

Unit: Bit period (A bit period corresponds to 0.55 km.)

Default Value: 255

Description: This parameter indicates the TA threshold of triggering emergency handover. Emergency handover is triggered when TA is equal to or greater than this threshold.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-69

Interference Handover

RX_Lev

Lev_Thr

Interference Handover RX_Lev Lev_Thr Interference Origin Handover Triggering Zone Qual_Thr Rx_Qual Serving Cell

Interference

Origin

Handover Triggering Zone Qual_Thr Rx_Qual
Handover Triggering
Zone
Qual_Thr
Rx_Qual
Serving Cell Neighboring Cell
Serving Cell
Neighboring Cell
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For a MS or a BTS, when the receiving quality is lower than the interference quality threshold and receiving level is higher than the interference level threshold, it is considered that interference exists in serving cell, so interference handover is triggered.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-70

Interference HO Begin No [Interference HO Allowed] Yes ? Select the cell with the highest
Interference HO
Begin
No
[Interference HO
Allowed] Yes ?
Select the cell with the
highest priority in the
cadidate cell list
Yes
Yes
No
serving cell?
No
End
UL or DL receiving
Quality(s)>=A?
No
Yes
[Intracell HO Allowed](s) yes
Rx_Level(n)>=
[Inter-layer HO Threshold](n) +
[Inter-layer HO Hysteresis](s->n)?
No
& cell not punished?
No
Any neighbour cell
exist?
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
None AMR FR:
Any suitable cell
exist?
Yes
A = RXQUALn, 1<=n<=12
AMR FR:
Trigger
A = RXQUAL1, n=1;
interference handover

A = RXQUALn + RXLEVoff,

2<=n<=12

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Triggering condition UL/DL receiving quality>=A None AMR FR A = RXQUALn, 1<=n<=12

AMR FR

A = RXQUAL1, n=1; A = RXQUALn + RXLEVoff, 2<=n<=12

Object cell selection The cells must be of the highest priority in the candidate cell sequence and meet the following restrictions.

Restriction

The service cell that is not in the penalty time for intra-cell handover.

The neighboring cell with the receiving level higher than the inter layer HO Thrsh + Hysteresis.

For none AMR FR, if one of the following conditions is met, the system will judge that interference occur:

1. Rx_lev <= 30, and Rx_qual > RXQUAL 1

2. Rx_lev = 31, and Rx_qual > RXQUAL 2

3. Rx_lev is within [32,35], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL3

4. Rx_lev is within [36,38], and Rx_qual >RXQUAL 4

5. Rx_lev is within [39,41], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL5

6. Rx_lev is within [42,45], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL6

7. Rx_lev is within [46,48], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL7

8. Rx_lev is within [49,52], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL8

9. Rx_lev is within [53,55], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL9

10. Rx_lev is within [56,58], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL10

11. Rx_lev is within [59,62], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL11

12. Rx_lev >= 63, and Rx_qual > RXQUAL12

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-71

Data Configuration of Interference HO

Default Value Parameter
Default Value
Parameter

Receiving Level(-110dBm)

Receiving Quality

RXQUAL1

<=30

70

RXQUAL2

=31

60

RXQUAL3

32~35

59

RXQUAL4

36~38

58

RXQUAL5

39~41

57

RXQUAL6

42~45

56

RXQUAL7

46~48

55

RXQUAL8

49~52

54

RXQUAL9

53~55

53

RXQUAL10

56~58

52

RXQUAL11

59~62

51

RXQUAL12

>=63

50

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-72

Data Configuration of Interference HO

Data Configuration of Interference HO Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page72
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[Interference HO Allowed]

Value Range: Yes, No

Default Value: Yes

Description: The parameter indicates whether an interference handover is allowed. An interference handover is triggered when the receive level is higher than the receive threshold, but the transmission quality is lower than the handover triggering threshold.

Remarks: Both downlink and uplink interference is judged, and inter-cell handover takes priority. If no target cell is available, intra-cell interference handover can be implemented in the serving cell if intra-cell handovers are allowed.

[RXQUAL1] ~ [RXQUAL12]

Value Range: 0~70

Description: Quality threshold 1~12 for the interference handover of nonCAMR FR voice services. The value corresponds to (quality level 0~7) x 10.See the next slide

[RXLEVOff]

Value Range: 0~70

Default Value: 5

Description: The quality level offset of the interface handover of the AMR FR service relative to non-AMR services or the AMR HR service (x 10).

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-73

Rx_Level_Drop HO

Rx_Level_Drop HO Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page73
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Rx_Level_Drop HO will be triggered when receiving level drops fast because of barrier such as high building.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-74

Rx_Level_Drop HO Begin No [Rx_Level_Drop HO Allowed] Yes ? Select the cell with the highest
Rx_Level_Drop HO
Begin
No
[Rx_Level_Drop HO
Allowed] Yes ?
Select the cell with the
highest priority in the
cadidate cell list
Yes
No
Satisfy the Formula&
The latest RX_LEV_UL(s) <
[Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshold](s)?
Yes
No
End
serving cell?
No
End
Yes
Is priority higher than
serving cell?
No
Any neighbour cell
exist?
Yes
Trigger
Rx_Level_Drop handover
Yes
(
A
10
)(
X
+
A
10
)
X
+
(
A
10
)
X
+
(
A
10
)
X
+
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
Formula:
(A )(X
10
+
10
)(X
+
10
)(X
+
10
)X
<− B
A 6
A 7
A 8
5
5
6
7
8
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Triggering condition

The lastest RX_LEV_UL < Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshold

C1nt=(A1-10)X1(A2-10)X2+(A3-10)X3(A8-10)X8<B

Object cell selection

The neighboring cell with the highest priority and whose priority is higher than that of the service cell in the candidate cell group.

Restriction

The service cell cannot be the object cell.

Filter Parameter A1A8 and Filter Parameter B work together to decide whether the rapid drop of the receive level must be reflected in one or multiple MRs.

The conditions to trigger a rapid level dropping handover are as follows;

C1nt=(A1-10)X1(A2-10)X2+(A3-10)X3(A8-10)X8

In the algorithm above, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, and X8 indicate the uplink receive levels of the last eight MRs in the queue.

Filter Parameter A1A8 must meet the following conditions:

A1+A2+A3+A4+A5+A6+A7+A8=80

For example, if you want to reflect the rapid drop of the cell level in a MR, you can set A3A8 equal to 10, A1 to 0, and A2 to 20.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-75

Data Configuration of Rx_Level_Drop HO

Data Configuration of Rx_Level_Drop HO Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page75
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[Rx_Level_Drop HO Allowed]

Value Range: Yes, No

Description: The parameter indicates whether the emergency handover algorithm is allowed. The emergency handover algorithm is used to prevent call drops when the receive level of the MS drops rapidly. Generally this algorithm is not enabled until the conditions are met. To enable this algorithm, original MR is required for the BSC.

[Filter Parameter A1~A8]

Value Range: 0~20

Description: Filter Parameter A1~A8 and Filter Parameter B work together to decide whether the rapid drop of the receive level must be reflected in one or multiple MRs. The conditions to trigger a rapid level dropping handover are as follows; In the algorithm above, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, and X8 indicate the uplink receive levels of the last eight MRs in the queue. Filter Parameter A1~A8 must meet the following conditions: A1+A2+A3+A4+A5+A6+A7+A8=80. For example, if you want

to reflect the rapid drop of the cell level in a MR, you can set A3-A8 to greater than 10, A1 to 0, and A2 to 20.

Default Value: No

Default Value: 10

[Filter Parameter B]

Value Range: 0~200

Default Value: 0

Description: This is one of the parameters that determine whether a handover is required due to fast dropping levels.This parameter indicates the drop trend of the receive level within a period. The greater the parameter B is, a more rapid level drop is required for triggering a rapid level dropping handover.See Filter Parameter A1-A8.

[Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshold]

Value Range: 0~63 (-110 dBm to -47 dBm)

Description: The parameter indicates the uplink receive level threshold of an edge handover. An edge handover will be triggered if the uplink receive level is constantly lower than "Edge HO UL RX_LEV Thrsh." for a period longer than Edge HO Valid Time(s) within Edge HO Watch Time(s). If PBGT handover is enabled, the corresponding edge handover threshold can be lowered. If PBGT handover is disabled, this parameter must be properly specified to avoid overlapping coverage and channel interference. This parameter should be adjusted based on the performance statistics and actual networks to achieve uplink-downlink balance.

Remarks: Edge handover uplink/downlink receive level threshold < Uplink/downlink signal strength lower limit of HUAWEI

II power control

Default Value: 10

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-76

BQ(Bad Quality) HO Begin No Is [BQ HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes Select the cell
BQ(Bad Quality) HO
Begin
No
Is [BQ HO Allowed]
Yes ?
Yes
Select the cell with the
highest priority in the
cadidate cell list
No
End
UL_Rx_Q(s)>=[UL Qual.
Threshold](s) or DL_Rx_Q(s)
>=[DL Qual. Threshold](s)?
Yes
No
serving cell?
No
No
Yes
[Intracell HO Allowed](s) yes
No
& cell not punished?
RX_LEV_DL (n) > RX_LEV_DL (s)
+ Inter-cell HO hysteresis(s->n)
-BQ HO Margin(s->n) ?
Any neighbour cell
exist?
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Suitable cell
exist?
Yes
Trigger
BQ handover
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When the receiving level of a MS or a BTS is lower than the quality threshold, bad quality handover will be triggered.

Triggering condition

UL receiving quality >= UL Qual. Threshold

OR DL receiving quality >= DL Qual. Threshold

For AMR call, the quality threshold is DL/UL Qual. Limit AMR FR/HR

Object cell selection

The cells must be of the highest priority in the candidate cell sequence and meet the following restrictions.

Restriction

Prefer neighboring cell. If the number of neighboring cell is more than one, it is required that RX_LEV_DL (n) > RX_LEV_DL (s) + Inter-cell HO hysteresis - BQ HO Zone

If there is no neighboring cell, handover can occur to the service cell, and the channel at different frequency band, different MA, different TRX or different channel (from left to right) is preference.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-77

Data Configuration of BQ HO

Data Configuration of BQ HO Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page77
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[BQ HO Allowed]

Value Range: Yes, No

Default Value: Yes

Description: The parameter indicates whether a Bad Quality (BQ) handover is allowed. BQ handover is triggered when Bit Error Ratio (BER) over uplink/downlink channels is higher than the triggering threshold. If BER rises, or signal strength drops, suspect that the signal power is low or channel interference increases.

Remarks: Inter-cell BQ handover is preferentially performed. If no target cell is available, intra-cell BQ handover can be implemented in the serving cell if intra-cell handovers are allowed.

[DL Qual. Threshold]

Value Range: 0~70 (RQ (0~7) 10)

Default Value: 60

Description: This parameter indicates the downlink receive quality threshold of triggering an emergency handover. When the receive quality of the downlink is greater than DL Qual Threshold, an emergency handover is triggered. When frequency hopping or DTX of the cell is enabled, it is recommended that you set this parameter to 70. When an emergency handover is triggered, inter-cell handover takes priority. An intra-cell handover, however, is triggered if no candidate cell is available and intra-cell handovers are allowed.

[UL Qual. Threshold]

Value Range: 0~70 (RQ (0~7)10)

Default Value: 60

Description: This parameter indicates the uplink receive quality threshold of triggering an emergency handover. When the receive quality of the uplink is greater than UL Qual Threshold, an emergency handover is triggered due to bad quality. When frequency hopping or DTX of the cell is enabled, it is recommended that you set this parameter to 70.When an emergency handover is triggered, inter-cell handover takes priority. An intra-cell handover, however, is triggered if no candidate cell is available and intra-cell handovers are allowed.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-78

Data Configuration of BQ HO

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[DL/UL QuaLimitAMRFR]

Value Range: 0~70

Default Value: 65

Description: This parameter indicates the urgent switchover downlink/uplink quality control for the AMR FR service. The values of this parameter match quality levels 0-7 multiplying 10. The urgent switchover is triggered only when the downlink/uplink receiving quality of the MS is greater than the switchover threshold, that is, the receiving quality is poor.

[DL/UL QuaLimitAMRHR]

Value Range: 0~70

Default Value: 60

Description: This parameter indicates the urgent switchover downlink quality control for the AMR HR service. The values of this parameter match quality levels 0-7 multiplying 10. The urgent switchover is triggered only when the downlink receiving quality of the MS is greater than the switchover threshold, that is, the receiving quality is poor.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-79

Data Configuration of BQ HO

Data Configuration of BQ HO Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page79
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[BQ HO Margin]

Value Range: 0~127 (-64 dB to +63 dB)

Default Value: 69

Description: A Margin in BQ handover algorithm used to judge whether to perform BQ handover. When BQ Handover Allowed is set to Yes and Inter-cell HO Hysteresis > "Inter-cell HO Hysteresis-BQ HO Margin", the Inter-cell HO Hysteresis will act instead of the BQ HO Margin. When "Inter-cell HO Hysteresis-BQ HO Margin" is assigned with a value smaller than 64, MS can hand over to a lower level neighboring cell. 69 for popular urban areas, 72 for suburbs.

Remarks: If the data is updated from M900/M1800 BSC to HUAWEI BSC6000,the default value of this parameter is 5.Then it's necessary to modify the value of this parameter to 69,otherwise the BQ HO algorithm will be invalid.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-80

General HO Process

MS Goes into Dedicated Mode Measure and Measurement 1 Result Report 2 MR. Preprocessing 3
MS Goes into
Dedicated Mode
Measure and Measurement
1
Result Report
2
MR. Preprocessing
3
Handover Judgment
4
Handover Implementation
MS Goes into New
Dedicated Mode
Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO OM Forced HO Load HO Normal HO
Penalty Processing
Ranking Processing
Enhanced Dual Band HO
OM Forced HO
Load HO
Normal HO
Direct Retry
Edge HO
Emergency HO
No DL MR HO
MS Fast Moving HO
TA HO
Layer HO
Interference HO
PBGT HO
Rx_Level_Drop HO
Concentric Cell HO
Bad Quality HO
AMR HO
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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-81

Enhanced Dual Band HO

Two single band cells which are configured as bi-directional neighbor cell relationship can be configured as enhanced dual band cell to each other.

Purpose

During the procedure of channel assignment and handover, the two single band cells can share their resource.

Assign the channel with low load in UL to MS preferentially.

Make MS handover from the high load cell to the low load cell.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-82

Channel Assignment of Enhanced Dual Band

TCH assignment (SDCCH channel in UL)

A:

Begin from UL No [Assignment Optimization of UL Subcell Allowed or not] (u) ? Yes
Begin
from UL
No
[Assignment Optimization
of UL Subcell Allowed
or not] (u) ?
Yes
No
Cell load of UL >
[UL Subcell General
Overload Threshold(%)](u)?
Assign TCH in UL
or direct retry identification
or queuing
Yes
No
A
Yes
No
Yes
Any idle TCH
Available in OL?
Assign TCH
in OL
RX_LEV_OL>= [Incoming OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB)](o) and
RX_LEV_UL – RX_LEV (n) >[Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)]
Attention:

RX_LEV (n): RX_LEV of the strongest neighboring cell which has the same frequency band and layer with underlaid subcell, but locates in a different BTS. If there is no such a cell, this value is -110dBm If [ATCBHoSwitch] is [Close], the second condition is turn off.

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TCH assignment (SDCCH channel in underlaid)

If Assignment Optimization of UL Subcell Allowed or not is set to NO, assign TCH in underlaid as the normal assignment procedure

If Assignment Optimization of UL Subcell Allowed or not is set to YES, assign TCH in overlaid when the following conditions are met

Cell load of underlaid > UL Subcell General Overload Threshold

RX_LEV_OL >= Incoming OL Subcell HO level Threshold

RX_LEV_UL RX_LEV (n) > Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL SubcellsDistance Hysteresis Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcell(dB)

RX_LEV (n): RX_LEV of the strongest neighboring cell which has the same frequency band and layer with underlaid subcell, but locates in a different BTS. If there is no such a cell, this value is -110dBm

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-83

Data Configuration of Channel Assignment

Data Configuration of Channel Assignment Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page83
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[ATCBHoSwitch]

Value Range: Close, Open

Default Value: Open

Description: The switch of the ATCB handover algorithm.

[Assignment Optimization of UL Subcell Allowered Or Not]

Value Range: Yes, No

Default Value: Yes

Description: This parameter indicates whether the access request originated in the underlaid subcell is preferably assigned between overlaid subcell cell and underlaid subcell cell according to the Out Cell Low Load Thred.

[UL Subcell General OverLoad Threshold(%)]

Value Range: 0~100

Unit: %

Default Value: 80

Description: If the ratio of underlaid subcell channel occupancy is greater than the value of this parameter, some calls in the underlaid subcell are handed over to the overlaid subcell. Moreover, calls originated in the underlaid subcell are preferably assigned to the channel in overlaid subcell.

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GSM Handover Algorithm

N-84

Data Configuration of Channel Assignment

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[Distance Between boundaries of UL And OL Subcells(dB)]

Value Range:0~63

Unit: dB

Default Value: 10

Description: This parameter indicates the distance between the overlaid subcell and underlaid subcell. The value of this parameter is comparative. The greater the value is, the longer the distance is. The enhanced dual-band network handover algorithm refers to the boundary between underlaid subcell and overlaid