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Humidification: Introduction

PDRamoso
ChE 133 WFVW
Outline
Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer
Humidification Equipment
Humidity: definitions [notation of Foust]
Humidity chart [Perrys 8
th
ed]
Processes: graphical representation
Simultaneous Heat and Mass
Transfer
Change of phase
Evaporation
Condensation
Crystallization
Transfer of both heat and mass
Recall: heat of vaporization
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Examples
Humidification
Drying (LE2)
Evaporation
Crystallization (LE3)
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Direction of Transfer
In general, the relation between the
humidity and air and liquid
temperatures determine the directions
of heat and mass transfer
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Humidification/Dehumidification
Simplest case of SHMT
Contact of a pure liquid with a gas
Liquid: water
Gas: noncondensable (air) and vapor
phases (water vapor)
Direction of transfer
Dictated by humidity and temperature
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Common Processes
Cooling of hot air by contact with cold
water
Cooling of hot water by contact with
ambient air
Cooling towers
Control of humidity in a space
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Spray Chamber
Liquid is sprayed into the vapor stream
Gas velocity is low
High contact time
Low liquid entrainment
Usually restricted to small-scale
operations
Humidity control
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Spray Chamber
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Spray Chamber
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Cooling Tower
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Phase Relations
Raoults Law
Ideal solution and ideal gas
With Daltons Law,
Since x=1 (liquid is pure),
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
x P Py P
sat
a s a
= =
P
P
y
sat
a
s
=
Absolute Humidity, Y
Mass ratio of vapor, dry-basis
[mass vapor]/[mass dry gas]
Note:
a (water) vapor
b dry gas (air)
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
b
a
M
M
Y Y =
'
Molal Humidity, Y
Mole ratio of vapor, dry-basis
[moles vapor]/[moles dry gas]
*rarely used
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Percent saturation, %sat
Or percent humidity
Ratio of absolute humidity or molal
humidity
[Y]/[Y
s
], as percent
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
% 100 % 100 % 100 % = =
'
'
=
s
b
a
s
b
a
s
Y
Y
M
M
Y
M
M
Y
Y
Y
sat
Percent saturation, %sat
In terms of mole fractions,
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
% 100
1
1
% 100
1
1
%

=
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
sat
s
s
s
s
Percent relative humidity, %RH
Or percent relative saturation
Ratio of partial pressure of vapor to
partial pressure of vapor at saturation
[P
a
]/[P
a
sat
], or [y
a
]/[y
s
], as percent
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
% 100 % 100 % = =
s
sat
a
a
y
y
P
P
RH
%RH vs. %sat
Which is larger?
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
% 100 % =
s
y
y
RH
% 100
1
1
%

=
y
y
y
y
sat
s
s
Humid Volume, V
h
Volume of 1 lbmol (or 1 mol) of dry gas
plus its associated vapor
[ft
3
]/[lbmol dry gas], or [m
3
]/[mol dry
gas]
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
( )
| |
| |
( )
| |
| | Pa P
K T
Y V
atm P
R T
Y V
h
o
h
101325
273
0224 . 0 1
1
492
359 1
+ =
+ =
Molal Humid Heat, c
h
Heat required to raise the temperature
of 1 lbmol (or 1 mol) of dry gas plus its
associated vapor by 1
o
F (or 1
o
C)
[Btu]/[lbmol dry gas]-[
o
F], or [J]/[mol
dry gas]-[
o
C]
c
b
and c
a
: molal heat capacities of dry
gas, b, and water vapor, a, respectively
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
a b h
Yc c c + =
Enthalpy of vapor-gas mixture, H
By analogy to molal humid heat,
H: enthalpy of 1 lbmol dry gas plus its
associated vapor
H
b
and H
a
are molal enthalpies
Reference conditions:
Dry air: 32
o
F, 1atm
Liquid water: triple point
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
a b
YH H H + =
Enthalpy of vapor-gas mixture, H
From the reference conditions,
T
0
: reference temperature, 32
o
F for both
air and water

0
: heat of vaporization at the reference
temperature, Btu/lbmol
Molal heat capacities assumed constant,
pressure effect on enthalpy is ignored
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
( ) ( ) | |
0 0 0
T T c Y T T c H
a b
+ + =
Dew Point
Point at which condensation begins
when the pressure or temperature is
changed over a mixture of fixed
composition
Usually, T is lowered at constant P
Dew point temperature, T
d
Temperature at which vapor begins to form
when the gas phase is cooled at constant
pressure
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Wet-bulb Temperature, T
w
Steady-state temperature attained by
a wet-bulb thermometer under
standardized conditions
Thermometer is wetted with liquid that
forms the vapor in the vapor-gas mixture
(water)
Will be related to humidity later
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Adiabatic-Saturation Temperature, T
sa
Temperature that would be attained if
the gas were saturated in an adiabatic
process
Recall: adiabatic q=0
Compare against dew temperature
cooling at constant pressure
Will be related to humidity later
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
This equation was developed from overall
material and enthalpy balances between
initial gas condition and adiabatic-
saturation condition
Thus, it is applicable only for the two points.
It may not describe the path followed by the
gas as it becomes saturated
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Humidity and T
sa
( ) ( )
sa sa sa h
Y Y T T c =
1 1 1

For air-water system only!
Completely turbulent flow
For other systems, the behavior in a
saturating contactor would be complex
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Humidity and T
w
( ) ( )
1 1
Y Y T T c
w w w h
=
Thus, T
w
= T
sa

For air-water system only!


Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
T
sa
and T
w
( ) ( )
1 1
Y Y T T c
w w w h
=
( ) ( )
sa sa sa h
Y Y T T c =
1 1 1

Only when
For simple monatomic and diatomic
gases air!
Implies that mechanisms of heat and
mass transfer are identically
dependent upon flow conditions
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Lewis Relation
h
Y
c
c
k
h
=
Pr
N N
Sc
=
Humidity Chart
Psychrometric Chart
Graphical representation of different
properties of a gas-vapor system
Humidity Chart
Psychrometric Chart for air-water system
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Humidity Chart
Humidity dry-bulb temperature
Wet-bulb temperature
Enthalpy
% relative humidity
Humid volume
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Humidity Chart
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Humidity Chart
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Humidity
Humidity Chart
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Dry bulb Temp
Humidity Chart
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Wet bulb Temp
Humidity Chart
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Enthalpy at Saturation
(+) Deviation (-)
Enthalpy = Enthalpy at saturation +
deviation
Humidity Chart
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
% Relative Humidity
Humidity Chart
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Humid Volume
Humidity Chart
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Humidity Chart
Recall from Gibbs Phase Rule:
2 components, 2 phases
2 degrees of freedom
Need only two parameters to determine
the state of the system
All other properties could then be read from
the graph or calculated
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Examples
1. Find the properties of moist air when
the dry-bulb temperature is 80
o
F and
the wet-bulb temperature is 67
o
F.
ANS:
Humidity: 0.011 lb water/lb d.a.
Enthalpy: 31.6 - 0.1 = 31.5 Btu/lb d.a.
Humid volume: 13.8 ft
3
/lb d.a.
Relative humidity: 51%
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Examples
2. Find the properties of moist air at
90% RH and dry-bulb temperature of
70
o
F.
ANS:
Humidity: 0.0143 lb water/lb d.a.
Enthalpy: 32.4 Btu/lb d.a.
Humid volume: 13.65 ft
3
/lb d.a.
Wet-bulb temperature: 68
o
F
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Examples
3. Find the properties of saturated air at
a wet-bulb temperature of 60
o
F.
ANS:
Humidity: 0.011 lb water/lb d.a.
Dry-bulb temperature: 60
o
F
Enthalpy: 26.5 Btu/lb d.a.
Humid volume: 13.35 ft
3
/lb d.a.
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Examples
4. Find the properties of moist air with
humidity 0.020 lb water/ lb d.a. And
60% RH.
ANS:
Dry-bulb temperature: 92.5
o
F
Wet-bulb temperature: 80.6
o
F
Enthalpy: 44.5 0.14 = 44.36 Btu/lb d.a.
Humid volume: 14.35 ft
3
/lb d.a.
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation
Processes
Sensible heating/cooling
Humidity remains constant
Finding T
d
Adiabatic Humidification
Heating and Humidifying
Both T and Y increase
Cooling and Dehumidifying
Cooling to T below T
d
Removal of water from air
Simultaneous
Heat and Mass
Transfer
Humidification
Equipment
Humidity:
definitions
Humidity chart
Processes:
graphical
representation