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Magical Theory (http://www.myhogwarts.co.

uk) Dear Reader If you come from a magical household, you may be familiar with The Tale o f the Odds-and-Endsman. The Odds-and-Endsman handles all of the most menial tasks of the village: connecting handles to cauldrons, replacing the lens of telescop es, and removing rust from the chain that restrained the village dragon. The vil lagers decide that this mans contribution to their village is entirely too small, and end up feeding him to the dragon for his laziness. Rapidly, the town falls in to disarray. Potions wont brew properly, spells dont have the same effect, and the village animals run amok. Finally, the dragons chain breaks and no one knows how to repair them. The entire village is obliterated and everyone dies due to thei r under appreciation of the Odds-and-Endsman. Of course, this tale has numerous moral applications, but rather than delve too deep, I would like to compare the Odds-and-Endsman to this particular textbook. Each year, countless students show up to class with all of their textboo ks except for Magical Theory, claiming that they thought it was optional, since it isnt for any real class. The teachers pre-order 20 extra copies of the textbook ea ch year specifically because of this. Yes, the textbook does not deal with any s pecific field of the Magical Arts; instead, it touches on the essence of them al l. Magical Theory discusses what it means to be magical and how to best use ones magical powers. These topics are the odds and ends of the magical world, the sti tching that holds the robes together. In revising the textbook, we discussed the elements of magical life miss ing from the original Adalbert Waffling text. Specifically, we added an entire s ection dealing with magical transportation, and expanded on the importance of vi sualization in light of recent research from the Ministry of Magic. While much o f the original text suggests the inconclusive nature of Wafflings ideas, recent w andlore and spellcasting research allows us to address such matters in a more de finite manner. One of the most tedious task we faced was trimming down some of t he 2,718 footnotes in Wafflings original edition (one of which read merely I just notice a red hair on the back of one of my toes, another which rambled about the possible dietary benefits of the juice of beetle eyes for twelve pages). Howeve r, we recognized that these were, in a sense, the odds-and-ends of Wafflings text book, and have preserved the more on-topic ones. One day in mid-February, as I compiled these books, a friend of mine ask ed me, If you had to choose only one of these textbooks to share with a Muggle, w hich would it be? I immediately answered that the entire hypothetical situation w ould breach the Statute of Secrecy on various accounts (incidentally, we were wo rking on that portion of the History of Magic textbook at the time). While each of these textbooks is a pivotal piece of a magical education, this textbook defi nes a magical education and its value. Hence, if I ever did wish to grossly viol ate the Statute, I would share this book with a Muggle, so that he or she might understand the odds and ends of our village, our community. Best wishes Mallory Harris Director of Textbook Development Antoinette D. Writer Amelia H. Writer Kathryn Harris (Slytherin) Hogwarts - Currently attending Writer A Hatstall between Ravenclaw and Slytherin, I knew from a young age that I was s pecial. When my Hogwarts letter came on my 11th birthday, it was of little surpr ise to me. As a half-blood witch entering Slytherin, as well as being Asian, I s

tood out from the very beginning. I excelled in my academics, especially Charms and Magical Theory, and was offered to take my O.W.L.s in my third year and my N .E.W.T.s in my fifth. However, I chose the full Hogwarts experience over an adva nced education. During the break before my final year at Hogwarts, I was offered a job writing the new Charms and Magical Theory textbooks for myHogwarts, due t o my expertise and knowledge. That slowly progressed into an offer to teach Char ms, which I was delighted to accept. I look forward to teaching the new first ye ars, and welcome to Hogwarts! Stacey L. Editor Katie Lawrence (Ravenclaw) Editor Hogwarts 07 Growing up in the small town of Ithaca, NY, my world was filled with magic. I wa s fortunate enough to be raised in a wizarding family - both of my parents atten ded Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry - so I was constantly surrounded by magic. While attending Hogwarts myself, I majored in Charms and Magical Theor y, and took as many music classes as I could. I am currently working as the Edit or in Chief for the Daily Prophet, as I love grammar and editing, although my tr ue love is music, and I hope to one day get a job teaching music at a Muggle ele mentary school. In my free time you are likely to see me roaming the school grou nds to read a book by the lake or visiting a Care of Magical Creatures class. I am thrilled to be back at Hogwarts working for the Daily Prophet and I look forw ard to meeting new students and staff as each year progresses! Hannah S. Writer Kirsten T. Writer Beginner Magical Theory An Introduction to the Theory of Magic The theory behind magic is a subject that has baffled the brightest witch es and wizards for ages. There seems to be no rhyme or reason for how magic is s o easily controlled by some, yet unable to be performed by others. Though many c urrent witches and wizards have written about the subject,(1) we are no closer t o understanding it now than we were when Artemis Higglypunks 579 a.d. pamphlet en titled Forsooth, I See Magic! was written. All that can be definitively said about magic is that it must be called upon and often requires a wand to be properly performed. Of course, there are countless exceptions to even these basic rules, but the study of those exceptions are rese rved for advanced students. In a basic classroom, all magic is performed with ac ute concentration on wand movement and spell pronunciation. While it is doubtle ss that many young students have experienced sudden and unintended magic as a re sult of intense emotions, it is important to stress that this does not constitut e wandless or nonverbal magic. These two branches are reserved for the most soph isticated of students as control is of utmost importance. It is generally accept ed that all magic is affected by ones emotions, but magic controlled by extreme e motion is subject to a number of accidents and is greatly looked down upon by th e magical community as a whole. This textbook was written in the hopes that students such as yourselves would be able to better understand and facilitate the gift with which you were born. Tha t being said, the majority of beginner level study will revolve around controlli ng and performing spells. Many of you may protest this, having seen parents, old

er siblings, and/or other adult wizards perform magic with ease, but this was do ubtless the product of hours and hours of practice at this prestigious school. F rom Charms, to Transfiguration, and even to Potions, correct pronunciation and w and movement are the keys to the casting of successful spells. Incorrect pronunc iation can lead to any number of serious consequences, the least of which involv e a buffalo landing on your chest. Challenges faced by students Maintaining a spell is one of the first hurdles that many new students face, as it is not something that can be truly taught. As with many aspects of magic, thi s is something that is felt individually. Many compare it to the first rush of f inding a wand that is truly yours, saying that there is no way to describe it an d that the magic simply takes on a life of its own. Preserving the innate connec tion between the magic that is a part of your being and the actual physical prod uction that manifests itself takes intense concentration. This will become secon d nature as your education progresses, but in your first year of study (and, in some cases, even beyond this) there will be several instances where a spell may seem impossible to maintain. Learning and mastering the determination and attent ion required for this will be essential to furthering your studies of all branch es of magic. Along with this, however, comes the incredible amount of possibility for error. As mentioned above, incorrect pronunciation can lead to disastrous results. Typi cally, incorrect wand movement leads to a spell simply not occurring, though in some extreme cases a flick of the wrist rather than a swish has led to some inte resting and not all together desired results.(2) No matter how many times your p rofessors stress this, young students will still daydream and gaze out of window s rather than pay attention to what they are doing with a potentially dangerous and highly powerful object. That being said, a section of this book will be dedi cated to learning how to reverse spells gone awry. Deepening knowledge As your education progresses, your learning will become more abstract. Though le arning specific spells and their practice will always be a part of your educatio n, the theory behind the magic will become more and more integral to your progre ssion. While knowledge of basic Latin certainly aids in the progression of magic al learning, an understanding of new spells and magical objects does not come ab out without serious study and attention. As Artemis Higglypunk wrote in his pamp hlet, Mae twf hud yn dibynnu o arloesedd y wrach deallus a phenderfyniad y dewin parhaus.(3) Being one of the truly great masters of magic, and one of the first t o put his knowledge on paper, his words merit study and attention. Along with Mo rgana and Merlin, he laid the groundwork for most magical theory studied today. The studies of Morgana differ from Higglypunks in many respects, and at one time were studied more rigorously than his at Hogwarts. With the placement of Eoessa Sakndenberg as headmistress in 1487, this practice was abolished, and the writin gs of Higglypunk were once again accepted as the true theory of magic. There hav e been various attempts to revive it, but none of have been successful at the sc hool.(4) What Higglypunk noted as a result of his study of the British magical population was that the most important contribution to producing impressive magical feats was simply intelligence. Magic should not be performed haphazardly or without th ought. This is not to say that magic cannot take place under these circumstances . On the contrary, magic is often performed by reckless witches and wizards. Fol klore tells us that this lead to the invention of the wand. It is likely that so me variation of the wand was in use long before Higglypunks time in regions such as Northern Africa and Asia, where magic was already widely practiced. The wand that we are familiar with today is said to have been crafted by him for careless

witches and wizards he encountered.(5) According to legend, he chose trees that were already known throughout even Muggle society to have magical properties,(6 ) and then sealed the wood with the essence of various creatures prized for thei r intelligence. The wand then served as an intermediary, the essence of the comb ined magical objects tempering the magic of the holder.(7) Since then, wands hav e been somewhat altered. Where once wands somewhat diminished magic, they now en hance it. This is partially due to the increased intelligence of the average wit ch and wizard thanks to the formation of Hogwarts and experimentation in wand cr eation. Intermediate study and beyond As you enter the final stages of your magical education, you will encounter incr edibly difficult magic. Nonverbal spells and wandless magic will be the first of many obstacles. While this would have been second nature to Higglypunk and his contemporaries, we have since evolved to the point that many wizards require a w and and a verbal incantation to produce magic at all. This is not to say that we have become deficient or are hindered by this need. Higglypunk himself admits t hat his magic was at times erratic and unpredictable. Except in times of severe emotion, our society has all but eliminated that problem. Beyond this, you will encounter magic that is difficult simply because it goes against reason. As note d earlier, Higglypunk inferred from his studies that intelligence is to be cheri shed above all other attributes in witches and wizards. This intelligence was no t limited to book knowledge, but rather emphasized the ability to differentiate right from wrong and making the correct choices in relation to the performance o f spells. Unforgivable Curses fly in the face of this. To cause pain, death, or to rid someone of their free will go against the morals of almost every witch an d wizard. There are notable exceptions in Gellert Grindelwald and He-Who-Must-No t-Be-Named, both of whom reportedly performed these spells with ease. In line with this is the practice of Legilimency and Occulmency. The former is m uch harder to master because of its inherent lack of humanity. The latter, thoug h certainly difficult, often comes much easier to students because of the human beings instinctual desire want to protect himself. Becoming an Animagus is simila rly difficult for most wizards because to become an animal you must give up your humanity. Most are not able to accomplish the full transformation because their mind resists giving up control, leading to an inability to harness the immense amount of magic needed for the transformation. Your study will culminate with learning both the restricting and inventing of sp ells. Restricting magic can refer to either halting the magic of others, or impe ding ones own magic. The former is sometimes employed by parents who must regular ly have interaction with the Muggle world and worry about possible slip ups by y oung children. The process for this is quite extensive and at times can result i n a loss of the childs magical abilities if performed incorrectly.(8) The latter is very rarely seen in our society, and usually only results in extreme circumst ances. Such instances include a wizard or witch marrying a Muggle and wishing to completely immerse themselves in Muggle society, or as the result of a traumati c experience which causes a person to create a kind of block of their own magic. (9) The invention of spells is something that is highly regulated by the Ministr y of Magic. In your intermediate studies, you will encounter numerous magical ob jects, all of which underwent complex and rigorous testing by the Ministry to co me into common usage. Spells face much the same regulation, though new spells of ten go undetected until they are discovered by a Ministry official. Though the study of Magical Theory is sometimes difficult, this will be a very i mportant aspect of your magical education. In you and your generation lie the fu ture of the wizarding race, and we can only grow in knowledge and ability with t he help of your determination and innovation. Magical Theory will help you not o nly become a better witch or wizard, but it will also aid you in becoming a cont

ributor to a long history of prestigious Hogwarts graduates. Footnotes: 1) See Albus Dumbledores The Mystery of Magic and Frederica Dodges How We Do What We Do 2) Recall the Ministry of Magic toilet travesty of 1985 3) Translated from Higglypunks native Welsh: The growth of magic depends on t he innovation of the intelligent witch and determination of the persistent wizar d. 4) Most recently with Headmaster Phineas Black (1913-1925), who has since b een dubbed the least popular head the school has ever had. Morganas teachings hav e instead lived on primarily in Scandinavian and Eastern European schools, namel y Durmstrang. 5) Ollivanders wand shop, which has been in operation since 382 B.C., used d ifferent methods and products than were introduced by Higglypunk. The methods us ed to make these ancient artifacts have been lost to time. 6) For some unknown reason, this knowledge has since been lost in their soc iety 7) This will be explained in much greater detail in Section 12: How Magic W orks 8) Though this can cause a person to be labeled a squib, this particular prac tice is not the only reason that squibs occasionally result from a magical paren t 9) The clinical term for this is Psychogenic Amnesia, which manifests throu gh anything from complete memory loss, to specific skill loss, to the inability to perform magic Magical words: giving a message to an intent Magic is loud. It is a bang into the world. It is also soft; a twist of a tongue , or a whispered word. Spells are made up of a language of power; a language tha t is formed by many tongues. The words themselves seem mysterious and are a note worthy place to begin our discussion. They are the key to opening the power with in you, and they give a message to the most vital part of magic: your intent. Visualization and intent Magic does not just happen, and it is not a button you can just press. Magic is guided and manipulated, and in order to guide and manipulate magic, you need to know what is it that you want to do. As your magical education continues, you wi ll gradually grow to master and to remember spells. Somewhere along the way you may forget that you are doing more than invoking a trigger that causes a reactio n. As this happens your power will weaken, certain wands will get bored, and you will discover that you may not be capable of more complicated magic. This is because as witches and wizards, we only use words and wand movements (th e triggers) as a means to unify, solidify and control something far more chaotic : our intent. Magic responds to intent and not to wand-flicking or word-speaking , which we use as a guide for our magic to flow into form, so that it is control led when it is executing our intent. As you have probably witnessed, children us ing magic when they are younger only do magic that coincides with their desires (what they want). What we want, however, is really vaguer than what magic produc es for us, and it requires a lot of focus on the part of the witch or the wizard to intend for something to happen in a very specific way. I want a dog for example, is what we may intend for the magic to do, but what type of dog? What colour? How big? When do we want it? What precisely is a dog? Magic does not understand any language; it just knows what is in our hearts and our mi nds. Visualization is required so that your intent is clear in your mind and the refore clear to the magic with which you are working. What you and I see in our

heads when we want a dog may vary. So how is it that we have a standard set of spe lls? Words and visualization Spell words were born about the same time that words were. We started communicat ing with each other and in order to do so, we had to ensure that the ideas we we re sharing were the same. Words were born as a way to communicate these like ide as. Similarly, words are used in spells to communicate like intents. Before wands, we used verse, poems, chants and sometimes songs in order to give us more control over the magic that we were producing. We added the additional d etails and limitations (what we did and did not want) into the additional words used to cast the spell. Because we all could understand the spell and what we we re asking for as if we were just talking to the magic, we began to use the same words when we wanted the same effects. It was not important that we were saying the same information to the magic as if it could hear us, but rather that we wer e creating a similar idea or visualization of what we intended in our minds. We were able to, using similar words, duplicate intent. We were doing the same thin g our ancestors had already begun to imagine. Lingua Theory The Celtics believed that within names there was power; that giving a name to so mething was enough to change it. Theorists today believe the very same thing has been true since the dawn of man. In order to communicate amongst ourselves and to evolve language into words beyo nd pictures, we had to start designating a series of sounds to objects, so that when we heard those sounds we knew the object that was trying to be brought to m ind. Nouns are nothing more than names, and we often forget the power of the nam e. Take colours, for instance. We have no way of knowing what colours look like to others, if they are registered the same way or not. We are also aware that many humans, both Muggle and magical, can be colour-blind. That being said, no matter how anyone sees the colour red, we can all identify it as red. It becomes its nam e, rather than what it is. We stop thinking of the colour as the colour and begi n defining it within our minds as its name. We do this for various every day wor ds. How many times have you called a broom by its type, rather than a flying broo mstick? Names not only generalize complex information, where all of one type of item can be called one word, but they also allow us to differentiate objects from one an other. The general term colour can become red, or magenta, or fire red. Due to the ability to clearly define complex ideas, words have been found to be the most reliable method to manifest intent in a specific way. Lingua Theory mi xes the theory of names by the Celtics into the magical theory of the use of int ent in spell casting. This theory explains that verbal incantations help a witch or wizard create a defined idea of what it is that they are going to manifest. After all, if we all think of Lumos as light, then all it takes to visualize what we want is simply saying and using the name. Without the words to define the ide a, the definition of concept for the magical shape and creation rely on the stea diness of the caster. In this way, words are used as a tool to ease our use of m agic. A World of Words So what is the difference between Lumos and light? We often recognize already define

d spell words, especially those from the original books of spells,(10) as magical words and not terms to use in everyday life. The only difference between the wor d Lumos and the word light is the language. Lumos is derived from the Latin lumen, m eaning light. Assuming you can read this textbook, you already know what light m eans. Spells can come from all over, just as witches and wizards exist all over the wo rld. Not all spells are used in all areas of the world and, in fact, most spells from various regions are derived from that regions language. In Europe, and othe r Euro-cultured countries, Latin was an ancestral language. We therefore see in these regions an explicit use of Latin in spellwork. If you travel beyond Europe , however, you will encounter other spells in different tongues that often produ ce the same results as those we use in this continent. The core of all of this is that language is what we use to communicate, and we a ll speak different languages that we can understand. It is the understanding tha t is important. More often than not, if you are a native English speaker, you wi ll stick to using words from European-based languages to do your spell work. Thi s is because you can better understand the message of the word and thus the exac t intent of the spell. Normally you would imagine that so long as you can translate the spell, you shou ld be fine. Unless you are a linguist or have studied the language and culture o f the spell in depth for a long period of time, there may be nuances in the spel l that will bar its proper use, and may result in a backfired spell. For instanc e, some languages use tones, and their spells may incorporate tones more than me aning. You could understand what the word means, but by saying it wrong you will find yourself in a mess. Additionally, other languages do not mean the same thi ng by certain words, or do not use them culturally in the same way. This would t hrow off your intent as well as visualization of the spell. This is not to say that all spells you will encounter will be European. It simpl y means that when you do encounter a foreign spell, you need to be cautious of t he meaning, the culture, and the pronunciation more so than you are of European languages. Do not attempt to guess at spells. It is important to study their mea ning and their effects carefully to better understand what magic you will be per forming and how it will work. By doing this you will ensure that your intent and visualization are in tune with your controller word and wand movements. Do My Bidding! Before you jump up and point your wand at something and shout Come here! realize t hat it took various witches and wizards many years to perfect the magical spells you will be learning in class. There is a reason for this. Spell creation is an advanced magical skill and is only successful when the witch or wizard is able to sit down and work on all of the boring equations, harmonies, intents, movemen ts, and words. There is more to a spell then simply voicing your commands. Words themselves in their meaning are important for intent, but pronunciation incorpo rates rhythm and sound within the word as well, and the wand movements also need to be in tune. It is more than just a word. So no, not just any word will do. Parts of Speech Normally, spells do not form sentences, since the point of post-Muggle separatio n magic creation has been the ease and simplicity of a spell. The longer a spell is, the more likely a witch or wizard will be discovered mid-cast, hence our av oidance of using songs and chants. This does not mean that spells themselves are all nouns, like Lumos. In fact, there are a number of spells that are more than o ne word.

The parts of speech that are used in the spell often clue you into the type of s pell that you are casting, specifically the immediate effects. This is important because the spell is supposed to be giving you a clear intent which you are to visualize. Many witches and wizards, however, ignore the in-depth understanding of a spell and focus only on what the words are, how to say them, how to move th eir wand and the effect. Their magic is weaker for it. Noun spells tend to summon and/or create things that were not there. The noun in the spell is usually the same as, or similar to, the thing that is being summon ed or created. Lumos creates light. Other spells allow you to insert a noun into t heir casting in order to specify the thing you wish to summon or create, like Ac cio, for example. A noun can also exist in a spell when you are undoing a summon ing or creation, or if you wish to do anything to the noun. It is important to n ote the noun in the spell and what is representing that noun when you cast the s pell. The next most important part of speech is the verb. A verb is employed in action -based spells. The verb will usually be in its command form. The verb tells you wh at is happening, or what will happen. Oppugno, meaning I attack, is a spell that cau ses something to attack a specific source. The attacker can be something like bi rds, but since a noun is not specified, it is up to the caster to determine both the noun and the target. Adjectives and adverbs are typically used in spells that wish to apply a trait o r condition to the target of the spell. The adjectives and adverbs will describe the desired condition that should be applied or used. The Full Body Bind Curse, Petrificus Totalus (which means Total petrification), applies a full or total frozen state to the target. This makes the target appear to be in a full body bind. You can mix all the types of speech together naturally in order to gain a more s pecific spell. Verbs combined with nouns will cause nouns to act in the specifie d way. Adjectives applied to nouns will ensure a more specific target to the alt eration. Adjectives applied to verbs give the verb a more specific nature, resul ting in a different effect than if the verb was used alone. Practical Word Practice Look at the following spells, and using what you have learned, please determine the intent of each spell. Have your teacher check your work. Stupefy Spongify Finite Fera Verto Footnotes: 10) The first book of spells was compose of well known and common spells by the CIM Verbalization in Magic Bringing words into incantations began long before words were even consid ered. Witches and wizards back when we were a part of non-magic society and not separate, in the most ancient of times, used only our voices to invoke sound. Th at sound then offered us a level of control over our magic that we did not have prior. These sounds we used in order to express emotion, to mimic what we wante d the magic to do, as well as to bring our state of consciousness under a level

of control and focus through a trace-like state where we could easily become one with the magic that we were using. Long before wands even came into being, magi cal humans would use shouts, chants, and melody in order to invoke the magic wit hin us, in order to communicate what we wanted with our whole being. Magic witho ut sound would not be considered for millennia. Chanting and singing were by far the most common ways of using magic back then. The melodies and rhythms could and did bring us into a more meditative state. We were able to throw off the distractions of the world around us and focus solely on the idea in our heads and the magic we wanted to make. The flourishing of ch ants and magic also could be enjoyed by those around us, even the non-magical hu mans, as entertainment as well. Chanting and singing also allowed us to bring in to the magic a certain control and manipulation of emotions, which we will discu ss later on. What our ancestors were doing back then by chanting, shouting, mumbling, and singing, even if the sounds themselves were nonsensical, we take for grante d today. The art of communication requires that the person communicating not onl y have an idea in their head, but that they are able to express that idea as acc urately as possible so that others can gain that same idea in their head. Magic relies on a very similar concept as communication does; in order to control your magic and make it do what you want, you first need to have the idea in your hea d, and then you need to express that idea as accurately as possible with your ma gic. As we developed as humans we gradually started to create and use languages as a means to communicate with one another. We attached both images and sounds to the ideas that were in our heads and developed a system of communicating like ideas between ourselves. Sounds began to solidify into the words we use today (see se ction 1). However for the longest time we still maintained the use of chants and song in order to invoke magic. Many more archaic spells, thus, often resembled poems, or verse, and employed patterns in their form as well as some music. Over time, as our language became more complex, these spells seemed more bulky than practical. Added in with our departure and need to hide from our non -magical counterparts as time went on, the more showy the spell-casting, often t he more dangerous. Furthermore by this time we had already developed a tool to h elp us better control our magic - the wand (See section 10) - so there was no lo nger any reason for a spell to maintain a longer form. Witches and wizards began to create brief spells of a few words (as discussed in section 1). Incantations Since the new simple structure restricted the element of sound in our ma gic down to brief incantations, we needed to regain the connection with the magi c somehow. Not, of course, that we realized it was lost initially. In 132 A.D. a t the first meeting of the Council of the Empires Wizards, the first official boo k of spells was created, written in Latin. After the fall of the Western Roman E mpire, many European witches and wizards discovered that as the languages around them gradually became more local, spells stopped working exactly the same if at all. As the matter was researched it was found that the slight changes in the l anguage in addition to numerous accents had created new ways to pronounce old wo rds. Without the Central Roman government to maintain standards for Latin, th e language itself would fade into non-existence. Since the words used were creat ed by phonics, employing not only meaning (as discussed in section 1), but also employing in a short space a use of rhythm and tone as well, it was discovered t hat the chants and songs of our ancestors had a greater influence over the magic than we had initially thought. The art of creating a spell (which you will lear n about in advanced magic) was found to be more than throwing words together, an d the sound of the spell, as we will discover, is just as valuable as the meanin g of the words.

In a decision made by a later Council, it was determined that in order t o maintain the spells in the first spell book, as they were originally created, the same pronunciation had to be used. However it should be noted that due to pe rsecutions and the need for secrecy, wizard Latin was always different than offi cial Latin, and both were different from common Latin. Furthermore, the decision wasnt made until long after the fall of Western Rome and by that time most remai ning Latin was already far different than it was during the time of Rome. This a ccounts for why some Latin spells do not have true Latin pronunciation. Other sp ells that seem Latin but were developed later on should be termed as Italian, wh ich pronounces words differently than Latin. Later spells created in various lan guages would be accepted with their original pronunciations respected, and no al terations could be done. Hogwarts was founded a century after England had been d ivided into its northern and southern parts, partially due to the need to educat e young witches and wizards in this standard of magic. Later, other schools woul d be founded for the same purpose. Pronunciation As this text has previously mentioned, using certain magical words and p hrases in conjunction with a wand is the basis for all spellwork. Verbal spellca sting involves two essential components which must be executed in unison; a corr ectly spoken incantation and a wand movement are required for the spell to be su ccessful. Magic itself is impossible to detect with the naked eye. Certainly, on e may see the results of a magical discharge, but the essence of magic exists mo re in the theoretical realm, as ideas do. To cast a spell is to grasp onto the i dea of a magical act and then to put that magic into motion. As spoken language is the act of conveying ideas through sound, this makes verbal incantations idea l for spellcasting. Verbals can be whispered or shouted, but force of which the spell is cast is not effected by the force of which it is spoken; only the pronu nciation can change an incantation. How much does the proper pronunciation of an incantation weigh on the co rrect casting of a spell? Even the slightest of flawed inflections on a certain word can impede the progress of the spell, or change it entirely. In the end, no matter how intent the spellcaster may be, no matter how fixated they are on the inception of a spell, the magic will not manifest itself unless the incantation is enunciated precisely. Therefore, is the language of spells truly a language of communication between the spellcaster and the spell, or is it an expression o f magic itself? Why should either answer be false? The nature of the incantation is much more complex than simple either/or logic. In fact, the pronunciation of an incantation can be seen as a trinity composed of magical essence, magic user , and the original spellcrafter. Ascertaining the correct accent to use in verbal spells can be tricky. A lthough various spells in Latin require a more precise knowledge of the vernacul ar and pronunciation, many languages have unique accents within the language its elf, according to regional dialects. For example, while there is a gargantuan le ap between British English and American English as far as speaking patterns go, neither of them represent a unified manner of speech in their countries. British English is made up of a multitude of provincial accents, which can make the com prehension between two native speakers of English range from excellent to very p oor.(11) In the light of such demanding linguistics, it is difficult to judge if there truly is such a thing as a correct accent, or if the spoken incantation depends entirely on the accent of the spellcrafter. The following chart is a guide to the soft Roman sounds that occur in a majority of magical spells. Latin only used 23 characters: Letter Name

Sound A (eh) Ah/eh B B bah C* C Keh D D deh E (ee) ee/ eh F eff ffeh G** G Geh/ ji H ch heh I (eye) Eye/ih Iu*** n/a You K K keh L hl Leh M ehm mah N ehn Nah/neh O (Oh) Oh/oo P P pah Q kwu keh R aR Rhi/Rheh S ehs Seh T T

tah V/W**** V Veh/Wah X ehks Ks Z Z Zi Y wh ya *C should never be pronounced Seh when using Latin spells. **G should never be pronounced Jah when using Latin spells (Jah is for Italian). *** Iu was often translated into a J later on. **** In Latin W did not exist, and V was pronounced like a W. However, i n order to reduce confusion Vs were eventually turned into Ws. It is no wonder that pronunciation guides are a key part of magical text books; without them, it would be impossible to pass on spells to the next genera tion of witches and wizards. Students should pay attention to origin as well as pronunciation, as the origin of a spell can change the pronunciation. Advanced s pells may include languages where pronunciation also involves tones, so students should always check. As it stands, there has been so much ancient magic which h as already been lost to time, although new spells are continuously invented to t ake their places. Part of this bereavement can be attributed to the decay and lo ss of viable texts concerning detailed pronunciations of old spells. Many magics found in dead languages could be lost to the magical community forever; how man y more spells will slip through the fingers of time due to negligence?(12) There is simply no way to cast a verbal spell when one lacks the pronunciation. When first learning a spell we take the time to repeat the words without the wand movements to ensure proper enunciation. All students should take the t ime to slow down and draw out the spell into its sound components. Take the time to see how you would write out the following words into sound components using the above chart as a reference. Have your teacher check your work. The following are beginner spells that use the Latin pronunciation: Occulus Reparo Wingardium Leviosa The following are beginner spells that use modified Latin pronunciation: Aparecium Engorgio Mispronunciations It is important to note that magic is real. It is made up of stuff. You are a ma gician; you are manipulating this stuff. If you are not clear in your mind, in y our heart, and in your words, then your magic is not as strong or clear. Pronunc iation is vital but so is ensuring that you are actually saying the spell. Spell s were not written without purpose, and at the beginner lever you do not hold th e control or ability to cast spells without the incantations. Magic is a delicat e skill using very strong forces, and it is advised that when verbalizing you sh

ould respect that a trip of the tongue can have some very strong consequences. Magical beings, witches and wizards included, thrive on their magical harmony, a nd their perceived failure in magic is a crushing blow to their self-confidence, which may inspire further mispronunciations and miscasts. While psychological t rauma is troubling, incorrect pronunciation can be the most physically dangerous of the mistakes a spellcaster can make. Adding unneeded emphasis or extra sound s may result in an entirely different spell being cast, often with perilous resu lts. The best case scenario would be that the magic refuses to perform to the ca ster s wishes, while the worst action the miscast spell could take would be to f ly back on the inept caster.(13) Unfortunately, horribly miscast spells are depr essingly commonplace, but with further education and a careful consideration of incantations, it is possible to practice the magical arts safely and confidently . Mumbling the spell or intoning a bunch of sounds in order to pretend you know th e words you are supposed to be saying can result in either the spell not working , or backfiring (see section 6). More often the spell will simply not work; howe ver, do not assume that because you think you are speaking gibberish that the ma gic will agree. You can very well accidently do another spell entirely. Practice without a wand if you are not sure. Mumbling is usually a result of being on th e spot and not knowing what you are doing while in class. However, some witches and wizards still mumble despite knowing the magic and intending to cast the spe ll. This results in the same potential disasters as mispronunciation and general mumbling nonsense. It is important to note that magic needs to be done with con fidence. If you cannot say the spell clearly and audibly then do not say the spe ll at all. If you want to say the spell, say it clearly making sure you enunciat e all the way through. There are two common reasons why a witch or wizard may find themselves verbalizi ng an incantation incorrectly: hiccups and sneezes. Hiccups interrupt speech and add sounds that can alter the magic you produce. This includes but is not limit ed to backfire (section 6), partial/pre-emptive casting, or voiding the spell al together. It is recommended to avoid magic until hiccups are under control. If m agic cannot be avoided, try to limit your spells to ones you can complete betwee n hiccups. However, even this is risky. Sneezing is an unexpected, and thus unpr edictable and uncontrollable, interruption to spell casting. Sneezing in the mid dle of a spell will usually halt the spell altogether and add an achoo. Unlike hic cups, sneezing is fairly safe. A sneeze will usually give a hint that it is comi ng and you can stop the spell before it completes, whereas a hiccup may continue the spell and thus disrupt it. It should be noted that an accent is not an excuse for poor pronunciation. Pract ice and careful speaking should by all accounts ensure that witches and wizards with the strongest accents are still able to pronounce the spell in an accurate manner. Any students who feel that their accent is hindering them should seek ad ditional phonetic assistance from their professors. Nonverbals While it is true that spoken incantations add an extra magical resource for witc hes and wizards during spellcasting, it is not necessarily a testament to the gr eater power of vocalization in magic. The act of speaking an incantation while c asting a spell gives the magic user more extensive focus, as many find verbal sp ells require less concentration than nonverbals. Magical energy is easier to dir ect, although greater control, and power is still reserved for nonverbal spells; it is unclear, however, if this superior control stems from the very nature of nonverbals, or if it is simply that more distinguished and talented spellcasters are more likely to attain better magical manipulation regardless.

Verbal spellwork has numerous positive attributes, chief among them being that i t is an excellent place for beginner spellcasters to start honing their craft. V erbals are the least difficult incantations, making them easy to learn and easy to use. The simple act of speaking the incantation aloud creates a greater likel ihood that the spell will achieve favorable success. They require the minimum am ount of energy it takes to channel magic, and nothing more. However, spoken inca ntations do pose certain problems for advanced spellcasters and those interested in the artistry of dueling. Many of the difficulties young witches and wizards encounter in their attempts to achieve success in their nonverbal spellwork are due to the over-reliance on recited incantations, and the lack of emphasis on th e idea of the spell itself. Verbal spells also lack an element of surprise, whic h is crucial in combative situations. Verbalization of an incantation may be the less strenuous option in spellcasting, but sacrificing quality for quantity sho uld never be viewed as acceptable. It is important to stress that although there is a natural progression t o advanced magic, verbal spells still hold a certain aesthetic charm for many wi tches and wizards, and are often considered an intrinsic part of spellcrafting. Even if incantations are not necessarily required for spells, and idea still nee ds a name. These magic phrases, spoken or otherwise, are the language of these i deas. The allure of the ease of transfer between verbals and nonverbals is too m uch to be ignored. In the end, verbal incantations are still a powerful part of spellwork, and they will never be replaced. Footnotes: 11) The many leaps and bounds in the field of translation spells can be attribut ed to Agnes Pinnick (1767-1899), a talented (if impatient) witch, who found she could barely comprehend the thick, Glaswegian accents of her neighbors after she left England. Already hard of hearing, it was too much for Agnes; the last stra w was when she got tired of asking the man next door to stop trimming her hedges . Thus, one of the first, all-encompassing translating spells was born; instead of relying on translating a language word-for-word, which could easily become aw kward, the spells instead convey intent and meaning. While the Ministry of Magic is more than willing to put such spells to use in the Department of Intermagica l Cooperation, they hesitate to use in it the United Kingdom; officially, they f ind such spells distasteful and inappropriate for use in their own homeland. As such, any Department called for a disturbance in the north is sure to take one o f the members of the unofficial division, the Scottish Interpreters. Ironicall y, Agnes Pinnick s contribution has seen too little use in the land it had been invented in. 12) Even though language is constantly evolving, it does not necessarily mean it is growing; current studies suggest that ninety percent of the world s language s will become extinct within the next fifty years. It is difficult to determine the effect this will have on verbal spellcasting, as it is a Muggle study, altho ugh it would be foolish to ignore the possibility that the loss will mean a grav e departure from the more archaic spells and old languages. 13) The Ministry of Magic did not devote an entire department to Magical Accide nts and Catastrophes on a whim, after all. It should be no surprise that St. Mu ngo s busiest floor is the ward covering Spell Damage; witches and wizards every where seem to throw themselves into situations of magical mischief with an alarm ing amount of enthusiasm, with the majority of unfortunate situations being the result of spells with unintended consequences. Wand Movement Wand movements are essential to the spellcasting process. While all of the other parts of the process, including the thought and the incantation, are focused on building up and concentrating the magic, the wand movements are focused on lett ing the magic out. Without the wand movements, the magic would stay pent up with in the wand until the magic built up too much and the wand would simply explode, potentially harming the caster of the spell.

When a wizard performs the correct wand movements, it allows the magic to filter t hrough the magical wood of the wand and produce the spell. The reason that the m ovements change for each spell is the same reason why the incantations are diffe rent for each spell; to bring about a desired effect, one must slightly change t he method of spellcasting. Some spells only require a simple jab in the directio n of the target, but others may make inexperienced wizards dizzy with their comp lexity. In simpler spells, such as Levitation Charms, the failure to produce the correct wand movement will simply result in the spell not working, because there is not much force behind the spell. If one is casting a more complex hex, however, one must be careful that they do not produce the wrong wand movements, lest the pow er of the spell completely backfire on them. To some students, learning proper wand movements seems tedious and unnecessary. This part of your education is just as integral to learning the incantation itse lf. Those wiggly movements that confound and frustrate beginners are the buildin g blocks for more complicated and dangerous spells. The Basics To produce a correct wand moment, one must typically move not with the ar m, but with the wrist. Musicians may have an easier time with wand movements at first because of the nimbleness of the wrist that is required to play an instrum ent. Some athletes may find that they have the same advantage. While some novice s may try to use their arms as part of the wand movement, the arm is almost alwa ys only used for aiming the spell, not producing the movement. There are three basic wand movements: the horizontal flick, the vertical flick, and the jab. The horizontal flick is a side-to side movement, in which the wrist is flicked either to the left or to the right, depending on the spell. To perfo rm the movement, the caster of the spell must hold their wand with their palm fa cing outwards, then quickly bring their wrist down and up again in a U shape, endi ng with their palm facing the inside. This can either be a snap, when it is very q uick and the U shape is narrow and deep; or a swish, when the U is wide and shallo w. A horizontal flick will often be used to set up the rest of a spell, such as a Levitation Charm. A vertical flick is when the wand is moved up and down. It is much more common t o see a vertical flick going from down to up, because that allows for a higher t arget area. Vertical flicks are simple, with the hand first starting either down (or up), then moving quickly in the opposite direction. Once again, this can be done in a flick, or, if done more slowly, is called a pull (some prefer to use the term swish). Vertical flicks are a very focused wand movement and are often used t o cast spells that need to be held for a long time, such as Water Conjuring Char ms. The jab is different from many other wand movements in that it comes from the ar m, not from the wrist. It is almost entirely used for spells in a dueling situat ion, and is considered the most primitive and basic of wand movements. To create this movement, the caster must start with their arm back, and then shoot it str aight out, blasting out a burst of energy from their wand. It is often likened t o punching, though it requires that the arm be more flat and steady than a true punch. Building Wand Motions Almost every single spell is built on more than one basic wand motion. A good ex ample of this is a Levitation Charm, with the incantation Wingardium Leviosa. It c

ombines a swishing horizontal flick to the left with a vertical flick. It takes the two basic movements and seamlessly combines them into one quick motion. An exception to this is Alohomora, or an Unlocking Spell. It is done not with a wand movement, but by tapping the lock that the caster wishes to unlock. There a re some spells that do not build on a specific motion, but use a unique one of t heir own. These are the exception, and most spells will just require a combinati on of the three basic wand movements. While these basic wand movements may seem simplistic at first, they can create t ruly complex motions. For example, the complicated wiggly motions seen in advanc ed spells are patterns of horizontal and vertical flicks built on each other. Gr and sweeping arm motions are just long, slow horizontal flicks, and circular mov ements of the wrist are a special combination of horizontal and vertical flicks considered their very own movement (indicated by a circular movement in spellboo ks). The Rules for Wand Motions Wand motions are built on a few simple rules: 1. There may be one, two, three, or four basic wand movements built on each othe r for any spell. Repeated wand movements, such as two flicks repeated over and o ver, count as two movements. 2. The wand movement for the spell takes a lesser or an equal amount of time to complete than the incantation. This has been a somewhat informal rule ever since spell casting began, because it would not make sense for a wizard to wave his w and for twenty minutes to create a simple spell. 3. The wand (and the hand holding it) must move, so that the magic can be shaken loose from the wand. From these three simple rules wand movements have diversified into an astounding array of jabs, swishes and flicks; from the quickest of pokes to the most elabo rate of gestures. Practicing Wand Motions and Common Injuries Just like the incantation for a spell, wand motions must be practiced and memori zed. Wizards will often find it of benefit to practice the wand motions without a wand in their hand, so that they do not have to worry about keeping control of the spell or having it backfire. To practice the correct motion of the spell, f irst concentrate on the movements. Break the movement as a whole into the three basic motions, and then remember their sequence. Some wizards choose to write th is information down for reference. Then, begin to do the motion slowly in the se parate parts, paying attention to how each movement flows into another. Graduall y, practice creating the motion without pauses, and then make sure you can do th e motion quickly and fluidly. When you are confident with the motion, add the in cantation, making sure the timing is correct. Practice until you have it perfect . When you feel extremely confident with your motion and incantation, pick up yo ur wand, go to a safe place (outdoors or spare rooms are excellent places to pra ctice magic) and try out the spell. Keep working until you have produced the spe ll correctly. Mastering wand motions takes a lot of work and effort. Occasionally, this effort will lead to injury. First-time magic students often complain about their wrist s beginning to hurt a few weeks after the beginning of their studies. This pain is an injury caused by overuse of the wrist, and can be combated by putting ice on the wrist and taking frequent breaks when practicing wand movements. As wizar

ds progress in their study of magic, they often find the pain in their wrists de creasing as their wrists grow stronger. They must be careful in their first few months of study, however, lest they permanently damage their wand arm. Non-Practical Uses Wandwork is not just used in a practical context. There are many ways that it ma y be used other than casting everyday spells, in both a performance and sport co ntext. For many years, fancy wandwork was the hallmark of exhibition dueling, an outlaw ed sport in most countries. Added elaborations to basic spells produced sparks a nd flourishes that showed both the skill and agility of wizard duelers. Exhibiti on dueling is similar to Muggle jousting, where two Muggles ride on horses and f ight a stylized version of a fight using lances and fancy costumes. Dueling was much the same: two wizards would dress in costume and outdo each other in a high ly stylized duel, with the winner being the one who could successfully Stun (nev er fatally harm) his or her opponent. When it was outlawed in the early twentiet h century (at a different time than other types of dueling), it was not without a fight; many were opposed to the loss of a spectacle that was a staple of many wizarding festivities. Exhibition dueling has been replaced in recent years by Wandwork Shows, which ar e basically showcases of magical talent focusing on wandwork and spectacle. They come in many forms, the most common of which featuring a group of up to twenty trained wizards collaborating to create a show with complicated wandwork, includ ing sparks creating images, explosions, and other such amazing sights. Occasiona lly, Wandwork Showcases will be held, during which amateurs can show off their s kills for a prize. These are more popular in areas with a high density of wizard s. Finally, wizards enjoy showing wizards of other cultures their skills, and inter national gatherings such as the Quidditch World Cup are rife with fancy wandwork . It is considered an informal contest to produce the most impressive internatio nal display. Wand motions are like a puzzle: they fit together in numerous ways and always co me together beautifully for either a practical or non-practical use. While somet imes tedious to learn and to practice, witches and wizards will benefit from a f irm grasp of correct wand movements every day. How to Cast and Maintain a Spell Because performing magic is an inherently emotional act, it is intricately tied with the maintaining of spells; though it must be stressed that extreme emotions should be avoided. You have already learned the importance of pronunciation and wand movement, and here you will learn not only how these two arts are tied tog ether, but how you will go about maintaining a spell past the initial incantatio n. We will be using five variants of spells as examples, each representing a dif ferent area of magic: Wingardium Leviosa, Aguamenti, Petrificus Totalus, Orchide ous, and the Unbreakable Vow. The pronunciation and wand movement will be covere d briefly and with little attention to detail, but it is vital that you comprehe nd the necessity and importance of these in producing magic. These two acts are integral to producing viable and corporal magic.(14) Magic, as a semi-corporeal entity that is controlled in the brain,(15) is highly dependent on muscle memory . Using spells appeals to the auditory sensations, while movement calls upon bot h the visual and kinetic areas of the mind. Because most witches and wizards are highly auditory-centered,(16) the incantation usually begins the magical proces s. The movement of the wand typically completes the spell formation as the brain recognizes the practiced manoeuvre and produces the spell.

Wingardium Leviosa This kely ught ell, your spell, if it has not already been broached in your study of Charms, will li soon be introduced as it is one of the most fundamental and basic spells ta at Hogwarts. The ability to not only levitate objects but to move them as w is a skill that will likely prove itself useful countless times throughout life.

Pronunciation of the spell: win-GAR-dee-um lev-ee-OH-sa, with particular emphasi s on the oh rather than sa. Wand movement: A distinctive swish and flick. Wands made with a particularly rig id type of wood, such as walnut, tend to be better suited for this particular sp ell, as well as others that require much movement. It is important that the move ment not be restricted to a small flick of the wrist. Maintaining this spell is typically dependent on how long the user wishes to mai ntain the levitation of an object. In the beginning of your studies, this may be particularly troublesome and tedious, especially if one wishes to simply mainta in the position of an object in the air rather than move it around. Some will ac complish this by focusing intently and simply repeating the spell while keeping their wand trained on the object, but this is hardly a viable option for everyda y use. Rather, this should come completely naturally. The wand, as the old clich goes, should be seen as an extension of the self. Once the flow of magic is open ed, the wand will act as a conductor rather than a controller. Because this is t he generally held rule, in theory the spell should continue to be at work until the holder decides against it. Since most witches and wizards never reach a full and complete grasp on magic, this is ideal is difficult to obtain. As a result, it will be likely be incredibly difficult to control the duration and intensity of simple spells such as this when you first start out. Practice, ultimately, i s the key to the mastery of any spell. Aguamenti This spell varies in its appearance. Often enough, it is first broached after a disastrous charms lesson when a spell gone horribly awry causes a small explosio n. The Standard Book of Spells: Grade 6 devotes time to it, giving the learner t he proper introduction to the spell that produces water. Pronunciation of the Spell: Ah-gwa-MEN-tee Wand Movement: No wand movement is required; simply point the wand where the wat er is needed This spell differs from Wingardium Leviosa in that something quite corporal is p roduced. Just as with the spell mentioned previously, intensity and duration are subject to the user. While the levitation spell can become second nature, Augam enti cannot. If this were the case, it would be possible for a wizard or witch i n a moment of distraction to flood a room. The strength of the water pressure an d the duration of flow are completely dependent on the choice of the wand holder , and rely on the holder concentrating their efforts on keeping the magical ener gy flowing from themselves, through the wand, and ultimately into the water that is created. Petrificus Totalus You will encounter this spell early in your studies, very likely in your first y ear. This is one of the most rudimentary forms of attack as it causes a potentia l enemys arms and legs to bind together and renders him or her immobile. It is im

portant to note that the Ministry does not take kindly to duelists(17) and that any attempt to provoke fights at Hogwarts, or outside of the school, can result in serious disciplinary action. Pronunciation of the Spell: pe-TRI-fi-cus to-TAH-lus Wand Movement: A small U shaped wave followed by a firm pointing of the wand at th e intended victim Unlike with the two previously mentioned spells, there is no need to prolong thi s past the original production of magic. When performed properly, this curse imm ediately accomplishes its intent, and maintains the magic as long as the spell c aster is living. Because of this, it is important that you do not perform spells such as this without thought. Performing such a spell without learning the coun ter curse, in this case Renervate, Finite, or Finite Incantatem, is both reckles s and stupid.(18) Orchideous A spell such as Orchideous is reserved for much later in your instruction, as it involves a much broader depth of magic than is obtained within your first three years. That being said, we will merely brush the surface in this chapter. This spell allows the user to produce a bouquet of flowers from the tip of the wand. This differs from Augamenti in that water is produced using hydrogen and oxygen molecules present in the air, while this spell is dependent on creating matter e ntirely. Magic, though working outside many physical laws, does follow fundament al theory, including the Law of the Conservation of Matter,(19) which holds tha t Matter can neither be created nor destroyed. Food, for example, is something tha t can only be summoned, not created. The same can be said for these flowers. Bec ause of this, in order to accomplish the spell successfully, one must have a cle ar idea of where these flowers are going to come from. As can be expected, this type of spell is kept under careful watch by the Ministry, since a breach of se crecy is very easy to accomplish should a witch or wizard not carefully choose t he origin of the object. Pronunciation of the Spell: or-KID-ee-us Wand Movement: A miniscule spiral motion of the wand Because this spell serves more as a summoning spell than as one that produces so mething, maintaining it is not typically an issue unless someone wishes to produ ce an enormous amount of flowers. The Unbreakable Vow This spell will only be studied in theory during your studies as it can be highl y dangerous. The Unbreakable Vow was at one time practiced regularly as a way to ensure loyalty between wizards, because the breaking of the vow results in deat h. It is now considered both irresponsible and radical by the general populace. Pronunciation of the Spell: Reserved for future learning Wand Movement: Reserved for future learning Though the effect of the spell is immediate, it is one that keeps a constant str ain on the producer. The strain is oftentimes unnoticed as it is minor, only bec oming apparent should a witch or wizard produce numerous Unbreakable Vows.(20) W hile this is comparable to Petrificus Totalus, the magic that is required is muc h more extensive and longer lasting. It is plausible that a person could perform hundreds of Body Bind Curses without feeling any effect, but this is certainly

not true of this particular spell as it keeps a constant hold on everyone involv ed in its casting. If the Vow is broken, it is typical for the procurer to feel winded for at least a few hours, as if they had just recently performed a large feat of magic. These five spells, though by no means inclusive of the wide variety that will be put before you to study, briefly outline the different types of spells that you will be expected to perform, control and maintain by the end of your studies at Hogwarts. To get to this point will require practice and a keen understanding o f ones personal limitations. Footnotes: 14) This is, of course, discounting nonverbal or wandless magic, though you will find that the incantation will often be recited within your head and many wizar ds, at least when initially learning wandless magic, mimic the movement with the ir wand hand. 15) See section B12 for more information on The Brain Theory. 16) Note the1959 study conducted by the Ministry of Magic. This is one possible clue to the reason why Muggles are unable to perform magic. They tend to be high ly visual learners while nearly all Muggle-born witches and wizards are auditory learners. 17) As laid out in the Ministry of Magic Duellists Code written in 1897, which o utlawed the act within the British Isles. 18) As seen in the St.Mungos case of 1935, when a fight between siblings turned i nto a month long ordeal involving one child sprouting wings until a proper count er curse could be discovered. 19) Postulated by one of the most renowned squibs in wizarding history, Antoine Lavoisier 20) As with Burdock Muldoon, who performed no less than 787 Vows during his time as Council Chief with the Wizards Council from 1388-1402 A Malleable World While the beginner Transfiguration student may be limited to slugs and matchstic ks, once a witch or wizard has mastered Transfiguration, the world is their oyst er (or whatever they wish to transfigure that oyster into). The state of anythin g can be changed, using either magical or Muggle means, from the dullest stick t o the brightest diamond. This understanding of how the world is so malleable and changeable is one of the key factors in understanding and eventually performing Transfiguration, according to A Guide to Transfiguration. This text also cites that an understanding that all things share intrinsic similarities is important. These two factors working together form the basis of theoretical Transfiguratio n. Changing Natures Changing the nature of an object is one of the cornerstones of magic. Nearly eve ry young witch or wizard anxiously waits the day when he or she can Transfigure his or her vegetables into candy. Transfiguration, however, is also one of the m ost dangerous branches of magic, since badly-done Transformations can harm not o nly the witch or wizard responsible, but the general wizarding population as wel l.(21) Transfiguration is simply rearranging the molecules of one object to turn it int o another. This is done by releasing magical power from the wizard to the wand t o the object, thus "loosening" the molecules. The magic then takes over, rearran ging the original object into the new object. Wand movement and incantation are extremely important in Transfiguration because, as in all spells, they dictate w hat the result will be. This is especially critical in Transfiguration, where ev en the slightest mistake could cause an irreversible or unsafe transformation.

Manipulating Molecules Manipulating molecules is a tricky process. To put it simply, molecules like bei ng where they are, and would like to stay in that current arrangement. A wizard must use a great amount of effort and concentration to break the bonds of the mo lecules and use their basic material to change the form of the object. When one is changing a teakettle into a doormat, they are taking the molecules of the tea kettle, breaking them apart, and rearranging them into a doormat. As editor for "Transfiguration Today" Martin Doyle would say, "Wizards do not create. We use o ur magic to destroy, and then make things into the way we want them to be." Tran sfiguration only works because magic is able to break apart and reform molecules . That being said, as powerful as magic is, it does not last forever; eventually , the hold that the magic has on the molecules will break and they will attempt to spring back into their original shape. For some beginners not skilled in Tran sfiguration, this change may be instantaneous. If there is enough power behind t he spell, however, a skilled wizard could keep that same object Transfigured for days, and maybe even months. Untransfiguration While an object will easily spring back if the Transfiguration has been simple, such as a needle into a thimble, if a wizard decided to do something large, such as a turn a boar into a wood burning stove,(22) the wizard must help the object get back to its proper form by Untransfiguring it. When Untransfiguring an obje ct, a wizard is not only breaking the bonds of magic that he or she has cast ove r the object, but is also helping the molecules collect themselves into the comp lex shape that they once were. If it was not helped, the object would have a sma ll chance of getting back to its proper shape, but will usually instead morph in to some half-formed creature. To get the hang of it, Untransfiguration is often practiced on simple Transfigurations, though this is not strictly necessary. As with many aspects of Transfiguration, the larger and more complex the object, th e harder it is to get it exactly right when Untransfiguring. Small mistakes are generally made, but they may still be noticeable. Some wizards have never recove red from their adolescent facial hair experiments that resulted in half-formed m ustaches. Growing and Shrinking When an object is being Transfigured, it is not only undergoing changes in shape , but also in size. Invariably, the object will have to shrink or stretch to acc ommodate its new frame. Of course, when Transfiguring an object, one is not crea ting or destroying matter. When an object is being Transfigured into something s maller than its original size, the magic entering the object not only breaks apa rt and rearranges the molecules, but also compresses them by folding them into e ach other, similarly to the way in which one folds a set of robes. The more time s one folds the robes, the less space they take up in a dresser. If one folds th e robes too much, however, they may find that the robes unfold themselves becaus e they cannot be folded to that degree.(23) Growing an object is somewhat of the same, only in reverse. Instead of compressi ng the molecules, the magic does the opposite, pulling and tugging at the molecu les. Growing objects requires a small amount more power because some magic is re quired to stabilize the stretched object as it rearranges itself into its new sh ape. When an object is Untransfigured, the magic bonds compressing or stretching the object automatically break and the object is returned to its normal size. Conjuring and Vanishing

To many people, Conjuring and Vanishing appear to be impossible - how could some thing either come from or fall away into thin air? It is easy to forget that we are, in fact, surrounded by molecules from which to bring and banish objects. Th ese molecules exist around everything and make up the air that we breathe. Conju red and Vanished objects go to and from the air around us, becoming both nothing and everything all at once. Vanishing an object is Transfiguring it into air. This is extremely difficult a nd should not be attempted unless a witch or wizard is very well-versed in the m agical arts; it is not even taught until the fourth year of a student s magical education. Vanishing objects still works on the same principles as every other t ype of Transfiguration, although its results are less visible than an ordinary T ransfiguration. When an object is Vanished, it is changed into hundreds (or mayb e even thousands) of tiny air droplets which will actually float in a cloud, sha ped similarly to the Vanished object, held in place by magic. These magic bonds are stronger than other such bonds created by Transfiguration, possibly because all things are made of the same molecules that make up air, and thus the magic m ust not work as hard to transform the molecules, leaving more magic to create bo nds. This phenomenon is not well-understood. The discovery if the object-shaped air clouds only dates back fifty years, and more in-depth research has only been undertaken in the past few decades. Conjuring objects is bringing the air droplets together to create an object. It is even more difficult than Vanishing an object, and many wizards do not go to t he trouble of Conjuring objects, preferring to either Summon the thing they need or get it the Muggle way. Because air droplets are so simple, it takes a lot of power to gather hundreds of them together to create an object. Air droplets als o rarely stay in the same place, so they are hard to control. When a wizard has controlled a large area of air droplets, they must be very precise in their wand movements in order to accurately create the desired result. If the air molecule s are not assembled properly, the witch or wizard casting the spell will have a difficult time disposing of the malformed result of their botched spell. Ethics Transfiguration is one of the most ethically dubious forms of magic. Is it accep table to Vanish the belongings of enemies? Is it all right to Transform living t hings, such as your pet owl or cat, into useful items; if so, for how long? Some wizarding philosophers have devoted their entire lives to answering these quest ions. Amadeus Wilhelm, a 19th century Scottish wizard, was considered primarily an essayist and almost all of his work centered on politics or theoretical magic . His greatest contribution to magical society is considered to be the only book he ever published, The Ethics of Magic: An Exploration of What Wizards Can and Should Do. This collection of essays and thoughts is the most complete study of ethical magic, mainly centering on the ethics of Transfiguration and the use of magic in relation to Muggles. Wilhelm proposes that the idea of turning one thing into another is inherently e thically questionable. If we can turn old rocks into new furniture, what is the use of money? Are Transfigured objects considered what they currently are, or wh at they were? The Ethics of Magic is one of the first texts to question the ethi cs of turning animals into objects (for several centuries, it was common to turn the cat into a broom for spring cleaning and back again when the sweeping was d one). Wilhelm suggested that if animals had feelings, wizards had no right to st rip them away and Transfigure them into inanimate objects. He also questioned th e ethics of Transfiguring natural resources, like worthless twigs, to useful obj ects, like washcloths, that could be sold for gold. Many wizards face magical ethical dilemmas each day. They wonder if it is cruel to the slug to make it into a thimble. They worry that it may be wrong to turn a

piece of string into a silver chain for their necklace. Because no Transfigurat ion is permanent, and Gamp s Laws prevent the Transfiguration of many objects ne eded for human existence, such as food and money (see A Guide to Transfiguration ), many wizards do not bother to furnish their lives with Transfigured stumps an d rocks. In the end, no amount of magical education or essays can force a witch or wizard to make ethical decisions. The decision to do what is right must come from the heart. Footnotes: 21) A notable example is the 1789 incident in which an English rat-turned-teaket tle went on a biting spree during a diplomatic tea. 22) This was, believe it or not, a popular Transformation to perform in the earl y 19th century. 23) This principle has led to the wizard expression: "Trying to make a wardrobe into a thimble," meaning that someone is attempting something that will quickly lead to catastrophe. What to Do if a Spell is Cast Incorrectly Magic is a powerful force that is capable of both wonderful and horrific feats, sometimes simultaneously. Naturally, there is much that can go wrong. You as a magic user should always prepare yourself for the worst situations, especi ally if you are working with experimental or extremely difficult magic. Magical mistakes are very common, and almost expected while you are in school; everythin g from splinching to a spell backfiring is considered commonplace. Taking the ne cessary precautions and educating yourself on frequently-made and/or rudimentary mistakes will help keep your magical experience safe and will boost your confid ence in your own abilities. It is not uncommon for a student to have a few magical mishaps during the course of their education at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.(24) In the cl assroom, you as a student should expect a teacher to be well-prepared to handle whatever situations may arise; however, it is also your duty to carefully follow all instructions and corrections given by your professors. Most accidents are t he result of the inattention of the student, and although mistakes made in a clo sed classroom setting are preferred to mistakes made outside of it, you should b e prepared to receive a docking of points or even detention, depending on the se verity of your mistake and the temperament of the teacher. Outside of the classroom, magical catastrophes can be much more serious, and eve n deadly. If you find yourself in a situation where you are seriously injured by a spell, it would be unwise to attempt to Apparate. Instead, you should send fo r help in any way possible (assuming that you live alone, or that no one in the vicinity heard or saw any evidence of a commotion). If there is no injury, it is important to attempt to cancel the spell (if possible), and to try to clean up any damage that may have been done. It may also be necessary for you to make exc uses to any Muggle neighbors who might have witnessed, for example, the shed roo f blowing off. Responding to Accidents When an injury is sustained due to a backfired spell, a trip to St. Mungo s Hosp ital for Magical Maladies and Injuries (or the local magical hospital, if you li ve outside of the United Kingdom) becomes essential.(25) No matter how small or unimportant the injury seems, it is always best to consult with a trained Healer , as there could be unnoticed residual magical effects. Attempting to reach a He aler alone is not a good idea; instead, enlist the aid of your fellow students o r companions. You should always be prepared to explain in detail how the injurie s were sustained so that a proper cure can be acquired; endeavoring to keep sile nt about how you came by such injuries will make recovery more difficult, and fu rthermore, lying will do little to endear you to the Healers. The mortality rate

due to miscast or untested spells is still abominably high, and because any los s of life due to a magical mistake is considered preventable, it is important to familiarize yourself with the correct procedure for assessing and treating spel l-related accidents. In non-injury accidents, the first step you should take is to assess the damage, and determine if you can reverse the effects of the spell by yourself, or if it would be better for you to take a step back and let someone else handle these t hings. Recognizing when a situation is out of your hands is an essential compone nt of magical safety; it is always important to foster a healthy concern for you r personal safety in such situations. If possible, you may attempt to end the sp ell on your own; however, if the problem is really dire, it would be best to con tact the Ministry of Magic.(26) The Accidental Magic Reversal Squad always has s omeone on duty who can rush to your aid. If the situation warrants it, the Obliv iators and the Muggle-Worthy Excuse Committee may also be called to step in. It is important to note that the more action that the Ministry must take to set thi ngs to right, the higher are your chances of the Wizengamot pressing charges aga inst you. What Went Wrong? In order to determine where the spell went wrong (which would be useful if you d ecide to attempt the failed spell in the future, and also when it comes to fixin g whatever damage may have been caused), you must first decide if the issue was pertaining to the incantation, or if the issue lies in the wand work. Difficulti es with incantations may result in a separate spell being cast, or the intended spell being twisted from its original intent into something new and not altogeth er pleasant. When casting a verbal spell, accurate pronunciation is absolutely i mperative. Visualization, of course, is vital; however, as spoken incantations a re meant to help young spellcasters with visualization, it is essential that you pronounce the spell properly. Even the most minute of inflections can change th e meaning of the word completely. If you have inadvertently cast a different spe ll, Finite Incantatem should cancel said spell and restore order. Otherwise, it may be an issue with wand movement. The second possibility of mistake lies with the wand. Wands are a tricky subjec t; aside from wandmakers themselves, very few are privy to the exact natures and workings of wands. Using another witch or wizard s wand to cast a spell may res ult in the wand simply refusing to work, or it may cause the spell to backfire. A wand is not impervious to harm; it is possible to wear it down or to break it, which also presents the possibility of a miscast spell. In both cases, use of t hese wands should be discontinued immediately. Finally, an incorrect wand motion used concurrently with an incantation will not make the spell work properly. As far as attempting to fix a wand-related mistake goes, once again Finite Incanta tem is a possibility, although the mistake may not have resulted in the casting of a different spell, but instead an unfocused magical discharge with unintended effects. The symptoms of these effects may simply have to be reversed individua lly. Reversing the Damage Attempting to fix any serious magical destruction that may have been wrought is generally not recommended; nevertheless, you can fix minor damages quite easily. In the event that there is a fire, put out the fire with an Aguamenti spell. Th ere may be some water damage, but at least the fire is gone. A simple Reparo wil l fix most broken objects, although if an object is completely missing, it may n ot be salvaged. If at all possible, use the Accio spell to summon any missing it ems. If a noxious gas has filled the air, it would be wise to escape the room, c ast a Bubble Head Charm after you ve been suitably revived, and tentatively proc eed back into the foul air to cast a few air cleansing spells. Do not remove the

Bubble Head Charm until you are absolutely certain that you will not be poisone d. If any potions ingredients were affected, either destroy or dispose of them i mmediately, as they are no longer fit for use. As was stated before, Finite Inca ntatem is an excellent spell to fall back on if you have run out of options. Preventing Accidents Perhaps the most important part of learning to protect yourself against the unin tended consequences of magic is anticipating for the worst case scenario. You sh ould always keep volatile ingredients and powerful magical objects locked up tig htly in a safe place. If you are working with a dangerous spell, always be sure to take precautions for your own safety and be sure to prepare a back-up plan in the event that things take a turn for the worst. Having a partner or friend be there to offer any necessary support and medical assistance during your experim ents in magic is critical; if your research is too secretive, you could always a sk a relative or someone you trust to check up on you after a certain number of days have passed with no communication. Make an agreement that he or she will as sume that your failure to communicate your continued existence means you may hav e gotten into trouble. If you are unwilling or unable to enforce any of these sa fety procedures, it would be wise to at least make any necessary end-of-life doc uments and wills available in the event of your unfortunate demise. If an averag e life can be dangerous, an explosively magical life must be doubly so. Footnotes: 24) Although there have been hundreds of well-renowned Hogwarts students who hav e graduated and gone on to make their marks on the world, there have been a hand ful who have received infamy for than prestigious feats. Among them are Tilda Ap plefoot, renowned for the ratio of days she spent bedridden compared to the time she spent out of the infirmary (two to one); Callum Longbottom, who currently h olds the record for the highest number of cauldrons destroyed in a school year ( if the name sounds familiar, it is because Mr. Callum was a distant relative of recognized war hero Neville Longbottom); and Christopher Caricula, the first stu dent causality at Hogwarts, whose attempt to cast a Tongue-Tying Curse went horr ibly, horribly wrong. 25) St. Mungo s Artifact Accidents Ward reports an average of three hundred case s of non-permanent magical damage per year, such as injuries caused by backfirin g wands or relatively harmless magical discharges. The fourth floor, Spell Damag e, can have as many as twenty to fifty patient admissions a year, but because th eir cases tend to be much more serious and require more extensive care, it is di fficult to pinpoint the exact number of those who have been affected. In fact, t he Janus Thickey Ward serves a number of long-term residents at any given time. It is also important to note that patients on the fourth floor are more often th an not the victims of willful harm, rather than magical mishap. 26) The Ministry of Magic s Department of Magical Accidents and Catastrophes onl y handles cases of serious magical disruption in the United Kingdom. If you live outside of the UK, be sure to have the contact information of your local govern ment in cases of serious magical mayhem. Different courts may have different law s regarding the severity of the punishment for crimes violating the Internationa l Statute of Wizarding Secrecy, so it is always wise to review the laws in your home country regarding accidental magic. Wait, Im Magical? For some of you, magic has been a part of your life from the beginning. It is im portant to recognize, however, that for those who did not grow up in this world, coming to terms with ones magical gifts can be overwhelming. No matter who you a re, you should still work to understand what is meant by the word magical. For tha t matter what is magic? What is magic?

Let us begin with the concept that magic is real. For many readers this idea see ms very self-evident. It is important to clarify, however, the difference betwee n a belief that magic is real and a belief that magic exists. The idea that magic is real is entirely different. By real we mean that it does not merely exist, but that it exists within the bounds of our world. It interacts with, effects and is aff ected by an enormous variety of factors - it does not exist in isolation. It the refore has properties and rules that govern its existence. Magic, first of all, is a type of force. Compared to simple forces like gravity, magic is far more complex. It can cause an object to change speeds, directions and shape via its influence in a similar way to that of other simple forces. Thi s influence, however, is not merely one directional, nor is its influence entire ly comparable to that of a force. It can also effect and be affected by non-obje cts, such as emotions and thoughts. Magic is also a substance, meaning that it is very similar to the substance know n as matter. Just as matter cannot be created or destroyed, neither can magic. Magic can be manipulated, moved, reshaped, and re-distributed, but it is never l ost and no one has ever been able to create more of it. Magic is also a property that is naturally occurring. It is important to underst and that many theorists believe that magic is the nature of life and that we are all born as a result of its influence. It has also been speculated that magic i s the tool that forged reality; this theory, however, walks on the edge of theol ogy and no decisive proof has been provided either way on the matter. This force/nature/substance known as magic is woven deeply into the entire world . Some objects are more magic than matter, meaning that their substance or natur e is more magic than not. Furthermore, some sentient beings like humans are able to tap into and manipulate magic in order to invoke change. This will be explai ned in further detail below. We have no idea where magic comes from, as it seems to have existed here since t he beginning of time, and perhaps even longer. We simply know that as witches an d wizards, we can use this thing we call magic, and that this world is magical. We can identify and use it, despite not knowing where it comes from. Magical The ory exists to help to try to explain the complexity of magic as well as we are a ble. What do we mean by magical? It is important to question just what exactly one means when one uses the word ma gical. Magical simply means of magic. This is not to be confused with being able to use magic. Something can be magical without being able to do any magic. Unicorn s, which are a magical creature, cannot do any magic, but they are of magic. The ir bodies and their natures are magical. This logic applies to various sentient and non-sentient magical objects. Magical creatures are sentient and non-humanlike beings who possess magic or who are magical. We are lucky to live in a world with a very diverse population of magical creatures. Most magical creatures are wild, though a few are able to be domesticated. There are even magical creatures that are humanoid in appearance a nd who possess reason and the ability to communicate. These magical beings are h ard to classify and have been labeled as both humanoid and having rights, as wel l as non-humanoid without rights, depending on the country. Some magical creatur es are also able to perform magic themselves. House elves have a unique variety of magic and are capable of using magic that witches and wizards cannot, in the same way that witches and wizards can use magic that house elves cannot. A deba te exists over whether or not such magic-using creatures should be allowed to po ssess a wand.

A discussion of magical creatures would not be complete without mentioning the h uman being. Witches and wizards are magical in that they would be normal humans if it were not for their ability to use magic. Witches and wizards, however, are n ot called magical humans. The terms witch and wizard, or the neutral wizards, is t hus used when referring to a human magic user. Wizards hold the ability to chann el and use magic. They also hold an innate pool of magic within their being from birth. It is this pool of magic within them that allows wizards to perform magi c. While we do not know where magic comes from, a few theories about the subject in relation to humans will be discussed below. Inheritance Theory is by far the most popular and widely recognized theory in de termining which humans are more likely to have magic than not. Inheritance theor ists believe that magic is genetic, and is thus passed down from parents to chil d. This theory maintains that magic is an innate part of our genetic structure a nd thus cannot be separated from the witch and/or wizard. Proponents of this the ory believe that pure blood is the result of generations of wizards who are known to give birth to wizards and who can thus continue the existence of wizards. Sim ilar proponents feel that, since the number of wizards in the world is so few, r isking a genetic mix that may prevent the specific genetic property from being p assed along is wrong and should be looked down upon. Children born of such union s who do end up being magical are thereby theorized to hold within them a bomb o f sorts that could neuter the magical ability of future generations. Other anoma lies, such as wizards having children who are incapable of magic, are seen by th ese theorists as being the result of a poor genetic match, probably tainted gene rations back. Another equally predominant theory, known as the Naturalist Theory, sees magic a s a naturally occurring phenomenon that cannot be held down or tracked. This the ory helps to explain the existence of witches and wizards born to non-magical (M uggle) families. Naturalists argue that, while magic is more likely to find a ho me in children of those with magic, this is not a guaranteed thing. Magic can ju st as easily avoid such children from magical families and be found in children whose families are not magical. This results in a semi-randomization of magical abilities. Naturalists also feel that, no matter how procreation is handled, ma gic itself will maintain a population of witches and wizards that the world can handle. This differs from Inheritance theorists who believe that so long as pure blood is respected and protected, the population of wizards in the world is cap able of growing. It should also be noted that not all magic begins at birth. Some cases exist whe re a witch or wizard has lived as a normal human, whether in or out of the wizar ding world for most of their lives, only to find themselves in a desperate situa tion later in life where they manage to do magic. This is, of course, very rare, as are cases where babies exhibit magical abilities. Magical development One of the strongest arguments in favor of Inheritance theory is the existence o f magic in a child from birth, long before the brain develops. This leads Inheri tance theorists to believe that there can be no other logical reason as to why magic would choose a child primarily at birth and not later (although magic does manifest itself later in some wizards than it does in others). It is believed t hat the ability to do magic has something to do with the physical nature of witc hes and wizards. From this concept the following theory has been derived. Most witches and wizards do exhibit magical abilities, as young as the age of tw o, or in rare occurrences even younger. Even so, there are a number of witches a

nd wizards who did not show magical abilities until the age of eleven. It should be noted that this is all normal, as magic develops differently in all witches and wizards. Further, the age at which one starts exhibiting magical abilities d oes not determine the childs abilities later on in life. Regardless, all witches and wizards are able to be detected as having magic from the moment that they ar e born, even if they do not show outward displays of power. During childhood, the magic within a young witch or wizard is developing in a wa y that cannot be easily controlled by the child. The child is likely to exhibit f its of power, where a childs will or desire can cause flares of magical occurrence s. Only once the fits are over is the child capable of using a wand. Prior to the age of eleven, children are permitted to use magic outside of school because the y are too young to be able to control the effects. Once a child reaches the age of eleven, however, they must obey the laws of underage magic as is decreed by t heir country of residence. This often means not using magic outside of school un til the age of majority, which is usually the age of seventeen. This is because once a child has reached the age of eleven they are seen as capable of controlli ng their magic, and it is thus argued that the physical aspect that allows for t he use of magic has at least developed to a point where the child has conscious access to it. Schools usually use various methods in order to locate children who are exhibiti ng these fits of magic. Such children will be recruited by their local magical sch ools in order to ensure that they are properly trained to perform responsible an d safe magic. One such method of recruitment is the magical quill, which can det ect the birth of a magical child and will then write the name of that child down in a large book. This method, utilized by Hogwarts, has been believed to be the most accurate method of magical detection in children. Since a majority of magi cal institutions pride themselves on secrecy, most other methods are unknown to the general public. The ability for a magical object such as the Magic Quill use d at Hogwarts to be able to detect magic is similar to detection sentience which will be discussed in intermediate theory. Regardless of where magic comes from, as a witch or wizard reading this, trust t hat you are in fact a magical human and have been so since birth. Despite your i ndividual circumstances it is important to remember that as far as anyone who st udies theory can accurately determine, magic itself does not judge and it does n ot favor. It merely is and it does as it pleases. Common wizarding terms explained(27) Muggle Non-magical human Muggleborn Magical human born from non-magical humans Squib Non-magical human born to magical humans Half-blood Coined by Inheritance theorists, refers to a magical human born to on e magical and one non-magical parent. Pure blood Coined by Inheritance theorists, refers to a magical human born to ma gical parents Footnotes: 27) Please note that some of these terms have been historically used as insults and should be avoided in polite conversation. Limitations Before you get carried away no, you do not control infinite cosmic power. A commo n misconception among beginners is that magic is all-powerful, and is only restr

icted by your own imagination. This is not the case. Magic is not all-powerful a nd has a number of limitations beyond your own mind and ability. Let us remember that magic is real, and therefore must exist within all of the other rules of o ur world. Furthermore, there is only so much magic can do since it is not infini te. Specific limitations will be discussed in greater detail in more advanced co urses; however, to avoid any unintended catastrophes we have decided to provide you with a general explanation of overall limitations now. There are certain things you can do, and certain things that are impossible. As witches and wizards we can unlock possibilities we could not do before, such as animate objects, or make them into something else entirely. While we can unlock magical possibilities, we are still limited, as magic itself is limited. We understand that it is hard to imagine that really anything is impossible anym ore since you suddenly can do a wide range of things with magic that you may hav e previously thought impossible. But as a tool, there is only so much magic itse lf can do. There are still things that are impossible. You may ask, Limited? But I can make the clay into a cake and eat it too right? Imagine you have a block of clay and you are not a witch or wizard. What can you do to the clay? Can the clay live? No. Can you make it into a ball? Yes. Can yo u change its properties? Yes, by heating it or adding to it. Can you make more c lay from the block of clay? No. Magic is like clay in this instance. Magic is substantive; there is stuff to it. Like matter it is limited and not in finite and you can run out or not have enough. This is not to be confused with l ove. Love, as you will learn later, is special and absolutely not like matter. L ove is infinite and you can always make more of it and it can affect the propert ies of magic in very interesting ways. However this is a book on the theory of m agic at the beginners level; trust that love is important later when all of this gets more complicated. Until then, trust that magic is like matter and there is only so much of it. So what does it mean in the practical sense that this unknown force that we mess with is actually limited and there is only so much of it around? Some of you ha ve already thought of the idea I can duplicate the clay in order to make more clay from the clay block. Well, of course you can. Duplication is of course a beginn er level spell and many of you if you have not learned it yet will learn it in t he near future. However, for how long? That is, how long will you have more clay ? How was the clay formed? Is it actually clay or does it simply look like it? C lay is made of matter, not just a vague entity exhibiting similar properties. It is made of finite material. Where will the material come from for another? Most objects can be roughly duplicated using matter (usually the matter they rep lace as to reduce displacement), and the object will be true to form (its actuall y clay). Matter that is roughly made does not hold the ability to maintain compl ex properties and just plainly is not the same as a real item. It is best to dup licate raw or simple substances that do not hold complex properties as these wil l duplicate truly. Further, duplicated items are likely to be closer to their or iginal counterparts, but objects made from thin air might as well be painted roc ks. However, if your aim is appearances, this is just fine. Food Food is a perfect example of this concept. Edible food cannot be conjured from n othing. If you try, what will result is an object that is inedible. This is the same for other chemical concoctions such as potions. A potion summoned will work ; a potion conjured will not. This is because the summoned object had already be en made. The process of making things like food and potions is vital to their ex

istence and if you do not make them through their process then they are in fact not real and cannot be used as the real ones can. So please do not think that if you are a good conjurer that you can magic your way through potions. While food itself is explicitly mentioned as the first exemption of Gamps Law of Elemental Transfiguration, the general concept holds for other conjured objects that are crafted with properties that are gained through that crafting. Gamps Law and the deep theories on the limits of magic will be discussed in advanced theo ry but for now it should be noted because of the dire consequences of eating ine dible food. Objects conjured will simply not have or contain all properties that were gained through crafting. So while you can summon food, transform food, and increase the quantity of the f ood, you cannot conjure or otherwise create food. So, no, you cannot turn your b lock of clay into a cake and eat it too. Money Matters Spells that do not create by using matter will generally vanish after a period o f time. This is because magic is being used as matter to form into the object at hand. After a while the object will vanish as the magic gradually moves on. Obj ects that need to be made this way are generally limited to currency, as most ot her objects can and are made with matter. What does this mean for you? It means that your wand is not a billionaire-making machine. The money it makes will go aw ay after a brief period of time. Unlike food, money cannot be increased. Well, if you wanted your Galleon to be t he size of your head it could, but the quantity of your gold cannot be increased due to the nature of increasing it. The value of the money you want to create d oes not exist and cannot be created. So if you attempt to turn one galleon into thousands, at the end of the day you will still only have one galleon. This is not to say that alchemy should be entirely ignored. The Philosophers Ston e, by one Nicholas Flammel, was said to have had the ability to not only increas e the life span of a person through an elixir, but could also turn objects into real gold. This would of course generate wealth for the holder. However in the e arly 1990s the Stone vanished and was not seen again. Therefore the properties o f its gold creation have not been properly studied and the area is still gray. H owever, for your sake as a witch or wizard who is new to magic and not a master of alchemy, trust that your magical powers do not mean you are wealthy. Destruction and Magic No matter how many times we need to say it, it needs to be said more. Magic is n ot a cure; magic is not all-powerful. What once was done intentionally can thus not be undone, and what no longer exists cannot be returned. This applies to mor e commonplace things like items, as well as more profound things like life and w ellbeing. Destruction is perhaps one of the most complicated aspects of magical theory tha t will be explained more in advanced theory. For now, destruction is the loss of the property of magic that is tied closely to life. Magic, working from the lif e principle, cannot work from something that does not have it. We understand tha t this is not a very satisfactory explanation, but at the beginner level this is what you can have a hope of grasping without going into complicated theory. The effect of this, however, is simple to understand, and we will try to explain it now as best as we can. First let us start with the word intentional and work into destruction. When an ac t is done with the foreknowledge and acceptance of, or even desire for, the resu

lt, it is done intentionally. Destruction is the undoing of something living or something whole. Magic is very closely aligned with life, and may in fact be a force of the complex idea that is life, but theorists are not sure on the matter . What they are sure on, as it has shown itself over and over, is that when dest ruction is caused intentionally by magic, magic cannot undo or fix it. If destru ction is caused unintentionally or happens naturally in the realm of life, magic can undo it, or at least fix it. Intention is extremely important here. Intention, as you will learn in visualiza tion theory and will eventually apply to your own magical working as well as adv anced theory, is part of the strength that wields magic. You do magic intentiona lly or you do not. Intention can actually do some really strong magic even witho ut actually doing it. If you intend for something to happen it typically does an d the properties will change. This is not to say that you cant accidently do some thing destructive while intending something good. This is entirely different. If your intent is not to harm - if your intent is not to destroy, then the intenti onal destruction limitation does not exist. However, any destruction done intent ionally with the goal being destruction will be subject to this limitation. Life Life, once taken, cannot be regained. Settle on that for a moment. It is not onl y important to know, it is by far the hardest limit of magic to accept. Those of you who are lucky to have not lost anyone important or close to you to death wi ll have the hardest time accepting that fact until you do, even if it doesnt seem so now. Magic is closely tied to life, to the point where it cannot function be yond it. It can remove life, lengthen life, but it cannot deal with death. Death is beyond, and is arguably detached from our world. Once someone dies, their li fe gone, they are dead and magic cannot do anything. It is really pointless to e xplain the theory as this is simply a fact that is. The force that was their lif e is believed to have moved beyond the limits of the body. More on death will be discussed in ghosts. You will learn the complexities of this theory in more adv anced books that will go into the details. However we recommend that if you are reading this searching for hope that something, anything, can undo death we reco mmend that you stop and seek a teacher or doctor to help you with your grief. It is for this reason that this is all we will say on the matter now. Artificial Magical Limitations While what we have gone over is a very brief explanation for why you cannot do c ertain magic beyond the limits of magic itself, that you cannot undo a limit by nature, this does not mean you cannot create more limits artificially. In fact l imiting magic intentionally is commonplace in the magical world. There are vario us spells and magic intended to block all types of spells and magic from functio ning properly. So long as the limit is artificial it can be undone, but until th e artificial limit is undone, your magic will be limited in the intended fashion by the limiting magic. There are both local and regional versions of this kind of magic. For example no one can Apparate into the grounds and school of Hogwart s and the unlawful obtainment of goods laws limit the use of magic to steal. In conclusion, rules and limitations are good for you as a witch or wizard, and are vital for the world, which is, of course, why they exist. Without these rule s in existence, reality and logic would start to gradually crumble to the will o f any of us who can manipulate magic. Natural laws are the structure to which th e chaos that is life can exist; without them we are truly chaos and thus reality and the world would not be here. Respect the rules and you will find that magic is still fantastic and can still open for you many possibilities. Magic and Emotion

What constitutes "emotional" spellcasting? There are certain spells which requir e specific emotional stimuli from the caster in order to come fruition, but most spellcasters are not emotionless beings, driven only by logic. Spells are very rarely cast entirely without feeling, even if this is done subconsciously by the caster. Even experiencing a sense of tranquility during spellcasting would be c onsidered using emotional spellcasting; it is incredibly difficult to determine where to draw the line in the field of study concerning magic and emotion, as th e two things seem intimately linked. Emotional spellcasting, therefore, can be b roken down into two forms: conscious, and subconscious. Magic is, by its very nature, non-emotive. Human beings, on the other hand, are uniquely emotional creatures. It should come as no surprise that the reactions o f the brain to various internal and external influences can affect a spellcaster s magical abilities. Emotion is closely tied with temperament and disposition. Behavior and motivation are dictated by one s personality, while emotions serve to help effectively express said behaviors and motivations. While it is true tha t magic cannot be seen as an emotive essence, there is little to prove that this difference causes any friction between spellcasters and magic. In fact, the qua lity of a spell can improve significantly when cast with a specific emotional in tent. Is it possible that conscious manipulation of one s emotional state could change a spell significantly? The answer is yes, absolutely. Casting a spell in anger will give greater power, but the caster can lose a pronounced level of control i n the process. Casting the same spell in amusement will decrease its power, but the spellcaster will be able to better control and guide the spell to suit his o r her needs. When casting a spell, certain emotions may be able to propel the sp ellcaster to greater heights of power, while others may serve only to hinder or obstruct. Fear, for example, is a paralytic; spells cast in extreme distress are less likely to be accurate or effective, except in cases where fear is combined with courage. There is no universally acceptable ranking for emotional efficien cy in spellwork; thus, it would be acceptable to hypothesize that an emotion is only as strong as the effect that it has on the individual. There is no definite classification of emotional responses in human beings, simp ly because there is still so much left to learn about the brain. For use in this text, emotion induced magic will be split into two categories: cognitive and in stinctual. In these examples, cognitive emotions are defined as emotional respon ses which require judgement and consideration before they appear. They are the " thinking" emotions, vs. the "feeling" emotions. All emotional reactions are resu lts of the brain s assessment and reaction to the data it receives, however, ins tinctual emotions are considered to be "gut reaction" emotions. A cognitive emot ional response relies on a careful process of information and knowledge, while i nstinctual emotions are less easily reasoned with and controlled. Cognitive Response The first type of emotional response linked to magic is the cognitive response. Cognitive emotional spellcasting is extremely important, as it is responsible fo r all of a spellcaster s controlled magical reactions; casting a spell which req uires a specific emotional reaction from the spellcaster would be a perfect exam ple of cognitive emotions at work. The person casting the spell must choose to a llow an emotional response to guide his or her spellcasting. Cognitive spellcast ing is typically more carefully controlled than the instinctual variety, althoug h it does not exclude the possibility of miscasting spells due to inexperience, and hasty and sloppy spellwork is still possible. Concentration and education is an important part of magical learning, after all. A greater knowledge of the ro le of cognitive emotions, however, can lead to superior spellcasting if one has the ability to cast spells with a clear mind and a level head.

One of the most famous examples of using a strong emotional response to channel magical energy is the Patronus Charm. Casting the charm has often been linked to positive memories, but the memories themselves are not as important as the feel ings that they evoke. This suggests that someone with a cheerful disposition wil l be more likely to succeed with the charm, no matter how few positive memories they may have; of course, concentration and force of will certainly go a long wa y towards achieving a Patronus. A successful casting of the Patronus Charm creat es a powerful, tangible force of energy which often manifests itself in animal f orm. These physical manifestations, despite being the a result of emotional stim uli from the spellcaster, are considered representatives of a witch or wizard s personality; however, corporeal manifestations are more difficult, and are subje ct to change with the onset of an emotional upheaval (see below). This is more t han ample evidence than both personality and emotion are two essential component s in the relationship between magic and the spellcaster. Another infamous example of spells that require emotional effort to cast is the Unforgivable Curses. Much like the casting of a Patronus Charm, it is impossible to cast an Unforgivable Curse half-heartedly; there must be full emotional conc entration for the spell to succeed. The question is, what is the specific emotio n required for the Cruciatus Curse, for example? If one were to use it out of an ger, the curse might still fail to be completely effective. Unlike the Patronus Charm, casting an Unforgivable Curse relies more on the visualization of the spe ll than the emotional intent. Typically, these spells are only used in conjuncti on with negative emotions (such as hatred), although there appears to be some ev idence that the Imperius and Killing Curses could be cast with positive emotions , which would completely change their intent. Very few academic studies of the U nforgivable Curses were undertaken after these curses were outlawed in 1717, how ever; whatever arguments one may make towards the difficulties of assigning mora l judgment to spells, most people would be hard-pressed to find an instance wher e an Unforgivable was not used with malicious intent. Instinctual Response One other type of magical reaction to emotion is known as the instinctual respon se. Most spellcasters have difficulties controlling their emotions; anyone who h as struggled getting through a heart-breaking experience or tried to hold back t heir anger over a perceived injustice will understand that there is no way that one can turn off his or her emotions through sheer force of will alone. It simp ly does not work that way. A perfect example of an instinctual magical response to an emotional upheaval would be the changing of form in a corporeal Patronus, or inadvertently shooting sparks out of a wand. Witches and wizards have even be en known to lose the ability to channel magic or cast spells when they are strug gling with intense emotional stress. Instinctual magic can be relatively harmles s; most of the magical ability exhibited by very young children before they are paired with their wands can be considered instinctual magic, because it is unfoc used, unintended and is often the result of a childish desire or whim. There is, however, also ancient magic that is linked to powerful instinctual emotional re sponses, such as the protective magic invoked by sacrifices. Instinctual emotion is visceral and unpredictable, and can neither be consciously attempted nor con trolled, and therefore has little place in the classroom setting outside of the theoretical realm of possibility. The contrast between the Patronus Charm and the Unforgivable Curses is extreme, and justifiably raises important questions in regards to morality and magic. To reiterate a previous statement, magical energy is neither emotional nor feeling; morality is a conscious invention of the thinking mind, so a being may judge be tween "good" (positive) or "bad" (negative) actions, emotions, and intentions. O ne can speculate that "good" spells feed on "good" feelings, and that "bad" spel ls are the result of "bad" intentions - this, however, is not the case. If a spe ll can be cast with both positive and negative intentions in mind, there is simp

ly no way to classify the intent of the spell itself. In the end, it all comes d own to intent. It is important to understand that magic is by nature a morally g rey area, and that the only way to add true definition is through a greater unde rstanding of the role of emotions in spellcasting. Wand Crafting The wand is an extremely important part of the process of casting a spell. While it is possible to do magic without a wand (as is discussed elsewhere in this te xtbook), most of the magic that you will learn while at school will require the use of a wand. The power of a wand is dependent on its suitability to you, as we ll as other factors. Each wand has different characteristics, and to quote Olliv ander, a famous wandmaker in Britain, The wand chooses the wizard. Only a wand tha t is suitable for you will prove its loyalty by conjuring sparks when you first hold it. The suitability of a wand for a wizard is dependent on four main factors: the wa nd core, the wand length, the wand flexibility and the wand wood. Wandmaking is an extremely delicate process. Each component of a wand must be blended together with a powerful binding spell and the elements must merge to form the whole wan d, which will be a precious tool for the wizard it chooses. Wand Cores Although many materials have been tested as wand cores by wandmakers through the ages, wand cores of lesser quality, like kelpie hair, do not create wands of tr ue power and personality. Over the years, wandmakers have narrowed down the list of effective wand cores to three substances: unicorn hair, dragon heartstring a nd phoenix feather. Each of these materials is expensive and hard to come by, ma king each wand precious and dear to its owner. Each wand core has a distinctive personality that often reflects the personality of the wizard it chooses. Unicorn hair produces a quiet, stable and loyal wand capable of performing accomplished magic, which is why many Hufflepuffs and Rave nclaws tend to own a wand with a unicorn core. The wand will be unlikely to chan ge its loyalty from its first owner and will produce steady and adept magic, ten ding to be resistant to the Dark Arts. While unicorn core wands do not tend to b e powerful wands, a powerful wand wood may create a wand that is both faithful a nd powerful. Unicorn hair wands may also "die" if severely mistreated. These cha racteristics parallel that of a unicorn, a rare, beautiful and trusting creature that must be treated delicately and with respect. Wands with cores of dragon heartstring are usually the most powerful. Such wands will willingly change allegiance if won by another wizard. While capable of pro ducing highly extravagant magic, these wands are also the least stable of wands, prone to combusting or producing explosions when handled incorrectly, much like the creature from which it was taken. Its headstrong personality and great powe r cause dragon heartstring wands to be attracted to both Gryffindors and Slyther ins. Lastly, wands of phoenix core are the least common. While such wands have much p otential, it often takes more hard work for the wizard to master spells. They al so have the most personality, often acting out of their own will, which is viewe d as an annoyance by many witches and wizards. Since only wizards with a specifi c personality will take to such a wand, phoenix feather wands are also the picki est when choosing owners. Much like the phoenix, such wands are independent and choosy, and their trust is difficult to win, though once they have chosen their owners, they will remain loyal and will rarely change their allegiance. Phoenix feather wands do not tend towards any house as they choose their wizard because of a complex array of factors that relate to the personality of the wizard.

Flexibility While some less proficient wandmakers may sell wands to wizards and witches base d on their height, this is an inaccurate way to find a suitable wand because it does not take into account many other factors that contribute to the suitability of a wand. Rather than the literal size of a person, longer wands are in fact d rawn to people with larger, brighter and more vibrant personalities and are suit able for dramatic and exuberant spellcasting. Similarly, shorter wands are drawn to more inward, quiet and subtle personalities, and are more suitable for intri cate and detail-oriented wandwork. The length of a wand typically ranges between nine and fourteen inches, though there are exceptional cases, but those are far and few between. The flexibility of a wand also affects the magic that it performs and flexible w ands are naturally attracted to wizards with whom they share this trait. Flexibi lity denotes how willing the wand is to adapt and change for its owner. More rig id wands are choosier about their owner, requiring a distinct character, typical ly one that is trustworthy. More flexible wands fit more adaptable and versatile personalities. It is worth noting that a wands flexibility can be explained by i ts wood. It is possible, however, for woods that are usually rigid to be surpris ingly swishy. Such unique wands are typically pickier about their owners and req uire a specific personality for their potential to be fully reached. Wandwoods Unlike the other factors, there are a large variety of woods from which wands ca n be made. Potential wand woods are typically identified by the species of the t ree. Only certain species of woods are capable of being formed into a wand, and of those species, many still may not be suitable. Wand wood needs to be magical, as well as have a high capability for conducting magic. This is often found in trees inhabited by bowtruckles, otherwise known as tree guardians. Bowtruckles p rotect the trees, allowing them to retain their magical properties and therefore making them extremely suitable for wands. There are close to a hundred types of woods that are used in wandmaking, and it is therefore impossible to cover all of them within this textbook. Wand woods, h owever, are representative of the trees that they come from and almost always ha il from trees that have a distinct personality. Whether the tree is hardy, adapt able, stubborn or vibrant, the wand wood will have the same characteristics, and hence be drawn toward similar people. Actually getting the wood from the tree is often a challenge. Obviously, one can not simply walk into a forest and pluck a twig off of a tree, though that is not to say that that has not been attempted by wandmakers throughout history, with some surprising occasional successes. Removing wand wood using magic, while prec ise, does tend to blur the woods natural magic with that of the spellcaster, henc e most wandmakers opt to have their students physically carve wand wood out with a knife. Wandmaking After gathering all of the separate components required to create a wand, the ac tual process of wandcrafting is delicate and difficult to undertake. Each elemen t has a personality, which is what makes each wand unique, but also makes forcin g the materials to form a wand impossible. Wandmakers will attempt to put elemen ts into an environment that is suitable for each and leave them there for a peri od of time. If the elements take to one another, they will create a magical bond of their own, one that takes an incredible amount of power to break. A drawback to this option is that the elements sometimes do not like wandmakers choosing the elements with which they should bind. To address this issue, more w andmakers in recent times have been opting to place a large variety of elements in a neutral place to let them truly choose with which elements they want to com

bine. This has often resulted in surprising combinations of wands, with contrast ing elements choosing to bind together, creating a wand with much potential, alb eit rather picky. It is still somewhat unclear how exactly the binding of elements to create a wan d occurs. Examining such processes requires skill, as elements do not like to be observed while undergoing their special form of magic. It appears, however, tha t elements which are drawn to each other, whether they are complementary or cont rasting, are attracted to each other by their magic. Upon attraction, the wand w ood will magically wrap itself around the core, binding the two together. Their magic merges into one new personality, encompassing both elements. For binding m agic to be lasting it must be desired by each element, which is why wandmaking i s such a difficult task. It is extremely important to remember that wandmaking is a delicate art that req uires great skill and that a wands suitability to a wizard can be measured by cou ntless numbers of factors Those factors mentioned above are merely the visible a nd controllable ones. Wands themselves are magical (something which will be disc ussed elsewhere in this text) and have a form of sentience. Even the wizarding w orlds most experienced wandmakers do not claim to fully understand the complex an d subtle intents of wands. This chapter is but a brief introduction to the process of wandmaking and what c ontributes to the creation of a wand. The wand core and wood, coupled with the w and s length and flexibility and the unique form of binding magic described abov e, creates this subtly powerful tool of magic. Wands do not choose their owners randomly and it is unlikely that wizardkind will ever fully understand the proce ss. The Wand Theory Wands, as was stated from the previous chapter, are extremely delicate and impor tant tools for all wizards. In this chapter, we explore the importance of a wand , how it works, and why it is able to do so. Wands have been studied since the beginning of wizarding history, when the first wand core bonded with a twig from a particularly magical tree, creating a instr ument so powerful that it took wizardkind years to learn how to do more than sho ot a few sparks. There are two main theories behind the reasoning of why wizards and witches are magical: the blood theory and the brain theory, which will be expanded on furthe r in a later chapter. Either way, it is universally accepted that magic comes fr om within the wizard or witch, and not from an outward source. Magic is also her editary, with occasional exceptions. Hence, since wizards and witches are alread y magical, what exactly is the function of a wand? How Wands Work Almost everyone in the wizarding world has amusing or embarrassing stories about incidents in their childhood caused by accidental bursts of magic. While witche s and wizards are able to perform unfocused magic on their own, a wand is extrem ely important in casting precise and accurate spells. Wands are, in essence, conductors of magic. Witches and wizards are the sources of magic, but a wand concentrates it into one condensed blast of magical energy when released by simultaneous and accurate wand movements and incantations. When a magical being holds a wand, magic is naturally transferred and stored in the wand, for safekeeping of a sort. This does not deplete the supply of magic w ithin a wizard or witch, which is everlasting and renews constantly. Magic withi n our body is also what allows magical beings to live longer than Muggles, as ma

gic lets our body renew itself more frequently before dying. Magic is stored in the wand until it is needed. When an incantation is uttered b y a magical being holding the wand, accompanied with the correct wand movements, the wand obeys the instructions of the caster and releases the magic in the for m of a spell. While it is officially called the Wand Theory, it is generally accepted as the t ruth behind how wands work. Nevertheless, researches in the field of Biological Magic will continue digging for the hard truth to prove their theory right once and for all. This theory can also be seen and proven in various other ways - one of which is that wands have essential uses other than spellcasting. For example, wands are n eeded in potion-making. Without them, potions would not be magical, despite havi ng magical ingredients. This is because the magic of the potion-brewer is needed to complete the potion; without it, it is akin to a Muggle having brewed the po tion. Hence, it is possible to say that each potion is unique to the person who brewed it. Potions almost always require the brewer to stir it with their wand. During this process, magic is conducted from the wizard through the wand and into the potion. This is arguably the most important step of the potion, as the brewers ma gic binds the individual stored magical power in each ingredient together to for m one potion. Addendums to the Wand Theory There are a few addendums to the Wand Theory. It is possible for wizards to cast highly focused spells without a wand at all, usually in a situation of high pre ssure or stress. This happens often in an emergency or a dire situation, when a wizards mind is so focused on a single action that all his magical energy is chan neled into that one thought. The strength and accuracy of a spell is also very d ependent on the intention and visualization of the caster. Hence, in this situat ion, so much energy is focused into one intention that magic bursts forth from t he wizard in one powerful spell. This is known as Untrained Wandless Magic. Such occurrences have been recorded in history; for example, when a mother manag ed to levitate her child out of a burning building, or when a wandless wizard cr eated a Stunning Spell so powerful that he had time to escape a paralysed troll. After this heroic burst of magical energy, wizards often collapse from exhaustio n, as magical energy is tied closely to the strength of a wizard. Without this m agical energy, the body experiences a sudden loss of energy, resulting in a temp orary hibernation of the body. Even more rare is when a wizard manages to cast a spell using a wand which he is not in direct contact with, otherwise known as Untrained Wand-Channeling. This only happens with wizards who have a long and dedicated relationship with their wands. Such wands usually have cores and woods with more loyal and trustworthy c haracteristics. In this case, the wizard is similarly in a dangerous situation and focusing on a single thought or spell. The wand may be up to twenty metres away from the owne r, but has such a strong relationship with its owner that it is able to sense th e magical energy radiating from the wizard, and uses all of its magical abilitie s and strengths to channel the magical energy through itself to cast a focused s pell. The difference in the results between Untrained Wandless Magic and Untrained Wan d-Channeling is that the former usually casts less complicated but more powerful spells, whereas magic that is channeled through a wand can create cast more spe cific spells.

As you may have noticed, the presence of the word Untrained before their titles in dicates that it is possible to truly learn how to do wandless magic and/or chann eling magic. These practises, however, require much skill and talent to master, and are extremely advanced techniques. Yet another situation would be when a wand acts of its own accord. Unlike the pr evious two cases, the wizard does not control the wand in any way. Instead, the wand is both extremely loyal and brave, as well as close to its owner. In a dang erous situation, it is able to sense that its owner is in danger, and without an y prompting or visualization from its owner, summons up the will to cast its own spell. Using the magic stored up within itself and out of sheer determination a nd loyalty towards its owner, it releases all its magical power concentrated in a single detonation of magic in the form of a spell. Often, these are spells not even known to the owner, which leads to a question as to whether the magic is c aused by stress, from the wizards magical power, or the wands own magic. The final and most rare addendum to the Wand Theory would be a case when a wand obeys the instructions of its owner, despite being in another wizards hands. In t his case, it involves the combined power and will of both the owner and the wand to muster the strength to cast the spell. This particular phenomenon has only b een recorded in history a couple of dozen times, and its process has been highly researched and debated. Such cases usually result in spells that require more energy than any wand could possibly store at one point. Magical researchers have claimed that the wand use s the magical power of the person holding the wand, thus calling it unlawful tra nsfer of magic, and therefore illegal. However, since this phenomenon has not ye t been fully clarified, largely due to the rarity of its occurrences, official j udgment has yet to be passed by the Wizengamot. Are Wands Magical? This is another topic that has been highly debated in the recent decades. Are wa nds mere conductors of magic, or do they possess magic themselves? From the prev ious chapter, as well as countless incidents through time, it is generally accep ted that wands have a form of sentience. They are able to pick a suitable owner by shooting sparks when sensing a connection, they are able to form a relationsh ip with and stay loyal to their owner, and they are even able to perform extraor dinary feats of magic when their owner is in a dire situation. Wands, despite no t looking like it, do have some form of independent thought. However, do they ha ve magic of their own? One side of this debate claims that wands have thought, but do not possess magic . Magic can be stored within them, transfer, and pass right through them, but th ere is no magic of their own. This is also typically the belief of the side that argues that wands which cast spells while in another wizards hand are unlawfully transferring magic. They also believe that when wands act out of their own acco rd, they are instead channeling the magic of their owner. Hence, they do not recognize such instances as a separate addendum to the Wand T heory, but instead a case of Untrained Wand-Channeling, with the exception being that the wizard is not consciously visualising the spell, but is nevertheless c hanneling the energy to the wand. On the other hand, the other side believes that because wands are made out of ma gical components and bind themselves together using a magic that wizardkind cann ot fully understand to this day, wands do have a magic of their own. While it is seldom displayed, it is beyond the abilities of wizardkind, not unlike elves mag ical abilities. Thus, they believe that a wand, when loyal to their owner and ab

le to sense the fact that their owner in is danger, can summon its own magic to perform astonishing feats, such as casting spells unknown to wizardkind, or perf orming spells using their own magic. While it may be decades or even centuries before this debate is resolved, the Wa nd Theory is generally accepted to state that wands are conductors of magic, sem i-sentient, and indeed a enigma of their own. How Magic Works Even the brightest wizarding minds are not completely sure how magic works. Reno wned spell inventor and essayist Arthur Blitz writes in his memoir Sparks and Col ors: My Life as a Spell Inventor: Magic comes from within. It is not something that resides inside of a witch, wiza rd, or other magical being; instead, it is all around us. It is in every gust of wind and every twig and branch. It is simply the magic that allows itself insid e of us that we can harness. Blood vs. brain While Blitz took some liberties with the facts, he was correct that magic comes from within. It is known that magic users (witches, wizards, magical creatures, etc.), are different in some way from Muggles and non-magic users, like Squibs. Throughout most of history, it was thought that magic resided in the blood of th e magic user and was carried throughout the body. The earliest evidence of this theory comes to us from the Roman wizard Augustus Cornelius Scaevola, who lived in the first century B.C. His research was concentrated on magical versus non-ma gical blood, which he collected from gladiator rings. After identifying wizards and Muggles in the holding areas under the rings, he would buy them from the are na, take their blood, and set them free. Because of this, he occasionally pops u p in Roman wizarding records as Dominus Cruentus, or The Bloody Master. Scaevolas tests conclude that there was something different about the wizards bloo d, a slight difference in characteristics of sliding as well as of taste, an obser vation taken from his personal notes. This discovery was made simultaneously by ancient Chinese wizards half a world away, though both groups did not do extensi ve research into the subject until much later. Magical blood was, and remains today, a common way of describing wizards. A human with magical blood is still the dictionary definition of a wizard. In the past f ew decades, however, wizards have been doing research based on the theory that m agic is not centered in the blood, but in the brain. It is theorized that the individual magic of a wizard is located in a small part of the brain or in brain connections that Muggles do not have or cannot access. When an incantation, verbal or non-verbal, is invoked with the corresponding wa nd movement, it is thought that this area of the brain sends signals through the nervous system, which then channels the magic into the wand, producing the spel l. There is quite a bit of controversy surrounding this theory. Much of it comes fr om wizards who believe in Inheritance Theory (discussed in detail elsewhere in t his textbook), who can accurately cite not only historical but recent research, showing that wizard blood does in fact differ subtly from Muggle blood in averag e thickness and the ability to withstand charms. In an American study, blood tak en from over 100 witches and wizards was slightly thicker and was more resilient against spells and jinxes than Muggle blood from a blood bank.[1] Supporters of I nheritance Theory also claim that magic in the blood makes sense logically, as l ongtime Daily Prophet columnist Gary Briggs wrote in his March 15, 1988 column:

Those that subscribe to the new theory of magic residing in the brain are too swa yed by Muggle learnings and teachings. Magic resides in the blood, as shown by m any wizards in the past, and always has. Our blood is what makes us special, not our brains. This is just Muggle nonsense and will never catch on. The Brain Theory, as it has been called, has in fact caught on, and has been stead ily gaining traction over the past several years. While there are many supporter s of the idea that magic travels from the brain to the nervous system, there is also growing support for the theory that magic travels through the blood from th e brain. This is thought to explain why wizard blood is different, and is consid ered the most diplomatic of these theories. Regardless of where it is kept in the body, magic is most certainly there. Almos t all children with at least one magical parent are magical, and there is, for r easons unknown, an upward trend of magical children born to Muggle parents. Whil e for children of magical parents here is a 99 percent chance of them being witc hes or wizards themselves, one percent of magical-born children worldwide cannot perform magic, and are called Squibs. This was once thought to happen more ofte n if the family in question had Muggle blood, causing the magic to skip a genera tion, but it is now understood that being a Squib is simply a random occurrence. Producing magic Because each witch or wizard has magic inside of them, it is possible to do magi c without a wand. As almost every child who has gone through life producing fits o f uncontrollable magic knows, this is not good, focused magic. A child may be ab le to do a spell above their level, but they also cannot control this spell. To control the spell, a witch or wizard usually requires a wand, which uses special wood to house and direct a magical core, the true catalyst for the spell. When the witch or wizard has the wand in their hand, they must repeat the incant ation verbally or nonverbally, as a way to focus the magic. They must also do th e proper wand movements to release the magic building up inside the wand. Each s tep is integral to the magical process, and botching just one step may not only cause the spell to fail, but to backfire. Every step in casting a spell, from the wand to the incantation, is meant to con trol and focus the raw magical power into a constructive spell that the wizard c an use. It is like pouring water into a funnel: it takes the water in a large op ening, and forces it into a smaller opening in an organized manner. After a wizard decides what spell to cast, magic is pumped through the blood or the nervous system (depending on the theory to which one subscribes) and courses through the hand to the wand. This is actually an enormous transfer of energy, although many wizards do not feel a thing. This is because their body naturally adjusts to this transfer; if the same thing happened to a Muggle, they would fee l incredible pain. The reason some wizards get wand arm, an aching sensation felt after they have been doing many spells, is because the magic rushing back and fo rth into the wand arm so rapidly and frequently actually wears down the bodys abi lity to adjust and the wizard eventually begins to feel pain. The magic enters the wand when the incantation is said, which focuses the magica l energy. Not only does the incantation matter; so does the pronunciation and in tonation. If a wizard cheerily casts a hex, it will not be as effective as if th e same wizard casts it with malice. Nonverbal spells may lack this intonation an d may be less powerful. At this point, the magic is pent up inside the wand and is slowly building. The magic knows what effect it will cause, and now wants to escape the wand, which a

cts as a funnel for the magic. As long as the wizard is concentrating on the spe ll, he or she will continue to release magic in the wand, which cannot escape wi thout the assistance of wand movements. Many young students question the usefulness of wand movements, thinking the inca ntations to be sufficiently difficult. Wand movements do not exist to frustrate students, but to keep them alive! The spell inside of a wand can only escape if the correct movements are made in the proper order, with the right amount of fin esse. While some spells, including the simplest charms and some jinxes, are very lenient about wand motions and will be released by just about anything, more co mplex spells will only be released by a more refined set of motions. These moti ons allow the spell to escape by agitating the wand in just the right way for th e spell to filter itself out of the top of the wand. If the spell is filtered ou t incorrectly, it could do anything from simply fail to be cast, to completely e xplode and produce other adverse effects. Experimental spells, due to their natu re, are more likely to be explosive and each year about a thousand wizards world wide die from spellcasting or potion-related mishaps. The Wizards Duty As you can see, casting a spell is truly a complex process! Many wizards are sur prised to learn that there is so much energy and possible danger when they simpl y cast a Levitation Charm. A wizards body, however, not just houses magic, but is also able to handle that magic. Magic may still remain an enigma after all these centuries, but wizards have lea rned to master it. Like the first civilizations controlling fire, magic users ha ve honed their magical skill over centuries and turned a very dangerous thing in to one that is incredibly productive. The Responsibility of the Magic Ones, a firs t century A.D. Confucian text discussing the role of the wizard in a harmonious Confucian society, states: Those that are magical have a duty to help all, even those who are not. The bonds of order and respect dictate that a manmust be loyal to all those he knows: his father, his ruler, his older siblings, his friends; and that he be a protector t o all of those whom he is above: his son, his wife, and his younger brothers. He must strive to be a perfect manin all of his values and his actions. He must con trol his magic and use it to better the world, not be reckless and destroy it. Wi th his magical gift, he must live in social harmony with everyone, and use all t hat he has for good. Wizards have a great gift. They are given the ability to do things that Muggles only dream of: fly, cast spells, clean rooms with a simple sweep of the wand. Wh ether magic truly comes from the brain or the blood, it may be one of the most p owerful forces in our world, and witches and wizards must learn not only how to perform spells, but how to use them well. If we did not, magical society could n ot function the way it does today. Footnotes: 28) A blood bank is a place where Muggles voluntarily give their own blood to be put into other Muggles bodies when a Muggle has lost a lot of blood. This is don e in lieu of a Blood Replenishing Potion.