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Taylor & Francis Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

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E. KYRIAKIDES & R. G. FARMER

a b a b

Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA

To cite this article: E. KYRIAKIDES & R. G. FARMER (2004): Modeling of Damping for Power System Stability Analysis, Electric Power Components and Systems, 32:8, 827-837 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15325000490466654

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.

Electric Power Components and Systems, 32:827837, 2004 Copyright c Taylor & Francis Inc. ISSN: 1532-5008 print/1532-5016 online DOI: 10.1080/15325000490466654

E. KYRIAKIDES R. G. FARMER

Downloaded by [The Library, University of Witwatersrand] at 07:01 15 May 2012

Department of Electrical Engineering Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona, USA

The modeling of damping for power system stability analysis is revisited, and types of power system damping are described. Current practices in modeling damping are considered, including the representation of damper windings in generators. The eect of not modeling damping accurately in stability studies is considered, and some misconceptions are pinpointed. Finally, some suggestions are presented to improve the damping representation in power systems and to improve the validity of results obtained from power system stability analyses. Keywords oscillation prediction, transient stability

1. Introduction

Damping representation in stability studies is increasingly important as power systems become more complex and interconnected. Further, the loads that the power systems serve have evolved in sophistication and have varying eects on the damping of power systems. Damping is a crucial component of stability. Without damping, the oscillations that occur after a small disturbance or a large transient in the system would be sustained or increased. Therefore, it is often necessary to have additional damping besides the damping due to the generator construction, or due to the conguration of the power system and the system losses. Sustained oscillations can lead to fatigue of machine shafts and can cause excessive wear of the mechanical actuators [1]. The operation of the system is hindered considerably when oscillations are present. Moreover, as systems become more heavily loaded, damping tends to reduce. Therefore, it is important to both ensure the existence of sucient damping for the reduction of oscillations in a relatively short time interval, and to model damping correctly in order to ascertain whether the system will remain in stable equilibrium for all possible contingencies. Insucient damping modeling may lead the engineer to erroneous conclusions in the interpretation of the system behavior. For example, if damping is overestimated, then it is likely that during a large disturbance, the actual damping in the system

Manuscript received in nal form on 12 May 2003. Address correspondence to E. Kyriakides, Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 875706, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5706. E-mail: kyriakides@ ieee.org

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will not be enough to damp out the oscillations, thus leading the system into instability. In such a case, the protective devices in the system will be operated to isolate the problematic area from the rest of the system. Nevertheless, this will disrupt supply to customers and possibly cause a loss in production in the case of industrial consumers. A better damping representation may alert the engineer to take preventive measures in order to avoid a catastrophic event. In a number of damping tests performed in southeast Australia [2], it was demonstrated that the measured level of damping is often less than the damping predicted by studies. This can lead to sustained or growing oscillations. Therefore, the need for increased accuracy in modeling of damping for the purposes of power system stability studies is of primary importance. Finally, it is important that the frequency and the damping of oscillations are predicted accurately. In the case of interconnected systems, it is possible that the tie-line power oscillations between the systems cannot be adequately damped. In such a case, additional damping devices, such as power system stabilizers and static VAr compensators, may need to be added to the system in certain locations to increase the amount of tie-line damping.

Stability is a crucial issue to power systems. Without stability, a system cannot operate. In general terms, stability means that a system remains in a state of operating equilibrium under normal operating conditions, and that under the inuence of a disturbance, the system can regain equilibrium in a nite time. Specically for power systems, stability denotes a condition in which all of the synchronous machines of the system remain in synchronism with each other. An electric power system is usually perturbed continuously. Such perturbations can be the switching of loads, transmission lines, or faults at various parts of the system. Therefore, depending on the type of perturbation, stability is usually subdivided into two major categories: transient stability and steady-state stability. Transient stability is studied when a big change is applied to the system, such as a fault on the system and its subsequent clearance, or even a loss of one or more generators. The transient that follows a system perturbation is oscillating in nature, but if the system is stable, these oscillations will be damped in order to reach a new quiescent operating condition [3]. It should be noted that this behavior is also known as asymptotic stability. This means that the system contains damping forces that tend to reduce these oscillations. That is one of the main applications of damping and this is why it is necessary to model damping correctly in stability studies. On the other hand, steady-state stability is the problem of studying the stability under small load changes. Since these small load changes are small disturbances, they cannot cause loss of synchronism unless the system is operating at, or very near, its steady-state stability limit. This limit is denoted as the maximum power that can be transmitted on a certain circuit under specic operating conditions without loss of synchronism [4]. The steady-state stability limit of a circuit is greater than the transient stability limit under the same operating conditions. Both categories of stability are important to the overall system integrity and are studied extensively. In order to study the power system, a mathematical model of the system is generated. This model includes the components of the power system that inuence the electrical and mechanical torques of the machines. The

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models include the network conguration before, during, and after the transient, the loads and their characteristics, the synchronous machine parameters, the excitation system of each of the synchronous machines, the turbine and speed governor, and other components or controls that inuence in any way the mechanical torque of the generator. It is evident from the above that proper damping modeling and representation is necessary since damping is a crucial aspect of stability. Without damping, the oscillations will not decay, leaving the system operating in marginal stability, or even leading it into instability. Furthermore, if damping is not modeled with an acceptable accuracy, erroneous conclusions may be drawn from the stability studies. Such errors may include calculation of stability limits that are higher than the actual stability limits, in which case the system may be driven into instability inadvertently by its operator. Another possibility is that the calculated limits may be lower than the actual stability limits. In such a case, the system operator will not take advantage of the full capabilities of the system.

In general, power system damping is a multi-component eect. Damping may be caused due to turbine-generator torque versus speed, or due to load-frequency characteristics. Moreover, electrical damping exists due to rotor amortisseur (damper) winding currents through metal bars in the pole faces or through the steel rotor core as analyzed below. Excitation system operations, or the impact of a power system stabilizer, may also cause damping [5]. This damping can be positive or negative damping. Positive and negative damping are considered in Section 4. Negative damping may also be caused due to the speed governor. Finally, another form of damping may be the losses that are associated with the network and the generator stators following a transient [5]. The following sections oer a review of the various forms of damping that occur in power systems. 3.1. Damping Due to Damper Windings Damper (amortisseur) windings form one of the most important factors for damping in power systems. The action of damper windings is very crucial to the operation of electrical generators and to the stability of the power system as a whole. In the case of salient pole generators, damper windings consist of metal bars placed in slots in the pole faces and connected together at each end. These bars can be connected together via a closed ring on both sides of the pole. In this case they are called complete or connected damper windings. It is also possible that these bars are not connected in between the poles, but each pole has its own independent set of metal bars. In this case, the damper windings are known as incomplete, non-connected, or open windings [4]. In the case of round rotor generators (steam and gas turbines), their rotors are made up of solid steel forgings [6]. These generators do not usually have damper windings, but the solid steel rotor core provides a path for eddy currents and, therefore, produces the same eect as damper windings. In some cases, certain manufacturers provide for additional damping eects and negative sequence braking by using interconnected metal wedges in the eld winding slots or by providing separate copper rods underneath the wedges [6].

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There are several reasons for providing damper windings for salient pole synchronous machines. Damper windings provide starting torque for synchronous motors, condensers, and converters while they are used to suppress hunting. Hunting is the damped mechanical oscillation of the rotor about its new steady-state angle after the mechanical speed of the rotor has changed [7]. The suppression of hunting has been the rst application of the damper windings. Further, damper windings are used to damp oscillations that are started by switching or faults. The existence of damper windings in this case causes the oscillations to damp out faster. In the case of asymmetrical faults, the damper currents provide a braking torque, and, therefore, the accelerating torque is reduced during the fault. Another important application of damper windings is the balancing of the terminal voltage of each phase during unbalanced loading. Damper windings decrease the negative sequence reactance, thus decreasing the negative sequence voltage [4]. Additionally, during current surges in the armature circuit (in case of internal faults), the damper windings reduce the stress on the insulation of the eld winding by the induced ux through the windings. Finally, the damper windings provide additional torque for synchronizing generators. They help to pull the generator back into step after synchronism is lost because of a fault [4]. 3.2. Damping Due to Load-Frequency Characteristics Another factor that contributes signicantly to damping is the load-system interaction. Traditionally, until recently, more attention has been given to modeling generators, their controls, and transmission equipment, but not as much attention has been given to the modeling of loads with respect to their eect on damping. The accurate modeling of loads is rather complicated due to the large number of load components, their location, the fact that some loads are varying, and the lack of precise information about most of the loads. System studies have traditionally modeled loads as static P and Q consumptions, or a combination of constant impedance, constant current, or constant power load models [8]. In general, the load-system interaction can be modeled by decomposing the power system into a feedback system, as shown in Figure 1 [1]. A disturbance P may be initiated. Since the load has a feedback path to the system, it is possible that the overall system behavior is aected. Damping may improve or deteriorate depending on the load and the system parameters at the time of the disturbance. Of course, the system shown in Figure 1 can only analyze the eects on the system

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due to a single load. To overcome the inadequacy of this representation, all other loads that are not of interest are represented as part of the transfer function of the overall system. It is of primary importance to model correctly the loads of a system for the purposes of accounting for damping. Reference [1] explores the inuence of nonunity power factor loads on damping and shows that dynamic load models can aect the damping of electromechanical modes. A static representation of loads that exhibit dynamic behavior can often provide misleading results in terms of damping in the power system. On the other hand, it is impractical to represent each individual component of the load in the power system stability studies. Therefore, a compromise should be attained between full modeling and minimal modeling to obtain more reliable results. The modeling of dynamic loads is revisited in Section 5. 3.3. Damping Due to Excitation Systems and Power System Stabilizers Power system stabilizers (PSS) add damping to the generator rotor oscillations by controlling its excitation using auxiliary stabilizing signals [6]. The stabilizer produces an electrical torque in phase with the rotor speed deviations. The PSS belongs to the general category of supplementary excitation control, along with static VAR compensators (SVCs), and rectier current regulators (RCRs). These devices are widely used to provide damping, mainly to reduce low frequency oscillations. The eect of power system stabilizers is crucial to the stability of the overall power system. The PSS is helpful in damping oscillations caused by large disturbances and can restore steady state operating conditions. The PSS has little eect on the rst swing after a disturbance, but it has a very important role to play during subsequent swings [3].

Damper windings have four main eects on areas closely related to the stability of the overall system. These eects are: positive sequence damping, negative sequence braking during an unsymmetrical fault, the eect of the negative sequence impedance on positive sequence power output of the machine during an unsymmetrical fault, and dc braking [4]. Positive sequence damping is a desired eect since it reduces the magnitude of the machine oscillations, especially after the rst swing. This damping results from the torque caused by the interaction of the damper circuits with the magnetic eld in the air gap of the machine [3]. Low resistance damper windings further increase the amount of positive sequence damping. The main eect of positive sequence damping is to absorb energy from the oscillation after a fault, and prevent a machine from going out of step, provided it has survived the rst swing [4]. Nevertheless, the eect of positive sequence damping is often neglected in calculating power limits, since it does not signicantly increase the power that can be carried through the rst swing. Negative sequence braking occurs during asymmetrical faults and results from the interaction between the negative sequence air gap ux and the damper windings.

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This torque always retards the rotor; thus, it decreases the accelerating torque of the generator during a fault. The greatest braking torque is obtained by high resistance dampers [3, 5]. Low resistance dampers decrease the negative sequence reactance of a machine. This lowers the negative sequence impedance of the network when viewed from the point of fault. It also reduces the impedance of the fault shunt that represents all types of short circuits except the three phase short circuit [4]. This reduction in the impedance of the fault shunt needs to be taken into consideration since it weakens the tie between the machines during the fault. A fault location near the principal equivalent generators is taken as the most severe one, and is considered as a criterion for system stability [4]. Further, dc braking is another retarding torque that is produced by induced currents in the rotor windings (including dampers). These induced currents are caused by the dc component of the armature current during faults [3]. Another very important factor that may aect stability is the eect that the damper windings have on synchronous machine constants. Stability studies use some of the parameters of synchronous machines as their inputs, to calculate stability limits for a given system, and perform various case studies to determine whether the system will remain stable under various contingencies. Therefore, it is important that the generator parameters are supplied to the stability program as accurately as possible. Damper windings aect six of the synchronous machine constants. The subtransient reactances in both axes of the rotor (xd , xq ) are decreased by damper windings. The decrease in the value of the subtransient reactances depends on whether the damper windings are of the connected or nonconnected type. The negative sequence reactance x2 is the average of the two subtransient reactances and, therefore, that too is decreased by damper windings. Negative sequence reactance r2 is also aected. It may be high or low depending on the resistance of the damper windings. Finally, subtransient time constants d and q depend on the resistance and the equivalent inductance of the damper windings [4].

Due to the complexity of the models and the number of parameters in each model, it is customary to make some assumptions when modeling damping. Usually these assumptions are made to neglect parameters or eects that do not have a considerable impact on damping and on the stability of the power system. An overview of how damping is modeled in power systems will be presented in this section. Turbine generators can be modeled using the classical representation or full representation schemes. Classical representation models the generator as a constant internal voltage in series with a transient reactance, and considers the mechanical power input to be constant. Damping is not included in this model [5]. Any damping that is desired to be modeled needs to be separately represented. However, simulation studies have shown that the appropriate damping to be modeled varies considerably, depending on the location of the unit and on the frequency of oscillations. On the other hand, full representation models the excitation system, the governor, the generator and its saliency via ux linkages, and the mechanical input to the generator [5].

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The damper windings are included in the system model via the generator equations. Moreover, the excitation system and the governor are usually modeled in detail in stability programs. This means that damping or negative damping is also accounted for in the stability study. The elements that are not modeled in such a study are the steam damping, which is considered a very small component relative to damper windings and governor actions, and material damping, which is neglected since the relative motion between the turbine-generator masses is small [5]. Therefore, the only signicant components that are not modeled in the above system are the damping due to speed-torque characteristics and the damping due to load-frequency characteristics. Each of these factors is modeled dierently in various stability programs and needs to be explicitly specied [5]. Damper windings, as mentioned above, are modeled via the generator equations. This is the case whether a damper winding actually exists, or whether damping results from the eect of the solid steel rotor. Figure 2 shows the schematic diagram of a synchronous machine modeled with one eld winding and two damper windings, one on the direct axis (d-axis) and one on the quadrature axis (q-axis). The subscripts on the operational parameters in Figure 2 denote the circuit that these parameters are attributed to. For example, ra indicates the stator resistance in the phase a of the machine, while LF indicates the inductance in the eld winding. Depending on the synchronous machine and on the level of the accuracy required, the synchronous machine may be modeled with a varying number of damper windings from zero to ve [9]. For example, it is common practice to model a salient pole generator with one damper winding in each axis since the damper bars of this kind of generator are connected with continuous end rings and, therefore, form one squirrel-cage amortisseur circuit that is eective on both axes [9]. On the other hand, solid iron salient pole machines are usually modeled in more detail. In the case of round

Figure 2. Schematic diagram of a synchronous machine using one damper winding on each axis.

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rotor machines, it is common practice to model the generator with one damper winding in the quadrature axis and two or three damper windings on the direct axis. Figure 3 shows Model 2.1 as dened in IEEE Standard 1110-1991 [9]. It consists of one eld winding and one damper winding on both axes. Another variation that is often used in stability studies is Model 2.3 with one damper winding on the d axis and three damper windings on the q-axis. An equivalent circuit diagram of Model 2.3 can be seen in Figure 4. In the case of loads, each load may produce system damping depending on its own power-frequency characteristics. In case that the power system stability program does not allow for representation of the power-frequency characteristics in the load model, the damping coecient D needs to be adjusted for each turbinegenerator to account for load damping [5]. However, since there is no direct correlation between a generator and a load, this approach is only an approximation. It is very desirable to model the power-frequency characteristics of each load within the load model at the location of the load [5]. Finally, power system stabilizers are modeled using a variety of block diagrams, depending on the type of the stabilizer used. A brief description of a power system stabilizer (PSS), a static VAR compensator (SVC) and a rectier current regulator (RCR), as well as their block diagrams, is oered in [10]. A case study on the damping enhancement of a PSS on a power system is analyzed in [11].

Figure 3. Generator model 2.1 with one damper winding in each axis.

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Figure 4. Generator model 2.3 with one d-axis and three q-axis damper windings.

The need to accurately model damping eects is dictated by the requirement to utilize every megawatt of transmission capacity due to the increasing complexity of power networks. This requirement along with the extension of the rst swing stability limits has created transmission capability limitations due to insucient damping torque, and, therefore, multi-million dollar devices are being installed to correct for insucient damping [5]. Therefore, correct modeling of damping may indicate in some cases that these expensive devices are not needed. The number of generators that are represented by the classical model should be minimal. This is because the classical generator representation does not account for any losses in the generator eld and amortisseur windings. Therefore, the damping eects that correspond to these losses are neglected. Results in [5] indicate that there is no single value of the damping constant D that can be applied to a machine represented by a classical model and provide a reasonable approximation for damping. Therefore, it is desired that the majority of the machines be modeled using the full model representation. Another error in modeling damping results from the fact that at times the swing equation used is not the appropriate one. It is suggested that 2H + D = Tm Te (1)

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or an equivalent equation is used. This is the only swing equation that does not introduce damping errors [5]. In certain cases, constant mechanical input is assumed. If this mechanical input is assumed to be constant power, then an error is introduced if instead the prime mover is constant torque. The assumption for constant mechanical input is adopted when a machine is not equipped with a governor or when a governor is not modeled. Therefore, it is necessary to utilize a damping coecient D in order to avoid this error [5]. Finally, since there is no direct correlation between a generator and a load, one cannot adjust D for each turbine generator to model the damping caused by the load. As mentioned in Section 3.2, loads normally produce damping according to the loadfrequency characteristics of each load [4]. It is necessary to model the load-frequency characteristics of each load within the load model at the location of the load [5].

Damping in power systems is increasing in importance as the power systems grow into more complex and interconnected networks. Therefore, it is necessary to continue to perform research in the area of modeling of damping and perform case studies to determine those aspects of modeling that result in damping errors. In this way, these problematic areas will be investigated in order to further improve the damping representation in stability studies. It is strongly suggested that the proper swing equation (1), as noted in Section 6, is utilized in order to obtain reliable results with regards to damping. Further, the classical representation of generators should be avoided in power system stability studies except for a limited number of machines that are electrically distant from the area under study [5]. As far as loads are concerned, these should be modeled in great detail in order to represent the damping eects resulting from their load-frequency characteristics. It is of great importance to model the loads at their physical points of existence for improved accuracy in the calculation of damping [8]. A denite improvement of damping representation is made by including a larger number of damper windings in the model of the generators. Nevertheless, this may not be practical due to the increased number of the equations involved. The cost to benet ratio in this case depends on the system under study and the eects of improved damping representation on stability. Development of models that are more accurate and capture all the eects of damping in the electrical circuits can also be of importance in the improvement of the representation of damping in stability studies. However, the same argument as above may hold. The improvement over using a more accurate or detailed model may not justify the increase in memory requirements or execution time for stability studies. The improved modeling of power system stabilizers and excitation systems is certainly another research area that deserves attention. With the increasing number of power system stabilizers installed and the increasing sophistication of excitation systems, it is necessary to model these devices accurately to capture the full eects that they have on damping, especially during a transient.

8. Conclusions

The increasing complexity and the level of interconnection of todays power systems dictate the need to ensure that the power system remains in stable operating

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equilibrium under any contingency. Damping is a major component of power system stability since it reduces the oscillations after a disturbance. It is therefore necessary to model damping as accurately as possible in order to ensure the applicability of power system stability studies to the actual system behavior. Damping is a multi-component contribution. Damping may exist due to actual damper windings installed in the pole faces of generators or may be initiated due to induced currents in the solid steel rotor. Modern devices such as power system stabilizers also provide additional damping in cases where the machine damping is not sucient. Further, various types of loads provide damping to the system depending on their load-frequency characteristics. No matter whether the damping eects are caused by actual damper windings, by the solid steel rotor, or by another eect, the eects to the generator performance and to stability are the same. Therefore, care must be taken so as to represent the damping eects correctly in any stability study. Insucient representation or overestimation of damping may lead to inadvertent errors that may in turn cause outages or other catastrophic events due to instability. A great ongoing research eort has been reported in the literature ever since the problem of stability became crucial in the operation of multi-machine power systems. This eort is continued to improve the current damping models and to study how the dierent components in the system aect damping and, consequently, the stability of the system.

References

[1] I. A. Hiskens and J. V. Milanovi, Load modelling in studies of power system c damping, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 17811788, Nov. 1995. [2] B. R. Korte, A. Manglick, and J. W. Howarth, Interconnection damping perfor mance tests on the Southeast Australian power grid, Colloquium of CIGRE Study Committee 38, Paper No. 3.7, Florianopolis, Brazil, Sep. 1993. [3] P. M. Anderson and A. A. Fouad, Power System Control and Stability, Vol. I, Ames, Iowa: The Iowa State University Press, 1977. [4] E. W. Kimbark, Power System Stability, Vol. III, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1956. [5] B. L. Agrawal, P. M. Anderson, C. Concordia, R. G. Farmer, A. A. Fouad, P. Kundur, W. W. Price, and C. W. Taylor, Damping representation for power system stability studies, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 151157, Feb. 1999. [6] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994. [7] A. E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley Jr., and S. D. Umans, Electric Machinery, 4th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1983. [8] IEEE Task Force Report, Load representation for dynamic performance analysis, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 472482, 1993. [9] IEEE Guide for Synchronous Generator Modeling Practices in Stability Analyses, IEEE Standard 11101991, Mar. 1991. [10] L. Wang, A comparative study of damping schemes on damping generator oscillations, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 613619, May 1993. [11] X. Yang, A. Feliachi, and R. Adapa, Damping enhancement in the Western U.S. power system: A case study, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 12711278, Aug. 1995.

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