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AFFECTIVE RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF FIELD HOCKEY PLAYERS BEFORE AND AFTER PENALTY CORNER.

Abstract
* BABU.P., **Dr.A.S.NAGESWARAN and ***Dr.A.Gopinath

The purpose of the study is to affective response analysis of field hockey players before and after penalty corner. Participants were female 12 physical education students of hockey team were selected at random and the average age of the subject ranged from 17 to 23 years with mean and SD of 18.58 1.97. All the subjects of the study but to create a competitive atmosphere among the players, they were divided into three equal groups of 4 each for the purpose of the study. The test item selected for this study was: (a) The Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD ACL) [Thayer, R.E. 1989], (b) Penalty corner in hockey. The data pertaining to the selected variable was collected with administration of As ACL questionnaire prior to the penalty corner, every time when the subject goes to take a penalty corner and after they complete their task. Each player was made to attempt the same for twenty repetitions. To motivate the players for every successful conversion. Data was examined by means of descriptive statistics, mean, SD and comparative statistics of pairedt test and one way analysis of variance. The subordinate purpose of the study is to assess the difference among the sub groups. (i) There is no difference in the pre test score to post test score in the affective responses of hockey payer while performing penalty corner. The affective responses include energy [A1] (General Activation), Tiredness [A2] (Deactivation-Sleep), tension [B1] (High Activation), and Calmness [B2] (General Deactivation). (ii) There is no difference among various sub groups in their scores of affective responses while performing penalty corner. Thus the hypothesis is stated is here by not accepted. The present study, call for further investigation of the affective response analysis incorporating a larger and more heterogeneous sample. Keyword: Affect: The Affective Domain. With such a definition, affect is not a synonym for emotion; an emotion is an affective state, but not all affective states are emotions.
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*Research Scholar, H.H.The Rajahs College, Pudukkottai, Tamil Nadu, INDIA


**Associate Professor, H.H.The Rajahs College, Pudukkottai, Tamil Nadu, INDIA ***Deputy Director of Physical Education. Anna University, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, INDIA INTRODUCTION
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Sports are the concrete, visible and effectual facet of physical education. Competitive sports are the quintessence of physical education-the observable, measurable and objective outcome of the combined effect of skill, nutrition, training and fitness. Performance, achievement and excellence are the explicit objective of competitive sports. Competitive sport is the domain of the highly talented and trained who aims to fight for prize, privileges, prestige and praise. Though receptive in essence, sport and competition is like body without soul (Kamesh, 2000). The concept of Field hockey has entirely changes as the whole scenario of the game with the change of in playing surface, ball playing equipment, the skill the tactics physical requirement which plays a crucial role in the determining performance of the player where the game has fastest than past. Similarly, developing fitness both physiology & psychologically for the field hockey players are more complicated than it appears on the surface. Unlike other team sports field hockey is a sport in which factor such as skill, tactics, strength, aerobic/anaerobic fitness, environment & mental state influence performance.

Sport psychology involves preparing the mind of an athlete, just as thoroughly as one prepares the body. Sport psychology is an emerging field in the worlds of psychology and athletics. For many elite-level, professional, recreational and even youth athletes, successful performances, cannot simply be reduced to superior physical performance. Instead, performance in any endeavor is largely contingent upon mental preparation and psychological strength. Just as you prepared for competition by practicing physical skill as well as increasing your strength and endurance you must also prepare yourself mentally. This includes setting clear, short-term goals, entertaining positive thoughts, suing self affirmations, imagery, negative thought stopping, etc (Sandy Dupcak,2000). The Statement of the Problem The purpose of the present study is to analyze affective response analysis of field hockey players before and after penalty corner. The factors include in this are energy [A1] (General Activation) Tiredness [A2] (Deactivation-sleep), Tension [B1] (High Activation), and Calmness [B2] (General Deactivation).The subordinate purpose of the study is to assess the difference among the sub groups.
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Selection of subjects For the purpose of this study, 12 physical education students of LNCPE, Trivandrum hockey team were selected at random and the average age of the subject ranged form 17 to 23 years with mean and SD of 18.58 1.97. Though the data was to see the pre and post penalty corner affective response for all the subjects of the study but to create a competitive atmosphere among the players, they were divided into three equal groups of 4 each for the purpose of the study. Selection of variables The test item selected for this study were The Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List ( AD ACL) [Thayer,R.E. 1989] Penalty corner in hockey.

Administration of test and collection of data After selecting the subjects for the experiment they were asked to attend few instruction classes and within the help of the e guide the subjects were oriented regarding the ADACL form. Further they were explained regarding the objective of the study. Actually it is aimed to see the effective response after two situations which is very crucial in the game of Hockey that is Penalty corner. But to create a competitive like situation the subjects were further divided to three groups of equal caliber with the help from their coach. Penalty corner competition was arranged for the purpose of the investigation. The data pertaining to the selected variable was collected with administration of As ACL questionnaire prior to the penalty corner, every time when the subject goes to take a penalty corner and after they complete their task. Each player was made to attempt the same for twenty repetitions. To motivate the players for every successful conversion; of penalty corner point was awarded to the group but that was not taken into consideration in the present investigation. Statistical Techniques used for analysis of data

The data pertaining to the affective response analysis of field hockey players before and after penalty corner was examined by means of descriptive statistics, mean, SD and comparative statistics of pairedt test and one way analysis of variance. Analysis of the Data and Results of the Study This chapter contains statistical treated data results, findings discussions with regard to affective response analysis of field hockey players before and after penalty corner. Analysis of the Data The statistical analysis of data pertaining to affective response analysis of field hockey players before and after penalty corner were put to statistical computerization for analysis, which have been presented in this chapter. The descriptive statistics have been used to summarize the data so that they are easy to understand. The paired-samplet test was used to compare the individuals on whom the experiment was conducted as the dependent variable was measured twice. Further one-way analysis of variance was computed where the post test scores in any variable was found significant to find out the differences among the sub scores of that variable and that was for the sub groups in their affective response. The affective response factors included in this are Energy [A1] (General Activation), Tiredness [A2] (Deactivation-Sleep), Tension [B1] (High Activation), and Calmness [B2] (General Deactivation).

Discussions of Findings To start with, the discussion findings the total group the scores of both that is before taking the penalty corner and after it were put to statistical analysis, which has been discussed below. Table 1: enclosed
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Figure 1.Mean Score of Pre and Post Affective Response in Penalty Corner

Value

Further the paired sample correlation in the same is presented in Table 2. Table 2: enclosed The obtained paired correlations describe the linear relationship between two variables while controlling for the effects of one or more additional variables. Correlations are measures of linear association. Further the comparison made is presented in table3. Table 3: Enclosed From table 3 it is seen that there is no significant difference in the affective response of the Hockey players prior to and after the penalty corner. Thus the hypothesis is hereby rejected. The present finding is quite noteworthy in the context of the present experiment. The result is quite thought provoking. This result may be owing to the fact that the sample selected was well acquainted with each other and though the simulated competitive situation was created, that might not have been that affective to create such affective response required.

Further the mean scores along with the pie chart of both pre and post condition is presented to have a view of the affective response percentage. Table 4: enclosed Pie Charts allow us to specify how data are represented in the chart. The present data for test scores is presented in a pie chart in figure 2. Figure 2. Pie Chart of Pre-Affective Response in Penalty Corner in Hockey

Table 5; Enclosed: Pie Charts allow us to specify how data are represented in the chart. The present data for post test scores is presented in a pie chart in figure3. Figure 3. Pie Chart of Post-Affective Response in Penalty corner in Hockey

Finally one way analysis of variance was adopted to analyze if there exist any difference among various groups for the present investigation which is presented below. The descriptive statistics of all groups on their score of affective response is presented in table 6. The table is self explanatory and gives a clear cut view of various groups on their score before and after taking the penalty corner. Table 6 Enclosed: Test of homogeneity of variance is presented in table 7 Table 7: Enclosed Table 7 represents the equality of group variances at different conditions of penalty corner in the variable; of affective response. One-way analysis of variance was used as a measure to find out the differences in the factors of affective response in different experimental conditions. The discussion related to F ratio of various groups in their scores of affective response is presented below for discussion. Table 8: Enclosed
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From the obtained F value of the above, it is seen that among various groups there is no difference in their affective response scores of both pre and post situation of penalty corner in Hockey and this may be owing to the reason that the team has more homogeneity than heterogeneity aspect in them. Summary of Discussion of Findings Originally, it was widely believed that the connection between performance and arousal was an uncomplicated Inverted-U (Yerkes and Dodson, 1908), i.e. best performance could be achieved with an average level of arousal. Moreover, if the level of arousal were too low (or too high) poor performance would ensue. Also the level of arousal fluctuates. The purpose of the present study is to analyze affective response analysis of field hockey players before and after penalty corner. The subordinate purpose of the study is to assess the difference among the sub groups. The data pertaining to the affective response analysis of field hockey players before and after penalty corner was examined by means of descriptive statistics, mean, SD and comparative statistics of paired t test and one way analysis of variance. CONCLUSIONS With in the limitation and delimitation of the present study and based on results the following conclusions are drawn: 1. There is no difference in the pre test score to post test score in the affective responses of hockey payer while performing penalty corner. The affective responses include energy [A1] (General Activation), Tiredness [A2] (Deactivation-Sleep), tension [B1] (High Activation), and Calmness [B2] (General Deactivation). 2. There is no difference among various sub groups in their scores of affective responses while performing penalty corner. Thus the hypothesis is stated is hereby not accepted. The present study, call for further investigation of the affective response analysis incorporating a larger and more heterogeneous sample.
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Recommendations In light of the conclusions drawn the following recommendation are made: 1. Similar study can be conducted on various sports and games. 2. Same study could be conducted on male players. 3. Study for longer duration can be taken up. 4. It can be conducted on subjects with varied age and various levels and can compare. 5. Study can be taken in actual competitive situation to know the effect on playing ability. 6. Study can be taken up for comparing the players of various sport groups and training effect. Keyword: Affect: The Affective Domain. Affect is not a synonym for emotion; an emotion is an affective state, but not all affective states are emotions. REFERENCE
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APPENDIX
Table 1. Descriptive Scores of Pre and Post Affective Response of Players during Penalty Corner in Hockey Paired Samples statistics Mean 2.9692 3.0100 2.0867 2.0717 2.2408 2.2392 2.2708 2.2850 N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 Std. deviation .3285 .3366 .2551 .3186 .5068 .5276 .4511 .4975 std.Error Mean 9.482E-02 9.716E-02 7.365E-02 9.196E-02 .1463 .1523 .1302 .1436

pair pair pair pair

Pre Energy(A1) 1 Post energy(A1) Pre Tiredness(A2) 1 Post Tiredness(A2) Pre Tension(B1) 1 Post Tension(B1) Pre Calmness(B2) 1 Post Calmness (B2)

The paired value of affective response of the players along with the standard deviation and standard error of mean is presented in the above table 1 which is self explanatory. The graphical representation of the score is illustrated in figure1.
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Table 2 .Paired Samples Correlations of Pre and Post Affective Response Paired Samples Correlations Correlation sig. pair Pre Energy(A1)& .956 .000 1 Post energy(A1) pair Pre Tiredness(A2)& .953 .000 2 Post Tiredness(A2) pair Pre Tension(B1)& .976 .000 3 Post Tension(B1) pair Pre Calmness(B2)& 4 Post Calmness (B2) .929 .000

The obtained paired correlations describe the linear relationship between two variables while controlling for the effects of one or more additional variables. Correlations are measures of linear association.

Table3. Comparison of Affective Response Scores for Hockey Players Prior to and After Penalty Corner Paired Samples Test

Paired Difference Std.Diviat ion std.err or mean

95% confidence interval of the difference Lower Upper t df sig (2taile d)

Mean

Pre Energy(A1) pair Post 1 Energy(A1) Pre Tiredness(A2) pair Post 2 Tiredness(A2) Pre Tension(B1) pair Post 3 Tension(B1)

-4.E-02

9.89E-02

2.90E02 3.10E02 3.30E02

-.1036

2.20E02 8.36E02 7.43E02

-1.431

11

.180

1.E-02

.108

-5.E-02

0.481

11

.840

2.E-03

.1142

-7.E-02

0.051

. 11 961

12

Pre Calmness(B2) pair Post 4 Energy(B2)

-1.E-02

.1847

5.30E02

-.1315

-1032

-266

11

.795

*0.05> 2.20 d f 11 Table 4. Mean Scores of Pre affective Response in Penalty Corner Descriptive Statistics N Mean std. Deviation pre Energy(A1) 12 2.9692 .3285 pre Tiredness(A2) 12 2.0867 .2551 pre Tension(B1) 12 2.2408 .5068 pre Calmness(B2) 12 2.2708 .4511 Mean Scores of Post Affective Response in Penalty Corner Descriptive Statistics N Mean st.deiviation post Energy(A1) 12 3.0100 .3366 post Tiredness(A2) 12 2.0717 .3186 post Tension(B1) 12 2.2392 .5276 post Calmness(B2) 12 2.2850 .4975 valid N ( listwise) 12

Table 5.

Table 6. Descriptive Scores of Pre and Post Affective Response of Various Groups during Penalty corner in Hockey Descriptive. 95%confidence Interval For Mean lower N pre Energy (A1) Group A Group B Group C Total Group A Group B Group C Total Group A Group B Group C Total 4 4 4 12 4 4 4 12 4 4 4 12 upper std.Deviatio std. minimu maximu Mean n Error Bound Bound m m 3.1000 .4408 .2204 2.3985 3.8015 2.49 3.52 2.8425 .1638 .0819 2.5819 3.1013 2.68 3.04 2.9650 .3609 .1804 2.3908 3.5392 2.58 3.44 2.9692 .3285 .0948 2.7605 3.1779 2.49 3.52 2.1525 .2751 .1376 1.7147 2.5903 1.76 2.4 2.0275 .26227 .1314 1.6094 2.4456 1.70 2.29 2.0800 .2889 .1445 1.6203 2.5397 1.68 2.32 2.0807 .2551 .0737 1.9246 2.2488 1.68 2.4 2.7075 .391 .1955 2.0853 3.3297 2.27 3.12 2.1000 .3777 .1889 1.4990 2.7010 1.62 2.54 1.9150 .4334 .2167 1.2254 2.6046 1.50 2.52 2.2408 .5068 .1463 1.9188 2.5628 1.50 3.12
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pre Tiredness (A2)

pre Tension (B1)

pre Calmness (B2)

post energy (A1)

post Tiredness (A2)

post Tension (B1)

post Calmness (B2)

Group A Group B Group C Total Group A Group B Group C Total Group A Group B Group C Total Group A Group B Group C Total Group A Group B Group C Total

4 4 4 12 4 4 4 12 4 4 4 12 4 4 4 12 4 4 4 12

2.2900 2.3075 2.2150 2.2708 3.1550 2.8850 2.9900 3.0100 2.1850 1.9950 2.0350 2.0717 2.6725 2.2200 1.8250 2.2302 2.2800 2.4450 2.1300 2.2850

.2080 .6256 .5524 .4511 .4856 .1455 .3301 .3366 .3304 .3642 .3218 .3186 .4442 .3742 .4515 .5276 .2728 .7387 .4703 .4975

.1040 .3128 .2762 .1302 .2428 .0727 .165 .0972 .1652 .1821 .1609 .0920 .2221 .1871 .2257 .1523 .1364 .3694 .2352 .1436

1.9590 1.3120 1.3360 1.9842 2.3823 2.6535 2.4648 2.7962 1.6593 1.4155 1.5229 1.8693 1.9657 1.6246 1.1066 1.9039 1.8460 1.2695 1.3816 1.9689

2.6210 3.3030 3.0940 2.5575 3.9277 3.1165 3.5152 3.2238 2.7107 2.5745 2.5471 2.2741 3.3793 2.8154 2.5434 2.5744 2.7140 3.6205 2.8784 2.6011

2.11 1.42 1.50 1.42 2.44 2.70 2.56 2.44 1.72 1.66 1.62 1.62 2.09 1.72 1.34 1.34 2.08 1.38 1.52 1.38

2.59 2.8 2.64 2.6 3.52 3.02 3.34 3.52 2.54 2.32 2.34 2.5 3.1 2.64 2.4 3.1 2.64 3.04 2.5 3.04

Table 7.Homogenous subsets of Various Groups on Affective response Test of Homogeneity of Variance levene statistics Pre Energy(A1) Pre Tiredness(A2) Pre Tension(B1) Pre Calmness(B2) Post energy(A1) Post Tiredness(A2) Post Tension(B1) Post energy(B2) 0.957 0.011 0.121 1.719 1.566 0.389 0.143 1.459 df1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 df2 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Sig .420 .989 .888 .233 .261 .688 .869 .283

Table 8: Analysis of Variance of Various Groups of affective Response Before and After Penalty Corner
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sum of Squares

df

mean squares

Sig

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Pre Energy (A1) Pre Tiredness (A2)

Pre Tension (B1) pre Calmness (B2) Post energy (A1) Post Tiredness (A2) Post Tension (B1) Total

Between Group within Group Total Between Group within Group Total Between Group within Group Total Between Group within Group Total Between Group within Group Total Between Group within Group Total

.133 1.054 1.187 3.15E-02 0.685 0.716 1.375 1.45 2.825 1.93E-02 2.22 2.239 .148 1.098 1.246 8.027E-02 1.036 1.116 1.623 1.439 .199 2.524 2.723

2 9 11 2 9 11 2 9 11 2 9 11 2 9 11 2 9 11 9 2 2 9 11

6.64E.117 1.58E7.61E0.688 .161 9.66E.247 7.41E.122 4.01E.155 .18 0.719 9.93E.28

.567 .207 4.267 .039 .607 .349

0.586 .817 .050 .962 .566 .715

3.988 .354

.058 .711

3.062 11 Between Group Post Calmness (B2) within Group Total * 0.05 > 4.36 (2, 9 d f)

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