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BULETINUL TIINIFIC

AL UNIVERSITII TEHNICE DE CONSTRUCII BUCURETI

No. 1 - Martie 2010

Disclaimer With respect to documents available from this journal neither T.U.C.E.B. nor any of its employees make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed. Reference herein to any specific commercial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the T.U.C.E.B. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of T.U.C.E.B., and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes

CUPRINS

LUCRRI HIDROTEHNICE, ZON UMED I SALCIE ENERGETIC O POSIBIL SOLUIE TEHNIC PENTRU CRETEREA CALITII APEI RULUI OLT N AVAL DE STAIA DE EPURARE A MUNICIPIULUI SFNTU GHEORGHE................................................................................................................... 5 Oreste Sumbasacu, Virgil Petrescu CONSOLIDARE ANSAMBLU BISERICA-TURN CLOPOTNITA-COMUNA SACEL, HARGHITA......... 18 Mircea Ieremia, Marin Dumitrascu SISTEMATIZRI PENTRU OPTIMIZAREA PROCESRII MATERIALELOR TITANIENE DE UZ AEROSPAIAL (I)................................................................................................................................................... 29 Indira Andreescu ESTIMAREA TRANSPORTULUI DE SEDIMENTE LONGITUDINAL COASTA STAIUNII MAMAIA, ROMNIA................................................................................................................................................................. 34 Khoudir Mezouar MATERIALELE TERMOIZOLANTE I ECONOMIA DE ENERGIE N CLDIRI DE LOCUIT............. 46 Dumitrescu Vlad, Dumitrescu Rzvan PROBLEME TEHNOLOGICE GENERALE ALE SUDRII PRIN TOPIRE ................................................. 58 Alexe Mircea

LUCRRI HIDROTEHNICE, ZON UMED I SALCIE ENERGETIC O POSIBIL SOLUIE TEHNIC PENTRU CRETEREA CALITII APEI RULUI OLT N AVAL DE STAIA DE EPURARE A MUNICIPIULUI SFNTU GHEORGHE

HYDRAULIC WORKS, WETLAND AND ENERGETIC WILLOW A POSSIBLE TECHNICAL SOLUTION FOR WATER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT OF THE OLT RIVER, DOWNSTREAM OF SFNTU GHEORGHE

Oreste Sumbasacu, ing., Administraia naional Apele Romne (National Water Authority), Sistemul de gospodrire a apelor Covasna (Covasna county unit), e-mail: oreste.sumbasacu@yahoo.com Virgil Petrescu, prof. univ. dr. ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest), Catedra de hidraulic i protecia mediului (Hydraulics and Environmental Protection Dept.), e-mail: virgil.petrescu2007@gmail.com Abstract: In order to improve the quality of rivers up to the required level recommended by EU, it must to renew the existing wastewater treatment technology. The necessary funds can be accessed, but a great value of them could generate adverse effects upon population and environment. An alternative solution is the use of energetic willow (Salix Viminalis Energo), an efficient and lowpriced solid combustible, also suitable for fixing organic matter, nitrates and phosphates from wastewater. In the paper is analyzed the Olt River environmental data, upstream and downstream of St. Gheorghe wastewater treatment plant, just to identify the possibilities of using this solution as tertiary treatment of wastewater. Keywords: water quality, environmental protection, energetic willow, tertiary treatment of wastewater

1. INTRODUCERE Romnia, ar membr al Uniunii Europene, s-a angajat ca pn n anul 2015 s amelioreze, pn la o stare ecologic bun, calitatea apelor de suprafa. Sectoarele de ru n care se descarc ape uzate (epurate sau neepurate) sunt cele mai expuse riscului de a nu atinge standardele de calitate. Constrngerile unui astfel de demers legate de reducerea polurii receptorilor naturali sunt, n principal, cele financiare i cele de timp. Soluiile pentru rezolvarea unor astfel de probleme nu sunt ntotdeauna costisitoare. Adoptnd o soluie tehnic ieftin i prietenoas mediului, constrngerile amintite pot s dispar, cel puin pentru moment.
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1. INTRODUCTION Romania, as a member of the European Union, committed itself to improve up to 2015 the quality of surface water until reaching the requested value. The river bodies which receive wastewater (treated or untreated) are, from the water quality specific legislation point of view, the most exposed to pollution risk and vulnerability. The main pressures in water quality improvement activities are money and time. Often there are cheap ways to solve this type of problem. Adopting an environmentally friendly and not an expensive technical solution the pressures disappear and the requested level of pollutant values in surface water is satisfied for the moment, at least.
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Acest fapt ar permite rgazul de timp necesar analizrii interaciunii dintre receptorul natural i sursa de poluare, conceperii, finanrii i realizrii unuia sau mai multor proiecte cuprinztoare pentru rezolvarea problemelor comunitilor privind alimentarea cu ap, epurarea mai eficient a apelor uzate, renaturarea rurilor, arealelor, a zonelor umede etc. 2. SECTORUL MICFALU - ILIENI AL OLTULUI 2.1. Condiii geomorfologice La 92 km de la izvoare, dup ce iese din defileul Tunadului, Oltul colecteaz apele afluentului de stnga, prul Micfalu. n aceast zon, albia minor prezint deschideri cuprinse ntre 4 i 10 m, malurile sunt n general abrupte i asimetrice, cu nlimi de la 26 m la 1216 m. Culoarul Oltului pe acest sector este cuprins ntre munii Bodocului la est (malul stng) i munii Baraoltului la vest (malul drept), pn aproape de Sfntu Gheorghe, unde terenul se deschide, precednd zona de confluen cu primul su afluent important, Rul Negru, la sud de localitatea Ilieni (fig. 1). 2.2. Condiii hidrografice i hidrogeologice Pe sectorul studiat, cu lungimea de circa 38 km, panta medie a Oltului este de 1,74, iar coeficientul de sinuozitate are o valoare de 1,18. n aval de defileul Tunadului, intrat n depresiunea Braovului, Oltul primete civa aflueni mai mici i foarte mici dup cum urmeaz: Micfalu, Malna, Olteni, Talomir, Clnic, Valea Criului, Ghidfalu, Arcu, Debren, Smbrezii, Sncrai i Ilieni. Aval de localitatea Ilieni, la circa 4,5 km, se vars n Olt, din partea stng, cel mai mare afluent din cursul su superior, Rul Negru. ntreaga zon se caracterizeaz prin rezerve bogate de ape minerale. Izvoarele minerale sunt sulfuroase, bicarbonatate, feruginoase,
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This would allow the time to analyse the interaction between the natural receivers and the pollution sources and to design, finance and make one or more extended projects for solving all the problems related to a community such as water supply, better wastewater treatment, restoration of rivers, landscapes, wetlands, etc. 2. MICFALU ILIENI REACH OF THE OLT RIVER

2.1. Geomorphology At 92 km from its springs, after passing Tunad defile, the Olt River collects from the left the water of a tributary brook called Micfalu. The Olt River channel is between 4 and 10 meters large in this sector. The river has asymmetric and abrupt banks, 2 m to 6 m high, or 12 m to 16 m. On this sector the Olt River basin is bordered by Bodoc mountains to the Est and Baraolt mountain to the West. Nearby Sfntu Gheorghe town the river valley becomes larger and larger, preceding the confluence zone with the first important tributary of the Olt River, Rul Negru, to the South of the Ilieni village (Fig.1). 2.2 Hydrology and Hydrogeology The studied the Olt River reach is between Micfalu brook confluence and Rul Negru confluence. This sector is about 38 km long, with an average slope of 1.74 and with the sinuosity coefficient of 1.18. Downstream from Tunad defile begins Braov depression. Here, the Olt River collects some little and very little brooks. These are Micfalu, Malna, Olteni, Talomir, Clnic, Valea Criului, Ghidfalu, Arcu, Debren, Smbrezii, Sncrai and Ilieni. At 4.5 km downstream from Ilieni village, the Olt River collects the water of Rul Negru. There are large mineral water reserves in the entire zone. The springs are sulphurous, ferruginous, carbonated, with strong or low
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

carbogazoase, cu mineralizare puternic sau mai sczut. Cele mai cunoscute i utilizate izvoare sunt n Malna, Olteni i Bodoc. n tabelul 1 se prezint valorile caracteristice ale debitului rului Olt n seciunile Micfalu, Sfntu Gheorghe i Ilieni.

mineralization. Well known are the springs from Malna, Olteni and Bodoc. The characteristic values of the Olt River discharge at Micfalu, Sfntu Gheorghe and Ilieni sections are presented in Table 1.

Tabelul 1 - Debitele n seciunile monitorizate (m3/s) Table 1 - The discharges in monitoring sections (m3/s) Seciune/ Section Debit/ Discharge Qmed an Qmax 1% Qmax 5% Qmax 10% Qmax 20% Qmax istoric Qmin istoric Qmin 97% Qmin 95% Qmin 90% Qmin 85%

Micfalu 9.68 334 189 140 96.5 302 1.10 1.20 1.45 1.72 1.74

Sfntu
Gheorghe

Ilieni (1.05 Sf. Gheorghe) 10.6 413 233 172 120 296 1.17 1.32 1.68 1.92 2.00

10.1 393 222 164 114 282 1.11 1.26 1.60 1.83 1.90

Fig. 1 - Sistemul de monitoring al reelei hidrografice. The monitoring system of the stream drainage pattern.

2.3. Condiii climatice Zona studiat face parte din sectorul cu clim continental - moderat caracterizat de veri calde i relativ bogate n precipitaii i ierni friguroase cu viscole rare. Circulaia general a atmosferei este caracterizat prin frecvena mare a adveciilor de aer temperat oceanic din vest (mai ales n sezonul cald), prin ptrunderi frecvente de aer temperat - continental din est (mai ales n sezonul
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

2.3. Climate In this area the climate is continental temperate, which means warm summers with relative abundant rains and cold winters with rare blizzards. The general atmospheric circulation is characterized by frequent oceanic - temperate air advections from the West (especially in the warm seasons) and frequent continentaltemperate air advections from the East (especially
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rece), care ajunge ns intens transformat, prin invazii relativ frecvente ale aerului tropical maritim din sud-est i sud, prin ptrunderi rare ale aerului arctic la nord i foarte rare ale aerului tropical continental din sud-est i sud. Temperatura medie anual este de +7-8oC, mai joas cu circa 3oC fa de media pe ar. Mediile lunii iulie sunt de ordinul a +16-18oC, iar cele ale lunii ianuarie ntre -4oC i -8oC. La Sfntu Gheorghe, temperatura maxim de +37,8oC a fost nregistrat la 11 august 1951, n timp ce temperatura minim, de -34,7oC, s-a nregistrat la 30 decembrie 1999. Volumul precipitaiilor crete cu altitudinea i scade n culoarul depresionar intramontan datorit efectului de fhnizare care are loc la coborrea maselor de aer. Cantitile medii anuale sunt n jurul valorilor de 500-700 mm (l/m2 ). Cantitatea maxim czut n 24 ore la Sfntu Gheorghe a fost de circa 82,1 mm. Stratul de zpad este prezent circa 60-80 de zile pe an, cu grosimi medii de 8-10 cm. 3. PRESIUNI ASUPRA OLTULUI NTRE MICFALU I ILIENI 3.1. Presiuni hidromorfologice Pe sectorul Oltului, delimitat n amonte de confluena cu prul Micfalu i n aval cu Rul Negru, intervenia uman care genereaz presiuni hidromorfologice const n existena digurilor de aprare mpotriva inundaiilor, construite pentru protecia localitilor (Micfalu 0,4 km de diguri, Malna Bi 0,2 km, Bodoc 2,5 km, Ghidfalu 1,5 km, Sf'ntu Gheorghe 5 km, Ilieni 3 km) i din circa 6,4 km de consolidri de maluri cu piatr brut, executate pentru stoparea unui numr de 36 eroziuni active de mal.

in the cold seasons), mixed sometimes with Mediterranean air from South-East and South, rare with arctic air from the North and very rare with tropical-continental air from SouthEast or South. The annual average temperature is between +7 o C and +8 o C, three degrees less than the country average. In July the average temperature is about +16oC - +18 o C and in January between -4oC and -8oC. The highest value in Sfntu Gheorghe was +37.8oC on 11th August 1951 and the lowest was -34.7oC on 30th December 1999. The precipitation volume increases with altitude and decreases in areas bordered by mountains due to the fhn-effect produced when air mass flows downwards. Annual average rain quantities are between 500 and 700 mm (l/m2). The highest quantity fallen in 24 hours in Sfntu Gheorghe has been of 82.1 mm. The snow cover is during 60 - 80 days/year, with 8 to10 cm average depth. 3. PRESSURES ON THE OLT RIVER BETWEEN MICFALU AND ILIENI 3.1. Hydromorphological Pressures In Olt River reach, bordered upstream by Micfalu brook confluence and downstream by Rul Negru confluence, human actions which generate hydromorphological pressures consist in longitudinal dykes, made for human community protection against flood (Micfalu 0.4 km of dykes, Malna Bi 0.2 km, Bodoc 2.5 km, Ghidfalu 1.5 km, Sfntu Gheorghe 5 km, Ilieni 3 km) and 6.4 km of banks protection against river erosion for a number of 36 active bank erosions. 3.2. Chemical Pressures (pollution sources) As regards the chemical pressures, the river body could be divided in two parts: the upper zone, between the confluence with Micfalu brook and the confluence with
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

3.2. Presiuni chimice (surse de poluare) Din punctul de vedere al presiunilor chimice pe sectorul studiat se pot distinge dou zone, respectiv zona amonte, situat ntre conflu-ena cu prul Micfalu i
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confluena cu prul Smbrezii, i zona aval, cuprins ntre confluena cu prul Smbrezii i confluena cu Rul Negru. Zona amonte are o lungime de circa 25,5 km i nu este afectat de surse importante de poluare. n zona aval, cu o lungime de 12,5 km, calitatea apelor este afectat de apele uzate tratate n staia de epurare a municipiului Sfntu Gheorghe, apoi deversate n prul Smbrezii i din acesta n rul Olt. 4. STAIA DE EPURARE A APELOR UZATE DIN MUNICIPIUL SFNTU GHEORGHE Din cei 65.000 locuitori ai municipiului Sfntu Gheorghe, circa 48.000 sunt racordai la reeaua de alimentare cu ap i 41.300 la cea de canalizare. Sistemul de canalizare are o lungime total de 37 km. Dac la proiectare capacitatea de epurare era de Qzi med = 600 l/s, n prezent se trateaz i se evacueaz un debit mediu zilnic de aproximativ Qzi med = 175 l/s. 4.1. Procesul tehnologic al staiei de epurare - Treapta mecanic. n aceast treapt, apa uzat trece prin cminul cu grtare i site, apoi prin deznisipator, separatorul de grsimi i prin patru decantoare primare. - Treapta biologic. Apa tratat mecanic este trimis n bazinele de aerare cu nmol activ i apoi n decantoarele secundare. - Fluxul nmolului. Nmolul n exces din bazinele de aerare trece succesiv prin concentratorul gravitaional de nmol, rezervorul de fermentare metanic, instalaia de deshidratare a nmolului, ajungnd la rampa oreneasc de deeuri solide.

Smbrezii brook, and the lower zone, bordered upstream by the confluence with Smbrezii brook and downstream by the confluence with Rul Negru. The upper zone is about 25.5 km long. On this sector there is no important pollution source. In the lower zone with a length of 12.5 km, the wastewater treated in Sfntu Gheorghe treatment plant is discharged firstly in Smbrezii brook and finally in the Olt River. 4. SFNTU GHEORGHE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

In Sfntu Gheorghe town there are about 65,000 inhabitants, from which 48,000 are connected to the water supply system and about 41,300 to the wastewater sewage system. The sewage system is about 37 km long. The projected capacity is Q zi med = 600 l/s, but at present only Q zi med =175 l/s are treated.

4.1. Technological Process of Wastewater Treatment Plant - Mechanical treatment stage. In this stage, wastewater passes through grid and sieve room, then in the sand-settling tank, grease-separation tank and four primary settling tanks. - Biological treatment stage. In the biological treatment stage, the water flux is: aeration in the activated sludge tanks and secondary settling. - Sludge flux. The treatment of in-excess sludge from the aeration tanks is successively passing through the gravitational thickening, the anaerobia stabilization tank, the centrifugal dewatering, and the municipal solid waste landfill.

4.2. Monitorizarea sursei de poluare n tabelele 2, 3, 4 i 5 sunt prezentate, succesiv, pentru perioada anilor 2001 2007: debitele tratate n staia de epurare a municipiului Sfntu Gheorghe, caracteristicile apei la intrarea n staie, randamentul staiei i caracteristicile apei la ieirea din staie.

4.2. Wastewater Monitoring In Tables 2, 3, 4, 5 the following things are successively presented for 2001 2007 period: wastewater discharges treated in WWTP of Sfntu Gheorghe town, inflow water characteristics, WWTP efficiency and outflow water characteristics.
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Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

Tabelul 2 - Debite medii lunare (l/s) tratate n staia de epurare Sfntu Gheorghe Table 2 - Monthly average wastewater discharge (l/s) treated in Sfntu Gheorghe WWTP Luna/ Month Anul/ Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 195 171 173 148 159 165 152 204 180 172 155 165 164 158 221 200 178 155 154 163 162 212 197 173 159 159 163 156 214 186 158 155 161 162 156 220 179 148 155 161 158 158 204 182 165 158 164 155 152 169 180 160 151 162 159 156 184 171 159 165 167 158 158 189 177 160 158 158 154 155 187 178 154 166 158 154 154 180 179 149 159 172 155 155 Ian./ Jan. Feb./ Feb. Mar./ March Apr./ April Mai/ May Iun./ June Iul./ July Aug./ Aug. Sept./ Sept. Oct./ Oct. Nov./ Nov. Dec. /Dec

Tabelul 3 - Valori medii lunare pentru CCO-Mn, CBO5 i suspensii, la influent Table 3 - Influent monthly average values for COD, BOD and SS CCO-Mn (mg/l) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 CBO5 (mg/l) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Susp. (mg/l) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Ian./ Jan. 150 152 191 169 199 262 190 Feb./ Feb. 140 140 174 175 168 213 184 Mar./ March 136 142 192 194 190 254 183 Apr./ April 136 171 167 200 212 214 177 Mai/ May 137 167 171 191 192 230 190 Iun./ June 146 183 180 197 229 232 178 Iul./ July 139 159 185 192 223 186 176 Aug./ Aug. 155 172 185 187 216 192 148 Sept./ Sept. 142 169 178 217 233 181 181 Oct./ Oct. 164 166 169 234 207 183 191 Nov./ Nov. 151 188 176 228 219 180 199 Dec./ Dec. 155 206 181 208 229 179 192

96.4 104 107 113 134 174 129

91.4 91.8 110 129 100 183 114

91.0 101 130 135 119 176 142

87.2 113 116 126 138 146 115

90.6 118 117 123 118 164 111

112 118 121 129 150 146 110

93.5 101 121 120 146 113 116

106 105 119 138 156 104 123

91 108 117 145 152 73.5 124

86 107 111 142 145 101 126

93 113 116 146 147 107 135

64 111 115 129 161 123 115

251 351 438 392 447 598 447

337 319 386 400 481 660 400

303 392 456 412 471 583 450

303 433 516 472 540 478 426

282 423 460 458 441 490 428

324 437 426 392 663 423 370

336 353 406 405 702 326 368

298 427 472 395 552 362 384

355 394 457 454 634 359 348

383 377 420 512 396 424 417

309 477 413 548 441 479 471

327 372 379 483 510 449 418

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Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

Tabelul 4 - Randament mediu lunar (%) la indicatorii CCO-Mn, CBO5 i suspensii Table 4 - Monthly average treatment efficiency for COD, BOD and SS (%) CCOMn 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 CBO5 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Susp. 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Ian./ Jan. 87.3 85.8 89.1 83.7 82.7 82.7 83.0 89.5 88.2 89.6 86.4 84.9 83.9 82.0 88.6 82.6 85.0 78.2 83.8 84.6 75.1 Feb./ Feb. 87.9 84.8 88.0 84.3 80.5 80.0 84.2 89.2 87.6 90.3 87.5 83.7 84.7 86.8 89.6 85.2 87.1 80.6 85.5 84.7 77.5 Mar./ March 88.1 85.6 88.9 86.1 80.7 80.3 81.2 89.5 88.7 91.5 88.3 80.4 84.4 87.2 89.7 82.7 83.8 80.4 83.7 80.1 75.6 Apr./ April 87.5 86.9 86.2 85.0 80.8 76.7 82.3 90.0 89.9 90.0 87.8 80.9 81.7 86.5 89.8 81.2 86.5 87.3 80.6 74.5 77.1 Mai/ May 87.4 84.5 86.0 84.4 80.2 80.5 82.5 89.7 90.6 89.5 87.8 81.0 82.8 86.2 90.2 78.8 78.8 80.9 79.8 78.8 75.6 Iun./ June 88.5 87.1 84.3 84.5 82.4 80.6 83.2 94.2 91.3 89.2 88.4 83.9 82.0 86.4 90.2 78.9 76.8 80.0 83.2 73.3 77.2 Iul./ July 88.9 82.6 85.2 83.1 81.8 78.5 82.3 91.3 87.8 88.9 87.4 83.1 79.5 86.8 89.6 76.5 81.7 78.3 81.1 70.4 74.1 Aug./ Aug. 86.1 82.7 83.9 83.9 83.4 79.6 79.2 90.9 86.6 88.3 88.5 84.3 81.8 87.8 89.2 76.9 81.9 86.5 84.1 72.4 76.0 Sept./ Sept. 85.9 82.6 83.4 83.8 84.1 80.5 82.1 88.5 87.4 86.8 87.6 83.9 80.4 86.3 86.8 79.3 80.5 82.8 83.9 76.4 74.0 Oct./ Oct. 87.7 82.1 83.1 83.2 79.1 80.0 83.1 87.1 87.3 86.6 88.8 81.2 80.1 86.9 87.1 77.4 81.8 84.4 75.3 74.3 76.9 Nov./ Nov. 87.2 85.7 83.1 83.2 81.8 79.4 82.3 88.9 88.1 86.6 83.4 82.9 78.6 84.3 88.9 82.1 79.5 83.3 82.5 76.9 78.7 Dec./ Dec. 86.9 88.9 83.6 81.7 83.4 80.2 82.4 82.9 88.8 86.2 82.1 83.3 81.4 83.6 82.9 78.3 75.5 85.5 85.0 75.3 76.4

Tabelul 5 - Valori medii lunare pentru CCO-Mn, CBO5 i suspensii, la efluent Table 5 - Effluent monthly average values for COD, BOD and SS CCOMn (mg/l) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 CBO5 (mg/l) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Susp. (mg/l) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Ian./ Jan. 19.1 21.7 20.8 27.6 34.5 45.3 32.3 10.1 12.3 11.1 15.4 20.3 28.0 23.2 28.64 61.06 65.7 85.61 72.4 92.13 111 Feb./ Feb. 17.0 21.4 20.9 27.6 32.8 42.6 29.1 9.87 11.4 10.7 16.2 16.4 28.0 15.1 35.1 47.2 49.8 77.7 69.7 101 90.1 Mar./ March 16.2 20.6 21.4 27.1 36.7 50.2 34.4 9.52 11.4 11.1 15.8 23.4 27.4 18.3 31.3 67.9 73.9 80.8 76.7 116 110 Apr./ April 17.0 22.5 23.1 30.1 40.7 49.8 31.3 8.72 11.4 11.7 15.4 26.4 26.7 15.5 30.9 81.4 69.7 59.9 104 122 97.3 Mai/ May 17.2 25.9 24.0 29.9 38.2 44.8 33.2 9.33 11.1 12.3 15.1 22.5 28.1 15.4 27.7 89.7 97.6 87.5 89.2 104 104 Iun./ June 16.8 23.6 28.3 30.6 40.4 45.0 29.9 6.5 10.3 13.1 15.0 24.2 26.3 15.0 31.8 92.0 98.8 78.5 111 113 84.4 Iul./ July 15.4 27.7 27.5 32.4 40.7 39.9 31.2 8.13 12.3 13.5 15.2 24.6 23.1 15.3 35.0 83.1 74.3 87.8 132 96.5 95.11 Aug./ Aug. 21.6 29.9 29.8 30.1 35.9 39.1 30.7 9.60 14.0 13.9 15.8 24.6 18.9 15.1 32.2 98.6 85.4 53.3 87.7 100 92.1 Sept./ Sept. 20.1 29.4 29.5 35.1 37.0 35.3 32.3 10.5 13.6 15.5 18.0 24.4 14.4 17.0 46.9 81.6 83.1 78.1 102 84.8 90.6 Oct./ Oct. 20.2 29.7 28.6 39.4 43.1 36.5 32.2 11.1 13.7 14.9 15.9 27.3 20.2 16.5 49.5 85.1 76.5 79.9 97.8 109 96.3 Nov./ Nov. 19.4 26.8 29.7 38.6 39.8 37.1 35.3 10.4 13.5 15.5 24.3 25.2 22.9 21.2 34.2 85.4 84.6 91.6 77.1 111 100 Dec./ Dec. 20.3 22.9 29.7 37.9 37.9 35.6 33.8 10.8 12.5 15.9 23.0 26.9 23.0 18.9 55.9 80.8 92.8 70.1 76.5 111 98.8

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

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4.3. Corelaia randament - debit n procesul de epurare Scderea consumului de ap potabil, n condiiile unui numr relativ constant de locuitori, a generat o cretere a concentraiei poluanilor n influentul staiei de epurare. Deoarece staia a fost proiectat pentru un debit de aproximativ patru ori mai mare dect debitul tratat n prezent, procesul de epurare este afectat semnificativ (fig. 2).

4.3. Relationship between Efficiency and Flow Rate The decrease of the drinking water consumption has generated, because the number of inhabitants remained approximately the same, an increase of the pollutant concentration values in the influent flow in WWTP. Due to the fact that the inflow wastewater decreased four times than the projected discharge, the treatment process was seriously affected (Fig. 2).

Variaia randamentului epurrii funcie de debit


95 90 % 85 80 75 70 150 170 Q (l/s) 190 210
CCO-Mn CBO5 susp. Linear (CCO-Mn) Linear (CBO5) Linear (susp.)

Fig. 2 - Variaia randamentului epurrii n funcie de debit. Relationship between efficiency and flow rate.

5. MONITORIZAREA INDICATORILOR DE CALITATE N OLT, N SECIUNILE MICFALU I ILIENI n figurile 3, 4 i 5 sunt reprezentate valorile medii lunare ale indicatorilor de calitate a apei CCO-Mn, CBO5 i suspensii, msurate n seciunile de monitorizare Micfalu i Ilieni, ntre anii 2001 i 2008.

5. WATER QUALITY INDICATORS IN THE OLT RIVER, IN MICFALAU AND ILIENI MONITORING SECTIONS In Figures 3, 4 and 5 the monthly average values of water quality indicators COD, BOD and SS are presented, measured in Micfalau and Ilieni monitoring sections, between 2001 and 2008.

CCO-Mn

35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00

micfalau ilieni

ia n. -0 2

ia n. -0 3

ia n. -0 4

ia n. -0 5

ia n. -0 6

ia n. -0 7

Fig. 3 - Indicatorul CCO-Mn (valoare int: 10 mg/l) COD values (target value: 10 mg/l) 12 Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

ia n. -0 8

ia n. -0 1

CBO5
12

ilieni micfalau

10

ot - 7 c 0 .

i n0 a. 8 -

ar- 1 p0 .

ot - 1 c 0 .

ar- 2 p0 .

ot - 2 c 0 .

ar- 3 p0 .

ot - 3 c 0 .

ar- 4 p0 .

ot - 4 c 0 .

ar- 5 p0 .

ot - 5 c 0 .

ar- 6 p0 .

ot - 6 c 0 .

ar- 7 p0 .

Fig. 4 - Indicatorul CBO5 (valoare int: 5 mg/l). BOD values (target value: 5 mg/l).
suspensii
350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 a r.-0 p 1 o t.-0 c 1 a r.-0 p 2 o t.-0 c 2 ia .-0 n 1 a r.-0 p 3 o t.-0 c 3 iu 1 l.-0 ia .-0 n 2 a r.-0 p 4 o t.-0 c 4 iu 2 l.-0 ia .-0 n 3 a r.-0 p 5 o t.-0 c 5 iu 3 l.-0 ia .-0 n 4 a r.-0 p 6 o t.-0 c 6 iu 4 l.-0 ia .-0 n 5 a r.-0 p 7 ia .-0 n 6 o t.-0 c 7 iu 5 l.-0 iu 6 l.-0 a r.-0 p 8 ia .-0 n 7 iu 7 l.-0 ia .-0 n 8

ilieni micfalau

Fig. 5 - Indicatorul suspensii. SS values.

n fig. 6 este prezentat grafic gradul biologic de curenie (Knopp) n seciunile de monitorizare Micfalu i Ilieni, ntre anii 2001 i 2007, mpreun cu regresiile liniare.

In Figure 6, the biological clearness degree (Knopp), between 2001 and 2007, in Micfalu and Ilieni monitoring sections, is presented together with the linear regressions.

Grad de curenie (Knopp) (% )


95 90 85 80 75 70 65
1 au g. -0 1 fe b. -0 2 se p. -0 2 fe b. -0 3 m ar .-0 iu l. 03 ia n. -0 4 iu l. 04 m ar .-0 5 au g. -0 5 m ar .-0 6 au g. -0 6 ap r.07 se p. -0 7

Micfalu Ilieni Linear ( Micfalu) Linear (Ilieni)

Fig. 6 - Indicatorul grad biologic de curenie (Knopp). Biological clearness degree (Knopp).

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

ar- 8 p0 .

i n0 a. 1 -

i l- 1 u0 .

i n0 a. 2 -

i l- 2 u0 .

i n0 a. 3 -

i l- 3 u0 .

i n0 a. 4 -

i l- 4 u0 .

i n0 a. 5 -

i l- 5 u0 .

i n0 a. 6 -

i l- 6 u0 .

i n0 a. 7 -

i l- 7 u0 .

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6. NCADRAREA SECTORULUI MICFALU - ILIENI AL OLTULUI N CATEGORII DE CALITATE ncadrarea acestui sector de ru s-a realizat n conformitate cu STAS 4706-1988 (pn n 2001), STAS 4706-1988 i Ordinul MMGA 1146/2002 (2001-2003), Ordinul MMGA 1146/2002 (2004-2005) i Ordinul MAPM 161/2006 (2006-2008). n 2001 s-au analizat 12 probe instantanee (o prob/luna) pentru indicatorii mprii n trei clase: RO - regimul de oxigen (OD, CBO5, CCO-Mn); GM gradul de mineralizare (cloruri, sulfai, calciu, magneziu, amoniu, azotii, azotai, fosfai); TS - toxice i specifice (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn). La toi aceti indicatori, n anul 2001, sectorul studiat a avut categoria I de calitate (v. tab. 6).

6. WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATION OF MICFALU - ILIENI REACH, THE OLT RIVER The water quality classification of this reach is in conformity with STAS 4706-1988 (untill 2001), STAS 4706-1988 and Order MMGA 1146/2002 (2001-2003), Order MMGA 1164/ 2002 (2004-2005) and Order MAPM 161/ 2006 (2006-2008). In 2001, the surface water quality monitoring included 12 samples (one sample/ month). The following have been analysed: RO - oxygen regime (DO, BOD, COD-Mn); GM - mineralization degree (chlorine, sulphates, calcium, magnesium, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, phosphates); TS toxics (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn). According to these classes, the studied reach was of the first category in 2001 (Table 6).

Tabelul 6 - ncadrarea sectorului Micfalu - Ilieni n categorii de calitate, n 2001 Table 6 - Water quality classification of Micfalu - Ilieni reach, in 2001 Seciunea de prelevare/ Monitoring section Olt - seciunea Micfalu Olt seciunea Ilieni Categoria de calitate / Water quality classification (STAS 4706 /1988) RO GM TS General / General I I I I I I I I

n anul 2007 s-au analizat 11 probe pentru indicatorii de calitate grupai n urmtoarele clase: RO regimul de oxigen (OD, CBO5, CCOMn, CCO-Cr); NUTR nutrieni (amoniu, azotii, azotai, azot Kjeldahl, azot organic, azot total, ortofosfai, fosfor total); SAL salinitate (reziduu fix, cloruri, sodiu, alcalinitate, aciditate); PTSON poluani toxici i specifici de origine natural (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn); AICR ali indicatori chimici relevani (fenoli, detergeni). Corespunztor acestor clase de indicatori, n 2007 sectorul studiat a fost ncadrat n categoriile I i II (v. tab. 7).

In 2007, the surface water quality monitoring included 11 samples. The following elements were analized: RO - oxygen regime (DO, BOD, COD-Mn, COD-Cr); NUTR nutrients (ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, Kjeldahl nitrogen, organic nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphates, total phosphates); SAL salinity (undissolved residue, chlorine compounds, natrium, alcalinity, acidity); PTSON natural toxic pollutants (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn); AICR other chemical indicators for water pollution (phenols, detergents). According to these classes, the studied reach fell into the first and second categories in 2007 (Table 7).

Tabelul 7 - ncadrarea sectorului Micfalu - Ilieni n categorii de calitate, n 2007 Table 7 - Water quality classification of Micfalu - Ilieni reach, in 2007 Seciunea de prelevare/ Monitoring section Olt - seciunea Micfalu Olt seciunea Ilieni Categoria de calitate / Water quality classification (Ord. MAPM 161/2006) RO NUTR SAL PTSON AICR Gener. II II I II II II II II I I II II

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Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

Din analiza indicatorilor de calitate a apei pe ntreaga perioad 2001 2007 rezult c: a). n anii 2001 i 2007 categoria de calitate este aceeai n seciunea amonte (Micfalu) i n seciunea aval (Ilieni). b). n anul 2002 a aprut o deteriorare a calitii apei n aval fa de amonte la grupele de indicatori de mineralizare i metale. c). n anul 2003 i 2004, deteriorarea s-a manifestat la metale i nutrieni. d). n anul 2005, la regimul de oxigen i nutrieni. e). n anul 2006, la nutrieni, salinitate i poluani toxici. n concluzie, principala deficien a staiei de epurare a municipiului const n deteriorarea clasei de indicatori N (nutrieni) n analizele de ap din programul de monitorizare a calitii rului. 7. FITOTEHNOLOGIA I SALCIA ENERGETIC 7.1. Fitotehnologia Esena conceptului de fitotehnologie const n utilizarea plantelor ca tehnologii vii care ne pot ajuta n provocrile generate de protecia mediului. Fitotehnologia, bazat pe tiinele ecologice, consider ecosistemul ca o component integral a interveniilor omului i societii n natur (v. fig. 7 i 8).

Analysing the samples the results in Micfalu and Ilieni sections between 2001 and 2007 are presented below: a) In 2001 and 2007, the general category of water quality is the same in the both monitoring sections Micfalu (upstream) and Ilieni (downstream). b) In 2002 a degradation of the water quality appears downstream for mineralization degree and metals. c) In 2003 and 2004 the degradations occur for metals and nutrients. d) In 2005, for oxygen regime and nutrients. e) In 2006, for nutrients, salinity and natural toxics pollutants. In conclusion, the main deficiency in the wastewater treatment flux from Sfntu Gheorghe municipal plant is to N (nutrients) class of pollution indicators.

7. PHITOTECHNOLOGY AND ENERGETIC WILLOW 7.1. Phytotechnology The essence of the phytotechnology concept lies in the use of plants as living technologies to help us address environmental challenges. Phytotechnology, based on the science of ecology, considers the ecosystem as an integral component of the human and societal interventions involving the natural environment (see Figures 7 and 8).

Fig. 7 - Curs de ap protejat de vegetaie. A broklet protected by the green bank. Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

Fig. 8 - Evacuare de ape epurate. Outflow of treated wastewater. 15

Cteva exemple relevante privind utilizarea fitotehnologiei sunt: - utilizarea plantelor pentru reducerea nivelului de poluare (folosirea zonelor umede pentru epurarea apelor uzate); - replicarea ecosistemelor i unor culturi de plante (crearea de ecosisteme artificiale, precum baraje i zone umede, pentru epurarea apelor uzate sau limitarea surselor de poluare difuz); - utilizarea plantelor pentru favorizarea regenerrii unui ecosistem dup o afectare major (cazul carierelor miniere de suprafa sau renaturarea lacurilor i rurilor); - concomitent cu reducerea polurii, se are n vedere limitarea impactului uman asupra mediului. 7.2. Salcia energetic Salcia energetic (Salix Viminalis Energo) este o specie de salcie cultivat mai ales n Suedia, Ungaria, Slovenia i Polonia, cu scopul folosirii ei n domeniul energetic. Exist diferite specii de plante denumite generic energo, precum: iarba energetic, trestia, rapia, rchita ori salcmul, plopul i salcia. Dac cele mai multe plante silvice ajung la maturitate i pot fi folosite dup 3-5 ani, salcia energetic poate fi recoltat anual, avnd o mas lemnoas de 40-60 t/ha i o putere calorific de pn la 5.000 kcal/kg (superioar stejarului sau fagului). Salcia energetic are o cretere foarte rapid (3-3,5 cm/zi), este rezistent la intemperii, la boli i la depozitarea de dup recoltare. Plantarea se face prin butai, primvara (fig. 9), iar recoltarea se realizeaz toamna sau iarna (fig. 10).

Some specific examples of phytotechnology applications include: - the use of plants to reduce the pollution level (the use of wetlands for wastewater treatment); - the replication of ecosystems and plant communities (building ecosystems such as dams and wetlands for the treatment of wastewater or diminishing the diffuse pollution sources); - the use of plants to facilitate the recovery of ecosystems after significant disturbances (coal mine reclamation or the restoration of lakes and rivers); - at the same time with the reduction of pollution, the reduction of the human impact upon the environment is considered. 7.2. Energetic Willow The energetic willow (Salix Viminalis Energo) is a variety of willow which is cultivated especially in Sweden, Hungary, Slovenia and Poland for energetic purposes. There are various plants generically called energo such as: power grass, bulrush, colza, osier or acacia, poplar tree and willow. While the majority of forest plants become full-grown and can be used after 3-5 years, the energetic willow can be harvested annually, having a wooden mass volume of 40-60 tons/ha and a caloric power up to 5,900 kcal/kg (greater than the oak tree or the beech). The energetic willow has a very fast growth (33.5 cm/day), is resistant to bad weather, illnesses or to storage after harvest. Planting is made by stools, in springtime (Fig. 9), while harvesting is performed in autumn or winter (Fig. 10).

Fig. 9 - Plantarea salciei energetice. The energetic willow planting. 16

Fig. 10 - Recoltarea salciei energetice. The energetic willow harvesting.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

n prezent, Uniunea European consider aceast specie ca avnd un mare potenial de furnizare de combustibil (producia de pe un hectar este suficient pentru nclzirea anual a apte apartamente convenionale) i recomand subvenionarea ei. n afara utilizrii salciei drept combustibil (sub form de biomas, pelete sau brichete), aceast plant ofer i alte avantaje precum: reabilitarea solurilor inundabile ori mltinoase (capacitatea de evapo-transpiraie este de 15-20 l ap/zi/m2) i dispune de o mare capacitate de neutralizare a nmolului provenit de la staiile de epurare (20-30 t/ha/an). De asemenea, salcia energetic poate fi folosit la fixarea versanilor i prevenirea alunecrilor de teren, la producerea meta-nolului, la fabricarea aspirinei, ca surs de celuloz etc. n concluzie, Salix Viminalis Energo este o plant cu largi aplicaii fitotehnologice, inclusiv n domeniul proteciei mediului, care ar merita atenia specialitilor, autoritilor i comunitilor din Romnia.

At present, the European Union considers that this plant has a great potential as fuel (the harvest from one hectar is sufficient for the annual heating of seven conventional apartments) and recommends its valorization. Besides its use for power purposes (as raw matter, pellets or briquettes), the energetic willow has some other advantages, such as: recovery of floodable lands or periodical swamp formation (the evapo-perspiration capacity is about 15-20 liters of water/ day/m2) and a great neutralization capacity of sludge - originating from the wastewater treatment plant (20-30 tons/ha/year). Moreover, the energetic willow can be used for fixating abrupt slopes and preventing landslide, for producing methanol, for making aspirin, as a source of cellulose etc. As a conclusion, Salix Viminalis Energo is a plant with many phytotechnology applications, including environmental protection, being worthy of the attention of specialists, authorities and human communities from Romania.

BIBLIOGRAFIE REFERENCES
[1] *** Anuarul privind starea indicatorilor de mediu n judeul Covasna, Agenia judeean pentru protecia mediului Sfntu Gheorghe, ediiile 2001-2007. [2] *** Legea apelor nr. 107/1996, cu modificrile i completrile ulterioare. [3] Petrescu, V., Sumbasacu, O. Deziderate de calitate pentru alimentarea cu ap a municipiului Sfntu Gheorghe (judeul Covasna), Conferina tehnico-tiinific sub egida Asociaiei Romne a Apei, Bucureti, iunie 2006. [4] *** Sintez anual privind calitatea apelor de suprafa, Sistemul de gospodrire a apelor Covasna, ediiile 2001-2007. [5] www.avarok.hu.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

17

CONSOLIDARE ANSAMBLU BISERICA-TURN CLOPOTNITA-COMUNA SACEL, HARGHITA

REINFORCEMENT OF THE ENSEMBLE MADE UP OF CHURCH AND STEEPLE TOWER AT SACEL VILLAGE, HARGHITA COUNTY

Mircea Ieremia, prof. dr. ing., Universitatea Tehnica de Constructii Bucuresti (Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest), Catedra de Rezistenta Materialelor (Strenght of Materials) e-mail: mieremia@utcb.ro Marin Dumitrascu, ing. Romanian Expert Counsoulting s.r.l., e-mail: office@romanianexpert.ro Abstract: The Orthodox Church in Sacel village, used to be in the XVIII th century a subsidy of the Parish Eliseni. To the wooden part of the church built in 1722 it was added, around 1770, a steeple made up of masonry, with baroque elements, still present. In the lines to follow, it is presented the resistance structure of the existent buildings, it is calculated the earthquake insurance degree and there are presented the reinforcement solutions to fit within the necessary limits of stability and resistance, according to the present calculation norms. Keywords: enforcement, churche, steeple, earthquake insurance

1.Scurt istoric Centru de comuna, satul Sacel este situat la o altitudine de cca. 400m, la 20 Km de Cristuru Secuiesc, pe DJ 134. Prima atestare documentara a fost in jurul anului 1454 D.C. sub denumire de Andreasfalwa. Comuna se afla in sfera de influenta a municipiului Odorheiu Secuiesc si a orasului Cristuru Secuiesc, avand legaturi traditionale cu municipiile Targu Mures si Sighisoara. Sacelul era in secolul XVIII-lea filie la parohia Eliseni. Biserica ortodoxa, atestata de conscriptiile din acel secol era de lemn. Lacasului de lemn al bisericii ridicata in anul 1722 i-a fost adaugat, pe la 1770, un turn-clopotnita de zidarie, cu elemente baroce, retinut la ctitoria actuala. Bisericii din Sacel ii apartinea un Apostol tiparit la Buzau in 1704, pe care se afla consemnarea : De la Hs. 1765, sept. , de la Adam 7273, scris-am eu, Petru, scrisa probabil de un dascal sau invatacel. Pe un Strastnic din Blaj, din 1753, se afla o insemnare de proprietate a bisericii Sacelului, din 4 februarie 1855. Biserica si satul au fost vizitate de Gheorghe Lazar in anii 1805 si 1806, cand a insotit familia Gyulai la Sacel (pe al carui fiu ,
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1.Brief history The village of Sacel, is a township residence, placed at an altitude of approx. 400m, 20 km from Cristuru Secuiesc on District Road 134. The fisrt historic certification of the village was around 1454 A.D. under the name Andreasfalwa. The tonwnship is placed in the influence sphere of Odorheiu Secuiesc and Cristuru Secuiesc towns, also holding traditional connections with Targu Mures city and Sighisoara town. Sacel belonged, in the XVIII-th century, to Eliseni parish; its orthodox church as it was certified by the documents of that time, was made of wood. To the church structure built in 1722 A.D. was attached , around 1770 A.D., a masonry, steeple tower with baroque style elements, which was kept at the present foundation. To the church of Sacel belonged an Apostle printed at Buzau in 1704, on which its recorded: From Hs. 1765 sept. from Adam 7273, I wrote, Peter probably written by a schoolmaster or pupil. On a Strasnic from Blaj, in 1753 A.D. was written a property mark of Sacel church, dated february 4th 1855 A.D. The church and the village were visited by Gheorghe Lazar in 1805 and 1806 when he
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

Lajos, il invata carte). Rememorand prezenta profesorului sau la Sacel, fostul elev, peste ani, isi amintea: In Sacel, stiu ca a predicat de mai multe ori spre marea multumire a romanilor. Carturarul roman pleda, desigur, in favoarea limbii romane si a unitatii de neam, ceea ce i-a impresionat in mod special pe credinciosii romani. Intre anii 1941-1944 a fost ridicata o noua biserica (in forma de cruce), avand hramul Sfintii Arhangheli Mihail si Gavril, pe locul vechii biserici din lemn de la care s-au pastrat fundatiile si turnul.

attended the Gyulai family at Sacel (whose son, Laios, he taught). Remembering, over the years, the visit of his teacher at Sacel, the former pupil said: In Sacel he preached several times thus pleasing the Romanian people. The romanian scholar, naturally, was pleading in favour of the Roamnian language and kin unity, fact which impressed the faithful. Between 1941 and 1944 A.D. a new church was erected (in cross form) on the foundations of the old wooden church and was dedicated to Archangels Michael and Gabriel, and the steeple tower was also kept.

Fig. 1 Vedere a bisericii si a turnului clopotnita Sight of the church and steeple tower

Fig. 2 Vedere a fatadei principale a turnului clopotnita Sight of the main facade of the steeple tower

Biserica a fost pictata in anul 1970, in tehnica fresco, in stil Bizantin si a fost declarata monument de arhitectura. Nu s-au gasit planuri de arhitectura sau de rezistenta, nici pentru biserica propriu-zisa si nici pentru turnul clopotnita. De asemenea nu exista nici un fel de alte documentatii privind eventualele modificari sau reparatii ale cladirilor, care, in mod evident, ar fi fost facute pana in prezent.
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

The church was painted in 1970 A.D. in Byzantine style using the fresco technique and it was declared an architectural monument. No architectural or structural plans, either for the actual church or the steeple tower have been found. No other documentation regarding the possible modifications or repairs, which were obviously made, exists.

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Fig. 3 Placuta comemorativa Gheorghe Lazar Commemorative plaque Gheorghe Lazar

Fig. 4 Turnul clopotnita, sprijinit provizoriu (zona intrarii) The steeple tower, supported provisional (the entry

2.Incadrarea constructive dupa normele de calcul a) Conform Normativului de protectie antiseismica P100-92 revizuit in 1996 Conform

2. Framing the Construction According to


Calculation Norms a) According to the Normative of seismic protection P-100-92 revised in 1996 The church structure (Ground Level +1Floor) along with the steeple tower fit the criteria from the second class of importance constructions of great importance to which the restriction of damage is required (buildings that house the agglomerations of people, art halls, churches). There is, between the two buildings (church and steeple tower), a construction joint both at the infrastructure and superstructure level. Depending on the number of levels and the year of the construction, the tower-church assembly/unit can be classified as follows: steeple tower ordinary constructions class GL+4F, designed before 1940; church engineering buildings hall type designed between 1941 and 1963. b) Both buildings having brick walls, fit, according to P 100-1992 norm, in the structural brick wall construction group. The buildings are placed in seismic area E,
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

Regulamentului pentru stabilirea categoriei de importanta a constructiilor, ansamblul turn clopotnita-biserica se incadreaza in categoria constructii de importanta deosebita la care se impune limitarea avariilor (cladiri care adapostesc aglomeratii de persoane, sali de spectacole artistice, biserici). Intre cele 2 corpuri exista un rost atat la nivelul infrastructurii cat si la nivelul suprastructurii. Functie de numarul de niveluri si de anul executiei, ansamblul turn clopotnita-biserica se incadreaza astfel:
turn clopotnita in grupa de constructii curente - parter pana la P+4E, proiectate pana in anul 1940; biserica propriu-zisa in grupa de constructii ingineresti tip sala, proiectate intre anii 1941-1963. b ) Avand structuri pe zidarie portanta, ambele constructii se incadreaza in grupa de constructii cu pereti structurali din zidarie de caramida, conform Normativului seismic P100-1992. Cladirile sunt situate in zona seismica de
20

calcul E, cu un coeficient seismic KS=0.12 si o perioada de colt TC=0.7 s., ceea ce corespunde unei zone de intensitate seismica VII, conf. scarii de intensitate seismica MSK. c ) Conform Regulamentului anexa la H.G. nr. 766/1997 si STAS 10100/0-1975. Fiind o cladire de importanta medie, constructia se incadreaza in categoria B de importanta si respectiv in clasa II. d ) Conform Normativului P118/99. Gradul de rezistenta la foc este III. e ) Conform STAS 10101/20 90. Din punct de vedere al actiunilor din vant, amplasamentul se gaseste in zona de calcul B. f ) Conform STAS 10101/21 92. Din punct de vedere al incarcarilor din zapada, amplasamentul sa gaseste in zona de calcul C. g ) Stratificatia terenului din amplasament se prezinta astfel: 0.000.20m sol vegetal; 0.200.60m umplutura din pamant cu fragmente colturoase si caramida; 0.601.00m argila maronie; 1.001.80m argila galbuie cu alternanta maronie; 1.804.00m argila marnoasa; 4.007.00m marna argiloasa. La data executarii forajelor, apa subterana nu a fost intalnita. Terenul bun de fundare il constituie atat formatiunea de argila cat si formatiunea de marna argiloasa. S-a considerat o presiune conventionala pe stratul de fundare de 220 kPa in gruparea fundamentala de calcul.

having a seismic coefficient, KS=0.12 and a value for dominant period of TC= 0.7s. This corresponds to a VII-th grade seismic intensity zone according to MSK seismic intensity scale. c) According to Regulation attached to H.G. (Governmental Decision) no.766/1997 and STAS (State Standard) 10100/0-1975. Being a building of medium importance, it fits the importance category B and class II criteria. d) According to P118/99 norm. The fire resistance class is III. e) According STAS 10101/20-90. From wind loads point of view the site fits the B area criteria. f) According STAS 10101/21-92. From snow loads point of view the site is placed in area C. g) The ground stratification on site is as follows: 0.000.20 m vegetal soil; 0.200.60 m earth, craggy fragment and brick filling; 0.60...1.00 m brown clay; 1.001.80 m yellowish brown clay; 1.804.00 m marl clay; 4.007.00 m clay marl. At the time of drilling underground water was not found. Both the clay and clay marl layers fit the good foundation ground criteria. The conventional pressure on foundation layer was considered 220 kPa in the fundamental load combination. 3. Description of the Existing Structure 3.1 The Actual Church The church has a cyclopean type masonry structure with brick and stone shear walls, 55cm thick. The bonding material used is a type of clay plaster. The plan shape is a cross with a longitudinal symmetry axis. The pre-nave walls are inscribed in a rufly 58 sqm rectangle
21

3. Descrierea structurii existente


3.1.Biserica propriu-zisa Este construita din zidarie de tip ciclopian, cu pereti de 55cm grosime, realizati din caramizi si piatra. Liantul folosit este un mortar de argila. Forma in plan este de cruce cu o axa de simetrie (longitudinala), iar peretii pronaosului inscriu un plan dreptunghiular cu o suprafata de aproximativ 58mp.
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

Fig. 5 Vedere a bisericii si a turnului clopotnita. Detaliu


Sight of the church and steeple tower. Detail

Naosul are doua abside circulare, fiecare cu raza de aproximativ 3m. Suprafata in plan a naosului este de circa 39mp.Cladirea bisericii cu o vechime de circa 68 ani este reprezentativa pentru modul de executie al bisericilor din acea vreme. Legaturile dintre zidurile de caramida sunt asigurate numai prin teserea caramizilor, fara a se asigura legaturi suplimentare pe orizontala sau pe verticala. Naosul se termina cu peretele catapeteazma in spatele caruia este dezvoltat altarul circular pe o raza de circa 2,5m. Suprafata incintei in care este proiectat altarul este de aproximativ 28mp. Sarpanta acoperisului este alcatuita din lemn ecarisat iar invelitoarea din tigla in doua ape montata pe o astereala din scanduri. Sistemul de fundare este reprezentat de o supralargire a bazei peretilor sub forma unor talpi continue din zidarie de piatra cu putin mai late decat peretii bisericii. Adancimea de fundare este -1,10m . S-au observat crapaturi pronuntate, specifice unor cedari ale structurii sau unor tasari inegale ale terenului. Aceste tasari au fost produse in special datorita urmatoarelor cauze: - amplasarii bisericii aproximativ spre varful unui deal care prezinta probleme de instabilitate, avand tendinte permanente de lunecare. - lipsa unui sistem de drenare adecvat care determina deversarea apelor pluviale de suprafata (de pe zonele din panta din dreapta) spre biserica; - lipsa unui trotuar perimetral in jurul ansamblului turn-biserica; - lipsa jgeaburilor si burlanelor sau dimensionarea neadecvata a celor existente,
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The nave has two 3m radius circular apses. The plan area of the nave is about 39 sqm. The 68 years old church is illustrative for the church execution techniques at that time. The connections of the brick walls are realized exclusively by weaving bricks without any other horizontal or vertical connections. The nave ends with the iconostasis wall. Beyond this wall the 2.5m radius circular altar is placed. The plan area of the altar is about 28sqm. The roof framework is made of wood and the outside cover of tile. The roof is shaped with two slopes and the tile is mounted on wooden roof boarding. The foundation system is represented by the thicker wall base thus forming some kind of a continuous base system under the walls made of stone masonry. The foundation depth is 1.10m. Enlarged cracks have been noticed as a sign of structural fail or uneven ground settlements. These settlements have been produced mainly as a result of: - the location of the church near the top of the hill, which probably has stability issues consisting of permanent sliding tendency; - lack of an adequate drainage system which leads to the discharge of surface storm water (in the slope areas on the right) to the church; - lack of a surrounding pavement for the church and steeple tower; - lack of gutters and gutter pipes or
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

fapt care implica scurgerea apelor pluviale de pe acoperis direct langa zidurile bisericii; - vechimea constructiei si a reparatiilor superficiale, efectuate probabil doar la nivel de reparatii curente, fara a se interveni asupra structurii de rezistenta. Aceste fenomene au permis atat aparitia igrasiei, dar si fisuri si crapaturi in pereti.

inadequate size of the existing ones. As a result the rainwater falls off the roof near the church walls; - age of the building and poor maintenance. All these have produced dampness and wall cracks.

Fig. 6 Vedere in interiorul bisericii (partea stanga) Inside on the left part of the church view

Fig. 7 Vedere in interiorul bisericii (partea dreapta) Inside on the right part of the church view

3.2. Turnul-clopotnita A fost construit din zidarie ciclopiana de 75cm grosime (25cm de caramida/piatra 25cm de pamant 25cm de caramida/piatra , cu mortar de argila) si este amplasat in fata intrarii bisericii propriu-zise. Este o cladire rectangulara cu o suprafata in plan de circa 24mp. Spre biserica, turnul are pereti proprii si intre cele doua cladiri (cu regim de inaltime diferit), construite la o diferenta de 170 ani, exista un rost.. Regimul de inaltime este P+1E, turnul avand un planseu de lemn. Deasupra acestui planseu (aproximativ la 2,00m) se afla un caroiaj de grinzi de lemn de care sunt agatate cele doua clopote care si in prezent sunt functionale. La intersection acestora se afla popul central (stalp circular) care sustine capriorii dispusi radial (pe sistemul spitelor de umbrela). Pe capriori este montata astereala care sustine invelitoarea din tigla. Structura de rezistenta este deci realizata cu pereti portanti iar legaturile dintre zidurile de caramida ale turnului sunt asigurate numai prin teserea caramizilor, fara a se asigura legaturi suplimentare pe orizontala sau pe verticala. Sistemul constructiv este impresionant mai ales sub aspectul rezolvarii planseului de lemn
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3.2. Steeple Tower The steeple tower was built of cyclopean masonry with 75cm thick walls (25cm thick brick/stone layer 25cm earth layer 25cm thick brick/stone layer, and clay plaster) and it is placed in front of the church entrance. The steeple tower is a rectangular building with a plan area of about 24 sqm. There is, probably, between the two buildings with different height regime (church and steeple tower) a construction joint as they were built 170 years apart. The steeple tower height regime is GF+1F and it has a wooden floor. At approximately 2.00m above this floor there is a wooden grid of which the two bells are hung, bells which are still fully functional. At their intersection there is the central pole (circular post) which sustains the radial roof rafters (placed in the umbrella spokes system). On the roof rafters the roof boarding is mounted on top of which is the tile cover. To conclude, the structure is formed form shear walls and the connections between them is acquired only by weaving bricks without any other vertical or horizontal connection.

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si a dantelariei grinzilor de lemn (capriori, cosoroabe) care sustin acoperisul. Ca si in cazul bisericii, sistemul de fundare al turnului este reprezentat tot de o supralargire a bazei peretilor sub forma unor talpi continue din zidarie de piatra cu putin mai late decat peretii turnului. Adancimea de fundare este tot de -1,10m. Circulatia pe verticala este asigurata de o scara interioara din lemn.

The structural system is impressive especially the wooden flooring system and the roof structure. Like the church, the steeple tower foundation system consists of a thicker wall base made of stone masonry. The foundation depth is also -1.10m. The vertical circulation is ensured by an interior wooden staircase.

Fig. 8 Fatada principala a turnului clopotnita. Detaliu Sight of the main facade of the steeple tower. Detail

Se constata ca nu s-au facut in timp consolidari sau alte lucrari pentru sporirea nivelului de rezistenta si stabilitate initial, care a fost conceput si realizat doar pentru preluarea incarcarilor gravitationale. In concluzie, defectele si avariile constatate se impart in mai multe categorii: a) defecte datorate igrasiei si a fenomenelor de gelivitate; b) defecte datorate tasarilor diferentiate si a probabilelor alunecari de teren; c) fisuri si crapaturi in spaletii de zidarie in dreptul golurilor de ferestre datorita lipsei buiandrugilor sau a existentei unor buiandrugi necorespunzatori ; d) degradari ale spaletiilor de zidarie datorita varstei constructiei (cca. 240 ani). Cladirea a acumulat in timp o energie de deformatie apreciabila si a suferit deteriorari datorit cutremurelor succesive (din anii 1940, 1977, 1986, 1990) si datorita tasarilor diferentiate ale terenului de fundare. 4.Descrierea structurii consolidate Solutiile de consolidare tin seama de asigurarea incadrarii in cat mai mare masura in exigentele de stabilitate si rezistenta necesare si se refera la urmatoarele operatiuni:
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It has been noted that as the time passed no enforcement works have been done to increase the initial level of structural resistance. The structure was originally designed to cope with gravitational loads only. To sum up, the damage and defects can be classified as follows: a) flaws due to dampness and frost-defrost repetitive cycle; b) flaws due to uneven settlements and probable land sliding; c) splits and cracks at window gaps in the walls due to faulty or lack of lintels; d) damages of the masonry walls due to the age of the building (about 240 years). The building has gathered along time great strain energy and has suffered damages due to successive earthquakes (in 1940, 1977, and 1990) and uneven settlements of the foundation ground. 4. Reinforced Structure Description The consolidation solutions are chosen in such a manner that the reinforced structure will meet the stability and resistance demands as good as possible.
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4.1.Biserica a) Subturnarea fundatiilor existente (perimetral) dupa urmatoarea tehnologie : Se va executa in sah; se va incepe numerotarea fazelor de la colturile bisericii spre mijlocul acesteia avand grija ca niciodata doua faze succesive sa nu fie alaturate; Fiecare faza de subturnare va avea lungimea de cel mult 1m si latimea de 90cm din care 55cm vor fi turnati sub zidul existent iar restul in exteriorul cladirii; Cota de subturnare va fi -1.40m, adica cu 30 cm sub actuala cota de fundare; betonul subturnat este de clasa Bc20; Ultimii 60cm subturnati sub cota viitorului trotuar vor fi armati ca bare longitudinale cu diametrul 14mm - PC52 si etrieri 10mm OB37, montati din 10cm in 10cm, realizanduse astfel o centura orizontala, perimetrala si exterioara bisericii; Din subturnare se vor lasa mustati 16/10mm PC52 care se vor petrece atat cu armaturile verticale ale samburilor ce urmeaza a se turna, cat si cu cele din soclul perimetral existent ce urmeaza a se consolida; In interiorul bisericii se vor executa patru grinzi de fundare transversale orizontale (in dreptul samburilor) cu rol de a lega peretii, dar si noile subturnari longitudinale; Pozitia grinzilor in plan va fi: la marginea altarului, langa zidurile transversale care marcheaza trecerea din pronaos in naos, intre ferestrele din pronaos si la intrarea in biserica; ele vor avea aceleasi caracteristici geometrice si aceeasi armare ca subturnarile longitudinale. Se realizeaza astfel un sistem de fundare pe talpi continui, mult mai putin sensibil la viitoarele tasari differentiate. Nici o sapatura nu se va executa fara sprijinirea si popirea zidului ce urmeaza a se subturna. b) Turnarea de elemente verticale (samburi) Se vor turna 6 samburi de beton armat pe exteriorul cladirii. Pozitia lor in plan va fi urmatoarea: la marginea altarului, langa zidurile transversale care marcheaza trecerea din pronaos in naos si in dreptul intrarii din turn in biserica; dimensiunile lor vor fi 25cm x 40cm (cu 15cm inglobati in zid); Betonul turnat in samburi va fi cel putin de clasa Bc20 si va fi armat cu 14mm PC52 (bare verticale) si etrieri 10mm/15cm OB37. Armatura verticala se va petrece cu mustatile lasate in centura perimetrala.
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4.1. The church a) Undercasting the existing foundations according to the following technology: The undercasting will be executed in chess like steps or phases; the step numbering will begin from the church corners toward the middle taking care not to join two successive steps; Each undercasting step will have a maximum length of 1m and it will be 90cm wide, from which 55cm will be cast under the existing foundation and the rest of it outwards; The undercasting level will be of1.40m, 30cm under the actual foundation level; the undercasting concrete will be Bc20 class; The last 60 cm poured under the future pavement will be reinforced with 14mm PC52 longitudinal rebars and 10mm OB37 stirrups mounted at 10cm apart, thus creating a horizontal exterior belt; The undercast will have 16mm PC52 whiskers which will overlap with both vertical cores rebars and those from future consolidated perimetral base; Inside the church four horizontal beams will be poured to interlock the walls and the new undercast foundations; The plan position of the beams will be at the altar limit next to the transversal walls which mark the entrance from pre-nave to the nave. The beams from between the prenave windows and those from the church entrance will have the same reinforcement as the longitudinal undercast. Thus a foundation system is realized on continuous beams which is much less sensitive to differential settlements. No digging will be made without sustaining the wall which is to be undercast. b) Casting vertical elements (cores) Six reinforced concrete cores will be cast. Their plan position will be as follows: At the altar limit; next to the transversal walls which mark the entrance from the pre-nave to the nave and at the entrance from the tower in the church. Their dimensions will be 25cm x 40cm (15 cm inside the walls); The core concrete will be at least Bc 20 class and the reinforcement will be 14mm PC52 (vertical) and 10mm/15 cm OB37 stirrups. The vertical rebar will overlap with the whiskers from the perimetral belt.
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c) Turnarea de elemente orizontale (centuri) Se vor turna trei centuri de beton armat perimetrale, pe exteriorul cladirii; pozitia lor in plan va fi urmatoarea:sub / deasupra ferestrelor si sub sageac ( peste ultimul rand de ferestre); dimensiunile lor vor fi 20cm x 15cm (cu 15cm inglobati in zid ). Betonul turnat in centuri va fi de clasa Bc20 si va fi armat cu 14mm PC52 (bare orizontale) si etrieri 10mm/15cm OB37. d) Consolidarea peretelui de la intrare (dinspre turnul clopotnita) Se va aplica pe toata suprafata peretelui (pe interior) o tencuiala armata. e) Refacerea defectelor locale Solutiile de consolidare depind de urmatoarele tipuri de avarii: fisuri cu deschideri pana la 2 mm care nu sectioneaza in intregime peretele; fisuri patrunse, cu deschideri mari, cu dislocarea caramizilor; ruperi sau fracturi ale peretelui de caramida. Zidurile care au fost afectate, se vor consolida cu una din urmatoarele metode: injectari cu rasini epoxidice; indepartarea in totalitate a zonei degradate si rezidirea acesteia cu teserea caramizilor noi cu cele existente. f) Refacerea partiala a sarpantei prin inlocuirea elementelor de lemn deteriorate. g) Refacerea in totalitate a trotuarului perimetral care va fi prevazut cu canivouri pentru colectarea si scurgerea apelor din precipitatii. 4.2.Turnul clopotnita a)Mutarea clopotelor intr-o clopotnita nou construita si amplasata pe sol. b)Efectuarea de subturnari ale fundatiilor existente (perimetral) dupa aceeasi tehnologie c)Introducerea de diafragme de beton armat turnate in cofraj (la peretii exteriori) pentru consolidarea zidariei existente. Diafragmele vor avea grosimea de 20cm atat la peretii longitudinali cat si la peretii transversali si vor fi turnate la exterior, pe toata inaltimea cladirii. Armarea placarii (de 20cm grosime) a peretilor de zidarie se va face cu 2 plase
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c) Casting horizontal elements (belts) Three reinforced concrete perimetral belts will be cast on the exterior. Their position will be as follows: under/above the windows and under the eaves (above the last row of windows. Their dimension will be of 20cm x 15 cm (15 cm inside the wall); The concrete will be Bc 20 class, the rebars will be 14mm PC52 and the stirrups 10mm/15 cm OB37. d)The consolidation of the entrance wall (from the steeple tower) A reinforced plaster will be applied on the interior side. e) Restoring local flaws The consolidation solutions depend on the type of damage as follows: cracks up to 2 mm span which doesnt pierce the whole wall; wide span deep cracks with bricks dislocation; breaks or fractures. The damaged walls will be consolidated using one of the following methods: epoxy resin injections; total elimination of the damaged zone and rebuilding it, by weaving the new bricks with the existing ones. f) The partial restoration of the roof by replacing the damaged wooden elements. g) Total reconstruction of the perimetral pavement which will be provided with gutters for collecting and draining the rain water. 4.2. The steeple tower a) The bells will be moved in a new bell-room on the ground level. b) Undercasting the existent foundations using the same technology as the one for the church. c) Introducing reinforced concrete shear walls cast in the encasement (at the exterior walls) to consolidate the existing masonry. The shear walls will be 20cm thick at both transversal and longitudinal walls and will be positioned outwards on the entire height of the building. The reinforcement will be formed from two 10mm OB37 ductile
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ductile OB37 10mm, intoarse si incastrate in centura perimetrala executata sub cota 0.00, pentru a se putea conta si pe aportul armaturilor in preluarea fortei taietoare de baza din seism. Armatura din diafragme se va ancora la partea superioara si inferioara in grinzile centura perimetrale din beton armat. Pe inaltimea peretelui, plasele de armatura din placari se sustin prin agrafe OB 8mm/50cm ancorate in rosturile zidariei. Inainte de executarea acestei placari, peretele respectiv se decoperteaza prin indepartarea tencuielii, se curata prin frecare cu peria de sarma si se adancesc rosturile zidariei pe cca. (1,5...2,0)cm cu scoabe bine ascutite si se spala cu jetul de apa. d)Turnarea unui planseu nou de beton armat Pentru a realiza o saiba orizontala care sa antreneze peretii cladirii la preluarea incarcarilor laterale din vant/seism, se va executa un planseu nou de beton armat monolit de 8cm grosime turnat peste planseul de lemn existent si folosindu-l drept cofraj (pierdut). lanseul nou turnat si armat corespunzator va sprijini prin intermediul unor ploturi orizontale tot de beton armat pe o centura perimetrala creata in camasuiala peretelui. e)Injectarea epoxidice. zidurilor fisurate cu rasini

nets, embedded in the perimetral belt executed under 0.00 level, in order to be able to count on the reinforcement in shear force load capacity. The shear walls reinforcement will be anchored on top and bottom ends in the reinforced concrete perimetral belt. On the height of the building the nets will be sustained with 8mm/50 cm OB37 fasteners anchored in the masonry joints. Before executing the plating the plaster will be removed, the wall, will be cleaned with the wire brush and the masonry joints will be (1,5 2) cm deepened and washed with water jet. d) Casting a new reinforced concrete slab In order to realize a horizontal shear slab which will determine the shear walls in taking the lateral seismic/wind loads, a new 8 cm thick reinforced concrete slab will be executed. poured on top of the existing wooden slab thus using it as (lost) an encasement. The new poured slab will be sustained by a horizontal plot and perimetral beams executed in the wall plating. e) Injecting cracked walls with epoxy resins. f) Total elimination of the damaged masonry zone and rebuilding it, by weaving the new bricks with the existing ones. g) The partial restoration of the roof by replacing the damaged wooden elements. h) Total reconstruction of the perimetral pavement which will be provided with gutters for collecting and draining the rain water. i) The restoration works of the roof: restoring the waterproofing isolation, water pipes and drainages.

f)Indepartarea in totalitate a portiunii de zidarie degradate si rezidirea acesteia cu teserea caramizilor noi cu cele existente. g)Refacerea partiala a sarpantei acoperisului prin inlocuirea elementelor de lemn deteriorate. h)Refacerea in totalitate a perimetral prevazut cu canivouri. trotuarului

i)Lucrarile de reparatii la acoperis: refacerea hidroizolatiei, burlanelor, scurgerilor.

Fig. 9 Zidaria exterioara degradata la turnul clopotnita Exterior masonry degraded in the steeple tower

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Fig. 10 Consolidare intrare turn clopotnita Consolidation of the steeple tower entry

Fig. 11 Zidarie degradata baza turn clopotnita.Detaliu Degraded masonry at the steeple tower bas. Detail

Fig. 12 Fatada laterala degradata turn clopotnita Degraded lateral facade of the steeple tower

Fig. 13 Fatada laterala degradata turn clopotnita. Detaliu Degraded lateral facade of the steeple tower. Detail

5. Concluzie In urma efectuarii Expertizei tehnice si a proiectului la faza Detalii de executie, s-a trecut in prezent la efectuarea lucrarilor de consolidare care vor asigura constructiei gradul de rezistenta si stabilitate prevazut de normele tehnice actuale de calcul.

5. Conclusion As a result of the technical expertise and project details execution phase, the consolidation works have begun for ensuring the building resistance and stability according to the present calculation norms.

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Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

SISTEMATIZRI PENTRU OPTIMIZAREA PROCESRII MATERIALELOR TITANIENE DE UZ AEROSPAIAL (I)

SYSTEMATIZATION FOR OPTIMIZING TITAN MATERIALS USED FOR AEROSPACE USE (I)

Indira Andreescu, prof.univ.dr.ing. Facultatea de Utilaj Tehnologic, Universitatea Tehnica de Constructii Bucuresti, Professor Dr., Faculty of Machine Tools, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest e-mail: indira_utcb@yahoo.com Abstract: Synthesis cards enumerating the titan alloys recommended to be used in aerospace industry principal mechanical characteristics are submitted. Keywords: alloy, annealing, hardening, ageing, forging.

FIA ALIAJULUI TI-6AL-4V (THE TI-6AL-4V ALLOY CARD)


Aliajul Ti-6Al-4V posed bune proprieti mecanice, materialul recopt avnd o rezisten tipic la ntindere de 1000-1100 MPa la temperatura camerei i o rezisten la fluaj, la peste 300OC, de circa 570 MPa, cu o deformare plastic de 0-1% n timp de 100 de ore. Tratatarea temic a pieselor din acest aliaj conduce, garantat, la o rezisten la ntindere de minim 1100 Mpa. Rezistena la oboseal i la propagarea fisurilor este, de asemenea, remarcabil. La fel la majoritatea aliajelor de titan, Ti-6Al-4V are o apreciabil rezisten la coroziune, att n mediul natural, ct i n medii procesuale industriale. Densitatea sa, de 4.0-4,2 g/cm3, este mai mic chiar dect a titanului pur. Aliajul poate fi uor format sau forjat i are o bun pasivitate la operaiile de sudur. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy has good mechanical properties, the annealed material having a 1000-1100 Mpa typical stretching strength at the chamber temperature and about 570 Mpa at over 3000C creep strength with a 0-1% plastic deformation over 100 hours. The thermal treatment of alloy specimens is guaranteed to lead to a min. 1100 MPa stretching strength. The fatigue and crack propagation strength is also remarkable. As most titan alloys, Ti-6Al4V has remarkable corrosion strength, both in a natural environment and in industrial processing areas. Its 4.0 4.2 g/cm3 density is lower even in comparison with pure titan. The alloy can be easily formed or forged and has a good passivity in the welding operations.

1. Compoziia chimic (sursa [1]) (The chemical composition (source [1]) Elemente de aliere Alloy elements (wt%) Al V 5,5-6,75 3,5-4,5 Aliajul Ti-6Al-4V recopt este disponibil sub form de table, tije cu solicitri termice ridicate, bare i lingouri pentru diferite destinaii, tije i bare pentru piese prelucrate prin achiere. Aliajul Ti-6Al-4V se recomand a fi utilizat n
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

Impuriti Impurities (%) Fe H2 0,30 max 0,0125 max The annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy is available in plates, rods with high thermal actions, bars and ingots for different purposes, rods and bars for splinting processed parts. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy is recommended for use
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aplicaii care necesit o ductilitate special, tenacitate la fracturi, precum i rezisten la propagarea fisurilor n medii apoase. 2. Temperatura de forjare Se recomand ca temperatura maxim n timpul prenclzirii i forjrii si nu depeasc 975OC (mai sigur este s se recurg la o temperatur de prenclzire de 950OC). 3. Tratamentul termic Multe din aplicaiile aliajului Ti-6Al-4V cer ca acesta s fie n stare recoapt. Se efectueaz tratamentul de nclzire la 700OC, urmat de o rcire n aer pn la temperatura camerei. Pentru tabl este suficient meinerea timp de 20 minute la temperatura stabilit, iar pentru tije sau piese forjate, durata recomandat este de o or. Recoacerea la 700OC d cea mai bun combinaie de plastifiere cu o slab oxidare, pe cnd la temperatura de 850-900OC se va produce o ductilitate maxim i proofstress/tensile-strength gap, dar cu creterea oxidrii. In scopul obinerii unor structuri i proprieti optime ale aliajului pentru discuri, tratamentul termic recomandat comport nclzirea la 960OC, stingerea cu ap i recoacerea la 700OC. Cercetri experimentale pentru evidenierea efectelor solicitrii la ntindere la temperaturi ridicate au artat c mrirea scontat a rezistenei nu trebuie s depeasc 540OC. 4.Proprieti mecanice Proprietile aliajului Ti-6Al-4V variaz uor cu temperatura n gama cuprins ntre minus 196OC i plus 750OC. Totui, aliajul nu-i modific esenial proprietile pn la nclziri limit de 500OC; pentru un timp mai ndelungat de solicitare termic gama de temperaturi util este limitat i mai strns, i anume pn la 300OC, aa cum rezult din examinarea curbelor de rupere sub eforturi i a celor de fluaj. Teste privind fluajul n cazul materialului tratat la temperaturi ridicate au relevat stabilitatea metalurgic i cea de suprafa n condiiile unei expuneri timp de 500 ore la 450OC. Aliajul Ti-6Al-4V are o bun tenacitate la rupere, aa cum se arat n tabelul urmtor, cu date obinute pentru bare avnd diametrul de 75 mm:
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in applications which require a special ductility, tenacity against fractures, and strength at cracks propagation in watery environments. 2. Forging temperature The maximum temperature during preheating and forging is recommended not to excel 9750C (it is safer to resort to a 9500C preheating temperature). 3. Thermal treatment Many of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy uses require it to be in an annealed state. The heating treatment is performed at 7000C, followed by air cooling up to the chamber temperature. Twenty minutes maintenance at the established temperature is enough for the plate, while an hour is recommended for rods or forged elements. The 7000C annealing gives the best plastifying when combined with weak oxidation, while at 850-9000C temperature a maximum ductility and a proof stress/tensilestrength gap take place, but with oxidation increasing. In order to obtain optimum properties and structures of alloys for disks, the recommended thermal treatment requires 9600C heating, water extinguishing and 7000C annealing. Experimental researches for emphasizing high temperature stretching action effects showed that the expected strength increase should not exceed 5400C. 4. Mechanical properties The Ti-6Al-4V alloy properties lightly change with temperature between minus 1960C and plus 7500C. However, the alloy does not essentially modify its properties when heated up to the 5000C limit; for longer thermal action the useful temperature scale is diminished even more, namely up to 3000C as it results from examining the failure under stress and the creep curves. Tests concerning the creep for the material treated at high temperatures pointed out the metallurgical and surface stability for 500 hours at 4500C exposure conditions. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy has a good failure tenacity, as it is shown in the next table, the data being relevant for 75 mm diameter bars:
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Recoacere (Annealing)

0,2% Stress pur (pure stress) MPa 890 970 950

Solicitare la ntindere (Stretching action) MPa 980 1080 1030

Alungirea (Elongation) la 50 mm % 17 16 14

Reducerea seciunii (Section reduction) % 39 42 37

Tenacitatea la rupere (Failure tenacity) MPavm 84 69 57

2 h/700OC 1h/900OC C.WQ+8h/500OC 1h/960OC C.WQ+8h/700OC 5.Proprieti de sudur

5. Welding properties Electron fascicle welding The Ti-6Al-4V alloy is an excellent material for the electron fascicle welding technique, which is adopted for the critical components of Tornado airplane structures or for some airplane engines. Flash butt welding FBW The Ti-6Al-4V alloy is well suited for the flash butt welding, a widely used process for annular engine parts.

Sudur cu fascicul de electroni Aliajul Ti-6Al-4V este un material excelent pentru tehnica de sudur prin fascicul de electroni, tehnic adoptat pentru componente critice din structura avioanelor Tornado sau a motoarelelor unor aeronave. Sudare cap la cap prin topire Aliajul Ti-6Al-4V se preteaz bine la sudura cap la cap prin topire, proces aplicat pe scar larg n cazul pieselor inelare ale motoarelor.

Fia aliajului Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo The Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo alloy card 1. Compoziia chimic. Chemical composition Elemente de aliere Alloing elements (%) Sn Zr 1,8-2,2 3,6-4,4 Impuriti Impurities (%) H2 O2 0,0125 0,12

Al 5,5-6,5

Mo 1,8-2,2

C 0,05

Fe 0,25

2. Proprieti fizice (Physical properties) Densitatea Density (g/cm3) 4,54 Coeficientul de dilatare termic Dilated thermal coefficient (10-6/ oc) 515 540 oc 8,1 Modulul de elasticitate Elasticity modulus La 20oc (n/mm2) 110.000 Temperatura de topire Melting temperature (oc) 1650

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3. Temperatura la forjare - Temperatura de prenclzire la forjare : 1000 - 1100OC - Temperatura de lucru pentru forjarea final : 900 - 950OC 4. Tratamentul termic Tratamentul termic recomandat: - punere n soluie la 900 - 950OC / 1 or; - rcire n aer; i - mbtrnire la 590OC 5OC / 8 ore, urmat de rcire n aer. Meniuni: - pentru tabl se recomand recoaceri duble i triple; - clirea la 950OC este favorabil obinerii proprietilor stabilite la cald, pe cnd - temperatura de 900OC asigur creterea rezistenei mecanice la temperatura camerei; - diametrul barelor i pieselor forjate: 400 mm.

3. Forging temperature - The forging preheating temperature: 1000 11000C - The final working temperature for forging: 900 9500C 4. Thermal treatment Recommended thermal treatment: setting in solution at 9000 9500C/ 1 hour air cooling and ageing at 5900C 50C/8 hours, followed by air cooling Specification: - triple and double annealing procedures are recommended for plates; - the hardening at 9500C is favourable for ensuring heat-driven properties, while the 9000C temperature ensures an increased mechanical strength at room temperature; - the forget parts and bars diameter : ~ 400 mm.

5. Proprieti mecanice la temperatura camerei (Mechanical properties at room temperature) Dup tratamentul termic, garantate Guaranteed, after thermal treatment Rtr RP0,2 A Z (N/mm2) (N/mm2) (%) (reducerea n seciune, %) 890-930 820-860 8 15 6. Forma produselor de livrat Bare i piese forjate, plci, table, benzi. 7. Recomandri de utilizare Aliajul, fiind sudabil i avnd proprieti mecanice bune la temperaturi ridicate (450OC 500OC), precum i o foarte bun stabilitate structural n domeniul temperaturilor de lucru, se recomand a fi utilizat la confecionarea de palete i discuri de compresor. Dup clire i revenire After hardening and recovering Rtr RP0,2 A (N/mm2) (N/mm2) (%) 1020 920 18

6. Shape of the delivered products Forged bars and parts, plates, sheets, straps 7. Utility recommendations Being weldable and having good mechanical properties at high temperatures (4500- 5000C) and also a very good structural stability in the working temperatures range, the alloy is recommended to be used for blades and supercharger disks.

Fia aliajului Ti-6Al-5V-5Mo-1Cr-1Fe The Ti-6Al-5V-5Mo-1Cr-1Fe alloy card 1. Compoziia chimic (Chemical composition) Elemente de aliere (%) Alloy elements Al 4-5,7 Mo 4,5-5 V 4-5,5 Cr 1-2 Fe 0,5-1,5 Impuriti (%) Impurities O2 0,13 S2 0,06 C 0,13

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Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

2. Proprieti mecanice (Physical properties) Rtr (N/mm2) 1040-1080 RP0,2 (N/mm2) 940-1000 A (%) 5,3-8,8 Z (%) 10,5-16,9 HV 350-362

3. Tratament termic - recoacere la 750 O C / 1 or, rcire n cuptor pn la 350 O C, apoi rcire n aer; - punere n soluie la 820 - 840 O C; - mbtrnire : 570 - 590 O C 4. Recomandri de utilizare Aliaje cu rezisten mecanic ridicat, n stare recoapt i clit, sunt recomandabile la fabricarea de piese mari, orict de complicate configural.

3. Thermal treatment - annealing at 750 0 C/1 hour, oven cooling till 350 0 C, then air cooling - setting in solution at 820 8400 C - ageing: 570 590 0 C 4. Recommendations for use Alloys with high mechanical strength, in the hardened and annealed state, are recommended for big parts manufacturing, no matter how elaborated their configuration is.

BIBLIOGRAFIE REFERENCES
[1]. [2]. [3]. [4]. [5]. [6]. [7]. [8]. [9]. Properties and Applications of Titanium - 6% Aluminium - 4% Vanadium Alloy, Knowledge Article from www.Key-to-Metals.com, 2003 M. Dobrescu, Studii i cercetri experimentale privind transformrile n stare solid care au loc la tratamentul termic al aliajelor pe baz de titan, Universitatea <Politehnica Bucureti, tez de doctorat, 1994 D. Eccles et W.G. Heath, Structure en titane dans la pratique, The Aeronautical Journal, novembre, 1971 Eylon, D., Summary of available information on the processing of the Ti-6Al-4V HCF/LCF program plates. University of Dayton Report, Dayton, OH, USA, 1998 P.J. Fopiano, M.B. Bever et B.L. Averbach, Transformation de phase et mca-nismes de renforcement de l'alliage Ti6Al4V, Transactions of the ASM, vol. 59, 1966 H. Gray, L. Wagner, G. Ltjering, in: J.T. Barnby (Ed.), Fatigue Prevention and Design, Chamelion Press, London UK, 1986. J.K. Gregory, Fatigue crack propagation in titanium alloys. In: Handbook of Fatigue Crack Propagation in Metallic Structures (edited by A. Carpinteri). Elsevier Science, B, V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1994 G. Hammersley, L.A. Hackel, F. Harris, Optics Lasers Eng. 34, 2000 D.A.J. Harben - L'effet du titane sur les projets d'quipements, The Aeronautical Journal, novembre, 1971

[10]. M.Y. He, J.W Hutchinson, Surface crack subject to mixed mode loading. Eng. Fract. Mech. 65, 2000. [11]. M.Y. He, H.C. Cao, A.G. Evans, Mixed-mode fracture: the four-point shear specimen. Acta Metall. Mater. 38, 1990. [12]. M.Y. He, J.W Hutchinson, Asymmetric four-point crack specimen. J. Appl. Mech. Trans. ASME 67, 2000 [13]. D. Helm, in: R.R. Boyer, D. Eylon, G. Ltjering (Eds.), Fatigue Behavior of Titanium Alloys, The Minerals & Materials Society, Warrendale, PA, 1999 Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010 33

ESTIMAREA TRANSPORTULUI DE SEDIMENTE LONGITUDINAL COASTA STAIUNII MAMAIA, ROMNIA

ESTIMATION OF THE LONGSHORE SSEDIMENT TRANSPORT MAMAIA COAST, ROMANIA

Khoudir Mezouar, Doctorand, Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest). Catedra de Geotehnic i Fundaii (Geotehcnical and Foundation Department), e-mail: mezouarkhoudir@yahoo.fr

Abstract. Understanding of the coastal sediment transport is an important component in the coastal zone management. Sediment flows shape the system of dunes, beaches and offshore banks that are crucial for coastal protection and beach amenity. Estimates of longshore sediment transport rates within the study area are required for an assessment of the overall sedimentation regime and can provide an insight into the potential long-term changes in the shoreline position and sediment budget. A number of empirical and semi-empirical sediment transport formulae have been developed for use in coastal applications. The aim of this paper is to compare four of these formulae: The Inman and Bagnold, the Kamphius, The Kraus et al, van Rijn and CERC formulae. The total LSTR along the surf zone was been calculated using Kamphius formula (that has given the best results) after introducing the coefficient of correlation. Keywords: Mamaia, longshore, sediment transport

1. INTRODUCERE
Plajele naturale se modific constant din punct de vedere al condiiilor naturale (actiunea valurilor i a vntului) si antropice (de exemplu, construirea digurilor sau a epiurilor). Modelarea i prognoza modificrilor lor batimetrice necesit o cunoatere adecvat a proceselor de transport sedimentar n apropierea rmurilor i, n special, n zona de deferlare a valurilor. Procesele sunt controlate de mecanismele fizice ale mobilizrii sedimentelor, care sunt influenate de condiiile principale hidrodinamice ale stratului limita de la fund, prin cuplarea micrii sedimentelor i a fluidului (fluxuri sedimentare) i de variabilitatea lor n spaiu i timp. Componentele din lungul malului i cele perpendiculare pe mal ale micrii apei n cadrul procesului de spargere a valurilor ce se apropie oblic produc cureni transversali pe mal i de-a lungul rmului care influienteaza, de asemenea, sedimentele din acea zona. Exist astfel dou mecanisme ale transportului
34

1. INTRODUCTION Natural beaches change constantly in response to natural conditions (i.e. wind and wave forcing) or human interference (e.g. breakwater, groin construction). Modelling and prediction of such bathymetric changes requires an accurate knowledge of sediment transport processes in the near shore and in particular within the surf zone. These processes are controlled by the physical mechanisms of sediment mobilisation, as it is influenced by the prevailing hydrodynamic and bottom boundary layer conditions, by the coupling of sediment and fluid motion (sediment fluxes) and their variability in space and time. The alongshore and cross-shore components of the water motion at the breaking process of obliquely approaching waves cause crossshore and longshore currents which will also move sediments in the region. There are two mechanisms of beach drifting in
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

aluviunilor in zona de deferlare in larg si pe plaje [2]. Un numr de formule empirice i semi-empirice au fost elaborate n ceea ce privete transportul sedimentelor, pentru a fi utilizate n aplicaiile privitoare la ingineria costiera. Obiectivul prezentului studiu este de a evalua capacitatea de prognozare a celor patru formule privind transportul sedimentelor, adaptate pentru calculul distribuiei lor transversale pe mal, a ratei de transport longitudinal a sedimentelor RTSLT, pe baza datelor experimentale, de pe teren. Am selectat formulele cunoscute la nivel mondial pentru prevederea cu acuratee a ratelor de transport a sedimentelor de-a lungul rmurilor. 2. PROCESELE DE TRANSPORT Micarea valurilor pe un fund nisipos care este erodat poate genera o suspensie cu concentraii mari n apropierea fundului, aa cum se arat n msurtorile de laborator i n cele de pe teren. Curenii medii cum ar fi cei de maree, vnt i densitate transport sedimentele n direcia curentului principal, acest tip de transport este denumit, de obicei, transport legat de curent. Procesele de transport generate de valuri sunt legate de variaia curenilor medii generai n stratul de propagare al valurilor de frecven redus. Transportul ctre plaje datorat asimetriei valurilor este dominant n condiiile existenei valurilor nedeferlate n afara zonei din apropiere de linia rmului, n timp ce transportul spre larg este dominant n perioada existenei valurilor deferlate. Principalele componente care contribuie la procesele de transport generate de valuri sunt: - Transportul net direcionat spre mal (aluviuni trte si n suspensie) datorat asimetriei vitezelor orbitale din apropierea fundului , cu viteze relativ mari spre mal, la creasta i viteze relativ mici la talpa valurilor. - Transportul in lungul rmului datorat generrii curenilor de-a lungul rmului format de valurile care se sparg. - Transportul net direcionat spre larg datorat generrii curentului de ntoarcere (contracurent) n straturile din apropierea fundului ce echilibreaz fluxul masei de
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

the swash zone and transport in the breaking zone [2]. A number of empirical and semi-empirical sediments transport formulae have been developed for use in coastal applications. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the predictive capability of four well-known sediment transport formulas formulae, adapted to calculate cross-shore distribution of the longshore sediment transport rate (LSTR), based upon an experimental field data set. We selected formulas formulae that we have gained world-wide acceptance in confidently predicting longshore sediment transport rates.

2. TRANSPORT PPROCESSES Wave motion over an erodible sand bed can generate a suspension with large near-bed concentrations, as shown by laboratory and field measurements. Mean currents such as tide- wind- and density-driven currents carry the sediments in the direction of the main flow; this type of transport usually is termed the current-related transport. Wave-induced transport processes are related to the oscillating and mean currents generated in the wave boundary layer by high-frequency waves. Net onshore transport due to wave asymmetry generally is dominant in nonbreaking wave conditions outside the surf zone, whereas net offshore transport generally is dominant during conditions with breaking waves. The major transport components contributing to the wave-induced transport processes are: - Net onshore-directed transport (bed load and intermittent suspended load) due to asymmetry of the near-bed orbital velocities with relatively large onshore peak velocities under the wave crests and relatively small offshore peak velocities under the wave troughs. - Longshore-directed transport due to the generation of longshore wave-driven currents due to breaking waves. - Net offshore-directed transport due to the generation of a net return current (undertow) in the near-bed layers balancing the onshore mass flux between the crest
35

apa dintre creasta i talpa valurilor care se sparg. - Transportul net direcionat spre mal datorat generrii curentului slab relativ stabil [7] n stratul de propagare a valurilor. - Transportul net direcionat spre larg datorat propagrii valurilor lungi asociate cu variaii ale fluxurilor de impuls ale grupurilor de valuri neregulate (vitezele de varf i concentraiile de nisip sunt defazate). - Componente ale transportului induse de gravitaie, legate de panta fundului marin. 3. STUDIEREA FORMULELOR TRANSPORTULUI DE SEDIMENTE Am ales s studiem patru formule care sunt interesante datorit abordrilor lor diferite cu privire la subiectul discutat: - Formula CERC (Centrul de Cercetri n Domeniul Ingineriei Costiere) pentru prevederea ratei totale de transport de-a lungul rmului (Shore Protection Manual ,1984):

and trough of breaking waves. - Net onshore-directed transport due to the generation of a quasi-steady weak current [7] in the wave boundary layer. - Net offshore-directed transport due to the generation of bound long waves associated with variations of the radiation stresses under irregular wave groups (peak velocities and sand concentrations are out of phase). - Gravity-induced transport components related to bed slopes. 3. STUDY OF THE SEDIMENT TRANSPORT FFORMULAE STUDIED We chose to study four formulasformulae which are interesting because of their different approaches to the problem: - The CERC formula (Coastal Engineering Research Center for predicting the total rate of longshore transport) (Shore Protection Manual,1984):

Q = KA

g 2 TH b2 sin 2 b 64

(1)

Q = KA

g 2 TH b2 sin 2 b 64

(1)

unde: Q = volumul ratei de transport de-a lungul rmului exprimat n m3 / an, K = constant fr adimensional relativ la transportul nisipului si fluxul de energie de-a lungul rmului i care a fost considerat 0,39, A= 1/[(s-)g(1-p)], s = densitatea masei sedimentelor (2650 kg / m3), = densitatea masei apei marine (1025 kg / m3), g = acceleraia gravitaional (9,81 m / s2), p = porozitatea sedimentelor (0,4), T = perioada valurilor exprimat n s, Hb = nlimea valurilor care se sparg exprimat n m, i b = unghiul de spargere a valurilor fa de linia coastei marine. - Formula Kamphuis: [1], [4] a stabilit o relaie pentru estimarea ratelor de transport a sedimentelor de-a lungul rmului bazat n principal pe modele fizice. Formula [3] care i-a gsit aplicarea cu privire la datele de teren i la cele de laborator este:
1 0 Qlst,m = 2.27H s2,bTP.5 mb.75 D500.25 sin0.6 (2b ) (2)

where: Q = volume of longshore transport rate in m3/year; K = dimensionless constant relating sand transport to longshore energy flux and was taken as 0.39; A= 1/[(s-)g(1-p)], s = mass density of the sediment (2650 kg/m3), =mass density of seawater (1025 kg/m3), g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81m/s2), p = porosity of sediment (0.4), T = wave period in s, Hb = breaking wave height in m, and b = breaker angle with respect to coastline. - The Kamphuis formula: [1], [4] developed a relationship for estimating longshore sediment transport rates based primarily on physical model experiments. The fFormula [3] which [3] to be is applicable to both field and laboratory data is:
1 0 0 Qlst,m = 2.27H s2,bTP.5 mb .75 D50 .25 sin0.6 (2b ) (2)

unde: Qlst,m = rata de transport a masei scufundate pe unitate de timp, Tp = perioada


36

in which Qlst,m is the transport rate of immersed mass per unit time, Tp is peak wave period,
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

valurilor mari, mb = denivelarea plajei din apropierea punctului de spargere, adic panta corespunztoare la una sau dou lungimi de val nspre mare fa de linia de spargere, iar D50 = dimensiunea medie a granulelor. Greutatea corespunde ratei volumetrice, adic Qlst,m = (s)(1a) Qlst,. Formula Kamphuis este atrgtoare deoarece aceasta include perioada valurilor i panta plajei care influeneaz spargerea valurilor, ca i dimensiunea granulelor care ar putea fi un factor important pentru mobilizarea i transportarea sedimentelor. - Formula Van Rijn: [10] Formula este exprimat n acelai mod ca formula Bijker, deoarece suma transportului masei aluvionare (lund n considerare influena valurilor) i fluxul masei n suspensie sunt integrate n funcie de adncime. Direcia fluxurilor sedimentare este, de asemenea, cea a curentului. Transportul masei aluvionare poate fi prezentat dup cum urmeaz:

mb is the beach slope near the breaking, i.e., the slope over one or two wavelengths seaward of the breaker line, and D50 is the median grain size. The immersed weight is related to the volumetric rate as Qlst,m = (s)(1a) Qlst,. The Kamphuis formula is appealing since it includes the wave period and beach slope, which both influences wave breaking, and the grain size, which should be an important factor for the mobilization and transport of sediment. - The Van Rijn formula: [10] the formula is expressed in the same way as the Bijker formula, as the sum of bed load transport (taking into account the influence of waves) and the suspended load flux integrated over depth. The direction of sediment fluxes is also that of the current. Bed load transport can be written as follows:

q sb = 0.25dD

0.3 *

cf

0.5

cw cr cr

1..5

(3)

q sb = 0.25dD

0.3 *

cf

0.5

cw cr cr

1..5

(3)

unde: D*=((s-1)gd50 / v2)1/3: diametrul fr dimensiuni al sedimentului, cf = ccwc: ncrctura total de forfecare datorat doar curentului (lund n considerare influena formelor), cr: tensiunea de forfecare critic pentru transportul sedimentelor, c = fc/fct: factorul de form, iar cw: coeficientul datorat prezenei valurilor (care pot afecta fora de forfecare medie). Transportul masei n suspensie este calculat prin rezolvarea ecuaiei concentraiei n funcie de adncime:

where D*=((s-1)gd50 / v2)1/3: dimensionless sediment diameter, cf = ccwc: total shear stress due to current only (taking into account the influence of bed forms), cr: critical shear stress for sediment transport, c = fc/fct: shape factor, and cw: coefficient due to the presence of waves (which can affect the mean shear stress). Suspended load transport is computed by solving the equation of concentration over depth:

(1 c ) cWs dc = dz scw
5

(4)

(1 c ) cWs dc = dz scw
5

(4)

unde c(z): concentraia volumului mediu (estimat n timp) la nlimea z, (1 -c)5 corespunde descreterii vitezei de depunere datorat concentraiilor mari, iar scw: coeficientul de amestecare n cazul unei interaciuni val-curent. Apoi, se integreaza fluxurilor de sedimente n funcie de adncime:

where c(z): mean volume concentration (time averaged) at height z, (1 -c)5 corresponds to the decrease of the settling velocity due to high concentrations, and scw: mixing coefficient in case of a wavecurrent interaction. Then, integrating sediment fluxes over depth:

q ss = u ( z )c( z )dz
a

(5)

q ss = u ( z )c( z )dz
a

(5)

unde h: adncimea apei; = max(ksct, kswt): nivel de referin; ksct, kswt: valorile agitaiei

totale datorate curentului i valurilor; iar u ( z ) :

due to current and waves; and u ( z ) : mean

where h: water depth; = max (ksct, kswt): reference level; ksct, kswt: total roughness values

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

37

viteza medie (estimat n timp) la nlimea z.

scw, ca i u ( z ) sunt calculate pe baza ecuaiilor date de [9], [10]. Curentul estimat n funcie de adncime a fost calculat n ecuaia (5) i acest a fost utilizat alturi de dimensiunea d50 i d90 calculat a sedimentelor colectate cu ajutorul unor captatoare de intrare.

velocity (time averaged) at height z.

scw, ca and u ( z ) are computed following the equations given by [9], [10]. The depth averaged current was calculated from the following Eq. (5) and used as input along with the calculated d50 and d90 size of the sediments collected at traps.

z 1 / 7 u ; for : 0 < z < 0.5h (6) u ( z ) = 0.32 h 1.07 u ; for : 0.5h < z < h
- Formula Inman and Bagnold, 1963: prezint avantajul lurii n considerare a curentului din zona de spargere, idee care poate fi interesant pentru includerea influenelor vntului sau mareelor.

z 1 / 7 u; for : 0 < z < 0.5h (6) u ( z ) = 0.32h 1.07u; for : 0.5h < z < h
- The Inman and Bagnold formulae 1963: presents the advantage of considering the current in the breaking zone, idea that can be interesting to for includinge the wind or tide influences.

Q = K .(EC g )b .V / U m

(7)

Q = K .(EC g )b .V / U m

(7)

unde Eb este energia valurilor care se sparg, Cgb este viteza grupului de valuri la momentul spargerii, V este viteza curentului de-a lungul rmului (n practic, msurat la mijlocului zonei valurilor), coeficientul K este o constant fr dimensiuni, iar Um =0.5.Cb (m/s) este viteza orbital maxim de fund a valurilor din zona de spargere. Dup simplificare, aceast formul poate fi scris astfel [3], [8], [12]:

where Eb is the breaking wave energy, Cgb is the wave group velocity at breaking, V is the longshore current velocity (in practice measured at the mid-surf-zone location), the coefficient K is a dimensionless constant, and Um =0.5.Cb (m/s) :is the maximum horizontal bottom orbital velocity of the waves at the breaker zone. After simplification this formulae can be written [3], [8], [12]:

Q = K .H b2 .V
unde:

(8) where :

Q = K .H b2 .V 0.024 K = 0.031 0.044 (Kraus et al.1982) (USACE 1995) (Miller 1999)

(8)

0.024 K = 0.031 0.044

(Kraus et al.1982) (USACE 1995) (Miller 1999)

- Formula Kraus i al., 1982: aceasta utilizeaz viteza medie a curentului i nlimea valului care se sparge.

- The Kraus et al formulae 1982: it uses the medium velocity of the current and the breaking wave high.

Q=

K .H b2 .V . tan

(9)

Q=

K .H b2 .V . tan

(9)

unde: V este viteza curentului de-a lungul rmului (n practic, msurat la mijlocului zonei de spargere a valurilor), K = 0,00038.

where V is the longshore current velocity (in practice measured at the mid-surf-zone location), K=0.00038.

38

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

4. ZONA STUDIAT Zona plajei studiat (Mamaia Nord - Nvodari) este situat n extremitatea sud-estic a Romniei, n apropierea oraului Constana, pe o fie de nisip ngust, 250 350 m lime, ntre Marea Neagr i Lacul Siutghiol. Mamaia este cea mai mare staiune turistic de pe litoralul Romniei, ntinzndu-se pe 8 km de la nord la sud. Aceasta este format din material nisipos ce-i are originile n Dunre. Plaja Mamaia este orientat spre Est i fiind o plaj cu nisip natural caracterizat printr-un profil subacvatic uor nclinat pn la - 6 m. Plaja este alctuit din sedimente aluvionare (aduse n Marea Neagr de Dunre i transportate pe plaje de aciunea combinat a valurilor i curentului ce curge de la nord la sud, de-a lungul coastei romne) i din sedimente de scoici biogenice. Nisipul este fin i are o culoare gri deschis. Locaia studiat este situat n partea de nord a plajei Mamaia, n apropierea portului Midia, ntre coordonatele geografice 4420N 283815E i 4415N - 283730E. Lungimea liniei rmului acestei regiuni este de aproape 3 km. Aliniamentul general al liniei rmului este de la nord la sud (a se vedea fig. a)

4. STUDY AREA The studied area (Mamaia North- Navodari) beach is situated in the south eastern extremity of Romania, near Constanta city, on a narrow sand bar, 250 350 m wide, between the Black Sea and Siutghiol Lake. Mamaia is the largest touristic seaside resort of Romania, stretching 8 kKm from north to south. It is formed by sandy material that originates from the Danube. Mamaia beach is facing east and is a natural low sandy beach characterised by gentle sloping underwater profile down to - 6 m. The beach consists of alluvial sediments (brought into the Black Sea by the Danube and transported to the beaches by combined wave action and the north to south flowing current along the Romanian coast) and biogenic shells sediments. The sand is fine and has a grey light colour. The site under study is located on the Northern of Mamia beach to Media harbour between the geographical coordinates 4420N 283815E and 4415N - 283730E. The Sshoreline length of the region is nearly 3 km. The Ggeneral alignment of the shoreline is north to south (see fig. a).

Fig. 1 - Zona studiat (Mamaia North- Nvodari), Romnia Studied area (Mamaia North- Navodari), Romania Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010 39

4.1. Caracteristici hidrodinamice referitoare la sedimente

4.1 Hydrodynamic Characteristics

and

Sediment

Linia coastei zonei studiate este alctuit din plaje nisipoase cu dimensiuni ale sedimentelor nscrise n gama de la 100 la 2000 m, cu o dimensiune predominant a granulelor de la 150 la 300 m. Elementul cel mai important pentru morfologia coastei este climatul valurilor foarte variabil din apropierea rmului. Viteza maxim a vntului este de aproximativ 40 m / s. nlimea maxim a valurilor n timpul acestor furtuni este de aproximativ 9.5 m i aproximativ 8 m spre rm. Orientarea nord-sud a litoralului romnesc i contururile batimetrice determin asimetria propagrii valurilor. Vnturile din vest au un fetch limitat, iar crestele valurilor au n final direcia paralela cu linia rmului din cauza refraciei n apa de mic adncime din apropierea malului. Cele mai mari valori ale parametrilor medii ale valurilor sunt nregistrate pentru valurile din direcie estic perpendicular pe rm: lungimea (Lm) este de aproximativ 34 m, nlimea (Hm) de aproximativ 1,2 m, iar perioada (Tm) de aproximativ 5 sec. Direcia predominant a valurilor este de la NNE la E, ceea ce reprezint 50% din direcia uturor valurilor. Valurile de la S i SSW sunt prezente de asemenea, cu o rat de 15% deoarece din cauza ca zona de larg este deschis ctre sud-vest cu un anumit fetch, dar acestea au nlimi mici si perioda scurta. 5. REZULTATE I DISCUII

The coastline of the studied area consists of sandy beaches with sediment sizes in the range of 100 to 2000 m with a predominant grain size from 150 to 300 m. The Most important element for the coastal morphology is the highly variable wave climate near the coast. The maximum wind speed is about 40 m/s. The Maximum wave height during these storms is about 9.5 m and about 8 m near the shore. The North-South orientation of the Romanian shore, the bathymetric contours determine the asymmetry of wave propagation. Winds from the West have a confined fetch and the wave crests run parallel to the shoreline because of the refraction in the shallow water in the proximity of nears the shore. The highest values of the average wave parameters are recorded for waves from the East direction perpendicular to the shore: the length (Lm) is about 34 m, the height (Hm) about 1.2 m and the period (Tm) about 5 sec. The predominant wave direction is from NNE to E, which occupies 50% of the whole waves. Waves from S and SSW are also present with the rate of 15% because the offshore hind cast location is open to the southwest with a certain fetch, but they are small in height and short in period. 5. RESULTS AND DDISCUSSIONS

5.1. RTSLT msurat RTSLT msurat din zona de deferlare a valurilor a variat de la: 30*10-6 la 390*10-6 m3 / s, cu o valoare medie de 204*10-6 m3 / s. Distribuia msurat este prezentat n Figura 2. Aceasta arat c RTST era mare n direcia 60. 5.2. RTSLT calculat Msurtorile valurilor transformate n zona de spargere au fost introduse n formula CERC
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5.1. Measured LSTR The measured LSTR in the surf zone varied from: 30*10-6 to 390*10-6 m3/s, with an average value of 204*10-6 m3/s. The measured distribution is shown in Fig 2; it shows that the LSTR was high in the direction 60. 5.2. Calculated LSTR The wave measurements transformed to the breaker zone were input to the CERC (Eq.
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

(ecuaia (1)), iar valorile calculate sunt prezentate n (Fig. 2). Debitul sedimentelor dea lungul rmului a variat de la: -406*10-6 m3 / s la 906*10-6 m3 / s cu o valoare maxim n direcia 60. RTSLT a fost calculat prin utilizarea ecuaiilor Kamphius, Inman, Kraus and Van Rijn i acesta este prezentat n Figura 2. RTSLT a variat de la: -166 m3 / s la 423*10-6 m3 / s (prin folosirea ecuaiei Kamphius), -118*10-6 la 406*10-6 m3 / s (prin folosirea ecuaiei Inman), --231*10-6 la 601*10-6 m3 /s (prin folosirea ecuaiei Kraus) i de la -79*10-6 la 685*10-6 m3 / s (prin folosirea ecuaiei Van Rijn). 5.3. Compararea calculat RTSLT msurat i

(1)), and the calculated values are presented in (Fig. 2). The longshore sediment varied from: -406*10-6 m3/s to 906*10-6 m3/s with a maximum value in the direction 60. The LSTR was also calculated using Kamphius, Inman, Kraus and Van Rijn equations, and presented in (Fig. 2). The LSTR varied from: -166 m3/s to 423*10-6 m3/s (with Kamphius), -118*10-6 to 406*10-6 m3/s (with Inman), -231*10-6 to 601*10-6 m3/s (with Kraus) and from -79*10-6 to 685*10-6 m3/s (with Van Rijn).

5.3. Comparison Calculated LSTR

of

Measured

and

Ca msur a dispersiei, eroarea RMS (rms) a fost calculat n conformitate cu:

As a measure of scatter, the RMS error (rms) was calculated according to:

rms = [log(Qc ) log(Qm )]2 / (n 1)

1/ 2

(10)

rms = [log(Qc ) log(Qm )]2 / (n 1)

1/ 2

(10)

unde n este numrul punctelor de date, Qc (Qm): este valoarea calculat (i respectiv, msurat).

where n is the number of data points, Qc (Qm): are respectively the calculated (measured) values.

Kampuis Van Rijn 0,001000 0,000800 0,000600 Q (m^3/s) 0,000400 0,000200 0,000000 -0,000200 -0,000400 -0,000600 80 60

CERC Experimental Data

Inman Kraus

40

340

320

300

Direction

Fig. 2 - Variaia RTSLT (msurat i calculat) n funcie de direcia valurilor dominante Variation of LSTR (measured and calculated) with dominant wave direction Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010 41

Coeficientul de corelare (r) dintre RTSLT msurat i calculat a fost, de asemenea, calculat prin utilizarea formulei:
( Q c .Q m ) n .Q cd .Q m
1 n

The correlation coefficient (r) between the measured and calculated LSTRs was also calculated with:
( Q c .Q m ) n.Q cd .Q m
1 n

r=

(11)
0 .5 0 . 5

[( Q n Q c )( Q n Q m )
2 c 2 2 m 2 1 1

r=

(11)
0 .5 0 .5

[( Q n Q c )( Q n Q m )
2 c 2 2 m 2 1 1

Cele mai bune rezultate au fost obtinute pentru o valoare unitar a coeficientului de corelare (r). Eroarea RMS dintre RTSLT msurat i calculat pe baza formulei CERC a fost 0,52, iar coeficientul de corelare (r) calculat a fost 0,95. Eroarea RMS mai mic implic o dispersie mai mic. [1] a obtinut rezultate rezonabile prin utilizarea formulei CERC pentru dimensiunea particulelor n gama de la 0,2 la 0,6 mm. n cazul prezentat, dimensiunea medie a variat de la 0,10 la 0,20 mm, dar deviaia dintre RTSLT msurat i cel prevzut de CERC a fost acceptabil. Pe baza msuratorilor RTSLT total msurat cu ajutorul captatoarelor pentru cureni si bararea in lungul coastei pe termen scurt valurilor cu energie redus [13] a constatat c ratele msurate erau mai mici dect cele prevzute n mai multe formule empirice. Prin utilizarea rdcinii ptrate a nlimii valurilor n formula CERC, coeficientul empiric K este de 0,08 n loc de 0,78, valoare recomandat n Manualul Proteciei rmurilor. Pentru o nlime medie a valurilor de 0,4 m, [13] a dedus c valorile calculate prin utilizarea formulei CERC sunt de nou ori mai mari dect valorile msurate n captatoare. Deoarece nlimea medie a valurilor din prezentul studiu era dublul valorii observate de [13], a fost adoptat o corelare mai adecvat ntre valorile msurate i calculate. Eroarea RMS dintre RSTLS msurat i calculat pe baza formulei Kamphius era 0,24, iar coeficientul de corelare (r) calculat era 0,98. i pentru formula Kraus, eroarea RMS era 0.33, iar coeficientul de corelare 0,97, i prin utilizarea formulei Inman, eroarea RMS era 0,25, iar corelarea de aproximativ 0,97. Prin utilizarea formulei Van Rijn i coeficientul de corelare (r) era 0,97 (Fig. c). Eroarea RMS dintre RTSLT msurat i
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For a perfect matching, the correlation coefficient value will be unitary. The RMS error between the measured and that calculated based on CERC formula was 0.52 and the calculated correlation coefficient (r) calculated was 0.95. The smaller RMS error implies smaller scatter. [1] found reasonable results with the CERC formula for particle size in the range of 0.2 to 0.6 mm. In the present case, the median size varied from 0.10 to 0.20 mm, but the deviation between the measured LSTR and that predicted by CERC was acceptable. Based on the measured total LSTR by the streamer traps and short term impoundment along the low-wave energy coasts, [13] found that the rates measured were lower than that predicted by the various empirical formulae. Using the root mean square wave height in the CERC formula, the empirical coefficient K was found to be 0.08 instead of 0.78 recommended in the Shore Protection Manual. For an average wave height of 0.4 m, [13] found that the values calculated using CERC formula is nine times greater than the trapmeasured values. Because the average wave height in the present study was double the value observed by [13], a better correlation was found between the measured and calculated values. The RMS error between the measured and that calculated based on Kamphius formula was 0.24, and the correlation coefficient (r) calculated was 0.98. And for Kraus formula, the RMS error was 0.0.33 and the correlation coefficient was 0.97, and with Inman formula, the RMA error was 0.25 and the correlation was about 0.97. Using Van Rijn formula and the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.97 (Fig. c). The RMS error between the measured and calculated
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

calculat era 0,53. Diferena se datoreaz faptului c, chiar dac curenii variaz n funcie de adncime, mai ales pentru coastele marine cu valuri de energie mic [6], curenii de-a lungul rmului sunt msurai doar la suprafa i acetia sunt cei utilizai n calcule. (Fig. 3) prezint ratele de transport prognozate fat de cele msurate cu ajutorul formulelor amintite. Ecuaia CERC are o tendin de a supra-estima ratele de transport msurate i aceasta a produs o eroare RMS mare i cel mai mic coeficient de corelare. Formulele Kamphuis, Kraus i Inman au condus la prognoze puin mai adecvate dect celelalte dou formule testate. RTSLT-urile totale calculate de-a lungul zonei de deferlare a valurilor prin utilizarea formulei Kamphius (care a condus la obinerea celor mai bune rezultate) dup introducerea coeficientului de corelare, au variat de la 40216,4 la -13727,0 m3 / an cu o rat de transport brut medie de 26489,4 m3 / an i transportul a fost predominant spre sud, aa cum se arat n (Fig. 4).
van Rijn -0,0002 -0,0001 0 0,0001 0,0002 0,0003 0,0004 0,0005 0,000800 0,000700 0,000600 0,000500 0,000400 0,000300 0,000200 0,000100 0,000000 -0,000100 -0,000200 Inman -0,0002 -0,0001 0 0,0001 0,0002 0,0003 0,0004 0,0005 0,000500 0,000400 0,000300 0,000200 0,000100 0,000000 -0,000100 -0,000200

LSTR was 0.53. The difference was due to the fact that even though the currents vary with depth especially for the low-wave energy coasts [6], the longshore currents were measured only at the surface and used in calculations. (Fig. 3) shows the predicted versus the measured transport rates by in relation to the used formulations. The CERC equation has a tendency to over predict the measured transport rates, and it produced a large RMS error and the lowest coefficient of correlation. The Kamphuis formula, Kraus and Inman formula produced somewhat better predictions than the other two tested formulae tested. Total calculated LSTRs along the surf zone using Kamphius formula (that has given the best results) after introducing the coefficient of correlation, varied from 40216,4 to -13727,0 m3/year with an average gross transport rate of 26489,4 m3/year and the transport was predominantly towards the south (Fig. 4).

Kraus -0,0002 -0,0001 0 0,0001 0,0002 0,0003 0,0004 0,0005 0,000700 0,000600 0,000500 0,000400 0,000300 0,000200 0,000100 0,000000 -0,000100 -0,000200 -0,000300

CERC -0,0002 -0,0001 0 0,0001 0,0002 0,0003 0,0004 0,0005 0,001000 0,000800 0,000600 0,000400 0,000200 0,000000 -0,000200 -0,000400

Kamphius -0,0002 -0,0001 0 0,0001 0,0002 0,0003 0,0004 0,0005 0,000500 0,000400 0,000300 0,000200 0,000100 0,000000 -0,000100 -0,000200

Fig. 3 - Variaiile ratei de transport a sedimentelor msurat i calculat Variations of measured and calculated sediment transport rate. Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010 43

6. Concluzie Transportul sedimentelor n regiunea rmului din Mamaia este determinat, n principal, de aciunea valurilor i a vnturilor. n general, valurile predominante sunt din directia NNE spre E i din directia S spre SSW, iar vnturile dominante se combin pentru a transporta sedimentele ntr-o direcie general sudic prin zona studiat. Un numr de formule empirice i semiempirice referitoare la transportul sedimentelor au fost elaborate pentru a fi utilizate n aplicaiile pentru rmuri. Formula elaborat de Kamphius (1991) este adecvat pentru utilizarea n regiunea staiunii Mamaia deoarece aceasta ia n considerarea procesele de antrenare, transport i depozitare sub aciunea valurilor i a curenilor stabili. RTST total a variat de la 40216,4 la -13727,0 m3 / an cu o rat de transport brut medie de 26489,4 m3 / an, transportul desfurndu-se, n principal, ctre sud confirmate prin masuraturi.

13727 m3/year 40216 m /year


3

26489 m3/year

Fig. 4 - Direcia i magnitudinea RTSLT Direction and magnitude of the LSTR

6. Conclusion Sediment transport in the Mamaia coastal region is driven primarily by the action of waves and winds. In general, the predominant waves from the NNE to the E and from S to the SSW and the dominant winds combine to drive sediment in a generally Southerly direction through the studiedly area. A number of empirical and semi-empirical sediment transport formulae have been developed for use in coastal applications. The commonly used formula of Kamphius (1991) is appropriate for use in the Mamaia region as it considers the processes of entrainment, transportation and deposition under the action of waves and steady currents. The total LSTR varied from 40216,4 to -13727,0 m3/year with an average gross transport rate of 26489,4 m3/year and the transport was predominantly towards the south.

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Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

BIBLIOGRAFIE: REFERENCES:
[1]. [2]. [3]. [4]. [5]. KAMPHUIS, J.W., 1991. Alongshore sediment transport rate. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering 117 (6),pp. 624641 KAMPHUIS, J.W., 2000. Introduction to Coastal Engineering and Management. Advanced Series On Ocean Engineering, Vol. 16. World Scientific, Singapore. KAMPHUIS, J.W., 2002. Alongshore transport of sand. Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Coastal Engineering. ASCE, pp. 23302345. KAMPHUIS, J.W., DAVIES, M.H., NAIRN, R.B., SAYAO, O.J., 1986. Calculation of littoral sand transport rate. Coastal Engineering 10, pp. 1 21. KRAUS, N.C., ISOBE, M., IGARASHI, H., SASAKI, T.O. and HORIKAWA, K., 1982. Field experiments on longshore and sand transport in the surf zone. In: ASCE (Editor), 18th Coastal Engineering Conference, pp. 969-988. KUMAR, V.S., ANAND, N.M., CHANDRAMOHAN, P., NAIK, G.N., 2002. Sand Transport Measurements Along Arge Beach, West Coast of India. Technical Report National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India. LONGUET-HIGGINS, M.S., 1970. Longshore current generated by obliquely incident sea waves. 1. Journal of Geophysical Research 75 (33), pp. 67786789. MILLER, H.c., 1999. Field Measurments of longshore sediment transport during storm. Coastal Engineering 36, pp. 301-321. VAN RIJN, L., 1984. Sediment Transport: Part 1. Bed Load Transport; Part 2. Suspended Load Transport; Part 3. Bed Forms and Alluvial Roughness, Vol. 110. ASCE.

[6].

[7]. [8]. [9].

[10]. VAN RIJN, L., 1989. Handbook Sediment Transport by Currents and Waves, Vol. Report H461. Delft Hydraulics. [11]. USACE, 1984. Shore Protection Manual. Department of the Army, U.S. Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC 20314. [12]. USACE, 1995. Design of beach fills, US Army Corps of Engineers, EM 1110-2-3301. [13]. WANG, P., KRAUS, N.C., DAVIS JR., R.A., 1998.. Total longshore sediment transport rate in the surf zone: field measurements and empirical predictions. Journal of Coastal Research 14 (1), pp. 269 282.

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MATERIALELE TERMOIZOLANTE I ECONOMIA DE ENERGIE N CLDIRI DE LOCUIT

THERMAL INSULATING MATERIALS AND ENERGY SAVING IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

Dumitrescu Vlad, prof. dr. ing. Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest), Catedra de Construcii Civile (Civil Engineering Departament) Dumitrescu Rzvan, comisar ef ing. Direcia General Anticorupie din cadrul M.A.I. (Anti-Corruption General Directorate Ministry of Administration and Interior), e-mail: dumitrescu_r@hotmail.com Abstract: The article illustrates by calculation and graphics the energy saving in the housing sector that can be obtained by the adequate use of efficient thermal insulating materials. The sparing of thermal insulating materials leads to bit and useless energy losses and high housing running costs. Keywords: price of building, sparing energy, thermic resistant

1.GENERALITI
Criza de energie la nivel actual al tiinei, pune tuturor statelor lumii, gestionare ale energiei naionale, probleme de economicitate i de elaborare a unei politici energetice eficiente. Economia de energie n construcii este strns legat de eficiena materialelor termoizolante. Decisiv ns este mentalitatea investitorilor, proiectanilor i ignorana beneficiarilor. Nu sunt cunoscute i nici abordate n massmedia aspectele legate de folosirea materialelor termoizolante la cldiri, iar factorii de decizie se complac n meninerea unor nivele de performane sczute. Dei sunt limite minimale de admisibilitate n ceea ce privete rezistenele termice tocmai acestea sunt luate ca etalon de investitori i proiectani, interesul lor fiind economiile de investiie, aruncnd risipa de energie i costurile exorbitante de exploatare n bugetele beneficiarilor. Materialele de construcie eficiente pot fi definite cele care au conductivitatea termic n jur de 0,04 W/mK i densitatea aparent sub 200 kg/m3. Aceste materiale dintre care se remarc : polistirenul expandat sau extrudat, vata mineral, vata din fibre de sticl, spuma rigid de poliuretan sunt mai ieftine dect finisajele faadelor. Cheltuielile de investiie pentru realizarea unei termoizolaii bune (rezistena termic peste 2 m2K/W) se amortizeaz n mai puin de un an. O locuin cu central termic proprie cu termoizolaia proiectat de un specialist poate atinge chiar
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1. GENERALITIES The energy crisis at the current level of science makes all states of the world, managers of national energy, face problems of energy-saving and of developing an efficient energetic policy. Energy saving in constructions is closely related to the efficiency of the thermal insulating materials. Decisive however is the mentality of the investors, designers and the beneficiaries ignorance. The mass media does not know nor approach aspects related to the use of thermal insulating materials in buildings and the decision actors confine themselves in the maintenance of low performance levels. Although there are minimum admissibility levels with regard to thermal resistances, they are taken as a standard by investors and designers, their interest being investment sparing, placing the energy waste and huge operation costs to the beneficiaries budgets. Efficient construction materials are the ones whose thermal conductivity is around 0.04 W/mK and apparent density below 200 kg/m3. These materials, such as: expanded or extruded polyester, mineral wool, glass wool, rigid polyurethane foam are cheaper than faade finishing. The investment costs for the performance of a good thermal insulation (thermal resistance over 2 m2K/W) are amortized in less than a year. A house with its own thermal power plant and the thermal insulation designed by a specialist can reach the investment sparing by the reduction of the
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

economia de investiie prin reducerea instalaiilor de nclzire datorat pierderilor mici de cldur. Avnd n vedere necesitatea de confort a oamenilor, care din punctul de vedere al transferului de cldur trebuie s elimine surplusul de cldur intern realizat astfel ca temperatura nucleului central al corpului uman s rmn constant (37), apoi variaia parametrilor exteriori, datorat conformrii cldirii i elementelor ei exterioare pentru a avea o imagine clar a proteciei termice a unei cldiri este necesar optimizarea nivelului de izolare termic a acesteia. 2.OPTIMIZAREA Prin optimizarea nivelului de izolare termic al unui element de construcie sau al unei cldiri n ansamblu, se nelege efectuarea unor calcule termo-economice care s conduc la cele mai avantajoase soluii din punct de vedere economic. Aceast optimizare se poate referi la materialele termoizolante, la grosimea acestora, la soluiile de construcie utilizate pentru diverse elemente de construcie, precum i la ansamblul unei cldiri. Relaiile de calcul se refer, n principal, la optimizarea gradului de protecie termic a cldirilor de locuit noi. Unele aspecte se pot aplica i la modernizarea i reabilitarea termic a cldirilor existente. Calculele de optimizare au un caracter relativ, avnd n vedere c, n unele situaii, pentru adoptarea unui anumit grad de protecie termic, pot fi determinante nu criteriile economice, ci altele, de exemplu necesitatea reducerii emisiilor nocive, eliminarea fenomenului de condens, .a. Pentru faptul c toate bunurile, serviciile i lucrrile se evalueaz n ara noastr n moneda european, analizele care se fac vor avea la baz moneda Euro (). Optimizarea folosirii materialului termoizolant se face pe baza relaiei generale pre-calitate i are ca scop alegerea celui mai eficient material din punct de vedere economic. n cazul materialului termoizolant, calitatea se exprim prin conductivitatea termic a materialului termoizolant (), iar preul prin costul unui m3 de material termoizolant (p), msurat n lei/m3. Preul trebuie s includ toate cheltuielile care se fac pn la punerea lui n oper,
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

heating facilities due to small heat losses. Considering the fact that people need comfort, who must from the point of view of heat transfer eliminate the surplus of internal heat produced so that the temperature of the central nucleus of human body remains constant (37), then the variation of the external parameters, due to the way the building is made and its external elements in order to have a clear image of the thermal protection of a building it is necessary to optimize its thermal insulation level.

2.OPTIMIZATION The optimization of the thermal insulation level of a construction element or a whole building means the performance of thermaleconomic calculations that lead to the most advantageous solutions from the economic point of view. This optimization can refer to thermal insulating materials, their thickness, the construction solutions used for the various construction elements and the whole building. The calculation relations mainly refer to the optimization of the degree of thermal protection of new residential buildings. Certain aspects can also be applied to the thermal modernization and rehabilitation of the existing buildings. The optimization calculations are relative, considering that in certain situations, for the adoption of a certain degree of thermal protection not the economic criteria but other criteria can be determined, for example the need to reduce harmful air emissions, the elimination of the condensation phenomenon, etc. For the fact that the goods, services and works are assessed in our country in European currency, the tests performed will have as reference currency the Euro (). The optimization of the use of the thermal insulating material is made on the basis of the general relation price-quality and its purpose is to choose the most efficient material from the economic point of view. In case of thermal insulating materials, quality is expressed by the thermal conductivity of the thermal insulating material (), and the price by the cost of 1 m3 of thermal insulating material (p), measured in RON/m3. The price must include all expenses incurred
47

inclusiv aceasta (t.v.a., transport, beneficiu, cheltuieli generale, etc.). Comparaia ntre diferitele materiale termoizolante poate fi fcut, doar n cazurile n care condiiile de utilizare sunt aceleai. Aprecierea eficienei unui anumit material termoizolant, n comparaie cu alte materiale avnd acelai domeniu de utilizare, se poate face prin compararea preului unui m2 de material termoizolant avnd grosimea (d) stabilit astfel nct s conduc la rezistena termic Rs = d/ = 1 m2 K/W. Rezult d = , iar costul unui m2 de material termoizolant (c) este : c=dp=p [lei/m2] (1) La determinarea preului, se menioneaz c, n cazul utilizrii plcilor termoizolante tasabile, trebuie s se in seama i de tasarea materialului termoizolant, deci preul trebuie considerat n lei/m3 de material n starea n care rmne n cldire. Materialul termoizolant cel mai eficient din punct de vedere termo-economic este acela care corespunde produsului p minim. n unele situaii, la alegerea unui material termoizolant, criteriul hotrtor poate s nu fie cel economic determinat ca mai sus, ci alte criterii precum durabilitatea, sensibilitatea la umezire, etc. 3.ANALIZA COSTURILOR Pentru calcule mai exacte, la elementele de construcie cu un procent mare de puni termice, n relaia (1) n locul conductivitii termice se consider conductivitatea termic echivalent ech. Reprezentarea grafic a costului materialului termoizolant din alctuirea unui element de construcie, este dat n fig. 1. Costurile se determin considernd un metru ptrat din elementul de construcie care se analizeaz. Costul total al unui m2 din respectivul element de construcie este dat de expresia general : C=I+E [lei/m2] (2) n care : I reprezint costul investiiei totale a unui m2 de element de construcie; I = IC + II; n care : IC reprezint costul elementului de construcie propriu-zis; II reprezint costul de investiie al instalaiei de nclzire aferente;
48

until its commissioning, including VAT, transport, profit, general expenditure, etc.. A comparison between different thermal insulating materials can only be made if the usage conditions are the same. The assessment of the efficiency of a certain thermal insulating material, as compared to other materials with the same usage purpose, can be done by comparing the price of 1 m2 of thermal insulating material with thickness (d) established so that it leads to thermal resistance Rs = d/ = 1 m2 K/W. We obtain d = , and the cost of 1 m2 of thermal insulating material (c) is: c=dp=p [RON/m2] (1) When determining the price, we mention that in case of using settling thermal insulation boards, we must also take into account the settling of the thermal insulating material, so the price must be considered in RON/m3 as it remains in the building. The most efficient thermal insulating material from the thermal-economic point of view is the one that corresponds to the minimum p product. In some situations, when choosing a thermal insulating material, the determining criterion may not be the economic one determined above, but other criteria such as durability, sensitivity to humidity, etc. 3. COST ANALYSIS For more exact calculations, for construction elements with a high percentage of thermal bridges, in the relation (1) instead of thermal conductivity we consider the equivalent thermal conductivity ech. The graphic representation of the cost of the thermal insulating material used for a construction element is given in image 1. Costs are determined considering 1 square meter of the analyzed construction element. The total cost of 1 m2 of that construction element is given by the general formula: C=I+E [RON/m2] (2) where: I represents the cost of the total investment of 1 m2 of construction element; I = IC + II; where: IC represents the cost of the construction element; II represents the investment cost of the due heating installation; E represents operation (heating) costs, proper
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

E reprezint costul exploatrii (nclzirii), aferent unui m2 din elementul de construcie exterior, considerat pe o durat de n ani. Costurile de mai sus trebuie s includ toate cheltuielile, cotele i taxele aferente (cheltuieli de transport, t.v.a, cheltuieli generale, beneficiu, etc.). Costul instalaiilor cuprinde costul aferent instalaiei interioare a cldirii, considerat de la punctul de branament (inclusiv distribuia de la subsol). n cazul centralelor termice de bloc, costul acestora nu se include n costul instalaiilor ci, cu amortizarea corespunztoare, n costul exploatrii. Att costul IC, ct i costul II, variaz n funcie de rezistena termic corectat R a elementului de construcie, dar n timp ce IC crete odat cu creterea valorii R, costul II variaz invers proporional cu rezistena termic R. Sub form general, costul de investiie al elementului de construcie propriu-zis poate fi exprimat cu relaia : IC = b + c R' [lei/m2] (3) n care : b reprezint partea constant a costului, care nu variaz n funcie de rezistena termic (lei/m2); c reprezint coeficient care, nmulit cu valoare R, reprezint partea variabil a costului elementului de construcie [W lei/(m4 K)]; R' reprezint rezistena termic corectat a elementului de construcie, (m2K/W). Costul de investiie pentru instalaiile de nclzire aferente este : II = h + i 1/R' [lei/m2] (4) n care : h reprezint partea constant a costului instalaiilor de nclzire aferente, (lei/m2); i reprezint coeficient care, mprit la valoare R', reprezint partea variabil a costului instalaiilor de nclzire, (lei K/W) Costul total al investiiei are expresia : I = b + h + c R' + i/R' [lei/m2] (5) Costul anual al exploatrii, exclusiv pentru nclzirea cldirii, aferent unui m2 de element de construcie, este : E1 = z e/R' [lei/(m2 an)] (6) n care : z reprezint coeficient privind numrul anual de grade ore al perioadei de nclzire (mii K h/an); e reprezint preul unui kWh de energie termic, pltit de consumator (lei/kWh).
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

to 1 m2 of the external construction element, considered for a period of n years. The aforementioned expenses must include all expenses, due charges and fees (transport expenses, VAT, general expenses, profit, etc.). Installation costs include the cost due to the internal installation of the building, considered from the connection point (including underground distribution). In case of block-offlats thermal power plants, their cost is not included in the installation costs but in the operation costs with the corresponding depreciation. Both the IC cost and the II cost vary depending on the corrected thermal resistance R of the construction element, but whereas IC gets higher with the increase of the R value, cost II varies in inverse ratio to the thermal resistance R. In general terms, the investment cost of the construction element can be expressed by the relation: IC = b + c R' [RON/m2] (3) where: b represents the constant cost part that does not vary depending on the thermal resistance (lei/m2); c represents a coefficient that multiplied by the R value represents the variable part of the construction element cost [ W RON/(m4 K)]; R' represents the corrected thermal resistance of the construction element, (m2K/W). Investment cost for the corresponding heating installations is: II = h + i 1/R' [RON/m2] (4) where: h represents the constant cost part of the due heating installations, (RON/m2); i represents a coefficient that divided by the R' value represents the variable part of the costs of the heating installations (RON K/W) The total investment cost has the following formula: I = b + h + c R' + i/R' [RON/m2] (5) The annual operation cost, exclusive for the heating of the building, proper to 1 m2 of construction element is: E1 = z e/R' [RON/(m2 year)] (6) where: z represents the coefficient regarding the annual number of degrees hours of the heating period (thousand K h/year); e represents the price of 1 kWh of thermal energy, paid by the consumer (lei/kWh).
49

Costul nclzirii, aferent unui m2 de element de construcie, pentru un numr de n ani de exploatare a cldirii, este : E = n . E1 = n z e/R' [lei/m2] (7)

The heating cost proper to 1 m2 of construction element, for a number of n building operation years is: E = n . E1 = n z e/R' [RON/m2] (7)

n care : n reprezint numrul de ani de exploatare pentru care se face calculul de optimizare (ani). Costul total reprezentnd suma costurilor pentru investiie i a exploatrii aferent unui m2 de element de construcie, este : C = b + h + c R' + (i + z e n)/R' [lei/m2] (8) Determinarea rezistenelor termice optime se poate realiza cu metoda analitic. Valorile minime ale costurilor se obin prin egalarea cu zero a derivatei de ordinul 1, a funciilor (5) i respectiv (8) de mai sus n raport cu variabila R'. Valoarea minim a costului (construcii + instalaii) este : I = di/dR` = 0 I = c - (R ) 2 = 0 Rezult : R opt = (i/c)1/2 n care : [m2 K/W] (9) investiiei

where: n represents the number of operation years that the optimization calculation is made for (years). The total cost representing the sum of investment and operation costs proper to 1 m2 of construction element is: C = b + h + c R' + (i + z e n)/R'[RON/m2] (8) The optimal thermal resistances can be determined by the analytical method. The minimum cost values are obtained by equaling to zero the order-1 derivate, functions (5) and respectively (8) above in relation to the R' variable. The minimum value of the investment cost (constructions + installations) is: I = di/dR` = 0 I = c - ( R ) 2 = 0 We obtain: R opt = (i/c)1/2 [m2 K/W] where: (9)

R opt reprezint rezistena termic optim care


conduce la o valoare minim a costului investiiei (m2K/W) Valoarea minim a costului total (investiie + exploatare timp de n ani)

R opt represents the optimal thermal resistance


leading to a minimum value of investment costs (m2K/W) Minimum value of the total cost (investment + operation during n years) C' =

dC dR = 0 i + e zn C' = c - ( R ) 2 = 0
C' = Rezult : R'opt = [(i + e z n)/c]1/2 [m2 K/W]

dC dR = 0 i + e zn C' = c - ( R ) 2 = 0
We obtain: R'opt = [(i + e z n)/c]1/2 [m2 K/W]

(10)

(10)

Determinarea rezistenelor termice se poate realiza cu metoda grafic. Determinarea valorilor R opt i R'opt se poate face i grafic, ca n Figura 1.

The thermal resistances can be determined by the graphical method. The R opt and R'opt values can be determined graphically, as shown in Charter 1.

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Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

Fig. 1 Optimizarea rezistenei termice Thermal resistance optimization

Din examinarea graficului se remarc urmtoarele: - dreapta IC se intereseaz cu axa R' = 0 n punctul b, iar nclinarea dreptei este tg = c; - curba II este asimptot la axa vertical R = 0 i la axa orizontal cu ordonata egal cu h; - curba E este asimptot la axa vertical R = 0 i la axa absciselor ( cost = 0); - valorile coeficienilor b i h nu influeneaz alura curbelor I i C, care se translateaz pe vertical n funcie de aceste valori; - cu ct panta dreptei IC (tg = c) este mai mare, cu att valorile R opt i R'opt sunt mai mici, iar zonele cu valori apropiate de rezistene termice optime sunt mai restrnse. - Uneori, punctul cu valoarea R'opt este mai greu de determinat grafic, existnd o zon larg cu valori R'opt practic egale. Astfel n exemplul din Figura 1 se pot considera valori R'opt toate valorile cuprinse ntre R = 2 m2 K/W i R = 3 m2 K/W.
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Examining the chart, we note the following: - the straight line IC crosses the axis R' = 0 in point b, and the inclination of the straight line is tg = c; - the curve II is asymptote to the vertical axis R = 0 and the horizontal axis with the ordinate equal to h; - the curve E is asymptote to the vertical axis R = 0 and the abscises axis (cost = 0); - the values of the coefficients b and h do not influence the height of the curves I and C, translated in vertical depending on these values; - the higher the inclination of the straight line IC (tg = c), the lower the values R opt and R'opt, and the closer the areas with values close to optimal thermal resistances. - Sometimes, the point with the value R'opt is more difficult to be determined graphically, as there is a wide area with basically equal R'opt values. Thus, in the example in Chart 1 we can consider R'opt values all the values comprised between R = 2 m2 K/W and R = 3 m2 K/W.
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Aceasta constituie, de altfel, i un avantaj al metodei grafice, deoarece permite a se vizualiza o zon mai larg de valori care se pot considera rezistene termice optime, corespunznd unor costuri minime n comparaie cu determinarea analitic care d exact valoarea R'opt, dat nu evideniaz variaia costului din vecintatea acestui punct. Pentru calcule mai exacte, n locul dreptei IC se poate considera curba IC conform Figurii 3 (curba IC 3) i urmtoarelor precizri: Relaia cost-rezisten termic nu mai este liniar, ci reprezint o curb. Reprezentarea grafic a acestei curbe se poate face efectund calculul cmpurilor de temperaturi pentru mai multe grosimi de material termoizolant i determinnd, pe aceast baz, rezistenele termice corectate R' corespunztoare. Curba de variaie a costului IC n funcie de R' se construiete prin unirea unui numr de 4-5 puncte ca n Figura 2. n unele situaii, cnd se observ c alura curbei este apropiat de o linie dreapt, curba se poate nlocui cu o linie dreapt, pentru care se determin ecuaia corespunztoare i deci coeficienii b i c.

This is also an advantage of the graphical method, as it allows the visualization of a wider area of values that can be considered optimal thermal resistances, corresponding to minimum costs as compared to the analytical determination that gives exactly the value R'opt, but does not point out the cost variation near this point. For more precise calculations, instead of the straight line IC we can consider the curve IC according to Chart 3 (curve IC 3) and the following observations: The cost-thermal resistance relation is no longer linear, but a curve. The graphical representation of this curve can be performed calculating the temperature ranges for several thicknesses of thermal insulating material and determining in this way the corresponding corrected thermal resistances R'. The IC cost variation curve depending on R' is built connecting 4-5 points, like in Chart 2. In some situations, when the curve is almost a straight line, the curve can be replaced by a straight line for which we determine the corresponding equation and the coefficients b and c.

Fig. 2 - Curba de variaie a costului IC The IC cost variation curve 52 Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

4.DETERMINAREA DE CALCUL

COEFICIENILOR

4. DETERMINATION OF CALCULATION COEFFICIENTS For the use of the relations (9) and (10) values must be mentioned for the c, i, z and e coefficients, as well for the number of years n. The c coefficient is determined with the formula: c = p ech [RON W/(m4 K)] (11) where: p represents the price of 1 m3 of thermal insulating material (RON/m3) ech represents the equivalent thermal conductivity of the thermal insulating material (W/mK). The p price includes all fees, quotas and general expenses, as well as all due costs related to the transport and commissioning of the thermal insulating material. If in order to make the investment, bank loans are used, the unit price p will be multiplied by the relation between the real investment cost, including the interest and its cost, interests not included. The i coefficient mainly represents the product between the external and internal temperature difference considered for the dimensioning of the heating installation and the unit price of the heating elements. In a simplified and approximate way, the i coefficient can be determined by the formula: i = 1,2 (Ti Te) s [RON K/W] (12) where: (Ti - Te) represents the difference between the calculation temperatures of external and internal air, as follows: - Ti = +200C - Te = - 120C - 210C depending on the climatic area; for average conditions, we consider Te = - 150C so (Ti Te) = 350C; - s represents the unit price of the used heating elements, including the costs incurred for transport and mounting, tests, painting, VAT, manual labour, general expenses, etc. (RON/W). The 1.2 coefficient of the relation (12) represents the increase operated in the dimensioning of the heating installation due to
53

Pentru utilizarea relaiilor (9) i (10) trebuie s se precizeze valori pentru coeficienii c, i, z i e, precum i pentru numrul de ani n. Coeficientul c se determin cu relaia : c = p ech [lei W/(m4 K)] (11) n care : p reprezint preul unui m3 de material termoizolant (lei/m3) ech reprezint conductivitatea termic echivalent a materialului termoizolant (W/mK). n preul p se include toate taxele, cotele i cheltuielile generale precum i toate costurile aferente, legate de transportul i punerea n oper a materialului termoizolant. n cazul n care pentru realizarea investiiei, se recurge la credite bancare, preul unitar p se va multiplica cu raportul dintre costul real al investiiei, inclusiv dobnda i costul acesteia, exclusiv dobnda. Coeficientul i reprezint, n principal, produsul dintre diferena de temperatur ntre interior i exterior, care este avut n vedere la dimensionarea instalaiei de nclzire i preul unitar al corpurilor de nclzire. n mod simplificat i aproximativ, coeficientul i se poate determina cu relaia: i = 1,2 (Ti Te) s [lei K/W] (12) n care : (Ti - Te) reprezint diferena ntre temperaturile de calcul ale aerului exterior i interior, astfel : - Ti = +200C - Te = - 120C - 210C n funcie de zona climatic; pentru condiii medii, se consider Te = - 150C i deci (Ti Te) = 350C; - s reprezint preul unitar al corpurilor de nclzire utilizate, inclusiv costul transportului i montajului, probele, vopsitoria, t.v.a, manopera, cheltuielile generale, etc. (lei/W). Coeficientul 1,2 din relaia (12) reprezint majorarea operat la dimensionarea instalaiei de nclzire datorat adaosurilor (de orientare
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

cardinal i de compensare a influenei suprafeelor reci), coeficienilor de masivitate, rotunjirilor, .a. n cazul n care, pentru realizarea investiiei, se recurge la credite bancare, preul unitar s se va multiplica cu raportul dintre costul real al investiiei, inclusiv dobnda i costul acesteia, exclusiv dobnda. Coeficientul z reprezint numrul de gradeore al perioadei de nclzire i se calculeaz cu relaia : z = 24 C N12 [mii K h/an] (13) n care : - C reprezint coeficient de corecie conform graficelor din Figura 3 - N12 reprezint numrul anual de grade-zile de calcul - N12 = N2012 (20 i) D12 n care : N2012 reprezint numrul anual de grade-zile de calcul, pentru i = + 20 0C i pentru eo = +12 0C i temperatura interioar medie a cldirii (0C) D12 durata convenional a perioadei de nclzire, corespunztoare temperaturii exterioare care marcheaz nceperea i oprirea nclzirii. Pentru condiii medii pe ar, se consider : N12 = N2012 = 3400 grade-zile C = 0,9 conform Figura 2 Rezult : z = 24 3400 0,9/1000 = 73 mii K h/an

additions (of cardinal orientation and compensation of the influence of cold surfaces), massiveness coefficients, rounding, etc. If in order to perform the investment bank loans are used, the unit price s will be multiplied by the relation between the real investment cost, including the interest rate and its cost, interests not included. The z coefficient represents the number of degrees-hours of the heating period and is calculated with the formula: z = 24 C N12 [thousand h/year] (13) where: - C represents a correction coefficient according to the charts of Image 3 - N12 represents the annual number of degrees-days of calculation - N12 = N2012 (20 i) D12 where: N2012 represents the annual number of degreesdays of calculation for i = + 20 0C and for eo = +12 0C i building average internal temperature (0C) D12 conventional duration of the heating period corresponding to the external temperature that marks the start and end of heating. For average country conditions, we consider: N12 = N2012 = 3400 degrees-days C = 0.9 according to Chart 2 We obtain: z = 24 3400 0,9/1000 = 73 thousand K h/year

Fig 3 Coeficientul de corectie C Correction coefficient C 54 Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

Coeficientul e reprezint preul de consumator, al unui kWh de energie termic pentru nclzire, care difer n funcie de modul de producere a cldurii (termoficare sau central termic), de combustibilul folosit la producerea agentului termic, de randamentul cazanelor, precum i de diferite condiii specifice locale. Se consider preul real, nesubvenionat de stat. n funcie de datele de care se dispune, se va avea n vedere un scenariu privind evoluia n timp (pe durata numrului de ani luai n considerare), a preului real al cldurii. n aceast situaie, pentru preul mediu real, mediu, al cldurii, se folosete relaia de calcul:
t e = e0/n (1 + x ) t =1 t =n

The e coefficient represents the consumer price of 1 kWh of thermal energy for heating that varies depending on the way heating is produced (district heating or thermal power plant), the fuel used to produce the thermal agent, the performance of the boilers and different local specific circumstances. The real price, not subsidized by the Government shall be taken into account. Depending on the available data, we shall consider a scenario regarding the evolution in time (during the considered number of years) of the heating real price. In this situation, for the real average heating price we use the following calculation relation: e = e0/n

[lei/(KWh)]

(14)

(1 + x)
t =1

t =n

[RON/(KWh)]

(14)

n care : - e0 reprezint preul iniial, n anul realizrii investiiei, a energiei termice (lei/kWh); - e reprezint preul real, mediu, al energiei termice, aferent unei perioade de n ani, n condiiile unei rate reale anuale de cretere previzibil a preului cldurii (lei/kWh); - x reprezint rata anual de cretere previzibil a preului energiei termice, care ine seama att de creterea preului unitar, ct i de deprecierea monedei pe baza creia se face calculul de optimizare : x = (f m)/(100 + m) (-) (15)

where: - e0 represents the initial price, the year the investment was made, of thermal energy (lei/kWh); - e represents the real average price of thermal energy proper to a period of n years, considering a foreseeable annual growth rate of the heating price (RON/kWh); - x represents the annual foreseeable growth rate of the thermal energy price that takes into consideration both the unit price increase and the depreciation of the currency that the optimization calculation is based on: x = (f m)/(100 + m) (-) (15)

n care: - f reprezint rata anual de cretere a preului unitar al cldurii, presupus a avea o valoare constant n perioada de n ani, considerat n calcul (%); - m reprezint rata anual de depreciere a monedei, presupus a avea o valoare constant n perioada de n ani, considerat n calcul (%). n cazul n care preul energiei termice este raportat la Gcal, se va avea n vedere relaia de echivalen : 1 Gcal = 1163 kWh. Parametrul n reprezint numrul de ani de exploatare, pentru care se face calculul optimizare. Parametrul n are o importan determinant asupra mrimii rezistenei termice optime R'opt.
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

where: - f represents the annual growth rate of the heating unit price, supposed to have a constant value during the considered period of n years (%); - m represents the annual currency depreciation rate supposed to have a constant value during the considered period of n years (%). Should the price of thermal energy relate to Gcal, the equivalence relation will be taken into account: 1 Gcal = 1163 kWh. The n parameter represents the number of operation years that the optimization calculation is done. The n has a crucial importance upon the value of the optimal thermal resistance R'opt.
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Considerarea n calcule a unor valori reduse i chiar foarte reduse (n = 8 12 ani), conduce la rezistene optime R'opt mici. Se recomand ca proiectantul s determine valoarea R'opt pentru dou valori n extreme, rezultnd un interval de rezistene termice optime, astfel : - nminim = 20 ani - nmaxim = 40 ani Proiectantul va alege, n funcie de alte considerente, valoare R'opt ntre cele dou rezistene termice optime astfel determinate. Determinarea relaiilor finale de calcul Cu valoarea medie z = 73 mii K h/an i pe baza relaiei (11), relaiile (9) i (10) devin :

The consideration in calculation of low and very low values (n = 8 12 years) leads to low optimal resistances R'opt. We recommend the determination by the designer of the R'opt value for two extreme n values, resulting an interval of optimal thermal resistances as follows: - nminimum = 20 years - nmaximum = 40 years The designer will choose, considering other criteria, the R'opt value among the two optimal thermal resistances determined in this way. Determination of the final calculation relations With average value z = 73 thousand K h/year and based on the relation (11), the relations (9) and (10) become: [m2K/W] (16) Ropt = [(i + 73 e n)/(p )] [m2 K/W] (17)
1/2

R opt = [i/(p ech)]1/2

[m2 K/W] (16)


1/2 2

Ropt = [(i + 73 e n)/(p )] [m K/W] Din exemplificarea urmtoarele: relaiei (17),

R opt = [i/(p ech)]1/2

(17)

rezult

From the exemplification of the relation (17), we obtain the following: - the higher the heating price, the higher the R opt value, and lower the price of the thermal insulating material (p); - the lower the considered thermal conductivity () and thermal bridges percentage (so ech as well), the higher the optimal thermal resistance R opt; - the R opt value goes up at a certain extent in case of using more expensive heating elements; - the higher the considered number of operation years, the higher the value of the optimal thermal resistance R opt; - the greater the number the of operation years considered in the optimization calculation (n) the lower the influence of the installation investment cost (i) over the R opt value.

- valoarea Ropt este cu att mai mare, cu ct preul cldurii e este mai mare, iar preul materialului termoizolant (p) este mai mic; - rezistena termic optim Ropt are valori cu att mai mari, cu ct conductivitatea termic de calcul () i procentul de puni termice (i deci i ech) sunt mai mici; - valoarea Ropt crete ntr-o oarecare msur n cazul utilizrii unor corpuri de nclzire mai scumpe; - cu ct numrul de ani de exploatare care se consider n calcul este mai mare, cu att crete i valoarea rezistenei termice optime Ropt; - cu ct numrul de ani de exploatare considerat n calculul de optimizare (n) este mai mare, cu att influena costului investiiei n instalaii (i) asupra valorii Ropt este mai redus. Din examinarea relaiei (10), rezult c rezistena termic Ropt este mai mare n regiunile cu condiii climatice mai severe: zonele climatice III IV i un numr mare de grade-zile de calcul n perioada de nclzire a anului.

Examining the relation (10), it results that the thermal resistance Ropt is higher in areas with more severe weather conditions: climatic areas III IV and a great number of degrees-days of calculation in the heating part of the year.

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Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

5.CONCLUZII Mijloacele de economisire a energiei sunt : - creterea rezistenei termice a elementelor de construcie opace; - creterea rezistenei termice a elementelor vitrate; - nclzirea continu. - Economisirea energiei consumate n perioada de exploatare a unui nou apartament se poate realiza prin : - economisirea energiei pentru reparaii, prin creterea calitii construciilor i n special prin eliminarea condensului ca urmare a mbuntirii concepiei (grad de izolare, materiale termoizolante de nalt eficien, spaii de locuit adecvate, nclzire continu, etc.); - n aceste concepii schimb complet distribuia pierderii de energie . n graficele urmtoare sunt comparate dou apartamente identice realizate cu concepia anilor 1966-1989 i concepia conform principiilor de economie prezentate n acest articol. BIBLIOGRAFIE: REFERENCES:
[1]. [2]. [3]. [4].

5. CONCLUSIONS The energy sparing means are the following: - increase of the thermal resistance of opaque construction elements; - increase of the thermal resistance of stained glass elements; - continuous heating. - The sparing of the energy consumed in the operation period of a new apartment may be done through: - sparing of repairs energy, by the increase of building quality and especially the elimination of condensation as a result of an improved design (insulation degree, highly-efficient thermal insulating materials, adequate living areas, continuous heating, etc.); - in these design models, the distribution of the energy loss distribution is totally changed. The following charts compare two identical apartments built according to the standards of the interval 1966-1989 and the sparing principle conception presented in this article.

DUMITRESCU RZVAN - Studies and contributions on the increase of comfort in residential buildings in terms of energy saving doctors degree thesis, 2009. DUMITRESCU VLAD The theory of comfort Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute 1971 DUMITRESCU VLAD Thermal comfort economic provision methods. Man and the Environment symposium Cluj 1975 DUMITRESCU VLAD - Total energy consumption in residential buildings - ICPMC 1980

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57

PROBLEME TEHNOLOGICE GENERALE ALE SUDRII PRIN TOPIRE

GENERAL TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MELTING WELD

Alexe Mircea, ing.lector universitar Facultatea de Arhitectur, Universitatea Spiru Haret, doctorand al Universitii Tehnice de Construcii Bucureti, Facultatea de Construcii Civile, Industriale i Agricole, Catedra de Construcii Metalice, universitary lecteur Architecture Departement, Universitaty Spiru Haret, candidate for a doctors degree at Bucharest Technical Construction, University, Civilian, Industrial and Agricultural Constructions Departement, Metallic Constructions Chair Abstract: Due to their complexity of forms and sizes, metallic constructions need some joints. The desideratum of a perfect welding is the metal structure restoration. Metallic work pieces jointing is best made by welded connection. Welding is one of the technological processes with an increasing influence. Welding implementation increases the working productivity and the products quality, also reduces the manufacturing expenses and cost price in comparison with other jointing methods. The continuous extension of the welding field of application is achieved by changing the constructive conception of some products, changing their manufacturing technology and by implementing and developing new welding procedures, as well as by improving classical welding procedures respectively. In this article are presented a few points of metal work pieces welding, the calculus of the welding seams using diagrams and tables and non distructive quality check of the weld joints. Keywords: juntion technique, welding seam, the nondestructive defectoscopy

1. SUDAREA MBINARE

CA

TEHNIC

DE

WELDING TECHNIQUE
1.

AS

JUNCTION

Sudarea este un procedeu tehnologic prin care se realizeaz o mbinare nedemontabil ntre dou sau mai multe piese. Prin sudare rezult o mbinare sudat sau sudur, ca urmare a coalescenei localizate a materialelor, produs fie prin nclzirea acestora la o anumit temperatur cu sau fr aplicarea simultan a unei presiuni, fie prin aplicarea unei presiuni, cu sau fr utilizarea unui material de adaos. Sudarea a devenit un procedeu tehnologic capa-bil s satisfac exigenele nalte ale proceselor actuale de producie. Dezvoltrile recente n domeniul proceselor de sudare se refer la mbu-ntirea aspectelor legate de: productivitate, calitate, domeniul de aplicare, mediul de lucru. Ca tehnic de mbinare, sudarea este cunoscut din epoca bronzului, primul procedeu de sudare utilizat fiind sudarea n focul de forj. n secolul al XIX-lea sudarea devine un procedeu indus-trial, competitiv fa de alte tehnici de mbinare
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Welding is a technological process by which an unassembled junction between two or more work pieces is made. By welding a welded junction or weld results, due to the metal local coalescence of the materials generated either by heating at a certain temperature, with or without a local pressure application or by the application a local pressure, with or without the addition material. Welding became a technological process able to satisfy the high requirements of the actual production methods. Recent developments in the welding field is related to the improvements of: productivity, quality, application field, working conditions. As a jointing method, welding is known from the Bronze Age , the first welding method was forge welding. In the 19th century, welding became an industrial process, competitive with other jointing techniques.
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.Dezvoltarea tehnologiei de sudare a fost marcat de urmtoarele invenii: - descoperirea arcului electric, Davy, 1821; - inventarea sudrii prin presiune, Thompson, 1867; - inventarea sudrii cu arcul electric, Benardos, 1885; - inventarea electrodului nvelit, Kjellberg, 1907; - inventarea sudrii n mediu de gaz protector, Roberts, 1919; - inventarea sudrii mecanizate sub strat de flux, Nobel, 1920; - inventarea sudrii n baie de zgur, Paton, 1951; - inventarea sudrii n mediu de bioxid de carbon, 1953; - inventarea sudrii cu fascicul de electroni, Stohr, 1957; - inventarea sudrii cu plasm, 1961; - inventarea sudrii cu laser, 1970. n Romnia, sudura s-a dezvoltat continuu nc de la nceputul secolului XX. Prima construcie sudat de mare anvergur a fost un pod peste rul Brzava din Resia (1931), acesta fiind unul din primele poduri realizate n construcie sudat din Europa. n anul 1937 se nfiineaz la Timioara "Cercul pentru ncurajarea sudurii", grupare profesional-tiinific din care fceau parte oameni de tiin ca academician C. Mikloi, academician St. Ndan, academician R. Rdule, profesor C.C. Teodorescu. Prin activitatea Cercului, prin publicaia sa periodic "Sudura", a fost impulsionat activitatea de cercetare n domeniul sudrii i s-a lrgit continuu domeniul de aplicare a acesteia. Anul 1952 marcheaz nfiinarea la Timioara a Catedrei de Sudur a Facultii de Mecanic. n anul 1954 se creeaz, n acelai ora, Secia de Sudur a Bazei Academiei. Aceast secie va forma mpreun cu Secia de Rezisten a aceleiai instituii, Institutul de Sudur i ncercri de Materiale - ISIM (1970), avnd ca director fondator pe academicianul Traian Slgean (19291993). Se organizeaz secii de pregtire a sudorilor la Institutul Politehnic Bucureti, Universitatea Braov i Universitatea Galai n anul 1976 i seciile de sudur de la Universitile din Arad i Reia n 1989. Anul 1990 consemneaz crearea Asociaiei de Sudur din Romnia (ASR). Romnia este membr a Institutului Internaional de Sudur (IIW), o asociaie profesional la care particip 41 ri, reprezentantul Romniei la IIW fiind ISIM Timioara. n acelai timp, prin ASR, Romnia este membr cu statut de observator a Federaiei Europene pentru Sudur (EWF)

The development of welding technology was marked by the following inventions: - voltaic arc, by Davy, 1821; - friction welding, by Thompson, 1867; - arc welding, by Benardos, 1885; - coated electrode, by Kjelberg, in 1907; - gas shielding welding, by Roberts, in 1919; - automatic flux welding, by Nobel, in 1920; - slag welding, by Patton, in 1951; - carbon dioxide shield welding, 1953; - electron beam welding, by Stohr, 1957; - plasma welding, 1961; - LASER welding, 1970. In Romania welding has been developed continuously ever since the beginning of the 19th century. The first great welded construction was the bridge over the Barsava river in Resita, in 1931, this bridge being one of the first welded bridge in Europe. In 1937, in Timisoara, The Circle for Welding Encouragement was founded, a professional group with members of the Academy like C. Miklosi, St. Nadasan, R. Radulet, teacher C.C. Teodorescu. The welding research activity was stimulated by the activity of the circle and its periodical publication The Welding also enlarged the application field of welding. The year 1952 marked the foundation of the Welding Department at the Mechanic Faculty of Timisoara. In the same city The Welding Branch of the Academywas created in 1954. This Branch will form, together with The Strength Branch of the same Institute, The Welding and Metal Tests Institute (WMTi), with the Academician Theodor Salagean (1929-1993) as a founder director. Training branches for welders were organized in The Polytechnic Institute of Bucharest, The University of Brasov and Galati, in the year 1976, and the Welding Branches in The Universities of Arad and Resita, in 1989. The year 1990 records the setting up of the Welding Association of Romania. Romania is a membership of the International Institute of Welding (IIW), a professional association with 41 participants, the WMTI being its representative. At the same time, by ASR, Romania is an observer member of the European Welding Foundation (EWF).

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2. COORDONAREA SUDRII Fiind un proces complex, sudarea necesit coordonarea operaiilor ce se desfoar n cadrul acestui proces. n scopul de a obine ncredere n procesul de fabricaie prin sudare i de a obine sigurana produselor sudate n exploatare, sarcinile i responsabilitile personalului implicat n activitile referitoare la sudare, ca de exemplu planificarea execuiei, supravegherea, inspecia, trebuie s fie clar definite. n acest scop a fost creat standardul european EN 719 (corespondentul romn fiind SR EN 719). El se refer la sarcinile i responsabilitile aferente calitii, incluse n coordonarea activitilor referitoare la sudare. ntr-o ntreprindere productoare, coordonarea sudrii poate fi efectuat de una sau mai multe persoane. n tabelul 1 sunt prezentate activitile aferente sudrii care se iau n considerare, dup caz, pentru alocarea unor sarcini i responsabiliti n domeniul calitii (SR EN 719). [1]
Tabel 1. Activiti aferente sudrii [1] Nr. 1.1 Activiti Analiz contract -capabilitate n sudare i activiti conexe ale organizaiei productoare 1.2 Analiz proiect - standardele din domeniul sudrii care se aplic - amplasarea mbinrii n funcie de condiiile de proiectare - accesul pentru sudare, inspecie i ncercare - condiiile de calitate i de acceptare pentru suduri - detalii ale mbinrii sudate 1.3 Materiale 1.3.1 Metal de baz - sudabilitatea metalului de baz - orice condiii suplimentare n specificaiile de cumprare ale materialului, incluznd tipul certificatului de recepie a materialului - identificarea, depozitarea i manipularea metalelor de baz 1.3.2 Materiale pentru sudare - compatibilitate - condiii de livrare - orice condiii suplimentare n specificaiile de cumprare ale materialului pentru sudare, incluznd tipul certificatului de recepie a materialelor pentru sudare - identificarea, depozitarea i manipularea materialelor pentru sudare 1.4 Subcontractare - competena oricrui subcontractant 60

2. WELDING COORDINATION As a complex process, welding needs a process operation coordination. To fulfill the welding process and to obtain a good reliability of welded work pieces in operation, the tasks and the responsibilities of the personnel involvedin welding, like execution planning, supervising, and checking, must be clearly defined. For this purpose the European Standard EN 719 (with Romanian correspondent SR EN 719) was created. It refer to tasks and responsibilities proper to quality, welding activities coordination included. In an industrial unit, the welding coordination can be achieved by one or more persons. The, on the case, considered welding related activities according to each case are shown in table 1, to state the quality tasks and responsibilities (SR EN 719).
Table 1 Welding Activities No 1.1 1.2 Activities Contract analysis - producer ability in welding and rela activities Project analysis - welding field applied standards - joint placing according to design condition - welding, inspection and test conditions - welding quality and acceptance conditions - welded joint details Materials Base metal - base material weld ability - any buying certificate additional condition including reception certificate type - welding materials identification, storing and manipulation Welding materials - compatibility - delivery conditions - any buying certificate additional condition including welding materials reception certificate type - welding materials identification, storing an manipulation Subcontracting -any subcontractor competence

1.3 1.3.1

1.3.2

1.4

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1.5

1.6

1.7 1.7.1

1.7.2

1.8 1.8.1

1.8.2

1.9

1.10

Planificare producie - instruciuni de lucru - dispozitive de prindere i de fixare - adecvarea i valabilitatea calificrii sudorilor - ordinea de sud are i de asamblare a structurii - condiii pentru ncercarea n producie a sudurilor - condiii pentru inspecia sudrii - condiii de mediu nconjurtor - igien i securitate Utilaj - adecvarea utilajului pentru sudare i a echipamentului conex - aprovizionarea, identificarea i manipularea utilajului i accesoriilor - igien i securitate Operaii de sudare Activiti preliminare - difuzarea instruciunilor de lucru - pregtirea pieselor de mbinat, poziionarea i curarea lor - pregtirea pentru ncercare n producie - adecvarea spaiului de lucru, incluznd mediul nconjurtor Sudarea - repartizarea i instruirea sudorilor - utilizarea sau funcia utilajului i a accesoriilor - materiale pentru sudare consumabile i auxiliare - utilizarea sudurilor de prindere - utilizarea parametrilor procesului de sudare - utilizarea oricrei ncercri intermediare - utilizarea i metoda pentru prenclzire, precum i pentru tratamentul termic dup sudare - ordinea de sudare - tratamentul dup sudare ncercare Examinare vizual - caracterul complet al sudurii - dimensiunile sudurii - forma, dimensiunile i toleranele componentelor sudate - aspectul mbinrii ncercri distructive i examinri nedistructive - utilizarea ncercrilor distructive i a examinrilor nedistructive - ncercri specia le Acceptare suduri - evaluarea rezultatelor inspeciei i a ncercrilor - repararea sudurilor - reevaluarea sudurilor reparate - aciuni corective Documentaie - pregtirea i coninutul nregistrrilor necesare (incluznd activitile subcontractate)

1.5

Production planning - working instructions - fastening and fixing devices - welder qualification property and viability - assembling and weld order - weld production tests conditions - weld inspection conditions - environment conditions - security and hygiene Equipment - property of welding and related equipmen - equipment and accessories supplying, identification and manipulation - security and hygiene Welding operations Preliminary operations - work instruction spreading - joint work pieces preparation, positioning and cleaning - production test preparation - work space appropriateness, including environment Welding - welder training and repartition - use and operation of the equipment a accessories - spare and auxiliary welding materials - use of fasten welding parameters - use of welding process parameters - use of any intermediate test - use and reheating method, including thermal treatment after welding - welding order - post weld treatment Tst Visual examination - complete nature of welding - welding sizes - shapes, sizes and tolerances of weld components - welding appearance Destructive tests and non destruct examinations - destructive tests and non destruct examinations - special tests Weld acceptance - tests and inspection results evaluation - weld fixing - estimating again the fixed weld - correction actions Documents - preparing and the content of the necess records (including the subcontracted activitie

1.6

1.7 1.7.1

1.7.2

1.8 1.8.1

1.8.2

1.9

1.10

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3. METODE SIMPLIFICATE DE DETERMINARE A DIMENSIUNILOR CORDOANELOR DE SUDUR I EFORTURILOR CAPABILE ALE ACESTORA 3.1. Metode simplificate de determinare a dimensiunilor cordoanelor de sudur pentru corniere n vederea simplificrii calculelor de dimensionare a cordoanelor de sudur ale cornierelor de table (gusee) am realizat tabele de dimensionare pentru diverse tipuri de oel. Dimensiunile cordoanelor de sudur au fost stabilite astfel nct sudurile s poat transmite o for axial egal cu fora capabil la ntindere a cornierului respectiv. Fora capabil la ntindere a cornie-rului Ncap=AR unde A este aria cornierului, iar R rezistena de calcul a oelului din care este realizat cornierul. Alegerea grosimii cordoanelor de sudur s-a fcut considerndu-se c piesa de tip guseu are grosimea mai mare dect grosimea cornierului (tguseu>1,2tcornier). La dimensionarea lungimii cordoanelor de sudur a fost evitat introducerea n mbinare a unor momente ncovoietoare, astfel momentul forei F1 (preluat de sudura 1) fa de axa cornierului trebuie fie egal cu momentul forei F2 (preluat de sudura 2) fa de axa cornierului. Aria de sudur necesar transmiteri forei capabile la ntindere a cornierului respectiv se calculeaz cu relaiile:
As = N cap R fs

3. SIMPLIFIED METHODS FOR WELDING SEAMS CALCULUS AND THEIR STRAIN

3.1. Simplified Methods for Welding Seam Calculus for Angle Bars To simplify the welding seam calculus for angle bars jointed to metal sheets we achieved dimensioning tables for different types of steel. The welding seam dimensions were etablished so the weld joints be able to support the same strain as the angle bar itself. The elongation force of the angle bar, Ncap=A.R where A is the angle bar area and R the strain resistance of the bar steel. The choice of the welding seam thickness was made considering that the work piece thickness is greater that the angle bar thickness. For dimensioning the welding seams, the introduction of deflection moments was avoided, so the moment of the force F1 (taken over weld 1) related to the axial line of the bar must be equal the moment of the force F2 (taken over weld 2) related to the axial line of the bar. The welding joint area able to transmit the elongation force is calculated as follows:

A s1 = A s

N cap e1 e 2 N cap e 2 e = , As 2 = As 1 = b R fs b b R fs b

n relaii s-au folosit notaii conform figurii alturate. Lungimile efective ale cordoanelor de sudur (ls ef) se obin din lungimile de calcul (ls) la care se adaug dou grosimi ale cordoanelor (a) ls ef = ls+2a. Valorile lungimilor cordoanelor de sudur au fost rotunjite superior la multiplu de 0,5cm. Calculele sunt realizate astfel nct s se obin cele mai mici lungimi ale sudurilor, dar ariile de sudur date n tabele pot folosi i pentru alte situaii (lungimi mai mari i grosimi mai mici, n cadrul aceleiai arii de sudur). Bineneles, dimensiunile sudurilor trebuie s ndeplineasc i criteriile constructive specifice privitoare la limi-tele minim i maxim a lungimilor sudurilor. n cazul solicitrilor de compresiune, valoarea ariei necesare de sudur va fi corectat cu coeficientul de flambaj al barelor (cornierelor).

The used notations are according to the next figure. The effective welding seams (ls ef) are obtained from the calculus length (ls) completed with two seam thikness (a) ls ef = ls+2a. The weld seam length were rounded up to 0,5cm multiple. The calculus is made for obtaining the smallest welding seam length, but their areas may be used in different situations (greater length and smaller thickness, in the same welding area). Naturally, the welding seam dimensions must be in conformity with the dimensional constructive criteria limits of the welding seam lenth.

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Cornier cu aripi egale din otel ol37 (s235) A e forta As Aria cornier capabila tip profil (cmp) (cm) (kN) (cmp) 50x50x5 4,8 1,4 211,2 7,0 50x50x6 5,69 1,45 250,36 8,3 50x50x7 6,56 1,49 288,64 9,6 60x60x5 5,82 1,64 256,08 8,5 60x60x6 6,91 1,69 304,04 10,1 60x60x8 9,03 1,77 397,32 13,2 60x60x10 11,1 1,85 488,4 16,3 70x70x6 8,13 1,93 357,72 11,9 70x70x7 9,4 1,97 413,6 13,8 70x70x8 10,6 2,01 466,4 15,5 70x70x9 11,9 2,05 523,6 17,5 70x70x10 13,1 20,9 576,4 19,2 80x80x6 9,35 2,17 411,4 13,7 80x80x8 12,3 2,26 541,2 18,0 80x80x10 15,1 2,34 664,4 22,1 90x90x8 13,9 2,5 611,6 20,4 90x90x9 15,5 2,54 682 22,7 90x90x11 18,7 2,62 822,8 27,4 100x100x8 15,5 2,74 682 22,7 100x100x10 19,2 2,82 844,8 28,2 100x100x12 22,7 2,9 998,8 33,3 120x120x10 23,2 3,31 1020,8 34,0 120x120x12 27,5 3,4 1210 40,3 130x130x12 30 3,64 1320 44,0 130x130x14 34,7 3,72 1526,8 50,9 130x130x16 39,3 3,8 1729,2 57,6 140x140x12 32,5 3,9 1430 47,7 140x140x14 37,6 3,98 1654,4 55,1 140x140x16 42,2 4,2 1856,8 61,9 150x150x14 40,3 4,21 1773,2 59,1 150x150x16 45,7 4,29 2010,8 67,0 150x150x18 51 4,37 2244 74,8 160x160x12 37,4 4,39 1645,6 54,9 160x160x14 43,3 4,47 1905,2 63,5 160x160x16 49,1 4,55 2160,4 72,0 160x160x18 54,8 4,63 2301,6 76,7

As1

As2

a1

a2

ls,ef 1

ls,ef 2

(cmp) 4,9 5,8 6,7 6,0 7,1 9,3 11,4 8,3 9,7 10,9 12,2 13,4 9,6 12,6 15,5 14,3 15,9 19,2 15,9 19,7 23,3 23,8 28,2 30,8 35,6 40,3 33,4 38,6 43,3 41,4 46,9 52,4 38,4 44,5 50,4 53,7

(cmp) 2,1 2,5 2,9 2,6 3,0 4,0 4,9 3,6 4,1 4,7 5,2 5,8 4,1 5,4 6,6 6,1 6,8 8,2 6,8 8,4 10,0 10,2 12,1 13,2 15,3 17,3 14,3 16,5 18,6 17,7 20,1 22,4 16,5 19,1 21,6 23,0

(mm) 4 5 5 4 5 6 8 5 6 6 7 8 5 6 8 6 7 9 6 8 10 8 10 10 11 13 10 11 13 11 13 15 10 11 13 15

(mm) 3 4 4 3 4 5 7 4 4 5 6 7 4 5 7 5 6 7 5 7 8 7 8 8 9 11 8 9 11 9 11 12 8 9 11 12

(cm) 13,5 13,0 14,5 16,0 15,5 17,0 16,0 18,0 17,5 19,5 19,0 18,5 20,5 22,5 21,0 25,0 24,5 23,5 28,0 26,5 25,5 31,5 30,5 33,0 35,0 34,0 36,0 37,5 36,0 40,0 39,0 38,0 40,5 43,0 41,5 39,0

(cm) 8,0 7,5 8,0 9,5 8,5 9,0 8,5 10,0 11,5 10,5 10,0 10,0 11,5 12,0 11,0 13,5 13,0 13,5 15,0 13,5 14,5 16,0 16,5 17,5 19,0 18,0 19,0 20,5 19,0 21,5 20,5 21,5 21,5 23,0 21,5 22,0

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Cornier cu aripi egale din otel ol37 (s235) prinse cu aripa mare A e forta As As1 aria capabila cornier tip profil (cmp) (cm) (kN) (cmp) (cmp) 60x30x5 4,29 2,15 188,76 6,3 4,4 60x30x6 5,08 2,2 223,52 7,5 5,2 60x40x5 4,79 1,96 210,76 7,0 4,9 60x40x6 5,68 2 249,92 8,3 5,8 60x40x7 6,55 2,04 288,2 9,6 6,7 65x50x6 6,58 2,04 289,52 9,7 6,8 65x50x7 7,6 2,08 334,4 11,1 7,8 65x50x8 8,6 2,11 378,4 12,6 8,8 65x50x9 9,58 2,15 421,52 14,1 9,8 75x50x7 8,31 2,48 365,64 12,2 8,5 80x60x7 9,38 2,51 412,72 13,8 9,6 80x65x6 8,41 2,39 370,04 12,3 8,6 80x65x8 11 2,47 484 16,1 11,3 80x65x10 13,6 2,55 598,4 19,9 14,0 90x60x6 8,69 2,89 382,36 12,7 8,9 90x60x8 11,4 2,97 501,6 16,7 11,7 100x50x8 11,4 3,59 501,6 16,7 11,7 100x50x10 14,1 3,67 620,4 20,7 14,5 100x75x7 11,9 3,06 523,6 17,5 12,2 100x75x9 15,1 3,15 664,4 22,1 15,5 100x75x11 18,2 3,23 800,8 26,7 18,7 120x80x8 15,5 3,83 682 22,7 15,9 120x80x10 19,1 3,92 840,4 28,0 19,6 120x80x12 22,7 4 998,8 33,3 23,3 150x90x10 23,2 5 1020,8 34,0 23,8 150x90x12 27,5 5,08 1210 40,3 28,2 150x100x10 24,2 4,8 1064,8 35,5 24,8 150x100x12 28,7 4,89 1262,8 42,1 29,5 150x100x14 33,2 4,97 1460,8 48,7 34,1

As2

a1

a2

ls,ef 1

ls,ef 2

(cmp) 1,9 2,2 2,1 2,5 2,9 2,9 3,3 3,8 4,2 3,7 4,1 3,7 4,8 6,0 3,8 5,0 5,0 6,2 5,2 6,6 8,0 6,8 8,4 10,0 10,2 12,1 10,6 12,6 14,6

(mm) 4 4 4 5 6 5 6 6 7 6 6 5 6 8 5 6 6 8 6 7 9 6 8 10 8 10 8 10 11

(mm) 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 5 6 4 4 4 5 7 4 5 5 7 4 6 7 5 7 8 7 8 7 8 9

(cm) 12,0 14,0 13,5 13,0 13,0 14,5 14,5 16,0 15,5 15,5 17,5 18,5 20,5 19,5 19,0 21,0 21,0 20,0 22,0 23,5 23,0 28,0 26,5 25,5 31,5 30,5 33,0 31,5 33,5

(cm) 7,0 6,5 8,0 7,0 8,0 8,0 9,5 9,0 8,5 10,0 11,5 10,5 11,0 10,0 10,5 11,0 11,0 10,5 14,0 12,5 13,0 15,0 13,5 14,5 16,0 17,0 17,0 17,5 18,0

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Cornier cu aripi egale din otel Ol37 (s235) prinse cu aripa mic A e forta As As1 As2 aria capabil cornie r a tip profil (cmp) (cm) (kN) (cmp) (cmp) (cmp) 60x30x5 4,29 2,15 188,76 6,3 4,7 1,6 60x30x6 5,08 2,2 223,52 7,5 5,6 1,9 60x40x5 4,79 1,96 210,76 7,0 5,3 1,8 60x40x6 5,68 2 249,92 8,3 6,2 2,1 60x40x7 6,55 2,04 288,2 9,6 7,2 2,4 65x50x6 6,58 2,04 289,52 9,7 7,2 2,4 65x50x7 7,6 2,08 334,4 11,1 8,4 2,8 65x50x8 8,6 2,11 378,4 12,6 9,5 3,2 65x50x9 9,58 2,15 421,52 14,1 10,5 3,5 75x50x7 8,31 2,48 365,64 12,2 9,1 3,0 80x60x7 9,38 2,51 412,72 13,8 10,3 3,4 80x65x6 8,41 2,39 370,04 12,3 9,3 3,1 80x65x8 11 2,47 484 16,1 12,1 4,0 80x65x10 13,6 2,55 598,4 19,9 15,0 5,0 90x60x6 8,69 2,89 382,36 12,7 9,6 3,2 90x60x8 11,4 2,97 501,6 16,7 12,5 4,2 100x50x8 11,4 3,59 501,6 16,7 12,5 4,2 100x50x10 14,1 3,67 620,4 20,7 15,5 5,2 100x75x7 11,9 3,06 523,6 17,5 13,1 4,4 100x75x9 15,1 3,15 664,4 22,1 16,6 5,5 100x75x11 18,2 3,23 800,8 26,7 20,0 6,7 120x80x8 15,5 3,83 682 22,7 17,1 5,7 120x80x10 19,1 3,92 840,4 28,0 21,0 7,0 120x80x12 22,7 4 998,8 33,3 25,0 8,3 150x90x10 23,2 5 1020,8 34,0 25,5 8,5 150x90x12 27,5 5,08 1210 40,3 30,3 10,1 150x100x10 24,2 4,8 1064,8 35,5 26,6 8,9 150x100x12 28,7 4,89 1262,8 42,1 31,6 10,5 150x100x14 33,2 4,97 1460,8 48,7 36,5 12,2

a1

a2

ls,ef 1

ls,ef 2

(mm) 4 5 4 5 6 5 6 6 7 6 6 5 6 8 5 6 6 8 6 7 9 6 8 10 8 10 8 10 11

(mm) 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 5 6 4 4 4 5 7 4 5 5 7 4 6 7 5 7 8 7 8 7 8 9

(cm) 13,0 12,5 14,0 13,5 13,5 15,5 15,5 17,0 16,5 16,5 18,5 19,5 21,5 20,5 20,5 22,5 22,5 21,0 23,0 25,5 24,0 30,0 28,0 27,0 33,5 32,5 35,0 34,0 35,5

(cm) 6,0 5,5 6,5 6,0 7,0 7,0 8,0 7,5 7,5 8,5 9,5 8,5 9,5 8,5 9,0 9,5 9,5 9,0 12,0 10,5 11,0 12,5 11,5 12,0 14,0 14,5 14,5 15,0 15,5

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3.2. Determinarea dimensiunilor cordoanelor de sudur i a eforturilor capabile ale acestora folosind tabele de dimensionare n tabelele urmtoare, prima coloan reprezint grosimea de calcul a sudurii i prima linie prezint lungimea de calcul a cordoanelor de sudur. Notaiile folosite sunt prezentate n figura alturat.

3.2. Welding Seam Dimensions Determination and Their Effective Strains Using Dimensioning Tables In the following table, the first column is the calculated welding seam thickness and the first line is the calculated welding seam length. The notations used are presented in the next figure.

Dimensionarea lungimii de calcul a cordoanelor de sudur Pentru determinarea dimensiunilor cordoanelor de sudur, tabelul se utilizeaz astfel: - Se alege grosimea de calcul a cordoanelor de sudur, as , n funcie de grosimea pieselor ce urmeaz a fi mbinate; - -Se parcurge tabelul pe rndul ce corespunde grosimii alese a cordonului, pn la ntlnirea valorii efortului capabil, Ncap, la care se dimensioneaz mbinarea; - -Se parcurge tabelul pe coloana ce corespunde valorii efortului la care se dimensioneaz mbinarea pn la primul rnd; - -Valoarea nscris n prima linie, astfel obinut, este lungimea de calcul a cordonului de sudur cu grosimea ls cu grosimea as ce poate prelua fora Ncap. Determinarea efortuirilor capabile ale cordoanelor de sudur Pentru determinarea eforturilor capabile ale cordoanelor de sudur, tabelul se utilizeaz astfel: - Se alege grosimea de calcul a cordoanelor de sudur, as , n funcie de grosimea pieselor ce urmeaz a fi mbinate; - Se alege lungimea de calcul a cordoanelor de sudur, ls, n funcie de geometria mbinrii; - Valoarea nscris n csua corespunztoare interseciei ntre rndul ce corespunde grosimii alese a cordonului i coloana ce corespunde lungimii de calcul a cordonului de sudur, este valoarea efortului capabil Ncap ce poate fi preluat de sudur.
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The dimension of the calculated welding seams, using tables. For welding seam dimensioning, the table is used as follows: - Select the calculated welding seams as, according to the thickness of the work pieces to be jointed; - Read the selected thickness corresponding line until reaching the Ncap strain in the joint; - Read the dimensioning strain corresponding column to the first line. - The value obtained in this way, is the calculated welding seam length with ls thickness with as thickness that can take over the force Ncap. The welding seams effective strain determination For determinations of the welding seams effective strains, the table is used as follow: - Select the calculus welding seams, according to the thickness of workpieces to be jointed; - Select the calculus welding seams, according to the joint geometry; - The value corresponding to the cross of the two welding seam thickness is the value of the effective strain N to be supported by the weld.

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3.3. Determinarea dimensiunilor cordoanelor de sudur i a eforturilor capabile ale acestora folosind diagramele de dimensionare Dimensionarea lungimii de calcul a cordoanelor de sudur n diagramele urmatoare, ordonata reprezint grosimea de calcul a sudurii as i abscisa reprezint lungimea de calcul a cordoanelor de sudur ls.Folosirea graficului pentru determinarea lungimii de calcul a cordoanelor de sudur, se face n felul urmtor: -Se alege grosimea de calcul a cordoanelor de sudur, as , n funcie de grosimea pieselor ce urmeaz a fi mbinate; -Se parcurge diagrama din punctul ce corespunde grosimii cordonului as paralel cu abscisa, pn la ntlnirea curbei corespunztoare valorii efortului Ncap la care se dimensioneaz mbinarea; -Din punctul astfel obinut se parcurge diagrama paralel cu ordonata, n jos, pn la ntlnirea abscisei; -Valoarea nscris pe abscis reprezint este lungimea de calcul a cordonului de sudur ls cu grosimea as ce poate prelua fora Ncap. Determinarea eforturilor capabile ale cordoanelor de sudur Folosirea graficului pentru determinarea eforturilor capabile ale sudurilor,se face n felul urmtor: - Se alege grosimea de calcul a cordoanelor de sudur, as , n funcie de grosimea pieselor ce urmeaz a fi mbinate; - Se alege lungimea de calcul a cordoanelor de sudur, ls, n funcie de geometria mbinrii; - Se parcurge diagrama din punctul ce corespun-de grosimii cordonului as paralel cu abscisa i din punctul ce corespunde lungimii de calcul a cordonului de sudur ls paralel cu ordonata. - Valoarea nscris pe curba corespunztoare acestei intersecii reprezint valoarea efortului Ncap al sudurii cu grosimea as i lungimea ls.

3.3. Welding Seam Dimension Determination and Their Effective Strains Using Dimensioning Diagrams The dimension of the calculated welding seams, using diagrams In the following diagrams, the ordinate represents the calculated welding seam thickness and the abscissa is the calculated welding seam length. Use the diagram as follows: - Select the calculated welding seams as, according to the thickness of work pieces to be jointed; - Scan horizontally the diagram from the thickness as corresponding point until reaching the dimensioning force Ns corresponding curve; - From this point scan down vertically, until reaching the abscissa; - The abscissa value pointed here is the calculated welding seam length with ls thickness with as thickness that can take over force Ncap. Effective Strain Determination of WeldingSseams The use of the diagram for the effective strains determination of the welding seams is as follow: - Select the calculus welding seams, according the thickness of the workpieces to be jointed; - Select the calculus welding seams, according to the joint geometry; - Scan the diagram from the correspondent welding seam thickness point to the calculus welding seams - The value corresponding to the cross of the two welding seams thickness is the value of the effective strain N with thickness as and ls length.

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4. VERIFICAREA CALITII MBINRILOR SUDATE Pe tot parcursul procesului de realizare a unei mbinri sudate pot aprea diveri factori care s duc la nerealizarea calitii dorite. Implicaiile nerealizrii calitii dorite la o mbinri sudat pot fi catastrofale iar numrul mbinrilor ntr-o construcie metalic sudat este foarte mare. Controlul calitii produselor metalice reprezint una din fazele eseniale fabricaiei. Importana controlului a crescut pe msura creterii cererii de produse metalice din economie. Dintre factorii ce au determinat intensificarea preocuprilor pentru controlul produselor se menioneaz: a) Evoluia tehnologiilor de vrf din construciile aerospaiale, a echipamentelor pentru centrale electrice nucleare, utilaje chimice speciale etc. b) Intensificarea preocuprilor pentru realizarea unor produse i construcii de dimensiuni mari, n diferite ramuri ale industriei; c) Extinderea domeniului de utilizare a procedeelor de sudare pentru asamblarea nedemontabil a produselor i construciilor din metal. d) Necesitatea asigurrii calitii produselor i obligativitatea garantrii fiabilitii acestora. e) Introducerea unui concept nou, n realizarea mbinrilor sudate, denumit de "fitness for purpose" n care toate etapele de la concepia i pn la realizarea produsului sunt subordonate calitii i eficienei acesteia. Asigurarea calitii produselor este riguros condiionat de aplicarea i promovarea unor metode i tehnologii moderne, eficiente i sigure, de control pe toat durata execuiei i a exploatrii. Dezvoltarea tehnologiilor de sudare a condus de asemenea la dezvoltarea i diversificarea rapid a metodelor defectoscopiei nedistructive. Cererea de produse cu cele mai fine imperfeciuni de materiale a determinat dezvoltarea defectoscopiei. Extinderea controlului vizual de suprafa s-a fcut cu lichide penetrante de contrast, metodele magnetice bazate pe cmpul de dispersie i cureni turbionari etc. Pentru investigaii de adncime s-a dezvoltat metoda ultrasonic modernizndu-se n sensul realizrii imaginii discontinuitilor, prelucrrii automate a rezulta-telor cu ajutorul calculatorului. Defectoscopia reprezint un ansamblu de procedee pentru examinarea materialelor, pieselor i mbinrilor, n scopul punerii n eviden a defectelor acestora (fisuri, goluri, incluziuni etc.) prin metode nedistructive.
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4. WELDED JOINTS QUALITY CHECK

Various elements can occur along the welded joint making process leading to an undesirable quality. The implication of not reaching the desired quality of the welded joints may be catastrophic, and the number of welds of a metallic construction is very big. The quality check of the metallic products is one of the essential manufacturing phases. The quality check importance has grown in proportion with the metalwork request. Between the factors that have determined the intensification of the concern over quality control we can mention: a) Cutting edge spatial technologies evolution, nuclear equipments, special chemical equipments etc.; b) The intensification of the concern to manufacture big metal produces and constructions; c) The extension of the welding procedures in the nondemountable metal produces and construction field ; d) Quality and reliability assurance necessity obligation; e) Introduction of a new concept for weld junctions, named fitness for purpose, where all stages from the conception to achievement are subordinated to quality and efficiency. The produces quality assurance strictly depends on the implementation and promotion of a modern, reliable and efficient control technologies on the whole process of execution and operation.. Weld technologies development has led to a fast diversification of the nondestructive defectoscopy methods. The thinnest imperfections of the materials has led to defectoscopy development. The extension of the surface visual control has been made with penetrating contrast liquids, magnetic methods dispersion field and eddy (Foucault) currents etc. For profundity investigations the discontinuity image display and the computer updating ultrasonic methods have been developed. Defectoscopy is a set of procedures for examining the work pieces materials and joints, to mark their defects (cracks, holes, inclusions) by non destructive methods.
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Prin defectoscopie nedistructiv se urmrete identificarea defectelor, determinarea naturii i dimensiunile acestora: poziia, orientarea, mrimea, i de a emite decizii de acceptare, remediere sau refuz. ncadrarea unui produs, n funcie de defectele coninute, n categoria produselor acceptate, remediabile sau rebuturi se face n funcie de criteriile de admisibilitate sau limitele de admisibilitate prescrise n documentaii de execuie, norme i standarde. Obinerea unor informai exacte despre defecte (natur, mrime, poziie) poate duce la identificarea cauzelor i stabilirea msurilor de corectare a execuiei sau a tehnologiei i poate conduce la soluii optime de remediere. Dezvoltarea defectoscopiei nedistructive este impus i are ca efect eficiena economic. Eficiena economic rezult din: reducerea cheltuielilor materiale, a forei de munc i a timpului afectat controlului; reducerea duratei de folosire a tehnologiilor de execuie; mrirea productivitii i ritmicitii muncii; reducerea rebuturilor puse n oper; prentmpinarea pierderilor n producie i n exploatare datorate folosirii rebuturilor; reducerea cheltuielilor de exploatare i ntreinere; mbuntirea calitii produselor, prin mrirea preciziei controlului; mrirea durabilitii i fiabilitii de funcionare a produselor; creterea gradului de siguran a exploatrii; reducerea coeficienilor de siguran n proiectare; micorarea gradului de risc i evitarea pierderilor provenite din avarii; gsirea operativ a cauzelor deficienelor constatate i aplicarea coreciilor optime.

By nondestructive defectoscopy one observes the defect identification, their nature and sizes: position, orientation, size and the statement decisions for acceptance, rejection or remedy of the piece. According the defect content, the inclusion of a product in the accepted, rejected, remediable categories is made according the admissibility criteria or the admissibility limits, prescribed by the execution documentations, norms and standards. Obtaining the exact information on the defects (nature, size, and position) may lead to cause identification and to set up measures for execution or technology correction and also for adequate remedial solutions. The nondestructive defectoscopy is required and has as an effect economic efficiency. Economic efficiency results from: reduction of expenses, labour and control time; time reduction of execution technologies ; improvement of work rate and productivity; reduction of rubbish; prevention of production and running losses due to rubbish use; reduction of running and maintenance expenses; enhancement of produce quality by control precision development; durability and reliability improvement; safe operating rate improvement; safety design coefficient reduction; reduction of risk degree and failure loss; operational determination of discovered deficiency causes and implementation of adequate corrections.

Din cele artate anterior rezult necesitatea optimizri controlului calitii mbinrilor sudate. n funcie de importana sudurilor se alege un anumit procent din totalul sudurilor ce urmeaz a fi verificate, acest procent putnd atinge 100%. Alegerea sudurilor ce urmeaz a fi verificate se stabilete de ctre proiectant n caietul de sarcini. Proiectantul, cunoscnd starea de eforturi n structur, zonele cu sudur de montaj i peste cap, este cel mai n msur s hotrasc numrul i locul sudurilor a cror calitate va fi verificat, metoda folosit i nivelul de acceptabilitate a discontinuitilor. Acestea se vor indica clar pe plane i vor putea fi suplimentate dup controlul vizual.

From the above-mentioned, the necessity of optimizing the welding quality check results. According the weld significance, a checked weld percentage is selected, this rate being able to reach 100%. The selection of welds to be checked is set by the designer in the contract conditions. The designer, knowing the structure strain status, the mounting welds., is the best person that can decide the number and the place of the welds to be checked, the checking method and the discontinuities acceptability. All this will be clearly indicated on plans and may be supplemented after the visual check.

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Orice verificare a calitii mbinrilor sudate prin ncercri nedistructive parcurge urmtoarea schem logic.

Any non-destructive quality check of the welded joints must follow this diagram:

NONDESTRUCTIVE CHEKS

INSTRUCTIONS

INTERPRETATIONS

FALSE

RELEVANT (discontinuity)

IRRELEVANT

REPARABLE

ADMITTED

REJECTED (defects)

Examinarea aspectului se face: vizual n procent de 100% pentru toate laminatele, piesele i mbinrile sudate, pe toat lungimea i suprafaa lor, nainte de vopsirea elementelor i dup ndeprtarea zgurii, n condiiile prevzute n tabelul 2 (conform C150-99).

Aspect examination is made: visually at a 100% rate for all laminates, work pieces and welded joints, along their entire length and surface, before painting and after slag removing, according to the conditions in table E.2 (in conformity with C150-99).

Tabel 2. Examinri nedistructive pe faz ale mbinrilor sudate Metode i procente [2] Nr. Crt. FAZA VERIFICARE ASPECT C D VERIFICARE DIMENSIUNI GEOMETRICE B C D B UV LP+PM

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

NIVELUL DE B ACCEPTABILITATE La scoaterea laminatelor 100 din depozit Dupa operatiile de debitar 100 (margini libere sau rostur care se sudeaza) Dup operaiile de 100 prelucrare a rosturilor Dup prelucrarea rdcinii 100 Dup fiecare trecere 100 Pe faza final 100

100 100 100 100 100 100 100

100 100 20 100 20 100 100 100 20 100 100 15 15 10 10

15 100

10 100

Dup remedieri

100

25 10 100

10 5 5 100 100 100

100

100

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Table 2 - The phases of the welded joints nondestructive examinations Methods and rates No. PHASE ACCEPTABILIT Y LEVEL At take out from storage After cutting (free edges or to weld holes) After joints processing After root processing After every pass On final phase ASPECT CHECK B C D DIMENSIONS CHECK B C D UV B C D LP+PM B C D

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

100 100 100 100 100 100 100

100 100 100 100 100 100 100

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 20 100 15 100 10 100 25 10 10 5 5 20 25 15 15 10 10

After works

remedial

Not: - Nivelul de acceptibilitate pentru discontinuiti: B nivel sever; C - nivel intermediar; D - nivel moderat. - Pentru mbinri executate la montaj pe antier, procentajele examinate se dubleaz (dimensiuni geometrice, examinarea UV). - Examinarea cu lichide penetrante i particule magnetice se folosete n cazuri speciale, prin prescriere n caietul de sarcini, cu acordul prilor. 4.1. Criterii de alegere a zonelor de examinare Alegerea judicioas a zonelor sudurilor pieselor metalice ce urmeaz a fi supuse examinrii conduce la obinerea unor produse fiabile, mrete eficiena investigaiilor i scade preul. Probabilitatea cumulat de deteriorare depinde n esen de trei factori: factori de fabricaie, factori de exploatare i factori de solicitare general reflectai prin proiectare. Din punctul de vedere al probabilitii de formare i de localizare a imperfeciunilor n procesul de realizare a sudurii, prile din pies (ansamblu), care se recomand a fi luate n consideraie pentru examinare nedistructiv sunt: - mbinrile sudate executate n poziii dificile; - mbinrile sudate de col, n general. Din punctul de vedere al probabilitii de amorsare i de propagare a discontinuitilor n cursul funcionrii, se recomand ca examinarea s se realizeze: - n zonele specifice concentrrii locale de tensiune, determinate de modificri de form; - n zonele colurilor i suprafeelor de mare curbur unde fenomenele de eroziune i de coroziune se manifest mai pregnant; - suprafeele de contact cu medii corozive ale
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Note: - Discontinuities acceptability level: B severe level; C- medium level; D- reduced level. - For the joining executed on site, the checking rate is doubled (dimensions, UV examination); - In some special occasions, penetration liquids examination and magnetic particle examination is used, by stipulation in the contract conditions, with the agreement of the parts. 4.1.Checking Zones Examination Criteria The proper selection of the welded zones to be checked leads to a reliable production, increases the investigation efficiency, and reduces the price. The combined probability of faults depends essentially on three elements: production, running and general stress elements design reflected. From the point of view of weld imperfection and location, the recommended parts (assemblage) to be checked by nondestructive examination, are: - difficult position joined weld; - corner welding, generally. From the point of view of the discontinuities set in and propagation during operation, the following elements are recommended to be examined: - the specific area with local stress concentration, due to shape change; - in the corners and curvatures areas, where the corrosion and erosion phenomena are most frequent; - the surface contacts with corroding media of some materials with strong tendency to stress cracks corrosion .
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unor materiale cu pronunat tendin la coroziune fisurat sub tensiune. Considerarea factorului de solicitare este important mai ales pentru structuri i subansambluri mai complexe. Din acest punct de vedere se recomand ca examinarea s fie concentrat: - n zonele supuse la solicitarea de ntindere ale mbinrile sudate; - la mbinrile sudate meridionale, dirijate pe direcia generatoarei recipientelor sub presiune; - n zona de intersectare (suprapunere) a dou mbinri sudate; - n zona rdcinii custurii i n zone aflate sub dubl influen termic, ca de exemplu la mbinrile sudate ale corpurilor i pieselor placate i/sau ncrcate cu sudur; - la mbinrile sudate de col, n special a celor solicitate la ntindere sau forfecare i ncovoiere. 4.2. Imperfeciuni i defecte la mbinri sudate Imperfeciune reprezint orice abatere de la form, dimensiune, mas, aspect, compactitate, structur, compoziie chimic sau proprieti mecanice i fizice, prescrise n standarde, norme de produs sau documentaie de execuie. Defectul este imperfeciunea ce depete mrimea admisibil pentru clasa de calitate proiectat. Depirea se compar cu valoarea absolut a imperfeciunii admise. Discontinuitatea cuprinde ntreaga sfer a imperfeciunilor, cu excepia abaterilor de form i de dimensiune. Discontinuitile ntlnite obinuit sunt: suflura, golul sau cavitatea, retasuri, incluziuni solide, fisura, crusta i cresttura. Suflura, golul sau cavitatea se pot forma prin degajarea de gaze (azot, hidrogen, sulf, oxigen) prin scderea solubilitii acestor gaze, n masa metalului, n timpul rcirii. Suflurile i cavitile pot avea forme sferoidale sau tubulare (vermiculare), lungimea celor tubulare putnd atinge lungimi de sute de milimetri i fiind orientate pe direcia gradientului de temperatur. Retasurile sunt goluri formate n urma procesului de rcire i solidificare, procese care se desfoar neuniform. Retasurile pot fi nchise sau deschise. Incluziunile solide sunt materiale nemetalice solidificate n masa metalului. Se formeaz n timpul reaciilor de reducere din baia metalic. n mod normal acestea, avnd temperatura de topire mai mic dect a metalului de baz i densitate mai mic, "curg" spre suprafa. n cazul rcirii cu vitez mare, nu au timp s se ridice la suprafa i rmn ncorporate sub form de picturi. Materialele incorporate n metalul de baz pot fi: zgur, oxid de grafit, diverse metale. Incluziunile
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The stress element consideration is important especially for more complexes structures and subassemblies. From this point of view it is recommended that the examination to be concerned with: - the elongation stress areas of the welded joints; - the meridional welded joints, oriented on the pressure tank generatrix; - the intersection area in two weld junctions; - the weld root area and the double thermal affected areas, like the plated and/or welded joints of pieces and frames; - corner welding, especially the ones subjected to elongation or tear and curving.

4.2.Weld Joints Imperfections and Faults Imperfection represents any form, dimension, mass, look, compacticity, chemical composition or physical and mechanic proprieties deviation from standards, norms, or execution documentation prescribed . Fault is the imperfection that exceeds the class admitted size. Exceeding is compared with the admitted imperfection absolute value. Discontinuity covers all the imperfection range, except the form and dimension deviation. The blow, hole or cavity may be formed by gas emission (nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen) due to their soluble ness reduction in the metal mass, during cooling. Blows and cavities may be on spherical or tubular (vermiform) shapes, the tubular blow length may reach hundreds of millimeters and being oriented temperature gradient direction. Cavities are holes due to cooling and solidifying, i.e a non uniform developed process. Cavities may be open or closed. Solid inclusions are nonmetallic materials solidified in the metal mass. These are formed in the reduction reaction duration. Having a lower melting temperature and lower density, they run to the surface. In the case of high speed cooling, these have no time to run to the surface and remain included as drops. The materials included in the base material may be: slag, graphite oxide, various metals. Inclusions may be
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pot fi: izolate, aliniate sau grupate. Fisurile sunt crpturi nguste la suprafaa sau n interiorul metalului. Sunt cel mai periculos defect, datorit comportrii la oboseal. Fisurile se produc n timpul solidificrii (fisur la cald) sau la rcire (fisur la rece), datorit pierderii locale a plasticitii ca urmare a fragilizrii materialului n special prin hidrogenare n cursul rcirii sau a tratamentului termic. Fisura poate aprea i ca urmare a nivelului ridicat de tensiuni interne de ntindere, precum i datorit formrii unor constitueni duri instabili, cu coeficieni de dilatare (contracie) diferii de cei ai materialului de baz. Lipsa de topire i de ptrundere este imperfeciune tipic mbinrii sudate, fiind rezultatul amestecului necorespunztor dintre metalele ce se mbin datorit fuziunii incomplete a uneia din componente. Ca urmare, n locul unei legturi metalice se realizeaz o suprapunere de material separat printr-un spaiu gazos. n unele situaii materialul nici nu ptrunde n ntreg volumul destinat topiturii. Crusta i cresttura sunt imperfeciuni de suprafa formate din excrescene metalice neregulate cu grosimi variabile, cu margini ascuite, paralele la suprafaa piesei i avnd o rugozitate pronunat. Lng asemenea formaiuni piesa prezint denivelri i crestturi. Imperfeciunile din mbinrile sudate se pot mpri n ase grupe (conform Institutului Internaional de Sudur) i sunt prezentate n tabelul 3. [7]
Tabel 3. Imperfeciunile din mbinrile sudate[7] Grupa 100 200 300 400 500 600 categoria
Sufluri DenumiFisuri Cavi- Inclurea Cr- ti ziuni imperfec pturi reta- solide iunii suri Lips de ptrun- Form dere defecLips de tuoas topire Alte imperfeciuni sau defecte

singular, aligned or grouped. Cracks are thin flows at the surface or inside the metal. These are the most dangerous faults, due to tiredness stress. The cracks are formed in the solidification time (cold crack) or in the cooling time (cool crack) due to local plasticity loss as a consequence of metal frailness especially by hydrogenate in the cooling time, or the thermal treatment loss. The crack may also occur due to internal elongation stress level, and to the apparition of hard constituents, with different dilatation (and contraction) coefficients related to the base material. Lack of fusion and penetration is a weld junction typical imperfection, being the inadequate combination of fused metals, due to one component incomplete fusion. Consequently, in the place of a metal joint, a metal superposing separated by a gas layer is made. In some cases, the materials do not penetrate the whole melting space. The crust and the nock are surface imperfections from metallic excrescences with irregular shapes and various thicknesses, with cutting edges, parallel with the work piece surface and with a high rugosity. Near these structures, the work piece presents nocks and unevenness. The weld imperfections may be divided into six groups (according to the International Welding Institute and they are presented in the table 3 [7].
Table 3 The weld imperfections Group 500 categor 100 200 300 400 y
Imperfection name

600

Nr. de 19 tipuri

Clea- Blows Solid Penetra- Imper- Other vages cavi- inclu- tion lack fect imperfeccracks ties sions Melt lack shape tions or faults

12

24

Type 19 number

12

24

4.3. Alegerea metodei de verificare a calitii mbinrilor sudate Prin dezvoltarea infrastructurii de evaluare i certificare a conformitii, se urmrete asigurarea, simplificarea controlului calitii structurilor sudate i reducerea semnificativ a numrului de ncercri cu radiaii penetrante, asigurarea serviciilor de evaluare a conformitii n acord cu prevederile directivelor sau standardelor europene armonizate asociat directivelor, necesare att autoritilor publice n procesul de supraveghere a pieei, ct i productorilor, pentru ndeplinirea obligaiilor lor, derivate din prevederile directivelor.
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4.3.Selection of the Weld Junction Quality Check Method By developing the evaluating and conformity certification infrastructure, it follow the assurance, the weld junction quality check simplification and the significant reduction of the penetration ray test number is intended, as well as the insurance of the evaluating service conformity according ton the European directives and harmonized standards. They are necessary to the public authorities in the market supervision, as s well as to the producers to carry out their tasks, according the
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.1 2010

ncercri pentru verificarea calitii sudurilor sunt necesare productorilor de profile metalice sudate, realizatorilor de construcii metalice, realizatorilor de conducte metalice i recipieni metalici, constructorilor de maini de ridicat, antierelor navale, etc. Ele pot folosi n toate ramurile industriei care se ocup cu producerea, prin sudur, a diverse piese sudate, subansambluri sau produse finite, pentru testarea calitii produselor. ncercrile ce se au n vedere, au fost alese astfel nct rezultatele obinute s ofere informaii privind capacitatea mbinrilor de a realiza refacerea continuitii materialului de baz, dar i cu scopul de a sprijini productorii autohtoni n vederea obinerii de produse i materiale performante, competitive, n concordan cu cerinele pieei europene. n tabelul 4. sunt prezentate tipurile de defecte din suduri i cele mai recomandate metode de detectare a lor.
Tab.4. Tipurile de defecte din suduri [3]
Natura Nr. disconticrt. nuitilor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Sufluri, pori, caviti Incluziuni nemetalice Lipsa de topire Lipsa de ptrundere Fisuri Crestturi Exces de ptrundere Subiere Metoda de control Lichide penetrante X X B FB B B X X Particule Ultrasumagnetice nete B X B X FB B X X B

directive statements. The weld junction quality check tests are necessary to the metal profile producers, metal tanks and frame producers, raising machine producers, naval yards etc. These tests may be used for the quality check in all the industrial branches dealing with the various weld work pieces, weld finished pieces and subassembly production. The considered tests were selected so that the obtained results offer information about the junction ability to restore the base material continuity, but also to support the local producers to obtain performing and competitive manufactured products, according to the European market requests. In the Table 4 the most frequent weld faults are presented as well as the most recommended detection tests.
Table 4 Weld faults
No. 1 2 Checking method DiscontiPenetratin Magnetic Ultrasonic nuity origin g liquids particles inspection Blows, pores, X A A cavities Nonmetallic X X A inclusions Lack of melt A A VA Lack of VA X A penetration Cracks A VA A Cuts A A A Penetration X X A excess Thinning X X NA

B FB B B B B S 8 5 6 7 3 4

FB foarte bun; B bun; S slab; X inutilizabil

VA very adequate; A adequate; NA non adequate, X unutilizable

BIBLIOGRAFIE REFERENCES

[1]. [2]. [3]. [4]. [5]. [6]. [7]. [8]. [9]. [10]. [11]. [12]. [13].

SR EN 719 Coordonarea sudrii sarcini i responsabilitii Normativ privind calitatea mbinrilor sudate din oel ale construciilor civile, industriale i agricole indicativ C150-99. T. BOHIEL, E. NSTASE - Defectoscopie ultrasonic fizic i tehnic - Editura Tehnic BUCURESTI, 1980 M. VLDESCU Metode uzuale de control nedistructiv - Editura Militar 1967 S.T. NAZAROV - Defectoscopie nedistructiv a metalelor - Editura Tehnic -BUCURESTI, 1964 V.I. SAFTA - ncercrile tehnologice i de rezisten ale mbinrilor sudate sau lipite - Editura Sudura - Timioara, 2006 V.I. SAFTA, R.MOCANU Noiuni de defectologie - ISIM -Timioara, 1988 EN 12062 - Controlul nedistructiv al asamblrii prin sudare. Reguli generale. ISO 5817 - Sudare. mbinri sudate prin topire din oel, nichel, titan i aliajele lor (exclusiv sudare cu fascicol d electroni). Niveluri de calitate pentru imperfeciuni. Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control - Volume 17 - Edition Metals Handbook. Structural welding code-steel - American National Standard 2006 Editat de American Welding Society (AWS). WI 00121102 "Welding - Design and nondestructive examination of welds " Association Franaise de Normalisation (AFRON) aprobat de CEN/TC 121/SC 5 Non-destructive examination. STAS 10108/0-78 - Calculul elementelor din otel

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