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Present Sources of Energy

And The Need For Alternative Energy Sources


(1ST Sem 4 year B.S)




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This is to certify that ASHWIN.S.P of 1


Sem B.S has

satisfactorily completed the project report on the topic: Present Sources of Energy and the Need for Alternative Energy Sources In chemistry during the academic year 2011-2012


Teacher In-Charge H.O.D

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I would like to express my gratitude towards members of KLE Societies S.Nijalingappa College and The Principal, Mr. Karki for their kind co-operation and encouragement which help me in completion of this project. I am highly indebted to my HOD Mr. K. A. Bulbule and my lecturer Mrs. Sushma Bhat for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the


project & also for their support in completing the project. My thanks and appreciations also go to my parents and friends in developing the project and people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities.

INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF CHEMISTRY 2011 The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry [IUPAC] and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO] have jointly declared the year 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry [IYC]. It is time to celebrate the achievements of chemistry and its contributions to the well-being of humankind with the statement Chemistry-our life , our future. ** The IYC will:


i. Increase the public appreciation of chemistry in meeting world needs chemistry, appropriately called the Central Science,* *is both a deeply philosophical inquiry and an applied scientific endeavor. The science of chemistry is fundamental to humanitys understanding of the world and the cosmos. Molecular transformations are central to the production of foodstuffs, medicines, fuels, metals, i.e.; virtually all manufactured and extracted products. Through IYC the chemical community will publicly celebrate the art and science of chemistry, its key contributions to developing human knowledge, advancing economic progress and fostering a wholesome environment. ii. Increase interest of young people in chemistry- In order to ensure that first-rate minds continue to be attracted to and challenged by the central science, IYC will underscore the role of chemistry in managing natural resources sustainably. In partnership with the United Nations , the IYC will make a strong educational contribution towards the goals of the UN Decade of Education for sustainable Development, particularly in the key action areas of health* *and environment. National and International activities carried out during the International Year will emphasize the importance of chemistry in helping to sustain the natural resources base for life. iii. Generate enthusiasm for the creative future of chemistryHumanitys understanding of the world is grounded in our


developing knowledge of chemistry. Creative opportunities to discover exciting new principles and applications continually appear as our understanding of molecular properties grows. Chemists will inevitably *International Year of Chemistry2011 *to play a key role in overcoming the challenges facing todays world, for example in helping to address the United Nations Millennium goals. A deep understanding of the science is essential for developing molecular medicine, for creating new materials and sustainable sources of food and energy. iv. Celebrate the 100th anniversary of Madam Curie Nobel Prize and the 100th anniversary of the founding of the International Association of Chemical Societies. The year 2011 marks the one-hundredth anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Marie Sklodowska Curie*,* recognizing her discovery of the elements radium and polonium. Dr. Curies achievements continue to inspire students, especially women, to pursue careers in chemistry. The year 2011 also marks the one-hundredth anniversary of the founding in Paris of the International Association of Chemical Societies to address the need for international co-operation among chemists and


international standardization of nomenclature, atomic weights, physical contacts, and scientific communication.


This is a work on the use of conventional non renewable energy sources i.e., fossil fuels and the need to shift towards a more sustainable renewable source. The key players in the conventionally used fossil fuels are coal and petroleum. Well explore the generation of electricity from coal fired power plants and the hazardous effects caused by the use of this source. This is followed by the alternative energy sources available which can be used to generate clean energy efficiently without affecting the environment. Later on we go into the details of gasoline usage and a more better and sustainable alternative for it, biofuels.


Present Sources of Energy And The Need For Alternative Energy Sources
This is a presentation about the conventional non renewable sources of energy that we use in our everyday life and the need to shift towards a more sustainable renewable energy source. Here the key players in traditionally used non renewable sources are petroleum and coal. Of course petroleum to fuel our vehicles and coal which is the most abundant fossil fuel is widely used in the generation electricity throughout the world and also in industries. Now well go through how coal is used in the generation of electricity.



What Is Coal? Coal is a combustible carbonaceous rock that contains large amounts of carbon. Coal is also a fossil fuela substance that contains the remains of plants and animals and that can be burned to release energy. Coal contains elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; has various amounts of minerals; and is itself considered to be a mineral of organic origin. What Are the Four Major Categories of Coal? Coal is classified into four categories, or ranks, anthracite, bituminous, sub bituminous, and lignitebased on fixed-carbon content and heating value measured in British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb). Anthracite, a hard black coal that burns with little flame and smoke, has the highest fixed-carbon content, 8698 percent, and a heating value of 13,50015,600 Btu/lb (equivalent to 14.216.5 million joules/lb [1 Btu=1,054.6 joules, the energy emitted by a burning wooden match]). It provides fuel for commercial and home heating, for electrical generation, and for the iron, steel, and other industries. Bituminous (low, medium, and high volatile ) coal, a soft coal that produces smoke and ash when burned, has a 4686 percent fixed-carbon content and a heating value of 11,00015,000 Btu/lb (11.615.8 million joules/lb). It is the most abundant economically recoverable coal globally and the main fuel burned in steam turbine-powered electric generating plants. Some bituminous coals, known as metallurgical or coking coals, have properties



that make them suitable for conversion to coke used in steelmaking. Sub bituminous coal has 4660 percent fixed-carbon content and a heating value of 8,30013,000 Btu/lb (8.813.7 million joules/lb). The fourth class, lignite, a soft brownish-black coal, also has a 46 60 percent fixed-carbon content, but the lowest heating value, 5,5008,300 Btu/lb (5.88.8 million joules/lb). Electrical generation is the main use of both classes. In addition to producing heat and generating electricity, coal is an important source of raw materials for manufacturing. Its destructive distillation (carbonization) produces hydrocarbon gases and coal tar, from which chemists have synthesized drugs, dyes, plastics, solvents, and numerous other organic chemicals.




Electricity from Coal: Electricity from coal is the electric power made from the energy stored in coal. Carbon, made from ancient plant material, gives coal most of its energy. This energy is released when coal is burned. i.e., C + O2 CO2;
H= -393.5 KJ/mol



Coal-Fired Power Station:

A coal-fired power station produces electricity, usually for public consumption, by burning coal to boil water, producing steam which drives a steam turbine which turns an electrical generator.

How Do Coal-Fired Plants Work?

Generation of electricity in a coal-fired steam station is similar to a nuclear station. The difference is the source of heat. The burning of coal replaces fissioning, or splitting , of uranium atoms as the source of heat. The heat turns water to steam in steam generators. The steam is then used to drive turbine generators.

Firebox before the coal is burned, it is pulverized to the fineness of talcum powder. It is then mixed with hot air and blown into the firebox of the boiler. Burning in suspension, the coal-air



mixture provides the most complete combustion and maximum heat possible.

Boiler highly purified water, pumped through pipes inside the boiler, is turned into steam by the heat. At temperatures of up to 538 degrees Celsius and under pressures up to 1,588 kilograms per square inch, the steam is piped to the turbine. Turbine|generator the enormous pressure of the steam pushing against a series of giant turbine blades turns the turbine shaft. The turbine shaft is connected to the shaft of the generator, where magnets spin within wire coils to produce electricity. Condenser after doing its work in the turbine, the steam is drawn into a condenser, a large chamber in the basement of the power plant. The condenser is an important part of a steam-electric unit, whether nuclear or coal-fired. This device condenses the steam leaving the turbines back into water so that it can be used over and over again in the plant. This essential cooling process requires large quantities of water; thus, most steam-electric stations are located on lakes or rivers. Condenser cooling water millions of gallons of cool lake water are pumped through a network of tubes that runs through the condenser. The water in the tubes cools the steam and converts it back into water. After the steam is condensed, it is pumped to the boiler again to repeat the cycle.




What Are The Pros Of Coal Power?



1. Coal is extremely plentiful, which makes it an economic fuel for industrial nations all over the world. It also means that coal reserves are unlikely to run out any time soon. (according to the world coal association, it has been estimated that there are over 847 billion tonnes of proven coal reserves worldwide. This means that there is enough coal to last us around 118 years at current rates of production.) 2. Unlike natural gas and oil, coal is a fairly inexpensive fuel to burn in power stations, which means lower energy bills for consumers. 3. Coal is also a versatile fuel and can be converted into a gas or liquid form for cleaner burning, which means less environmental pollution. 4. Coal is capable of generating huge amounts of electricity very cheaply. 5. Coal fired power stations can be built anywhere as long as there are transport links to supply the necessary fuel. 6. Coal is easily transported all over the world.

What Are The Cons Of Coal Power?

1. Whilst the supply of coal is currently perceived to be plentiful, ultimately it is still a non-renewable fuel source and at some point in the future, accessible coal reserves will start to run out and we will be forced to mine less accessible and more dangerous reserves of coal. As such, environmentalists are keen that we move away from fossil fuels such as coal and start concentrating more on renewable sources of energy such as wind and solar power. 2. One of the biggest disadvantages of coal power is that like other fossil fuels, there is serious air pollution concerns 16


related to coal power. Coal fired power stations are responsible for the release of huge amounts of sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which in turn is a major contributory factor in global warming and acid rain contamination. 3. The emissions from coal fired power stations have also been linked to various long term health problems in those living and working in the vicinity of the power stations. Coal power emissions are thought to be responsible for higher levels of respiratory diseases such as asthma and, more seriously, lung cancer. 4. Coal mining is a dangerous activity and millions of people are killed or affected by ill health every year in the pursuit of coal. 5. Coal mining destroys the local habitat.



NEED FOR ALTERNATE ENERGY SOURCES Everyday the world produces carbon dioxide that is released to the earths atmosphere and which will still be there in one hundred years time. This increased content of carbon dioxide increases the warmth of our planet and is the main cause of the so called global warming effect. One answer to global warming is to replace and retrofit current technologies with alternatives that have comparable or better performance, but do not emit carbon dioxide. We call this alternate energy. By 2050, one-third of the world's energy will need to come from solar, wind, and other renewable resources. Who says? British Petroleum and Royal Dutch Shell, two of the world's largest oil companies. Climate change, population growth, and fossil fuel depletion mean that renewables will need to play a bigger role in the future than they do today. Alternative energy refers to energy sources that have no undesired consequences such for example fossil fuels or nuclear energy. Alternative energy sources are renewable and are thought to be "free" energy sources. They all have lower carbon emissions, compared to conventional energy sources. These include, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, wave & tidal energy sources.



How Does Wind Energy Work?
The diagram below shows a simplified version how a wind turbine converts the kinetic energy in the wind to electrical energy around the country.

1. The wind blows on the blades and makes them turn. 2. The blades turns a shaft inside the nacelle (the box at the top of the turbine) 19


3. The shaft goes into a gearbox which increases the rotation speed enough for...The generator, which uses magnetic fields to convert the rotational energy into electrical energy. These are similar to those found in normal power stations. 4. The power output goes to a transformer, which converts the electricity coming out of the generator at around 700 volts (v) to the right voltage for distribution system, typically 33,000 v. 5. The national grid transmits the power around the country. Instruments to measure the wind speed and direction are fitted on top of the nacelle. When the wind changes direction motors turn the nacelle, and the blades along with it, around to face the wind. The nacelle is also fitted with brakes, so that the turbine can be switched off in very high winds, like during storms. This prevents the turbine being damaged. All this information is recorded by computers and transmitted to a control centre, which means that people don't have to visit the turbine very often, just occasionally for a mechanical check. This is often done by local firms.

Why Wind Energy?

India is surpassed only by Germany as one of the world's fastest growing markets for wind energy. By the mid 1990s, the subcontinent was installing more wind generating capacity than North America, Denmark, Britain, and the Netherlands. The ten machines near Okha in the province of Gujarat were some of the first wind turbines installed in India. These 15-meter Vestas wind turbines overlook the Arabian Sea. As of 2006, there was an installed capacity of 4,430 MW; however, ten times that potential, or 46,092 MW, exists



The wind power potential on a national level, base data collected from 10 states considering only 1% of land availability, is around 46,092 MW.



Comparison between Fossil Fuels and Wind

Wind Availability Usable as it exists Fossil Fuel Have to be procured and made usable through laborious and environmentally damaging processes Limited in reserves, expected to be completely exhausted in the coming 60 years Has to be transported from its source site for further processing, exposing the environment to pollution from accidents Used in producing electricity, releasing green house gasses Over-reliance on oil as a resource has undermined Indias energy security, e.g. OPEC crises of 1973, Gulf War of 1991 and the Iraq War of 2003.

Limitation on availability Transportati on

Inexhaustible resource

Used where it is available or transported where needed

Environment Zero emission al effect of use Geo-political Reduces our reliance implications on oil, safeguarding national security. Allows for self sufficiency. There is no adverse effect on global environment. The whole system is pollution free and environment friendly.





Geothermal energy is energy that is gained thanks to an intensive heat that continuously flows outward from deep within the Earth. This energy is mainly generated from Earth's core since temperature of Earth's center is reaching temperatures above 6000 degrees Celsius which is even hot enough to melt a rock. Lesser part of this energy is gained from the crust, the planet's outer layer by decay of radioactive elements which are present in all the rocks. In nature this energy is usually shown in the form of the volcanoes, hot water springs and geysers, which are all areas on which heat is concentrated near the earths surface.

How A Geothermal Power Plant Works?

Most power plantswhether fueled by coal, gas, nuclear power, or geothermal energyhave one feature in common: they convert heat to electricity. Heat from the Earth, or geothermal Geo (Earth) + thermal (heat) energy is accessed by drilling water or steam wells in a process similar to drilling for oil. Geothermal power plants have much in common with traditional power-generating stations. They use many of the same components, including turbines, generators, transformers, and other standard power generating equipment. While there are three types of geothermal power plants, below is shown the working of a standard plant.



Wells Are Drilled A production well is drilled into a known geothermal reservoir. Typically, an injection well is also drilled to return used geothermal fluids to the geothermal reservoir. Hot geothermal fluids flow through pipes to a power plant for use in generating electricity. Steam Turns the Turbine Hot, pressurized geothermal fluid, or a secondary working fluid, is allowed to expand rapidly and provide rotational or mechanical energy to turn the turbine blades on a shaft. The Turbine Drives the Electric Generator Rotational energy from the turning turbine shaft is used directly to spin magnets inside a large coil and create electrical current. The turbine and generator are the primary pieces of equipment used to convert geothermal energy to electrical energy. Transmission - Power Lines Deliver Electricity Electrical current from the generator is sent to a step-up transformer outside the power plant. Voltage is increased in the



transformer and electrical current is transmitted over power lines to homes, buildings, and businesses.

Why Geothermal Energy ?

A report by D. Chandrasekharam, Professor and Head Department of Earth Sciences,IIT-Bombay says that, Indian geothermal provinces have the capacity to produce 10,600 MW of power- a figure which is five time greater than the combined power being produced from non-conventional energy sources such as wind, solar and biomass. But yet geothermal power projects have not seen the sunlight due the availability of 192 billion tones of recoverable coal reserves. With escalating environmental problems with coal based projects, Indian has to depend on clean, cheap, rural based and eco-friendly geothermal power in future.

The various assessment studies and surveys undertaken so far have resulted in the identification of 340 hot springs across the country. The discovery of vast geothermal reservoirs at Puga in the north-west of the Himalayas and Tatapani fields on the Narmada in central India also augurs well for the country.





Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaics convert light into electric current using the photoelectric effect

Power From The Sun

A solar thermal power plant in principle works no differently than a conventional steam power plant. However, there is one important difference. No harm is done to the environment by burning coal, oil, natural gas or by splitting uranium to produce steam. It is produced solely by the energy that comes from the sun. In order to achieve the high temperatures required, solar radiation must be concentrated. Parabolic trough collectors represent the most advanced technology for use in doing this. These troughs are more than 1,300 feet (400 meters) in length and are made up of parabolically shaped mirror segments. The troughs track the sun over the course of the day and focus the resulting radiation along the caustic line of the mirrors onto specially coated, evacuated absorber tube receivers.

Electricity Can Be Stored

Solar radiation heats up the thermo-oil that flows through the receiver to a temperature of 400 Celsius so that a downstream heat exchanger is able to generate steam. As in a conventional



power plant, the steam is pressurized inside the turbine that drives the generator. Heat storage systems can allow electricity output even if the sun isnt shining.


Lesser pollution. How? According to a report,(From a scientific research group,, the average intensity of solar radiation received on India is 200 MW/km2. Even if 10% of this area is used, the solar energy that can be made available to us would be 8 million MW (equivalent to 5909 mtoe: million tons of oil equivalent) per year this leads to less pollution by that amount. It can help India to reduce its import bills significantly if solar energy can be used for domestic purposes as well (Ex: cooking, heating, drying etc).



3. Thermal solar energy can be used for water heating, cooking, drying, water distillation, refrigeration, and space heating and cooling. One of the most crucial of these uses is cooking, as half the total energy consumed in developing countries is used in the domestic cooking sector according to Nahar.

Finally, its a step towards achieving of Vision 20-20 target of becoming energy independent

Talk of solar energy usage in India, what have we been successful at?



Did we know that there are 500,000 plus solar cookers in use today? Did we know that we have the worlds largest solar cooking venue in Tirupati ? This place provides food for more than 15,000 people each day using these solar panels Did we know that India is the only country which has a separate ministry for alternative energy? Ministry Of New & Renewable Energy(MNRE)



Pros And Cons Of These Alternative Sources:

Geothermal Power Pros
1) Environment Friendly and Global Warming Mitigation Effects 2) No Fuel Cost Geothermal Energy does not require any fuel like most other Conventional sources of energy 3) Predictable,24/7 Power -Geothermal Energy is very predictable and producers power 24/7 unlike Other forms of Renewable Energy like Solar and Wind Energy are intermittent in nature. The electricity supply is much more uniform and reliable. 4) High Load Factor - The Load Factor for Solar and Wind Energy ranges from 15-40% which is quite low compared to Fossil Fuel Energy. Geothermal Energy has a load factor of almost 80% which is equal to that of Thermal Power and comparable to Nuclear Power. 5) No Pollution and Deaths- Geothermal Energy does not lead to pollution disasters like the BP Oil Spill and Coal Deaths which are directly related to Dirty Energy Production.

Geothermal Power Cons

1) Long Gestation Time Leading to Cost Overruns The Gestation Time for permitting, financing, drilling etc. can easily take 5-7 years to develop a geothermal energy field. Compare this to 6 months for a small wind farm or 3 months for a Solar PV plant 2) Slow Technology Improvement Geothermal Energy has the potential to generate 100s of gigawatts of electricity through new techniques like EGS. However the technology improvement has been slow with setbacks.



3) Financing is the biggest problem in developing projects particularly became of political corruption and the overpowered oil industry.

Solar Power Pros

1) Environment Friendly Solar Energy does not lead to any major mining activity, does not lead to significant GHG emissions, does not lead to health hazards like thermal power 2)No Fuel and Low Maintenance - Solar Energy does not require any fuel. This is a huge advantage in these days when gas and oil disruptions are causing energy insecurity. 3) Almost Unlimited Potential Solar Energy Potential is almost infinite compared to the limited and peak features of Conventional fossil fuels. Solar Energy has comparable potential as that of Nuclear Energy 4) Size Advantages - Solar Installations can be installed in various sizes with as little as 200 Watts and as big as a 1000 MW. This is not possible for other energy forms which require a minimum large size such as Coal, Nuclear etc.

Solar Power Cons

1) Intermittent Nature - One of the biggest problems of Solar Power ( Solar PV that is ) is that it is intermittent in nature as it generates energy only when the sun shines. This problem can be solved with energy storage however this leads to additional costs. 2) High Capital Investment A Solar Plant can cost around $3.5-6 million to be spent in building 1 Megawatt. This is said to be too high, however this again is one of the silliest arguments. The costs of energy can only be compared by Levelized Cost of Energy 32


(LCOE) which calculates the cost of energy over the lifetime calculating the capex, fuel costs, maintenance, security and insurance costs. While it is true that the initial capital investment for solar power is quite high, the lifecycle cost of solar energy is not that high. 3) Cannot be Built Anywhere - This disadvantage of Solar Energy is present with other forms of Energy as well. Some forms of Energy are just better suited to some places. For example you cant build a nuclear plant on top of an earthquake prone region, you cant build a wind farm near the Dead Sea etc

Wind Energy Pros

1) No Pollution and Global Warming Effects 2) Low Costs The Costs of Wind Energy has reached the level of Gas powered Energy and can be generated at extremely low rates of around 7-8c/KwH in favorable conditions 3) No Fuel Cost - This is a huge advantage over other fossil fuels whose costs are increasing at a drastic rate every year .Electricity prices are increasingly rapidly in most parts of the world much faster than general inflation. Price shocks due to high fuel costs are a big risk with fossil fuel energy these days

Wind Energy Cons

1) Low Persistent Noise - There have been a large number of complaints about the persistent level of low level noise from the whirring of the blades of a wind turbine 2) Land usage - Wind Turbines can sometimes use large amounts of land if not properly planned and built. The construction of roads to access the wind farms etc also takes up some land. 33


3) Intermittent Nature - Wind Power is intermittent in nature as it generates energy only when the wind blows. This problem can be solved with energy storage however this leads to additional costs. Now, well move on to the Production and usage of Gasoline (Petrol).



What Is Gasoline?
Gasoline is known as an aliphatic hydrocarbon. In other words, gasoline is made up of molecules composed of nothing but hydrogen and carbon arranged in chains. Gasoline molecules have from seven to 11 carbons in each chain. Here are some common configurations:

Typical Molecules Found In Gasoline

When you burn gasoline under ideal conditions, with plenty of oxygen, you get carbon dioxide (from the carbon atoms in gasoline), water (from the hydrogen atoms) and lots of heat. A gallon(3.7 liters) of gasoline contains about 132x106 joules of energy, which is equivalent to 125,000 BTU or 36,650 watthours: If it were possible for human beings to digest gasoline, a gallon would contain about 31,000 food calories -- the energy in a gallon of gasoline is equivalent to the energy in about 110 McDonalds hamburgers!

Where does gasoline come from?

Gasoline is made from crude oil. The crude oil pumped out of the ground is a black liquid called petroleum. This liquid contains hydrocarbons, and the carbon atoms in crude oil link together in chains of different lengths.



It turns out that hydrocarbon molecules of different lengths have different properties and behaviors. For example, a chain with just one carbon atom in it (CH4) is the lightest chain, known as methane. Methane is a gas so light that it floats like helium. As the chains get longer, they get heavier. The first four chains -- CH4 (methane), C2H6 (ethane), C3H8 (propane) and C4H10 (butane) -- are all gases, and they boil at -161, -88, -46 and -1 degrees F, respectively (-107, -67, -43 and -18 degrees C). The chains up through C18H32 or so are all liquids at room temperature, and the chains above C19 are all solids at room temperature. The different chain lengths have progressively higher boiling points, so they can be separated out by distillation. This is what happens in an oil refinery -- crude oil is heated and the different chains are pulled out by their vaporization temperatures. The chains in the C5, C6 and C7 range are all very light, easily vaporized, clear liquids called naphthas. They are used as solvents -- dry cleaning fluids can be made from these liquids, as well as solvents and other quick-drying products. The chains from C7H16 through C11H24 are blended together and used for gasoline. All of them vaporize at temperatures below the boiling point of water. That's why if you spill gasoline on the ground it evaporates very quickly. Next is kerosene, in the C12 to C15 range, followed by diesel fuel and heavier fuel oils (like heating oil for houses). Next come the lubricating oils. These oils no longer vaporize in any way at normal temperatures. For example, engine oil can run all day at 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) without vaporizing at all. Oils go from very light (like 3-in-1 oil) through various thicknesses of motor oil through very thick gear oils and then semi-solid greases. Vasoline falls in there as well.



Chains above the C20 range from solids, starting with paraffin wax, then tar and finally asphaltic bitumen, which used to make asphalt roads. All of these different substances come from crude oil. The only difference is the length of the carbon chains!



Problems With Gasoline:

Gasoline has two problems when burned in car engines. The first problem has to do with smog and ozone in big cities. The second problem has to do with carbon and greenhouse gases. When cars burn gasoline, they would ideally burn it perfectly and create nothing but carbon dioxide and water in their exhaust. Unfortunately, the internal combustion engine is not perfect. In the process of burning the gasoline, it also produces: Carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas Nitrogen oxides, the main source of urban smog Unburned hydrocarbons, the main source of urban ozone Catalytic converters eliminate much of this pollution, but they aren't perfect either. Air pollution from cars and power plants is a real problem in big cities. Carbon is also a problem. When it burns, it turns into lots of carbon dioxide gas. Gasoline is mostly carbon by weight, so a gallon of gas might release 5 to 6 pounds (2.5 kg) of carbon into the atmosphere. The U.S. is releasing roughly 2 billion pounds of carbon into the atmosphere each day. If it were solid carbon, it would be extremely noticeable -- it would be like throwing a 2.3kg bag of sugar out the window of your car for every gallon of gas burned. But because the 2.3kg of carbon comes out as an invisible gas (carbon dioxide), most of us are oblivious to it. The carbon dioxide coming out of every car's tailpipe is a greenhouse gas. The ultimate effects are unknown, but it is a strong possibility that, eventually, there will be dramatic climate changes that affect everyone on the planet (for example, sea levels may rise, flooding or destroying coastal cities). For this reason, there are growing efforts to replace gasoline with Bio-fuels.





Biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation (The reduction of carbon dioxide to organic compounds by living organisms. Ex: Photosynthesis) Biofuels have been around as long as cars have. But discoveries of huge petroleum deposits kept gasoline and diesel cheap for decades, and biofuels were largely forgotten. However, with the recent rise in oil prices, along with growing concern about global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions, biofuels have been regaining popularity. Biofuel includes biodiesel and bioethanol or just ethanol. Biodiesel and ethanol are both clean, grow-your-own fuels which can be produced on-site in local villages or communities from locally available, renewable resources, for the most phase using equipment that a local workshop can make and maintain. This can make biofuels an economical option to fossil fuels and can aid in strengthening local communities both socially and economically.


Here's how vegetable oil, a little catalyst, and some methanol react to form biodiesel: Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides (a type of ester). A triglyceride is an alcohol (glycerin) that is bonded to three fatty acids (long hydrocarbon chains).



In order to make biodiesel, the triglycerides must be broken, a few ingredients added, and new esters formed. The process that turns the triglycerides into glycerin and fatty-acid-methyl-esters (biodiesel) is called trans- esterification.

Applying Transesterification to Biodiesel Production: When making biodiesel, to begin the process of transesterification, the solution containing the dissolved catalyst and methanol is added to the warmed oil (the oil is warmed in order to speed up the process of trans- esterification). At this point the triglycerides are being broken, and the methanol is bonding, producing biodiesel and crude glycerin. The process takes between 4 and 8 hours when the solution is at 122F (50C).



The traditional way of producing Bioethanol would be to mix sugar, water and yeast bacteria, which are then allowed to ferment in warm environment. Gradually the mixture becomes a liquid that has an approximate of fifteen percent alcohol. As and how the alcohol percentage increases, the yeast consumes itself in the process and dies out eventually which stops the process altogether. Then the liquid mash that is created is distilled and purified to get approximately ninety-nine point five percent Bioethanol. Thus this process of fermentation is a series of chemical reactions wherein the simple sugars are converted into ethanol. Yeast or bacteria, which feed on the sugars, cause the reaction and thus fermentation occurs. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced as and how the yeast consumes the sugar. There is a simple formula that represents the process of simplified fermentation reaction, which is as follows: C6H12O6 (glucose) > 2 CH3CH2OH (ethanol)+ 2 CO2 (carbon dioxide)



The aim of all biofuels is to be carbon neutral. They have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when compared to conventional transport fuels but whether they live up to this depends on the way they are produced and managed. In reality, biofuels are not carbon neutral simply because it requires energy to grow the crops and convert them into fuel. The amount of fuel used during this production (to power machinery, to transport crops, etc) does have a large impact on the overall savings achieved by biofuels. However, biofuels could potentially still prove to be substantially more environmentally friendly than their fossil alternatives.



There is an urgent need for transition from petroleum-based energy systems to one based on renewable resources to decrease dependency on depleting reserves of fossil fuels and to mitigate climate change. In addition, renewable energy has the potential to create many employment opportunities at all levels, especially in rural areas. An emphasis on presenting the real picture of massive renewable energy potential, it would be possible to attract foreign investments to herald a Green Energy Revolution in India. The real challenge faced by India is to expand its renewable energy sector without slowing down the progress of its economic sectors. India will need to maximize the utilization of renewable energy in order to insulate it from any future supply disruption and price shocks of fossil fuels. For this, Indias energy security policy must undertake a dominant shift towards diversification of renewable energy options. However, the key question is: how much further can India go in expanding renewable energy sectors given the geographical limitations, dependence on external sources for technology and financial constraints of renewable energy? CALORIFIC VALUES OF VARIOUS FUELS The calorific value of a fuel is the quantity of heat produced by its combustion - at constant pressure and under "normal" conditions (i.e. to 0oC and under a pressure of 1,013 mbar). The combustion process generates water vapor and certain techniques may be used to recover the quantity of heat contained in this water vapor by condensing it.



The Higher Calorific Value (or Gross Calorific Value - GCV) suppose that the water of combustion is entirely condensed and that the heat contained in the water vapor is recovered. The Lower Calorific Value (or Net Calorific Value - NCV) suppose that the products of combustion contains the water vapor and that the heat in the water vapor is not recovered.






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