Sunteți pe pagina 1din 19

NORTH MAHARASHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON

SYLLABUS FOR

F.Y.B.Sc. BOTANY
(FACULTY OF SCIENCE)

With Effect From June 2012

NORTH MAHARASHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON


SYLLABUS FOR

F.Y.B.Sc. BOTANY
THEORY COURSES

SEMESTER- I
PAPER-I : LOWER CRYPTOGAMS AND CELL BIOLOGY
BOT:111. Lower Cryptogams BOT:112. Cell Biology

SEMESTER - II
PAPER-II : HIGHER CRYPTOGAMS AND ECONOMIC BOTANY
BOT:121. Higher Cryptogams BOT:122. Economic Botany

PRACTICAL COURSE
BOT:103 - BASED ON BOT.111, BOT.112 & BOT.121, BOT.122

SEMESTER-I F.Y.B.Sc. BOTANY


PAPER-I BOT.111. LOWER CRYPTOGAMS

(Total Lectures : 48) AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1)To study the diversity among Lower Cryptogams. 2)To study the life cycle pattern of Lower Cryptogams. 3)To study structure, morphology and systematics of Lower Cryptogams. 4)To study the useful and harmful activities of Lower Cryptogams.

Chapter-1 Lower Cryptogams 2L 1.1 Introduction, Definition and Diversity of Lower Cryptogams. Chapter-2 Algae
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Introduction and Distinguishing features. Habitat and Habit. Structure of Thallus (Range) Reproduction.

4L

Chapter-3 Classification of Algae


3.1

6L

Classification of Algae, according to G.M.Smith (1955) up to classes with reasons, giving at least two examples from each class.

Chapter-4 Study of Life Cycle of Nostoc 5L


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Systematic position with reasons. Occurrence. Structure of Thallus, Ultrastructure of a cell. Reproduction.

Chapter-5 Study of Life Cycle of Sargassum


5.1 Systematic position with reasons.
3

5L

5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

Occurrence. External and Internal morphology of thallus. Reproduction: Vegetative and Sexual (Development of sex organs not expected). Alternation of generations.

Chapter-6 Economic Importance of Algae


6.1 Role of algae in1. Agriculture, 2. Industries, 3. Food,4. Medicine, 5. Water pollution.

3L

Chapter-7 Fungi
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Introduction and Distinguishing features. Occurrence. Structure of thallus. Mode of nutrition. Reproduction.

4L

Chapter-8 Classification of Fungi


8.1

4L

Classification of Fungi, according to G.M.Smith (1955) up to classes, with reasons, giving at least two examples from each class.

Chapter-9 Study of Life Cycle of Rhizopus


9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Systematic position with reasons. Occurrence. Structure of thallus Reproduction: Asexual and Sexual.

5L

Chapter-10 Study of Life Cycle of Agaricus


10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4

6L

Systematic position with reasons. Occurrence. External and Internal morphology of Sporophore / Basidiocarp. Reproduction.

Chapter-11 Economic Importance of Fungi


11.1 Role of fungi in - 1. Agriculture, 2. Industries, 3. Food, 4. Medicine, 5. Deterioration.

4L

Reference Books:

Alexopoulus, C.J., Mims, C.W.and M.Blackwel (1996). Introductory Mycology. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Dube, H.C. (1990). An Introduction to Fungi. Vikas Pub. House Ltd. New Delhi, India. Gangulee, H.C. and Kar, A.K. (2001). College Botany Vol. II. Books and Allied Press Ltd. Kolkata, India. Kumar,H.D. (1988). Introductory Phycology.Affiliated East-West PressLtd.New Delhi, India. Kumar,H.D.and Singh, H.N. (1976). A Text Book of Algae. Affiliated EastWest Press Ltd. New Delhi, India. Mehrotra, R.S. and R.S.Aneja (1998) An Introduction to Mycology. New Age Intermediate Press, Delhi, India. Mehrotra,R.S. and Aneja, C.R. (1990). An Introduction To Mycology, Wiley Eastern Ltd. New Delhi, India. Pandey,B.P. (1994). A Text Book of Botany-Algae. S.Chand and Co. Ltd. New Delhi, India. Pandey,B.P. (1994). A Text Book of Botany-Fungi. S.Chand and Co. Ltd. New Delhi, India. Pandey,S.N. and Trivedi, P.S. (1997). A Text Book of Botany Vol. I ,Vikas Publishing House (P.) Ltd. New Delhi, India. Pandey,S.N., Trivedi, P.S. and Mishra, S.P. (1995). A Text Book of Alage, Vikas Publishing House (P.) Ltd. New Delhi, India. Sharma,O.P. (1989). A Text Book of Fungi. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, India. Sharma,O.P. (1990). A Text Book of Algae. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, India. Sharma,P.D. (1998). The Fungi. Rastogi Publications, Meerut, India. Smith,G.M. (1995). Cryptogamic Botany. Vol. I (Algae and Fungi).McGrawHill Book Company, New York and London, USA & UK. Vashistha, B.R. (1995). Botany for Degree Students-Algae. S. Chand and Company (P.) Ltd. New Delhi. Vashistha, B.R. (1995). Botany for Degree Students-Fungi (9thedn.) S. Chand and Company (P.)Ltd. New Delhi, India. Webster, J. (1985) Introduction to Fungi. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

SEMESTER-I

F.Y.B.Sc. BOTANY
PAPER-II

BOT.112. CELL BIOLOGY


(Total Lectures: 48) AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
1)To study structure of plant cell. 2) To study different cell organelles 3)To study the structure and morphology of Chromosomes. 4) To understand the concept of cell division.

Chapter-1 Introduction
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Definition of cell and cell Biology. Structure of typical plant cell. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.-Comparison. Cell theory : Schleiden and Schwann.

4L

Chapter-2. Cell Wall


2.1 2.2 2.3

5L

Structure of cell wall : Middle lamella, Primary and secondary cell wall. Chemical composition of cell wall. Functions of cell wall.

Chapter-3. Cell Membrane


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Definition. Chemical composition of cell membrane. Membrane Model - Fluid mosaic Model [ Singer and Nicolson]. Functions of cell membrane.

5L

Chapter-4. Cell Organelles


4.1 4.2

22 L

Introduction Study of cell organelles w. r. t. discovery, shape, size, number per cell, Ultrastructure and functions of: 1. Nucleus, 2. Endoplasmic reticulum, 3. Golgi complex, 4. Lysosomes, 5. Ribosomes,
7

6. Mitochondria, 7. Plastids.

Chapter- 5. Chromosomes
5.1 5.2 General account of chromosomes w. r. t. shape size and number. Types of chromosomes based on position of centromere.

4L

Chapter-6. Cell Cycle and Cell Division


6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Introduction. Phases of cell cycle. Types of cell division.-Amitosis, Mitosis and Meiosis. Significance of mitosis and meiosis.

8L

Reference Books:
De Robertis and De Robertis (1995) Cell And Molecular Biology (8th Ed. B.I.Waverty Pvt.Ltd.), New Delhi, India. Gunning, B.E.S. and M.W.Steer (1996) Plant Cell Biology: Structure And Function. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, Massachussets, USA. Gupta, P.K. (1996) Cytology, Genetics. Evolution And Plant Breeding. Rastogi Publication, Meerut, India. Gupta, P.K. (1999) A Text-book of Cell And Molecular Biology. Rastogi Publications, Meerut, India. Harris, N. and K.J.Oparka (1994) Plant Cell Biology: A Practical Approach. IRL Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Sharma Arun and Archana Sharma (1972) Chromosome Techniques: Theory and Practice. University Park Press, Butterworths, London, UK. Sharma, A.K. and A.Sharma (1999) Plant Chromosomes: Analysis, Manipulation and Engineering. Harwood Academic Publishers, Australia. Sharma, Archana (1994) The Chromosomes. Oxford & IBH Publication Co., New Delhi, India. Verma, P.S. and V.K. Agrawal (1992) Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology And Ecology. S.Chand & Co. New Delhi, India. Wolfe, S.L. (1993) Molecular And Cell Biology. Wardsworth Publishing Co., California, USA.

SEMESTER-II F.Y.B.Sc. (Botany)

PAPER-I BOT. 121. HIGHER CRYPTOGAMS


(TOTAL LECTURES : 48) AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1)To study the diversity among Higher Cryptogams. 2)To study the life cycle patterns of Higher Cryptogams. 3)To study the morphology and systematics of Higher Cryptogams. 4)To introduce the basic knowledge of plant world. 5)To know the useful activities of Higher Cryptogams.

Chapter-1 Higher Cryptogams


1.1.

2L 3L

Introduction, Definition and Diversity of Higher Cryptogams.

Chapter-2. Bryophytes
2.1 2.2 2.3 Introduction & Distinguishing features of the group. Occurrence ,Size and form. Alternation of generations.

Chapter-3 Classification of Bryophytes 2L 3.1 Classification of Bryophytes, with reasons, according to


G.M.Smith(1955) up to classes, giving at least two examples from each class.

Chapter-4 Study of Life Cycle of Riccia


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Systematic position with reasons. Occurrence. External and internal structure of gametophyte. Reproduction : Vegetative and sexual. Fertilization. Structure of mature sporophyte Alternation of generations.

7L

Chapter-5 Study of Life Cycle of Funaria


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Systematic position with reasons. Occurrence . External and internal structure of gametophyte. Reproduction :Vegetative and sexual. Fertilization.
9

7L

5.6 5.7

Structure of mature sporophyte. Alternation of generations.

Chaper-6

Economic Importance of Bryophytes

2L 3L

Chapter-7 Pteridophytes
7.1 7.2 7.3 Introduction & Distinguishing features of the group. Occurrence ,Size and form. Alternation of generations.

Chapter-8 Classification of Pteridophytes


8.1

3L

Classification of pteridophytes, with reasons, according to G.M.Smith (1955) up to classes, giving at least two examples from each class..

Chapter-9 Study 8L
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10

of

Life

Cycle

of

Selaginella

Systematic position with reasons. Occurrence. External and internal structure of sporophyte Reproduction: Position and structure of strobilus, sporangia (Megasporangium and Microsporangium) & spores. Germination of spores. Structure of male and female gametophytes. (Development of sex organs not expected) Fertilization. Structure of mature embryo. Alternation of generations. Heterospory and its significance.

Chapter-10 Study 7L
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7

of

Life

Cycle

of

Equisetum

Systematic position with reasons. Occurrence . External and internal structure of sporophyte. Reproduction: Position and structure of strobilus, sporangium and spores.. Structure of sporangium and spores. Germination of spores. Structure of mature gametophyte.
10

10.8

Position and structure of sex organs. (Development of sex organs not expected) 10.9 Fertilization 10.10 Alternation of generations.

Chapter-11 Economic Importance of Pteridophytes Reference Books:


2L

A.V.S.S. Sambamurthy- A Text Book of Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Paleobotany. IK International Pvt. Ltd. Delhi, India. Gangulee, H.C. and Kar, A.K. (2001). College Botany Vol. II. Books and Allied Press Ltd. Kolkata, India. Pandey B.P. Simplified Course in Botany. B.Sc.-I, S. Chand and Co.Ltd. New Delhi, India. Pandey, S.N. and Trivedi, P.S. (1997). A Text Book of Botany Vol. II, Vikas Publishing House (P.) Ltd. New Delhi, India. Parihar, N.S.(1984). An Introduction To Embryophyta Vol. I Bryophyta. Central Book Depot, Allahabad, India. Parihar,N.S. (1996). Biology and Morphology of Pteridophytes. Central Book Depot, Allahabad, India. Puri, P. (1980) Bryophytes. Atma Ram & Sons, Delhi, India. Rashid, A. (1996). An Introduction To Bryophyta. Vikas Publishing House Ltd. New Delhi, India. Rashid,A. (1996). An Introduction To Pteridophyta. Vikas Publishing House Ltd. New Delhi, India. Saxena, A.K. and Sarbhai, R.M.(1992). A Text Book of Botany Vol.II Embryophyta. Ratan Prakashan Mandir, Agra, India. Smith,G.M. (1995). Cryptogamic Botany. Vol. II (Bryophytes and Pteridophytes). McGraw-Hill BookCompany, New York and London, USA & UK. Sporne, K.R. (1995). The Morphology of Pteridophyta. The Hutchinson University Library, London, U.K. Vashistha, P.C. (1984). Pteridophytes. S. Chand and company (P.) Ltd. New Delhi. Vashistha,B.R. (1997). Botany For Degree Students-Bryophyta. S. Chand and Company (P.) Ltd.NewDelhi.

11

12

SEMESTER-II F.Y.B.Sc. BOTANY


PAPER-II BOT.122. ECONOMIC BOTANY Total: 48 Lectures AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
1) 2) 3) 4) To know the role of plants in welfare of mankind. To make aware the students about Green Revolution in India. To know economic importance of plants and plant products. To study chemical contents of economically useful plant parts and their utilities including by-products. 5) To make aware the students about importance of bio-energy and bio-fuels.

Chapter-1 Economic Botany


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

4L

Introduction, Definition and Scope. Plant as a natural resources for food, fodder, fibers, medicines, oils, industrial plant products like paper, rubber etc. Vavilovs concept of origin of cultivated plants . Green revolution in India.

Chapter-2 Food, Fodder and Oils


2.1 2.2 2.3

12L

2.4

Cereals: Importance and sources, Chemical contents of grains and uses of Wheat and Rice. Pulses: Importance and sources, Chemical contents and uses of Pigeon Pea and Chick pea. Oils: Definition, Characteristics and Importance. Types of oils a) Fixed oils: Sources and process of extraction of Groundnut oil. b)Volatile oil : Sources and process of extraction of Eucalyptus oil. Fodder : Importance and sources. Chemical contents and uses of Lucerne (Alfalfa) and Berseem. (Egyptian clover).

Chapter-3 Food Adjuncts


3.1 3.2 Definition, Importance and Examples.

6L

Spices and Condiments Importance and sources. Active principles and uses of Black pepper and Turmeric.
13

3.3

Beverages - Importance and sources. Active principles and uses of Tea and Coffee.

Chapter-4 Medicinal Plants


4.1 4.2

6L

Introduction, Importance and Sources. Botanical source, Characteristics, active principles, plant parts used and uses of Hirda, Beheda, Amala, Aloe and Neem.

Chapter-5 Significance of Plants in Industries : 14L


5.1 5.2 5.3. 5.4 5.5 5.6 Introduction, Industrial revolution by crops like Cotton, Sugarcane and Rubber Fibers: Occurrence, Structure and Classification of fibers. Important, sources and uses of Cotton and Coir. Sugars: Importance and sources, chemistry, characteristics and uses of Cane sugar. Byproducts of sugar industry. Rubber: Sources, properties and uses, Manufacture of Para rubber (Hevea) Paper: Sources of raw materials, kinds and uses of paper and paper products, Manufacture of paper. Banana: Sources, chemical contents, uses and byproducts.

Chapter-6 Bio-energy
6.1 6.2

6L

6.3

Introduction, Definition and Scope. Concept, Importance and Sources of bio-energy, Process of production of Bio-Fuels from Petrocrops like Jatropha and Karanj. Process Biogas generation.

Reference Books:

Aiyyer,A. K. Y. N. (1954). Field Crops in India. The Banglore Printing & Publishing Company Banglore, India. Bendre, Ashok and Ashok Kumar (1998 1999). Economic Botany For Under Graduate Students. Rastogi Publications, Meerut, India. Bhatia, V.K., Srivastava, G.S., Garg, V.K., Gupta, Y.K., Rawat, S.S. Petro crops for Fuel Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun, India. Hill,A. F. (1952).Economic Botany ( 2ndEdit.) Pvt. Ltd. New York. McGraw Hill Co., USA. Kochhar,S.L. (1998). Economic Botany In The Tropics ( 2 nd Edit.) Macmillan India Ltd, Delhi, Mumbai, India.
14

Pandey,S.N. and Archana (1996).Economic Botany. Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, India. Parthasarathy, S. V. (1972). Sugar Cane In India, K.C. P. Ltd., Madras. Pal, B. P. (1996) Wheat Monograph. Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India. Patil D.A. and D.A.Dhale (2012) Spices And Condiments: Origin, History & Applications. Daya Publishing House, Delhi, India. Patil D.A.(2008) Useful Plants : Origin, History & Civilization. Navyug Publishers & Distributors, Delhi, India. Patil D.A.(2010) Medicinal Plants : History, Culture and Usage. Mangalam Publishers & Distributors, Delhi, India. Patil M.V. and D.A.Patil (2012) Herbal Materia Medica of Maharashtra. Daya Publishing House, Delhi, India. Pimentel, D. and C.W. Hall. (Eds.) (1989) Food And Natural Resources. Academic Press. London, New York, USA, UK. Pruthi, J. S. (1976). Spices and Condiments, National Book Trust, Delhi, India. Sambamurthy, A.V.S.S. and N.S.Subramanyam (1989). A Textbook of Economic Botany, Wiley Eastern Ltd. New Delhi, India. Satish Kumar Mehta (Ed.). Biofuel Plants: Cultivation Practices and Seed Bank. Sharma, O.P. (1996) Hills Economic Botany (Late Dr.A.F.Hill, Adapted by O.P.Sharma) Tata McGraw Hill Co. Ltd. New Delhi, India. Sharma,B. K. and P. B. Awasthi(1984). Economic Botany , Prakash Book Depot, Bareilley, India. Simpson, B.B. and M.ConnerOgorzaly (1986) Economic Botany: Plants In Our World. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA. Singh, R. N., Vyas, D. K., Srivastava, N. S. L. and Narra, M. 2008. SPRERI experience on holistic approach to utilize all parts of Jatropha curcas fruit for energy. Renewable Energy 33(8):1868-1873. Tewari, D. N. 2007. Jatropha and biodiesel. (Ist Ed.) Ocean Books Ltd., New Delhi, India.

15

BOT:103 PRACTICAL
(Based on Theory Papers BOT: 111, BOT:112, BOT:121 ,BOT:122 ) (Total Practicals 24) AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) To study the morphological diversity among Lower and Higher cryptogams. To observe vegetative and reproductive parts of various life forms of Lower and Higher cryptogams. To detect chemical constituents in various plant products. To study botanical source/s, characteristics and utilities of plants plant products. To know the industrial applications of various plants and plant products. . To visit plant-based industries to prepare a scientific report of visit.

Practicals Based on BOT-111 (Lower Cryptogams)


Practical-1 Study of Algal Biodiversity w.r.t. Systematic position, Morphology of following : i) Spirogyra, ii) Chara ,iii) Voucheria, iv) Diatoms, v) Rivularia, vi) Sargassum,vii) Batrachospermum, viii)Dictyota. Practical-2. Study of Life Cycle of Nostoc i) Mounting of thallus (Vegetative) ii) Study of various parts (P.S.) Practical-3 Study of Life Cycle of Sargassum i) External morphology ii) T.S.of Axis iii) V.S.of male conceptacle (P.S) iv) V.S.of female conceptacle (P.S.) Practical-4. Study of Fungal Biodiversity w.r.t. Systematic position and Morphology of following: i) Stemonitis, ii) Achlya, iii) Morchella, iv) Uncinula, v) Peziza, vi) Albugo, vii) Ustilago ,viii) Cercospora. Practical-5.
16

Study of Life Cycle of Rhizopus

i) Mounting of sporangia. ii) Zygospore (P.S.). Practical-6. Study of Life Cycle of Agaricus i) External morphology of Basidiocarp. ii) V.S. of basidiocarp, Structure of gills and basidia.

Practicals Based on BOT-112 (Cell Biology)


Practical-7. Study of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (with the help of P.S./ Photomicrograph, etc.) Practical- Study of following plant cell organelles with the help of photomicrographs8&9 i)Nucleus, ii)Endoplasmic reticulum, iii)Mitochondria, iv)Ribosomes, v)Chloroplasts, vi)Chromoplasts, vii)Golgicomplex and viii)Lysosomes. Practical-10Study of morphology of chromosomes P.S./photographs/ photomicrographs, with the of

Practical-11 Study of mitosis from root tips of any suitable plant material Practical-12 Study of meiosis with the help of P.S.

Practicals Based on BOT-121 (Higher Cryptogams)


Practical-13 Study of diversity of Bryophytes w.r.t. Systematic position and Morphology of: i) Marchantia,ii) Anthoceros,iii) Sphagnum. Practical-14. Study of Life Cycle of Riccia i) External morphology. ii) V.S. of thallus. iii) V.S. of thallus showing antheridia (P.S.). iv) V.S. of thallus showing archegonia (P.S.). v) V.S. of thallus showing sporophyte (P.S.). Practical-15: i) External morphology. ii) T.S. of axis.
17

Study of Life Cycle of Funaria

iii) V.S. of antheridia (P.S.). iv) V.S. of archegonia (P.S.). vi) V.S. of capsule (P.S.). Practical-16 Study of diversity of Pteridophytes w.r.t. Systematic position and Morhology of: i) Psilotum, ii) Lycopodium,iii) Adiantum. Practical-17. Study of Life Cycle of Selaginella i) External morphology. ii) T.S. of stem. iii) Mounting of spores. iv) V.S.of strobilus (P.S.). Practical-18Study of Life Cycle of Equisetum i)External morphology. ii) T.S. of stem. iii)Mounting of spores. iv)V.S./T.S.of strobilus(P.S.)

Practicals Based on BOT-122 (Economic Botany)


Practical-19 To Identify, describe botanical source and chemical composition of: i)Wheat & Rice, ii)Chick pea & Pegion pea. Practical-20 To Identify, describe botanical source and chemical composition of: i) Groundnut seeds & Eucalyptus, , ii) Lucerne(Alfalfa) & Berseem (Trifolium) Practical-21 To Identify, describe botanical source and chemical composition of: i) Black pepper & Turmeric, ii) Tea & Coffee. Practical-22. To study following medicinal plants w.r.t. botanical source, active principles, plant part used and uses of: i)Hirda, ii)Beheda, iii)Amla, iv)Aloe & v)Neem.

18

Practical-23 Identify, give botanical source, plant part used and uses of: i) Cotton, ii)Coir, iii) Sugar, iv)Banana. Practical-24 Identify, give botanical source, plant part used and uses of: i)Jatropha ii)Karanj, iii)Rubber. IMPORTANT NOTE: i) ii) P.S. : Permanent slide Visit to any one of the following plant-based industries is compulsory : Starch/ Sugar/Cotton mill/Dal mill and Biogas plant, etc. Scientific report of the visit should be submitted at the time of practical examination. Duly certified journal is compulsory at the time of practical examination.

iii) iv)

19