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RELAYS- OPERATING PRINCIPLES & CONSTRUCTION

S. THANGALAKSHMI ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR/EEE GKMCET

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CLASSIFICATION OF RELAYS

Electro Mechanical relays
Static Relays
Numeric Relays

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RELAYS-BASED ON PRINCIPLE

Electro Mechanical

Electro magnetic

Thermal

Attraction

Hinged armature relay Plunger type Balanced beam(biased-beam type) Moving coil type Polarized Moving iron type Reed type

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Induction

Induction Disc

Induction Cup

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HINGED TYPE RELAYS

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SALIENT FEATURES

Uses the principle of attraction.

Simple construction, compact, robust & reliable.

Responds to both a.c & d.c .

Operates through an armature which is attracted to an electromagnet or through a plunger which is drawn into a solenoid.

Operating speed is very high; faster than induction relays.

Electromagnetic force exerted on the moving element is proportional to the square of flux in the air-gap or the square of current.

In d.c relays this force is constant while in a.c this force pulsates at double the frequency.

The motion of the moving element is controlled by an opposing force.(Gravity or Spring)

Reset to pick-up ratio is 0.5 to 0.9.

VA burden is low.

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Let I be the operating current.

Force exerted on the electromagnet Square the current.

F I

2

2

F = KI

2

 F = K (I m sin wt) F = I 2 − I 2 cos 2 wt
1
2
K
(

m

m

)

of

The effect of d.c. transients are compensated using tuning circuit in the modified hinged construction.

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PLUNGER-TYPE RELAYS

Consists of Solenoid and iron plunger.

Plunger moves in and out of solenoid to make and break the circuit.

Movement of plunger is controlled by a spring.

Very limited usage as it draws more current.

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BALANCED-BEAM RELAY

Consists of beam carrying 2 electromagnets at its ends.

One gives the operating torque while the other restraining torque.

The beam is supported at the middle and it remains in horizontal under normal conditions.

When operating torque exceeds the resetting torque , an armature fitted at one end of the beam is pulled and its contacts are closed.

Used in differential and impedance relays.

It is robust and fast in operation(only 1 cycle).

Not so accurate since it is affected by d.c. transients.

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MOVING COIL RELAYS- ROTATING

It is also called as polarized d.c. moving coil relay.
Responds only to d.c actuating quantities.
Can be used with a.c in conjunction with rectifiers.
Most sensitive type of EM relays.
Sensitivity of 0.1 mW.
Costlier than induction cup or moving iron relay type.
VA burden is very small.
Used as slave relays with rectifier bridge comparators.

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MOVING COIL RELAYS-CONTD.,

Components:

A permanent magnet, a coil wound on non-magnetic former, an iron core, a phosphor bronze spiral spring(resetting torque), jeweled bearing, spindle, etc.

Damping is provided by aluminium former. Operating time is about 2 cycles. A cu former can be used for heavier damping & slower operation. Inverse operating time/current characteristics Operating current is proportional to the current carried by the coil. Torque exerted by the spring is proportional to deflection.

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Operating torque is produced due to the interaction between the field of permanent magnet and that of the coil.

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MOVING COIL RELAYS- AXIAL

Has only one air gap. Hence more sensitive than rotary MC relay. Faster than rotary MC relay because of light parts. An operating time of 30msec can be obtained. Sensitivities as low as 0 1 mW can be obtained. Its coils are wound on a cylindrical former which is suspended horizontally. This coil has only axial movement. Inverse operating time/current

.

characteristic. Delicate(contact gap is small); to be handled carefully.

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POLARIZED MOVING IRON RELAYS

 Flux shifting attracted armature construction. Polarization increases the sensitivity of the relay. A permanent magnet is used for polarization.

PM produces flux in addition to the main flux.

It is a d.c polarized relay, meant to be used with d.c only.

Can be used with a.c in conjunction with rectifiers.

Sensitivities in the range of 0.03 to 1 mW, depending on their construction.

Using transistor amplifiers sensitivity can be increased to 1 W for pick up.

Used as slave relay with rectifier bridge comparators.

Operating time is 2 msec to 15 msec depending on their construction.

A relay whose operation depends on
the direction of current or voltage.
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REED RELAYS

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Consists of a coil and nickel-iron strips (reeds) sealed in a glass capsule. This coil surrounds the reed contact. When the coil is energized, a magnetic field is produced causing the reeds to come together and close the contacts. They are reliable & maintenance free. Construction- EM, Service-Static relays. Used for control and other purposes. Speed- 1 msec to 2 msec. The voltage withstanding capacity for the insulation between coil and contacts is about 2 kV.

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INDUCTION RELAYS

Use electromagnetic induction principle for operation. ( Like induction motor)

Can be used only with a.c.

Moving element is equivalent to the rotor of induction motor.

The iron associated with the rotor of the relay is stationary.(contrast to IM)

The moving element acts as a carrier of rotor currents, whereas the magnetic circuit is completed through stationary magnetic elements.

In order to produce an operating torque, the two fluxes must have a phase difference between them.

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The rotating disc is made of aluminium disc. C-shaped magnet is used. One half of each pole of the EM is surrounded by a cu band known as the shading ring. The shaded portion produces a flux which is displaced in space and time w.r.to the flux produced by the un shaded portion of the pole. Thus, 2 alternating fluxes displaced in space and time cut the disc and produce eddy currents in it. Torques are produced by the interaction of each flux with eddy current produced by the other flux. The resultant torque causes the disc to rotate.

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INDUCTION RELAYS-WATTMETRIC TYPE CONSTRUCTION

 a. Two electromagnets are used: upper and lower one. b. Each magnet produces an alternating flux which cuts the disc. c. To obtain a phase displacement between two fluxes, upper and lower magnet coils are energized by 2 different sources.

d. If they are energized by the same source, the resistances and reactances of the 2 circuits are made different.

e. Robust and reliable.

f. Extensively

protection.

used

for

over-current

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INDUCTION RELAYS-WATTMETRIC TYPE CONSTRUCTION

 g. Has inverse time/current characteristic. h. Slow compared to induction cup type and attracted armature type relays. Used as slow speed relays. i. Reset/pick-up ratio is high & above 95% because its operation doesn t involve any change in air-gap. j. The VA burden depends on its application, and is generally of the order of 2.5 VA. k. A spring is used to supply the resetting torque. l. A permanent magnet is employed to produce eddy current braking to the disc. m. The magnet should remain stable with age so that its accuracy will not be affected. Magnets of high coercive force are used for this purpose. n. The braking torque is proportional to the speed of the disc. Braking torque balances the driving torque. o. Speed of disc is proportional to the driving torque. p. Disc inertia should be as small as possible , so that it should stop rotating as soon as the fault current

disappears.

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OVER-RUN &BACKSTOP

After the cessation of the fault current, the disc will travel to some distance due to inertia. It is called over-run of the disc.

This distance should be minimum. A brake magnet is used to minimize over-run.

It is usually not more than 2 cycles.

When the moving part of relay is stationary, it rests on backstop.

The material of backstop should be so chosen that it is not sticky.

The material should be non-metallic to avoid magnetic adherence.

Agate and nylon are used as backstop materials.

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INDUCTION CUP RELAY

A stationary iron core is placed inside the rotating cup to decrease the air gap without increasing the inertia.

The spindle of the cup carries an arm which closes contacts.

A spring is employed to provide resetting torque.

When 2 actuating quantities are applied, one may produce operating torque while the other may produce restraining torque.

Brake magnets are not used with induction cup relays.

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INDUCTION CUP RELAY-FEATURES

It operates on the same principle as that of an induction motor.

It employs a 4 pole or 8 pole structure.

The rotor is a hollow cylinder(inverted cup).

Two pairs of coils produce a rotating field which induces current in the rotor.

A torque is produced due to the interaction between the rotating field and the induced current, that causes rotation.

The inertia of the cup is much less than that of the disc.

The magnetic system is more efficient and hence the magnetic leakage in the magnetic circuit is minimum.

This type of a magnetic system also reduces the resistance of the induced current path in the rotor.

Due to low weight of the rotor and efficient magnetic system its torque per VA is about 3 times that of an induction disc type construction; thus, the VA burden is greatly reduced.

Operating time is of the order of 0.01 sec; applicable for high speed operation.

Relay can be made to have linear characteristic with high reset to pick-up ratio.

Since pick-up and reset values are close together, this type is best suited where normal and abnormal values are very close together.

It is inherently self compensated for d.c transients.

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INDUCTION RELAY TORQUE

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INDUCTION RELAY-PHASOR DIAGRAM

2
i 2
i 1
e 2

e 1

1

Phasor diagram for an induction relay

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=
sin wt
1
m
=
'sin(
wt
+
)
2
m
d
dt
d
dt
i
e
& i
e
1
1
2
2
i e
.
i
w
cos
wt
&
i
'
w
cos(
wt +
)
1
m
2
m
T
i
i
2 1
1 2
'sin(
wt
+
).
w
cos
wt
sin
wt
.
'
w
cos(
wt
+
)
m
m
m
m
'sin(
wt
+
) cos
wt
'sin
wt
cos(
wt
+
)
m
m
m
m
'
[
sin(
wt
+
) cos
wt
cos(
wt
+
) sin
wt
]
m
m
'
[
sin(
wt
+
wt
)
]
m
m
'sin
m
m
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e

1

=

1

=

m

w

cos

wt

e

2

=

2

=

m

'

w

cos(

wt

+

)

THERMAL RELAYS

Utilize the electro-thermal effect of the actuating current for their operation.

Used for the protection of small motors against overloading and unbalanced currents.

Thermal element-bimetallic strip- wound into spiral; greater length- more resistance-less current-greater sensitivity.

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FORMS OF THERMAL RELAY

For protection of 3-phase motors, three bimetallic strips are used.

They are energized by currents from the 3 phases.

Their contacts are arranged in such a way that if any of the spirals moves differently from each other, due to an unbalance exceeding 12%, their contacts meet & cause the CBs to trip.

These spirals also protect the

.

Thermocouples and RTDs are also used in protection.

Such elements are placed in the stator slots of large generators. The element form an arm of a balancing bridge.

In normal condition, the bridge is balanced.

When temperature exceeds a certain limit, the bridge becomes unbalanced. The out-of-balance current energizes a relay which trips a circuit breaker.

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STATIC/SOLID STATE RELYS.

DC supply

In static relay, the comparison or measurement of electrical quantities is performed by a static circuit which gives an output signal for the tripping of CB.

Present day static relays include a dc polarized relay as slave relay.

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MERITS - STATIC RELAYS

 1 Low burden on CTs & VTs. The static relays consume less power and in most of the cases they draw power from auxiliary dc supply. 2 Fast response. 3 Long life. 4 High resistance to shock and vibration. 5 Less maintenance due to the absence of moving parts and bearings. 6 Frequent operation causes no deterioration. 7 Quick resetting & absence of overshoot. 8 Compact size. 9 Greater sensitivity as amplification can be provided easily. 10 Complex relaying characteristics can easily be obtained. 11 Logic circuits can be used for complex protective schemes.

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DEMERITS - STATIC RELAYS

1. They are temperature sensitive. Their characteristics may vary with variation of temperature. Temperature compensation can be made by using thermistors and by using digital techniques for measurements, etc.

2. They are sensitive to voltage transients. The semiconductor components may get damaged due to voltage spikes. Filters and shielding can be used for their protection against voltage spikes.

3. Static relays need an auxiliary power supply. This can be supplied by a battery or a stabilized power supply.

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STATIC RELAYS - COMPARATORS

When a fault occurs on a system, the magnitude of voltage and current & phase angle between voltage and current may change.

These quantities during fault conditions are different from those under healthy conditions.

For the operation of relay, either the amplitude or phase angle
between the above said parameters are compared.
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AMPLITUDE COMPARATORS

Compares the magnitude of 2 input

quantities(operating & restraining),

irrespective of the angle between them.

When the amplitude of the operating

quantity exceeds the amplitude of

restraining quantity, the relay sends a

tripping signal.

M

AMPLITUDE

COMPARATOR

inputs

output

N

operateswhen

M

N

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PHASE COMPARATORS

M

PHASE

COMPARATOR

inputs

output

N

operates when 90°

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COMPARATOR - TYPES
Amplitude
Phase
Comparator
Comparator
Circulating current
type rectifier
bridge
comparator
Phase splitting
type phase
comparator
Phase splitting
type comparator
Integrating type
phase comparator
Rectifier bridge
Sampling
type phase
comparators
comparator
Time-bias type
phase comparator
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NUMERICAL RELAYS

Numerical relays are based on numerical(digital)devices. e.g. Microprocessors, Microcontrollers, DSP etc.

In these relays, the analog current and voltage signals monitored through primary transducers( CTs and VTs)are conditioned, sampled at specified instants of time.

Converted

recording.

to

digital

form

for

numerical

manipulation,

display

and

Thus, numerical relays, having monitored the current and voltage signals through transducers, acquire the sequential samples of these ac quantities in numerical(digital)data form through the data acquisition system, and process the data numerically using an algorithm to calculate the fault discriminants and make trip decisions.

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TYPICAL NUMERICAL RELAY
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COMPARISON BETWEEN ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS & NUMERICAL RELAYS

 S. No Feature Electromechanical Relay Numerical Relay 1. Size Bigger. Compact. 2. Characteristics Fixed. Selectable. 3. Flexibility No flexibility. Flexibility due to programmability. 4. Communication Not available. Available. Feature 5. Blocking Feature Not available. Available. 6. Self-supervision Not available. Available. 7. Adaptability Not adaptable. Adaptable to changing system condition. 8. Multiple-functions Not possible. Possible. 9. Accuracy ± 5 % or more. ± 2 %

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COMPARISON BETWEEN ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS & NUMERICAL RELAYS

 S. No Feature Electromechanical Relay Numerical Relay 10. Speed of operation Slow. Fast. 11. Burden on Transducers ( CTs & VTs) Very high. Extremely low. 12. Consistency of calibration Deteriorate with time. No effect of calibration even after use of 20-25 years. 13. Setting Through plug settings in fix steps. Software based settings. 14. Memory Feature No memory of any type is available. Several memory features are available. 15. Maintenance Cumbersome & frequent maintenance required. Maintenance free relays. 16. Output relay programming Not available. Available.

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COMPARISON BETWEEN ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS & NUMERICAL RELAYS

 S. No Feature Electromechanical Relay Numerical Relay 17. Accessibility of relay from remote place Not possible. Remote accessibility is available. 18. Status of service values Not available. Available. 19. Safety of personnel Not adequate due to non-accessibility at remote location. Adequate safety is provided. 20. Spares requirement There is need to stock several items as spare. Universal deigns minimize spares requirement. 21. Upward connectivity for a present or future system such as SCADA, EMS etc. Not possible. Possible.

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RELAY CLASSIFICATION-

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NON-DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT
RELAY
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REVERSE POWER RELAY
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DIRECTIONAL OVER-CURRENT RELAY
Operates when
the current
exceeds a
specified value
in a specified
direction.
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DIFFERENTIAL OVER-CURRENT
RELAY (NO FAULT)
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DIFFERENTIAL OVER-CURRENT
RELAY (FAULT CONDITION)
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VOLTAGE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
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PERCENTAGE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY(BIASED RELAY)
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BIASED DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

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DISTANCE RELAYS- TERMINOLOGIES

A relay which measures impedance or a component of the impedance at the relay location is known as distance relays. It is used for the protection of a transmission line. As the impedance is proportional to the length of the line, a relay which measures impedance or its component is called a distance relay.

Reach: A distance relay operates when the impedance (or its component) as seen by the relay is less than a preset value. This preset impedance or corresponding distance is called reach of the relay. It is the maximum distance up-to which the relay can protect.

over-reach(operates beyond its present reach) Under-reach(fails to operate even when the fault is within its reach)

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IMPEDANCE/ DISTANCE RELAY
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DISTANCE RELAY- INDUCTION STRUCTURE

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UNIVERSAL RELAY TORQUE EQUATION

T = K I

1

2

+ K V

2

2

+ K VI cos(

3

) + K

K 1 ,K 2 ,K 3 ,K are constants, is the angle between V & I, is the maximum torque angle.

T = K I

1

2

K V

2

2

Plain impedance relay

T = K I

1

2

K VI

3

cos(

)

Reactance relay

T = K VI cos( ) K V

3

2

2

Mho relay

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PLAIN IMPEDANCE RELAY

T = K I

1

K V

2

Z

= R+jX

For the operation of the relay,

Z =

R

2

+ X

2

2

2

Z = R

2

+ X

K 1 I 2 K 2 V 2 V 2 /I 2 < K 1 /K 2

Z <

K
/ K
1
2

Operating torque current coil. Restraining torque voltage coil.

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( R- X diagram )

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2

2 Z

= V/I

PLAIN IMPEDANCE RELAY-FEATURES

Impedance seen by the relay lies
within the circle
operate.
relay will
Otherwise, No operation.
W. r. to figure, current lags the
voltage by angle θ & Z lies in
θ

If current and voltage are in phase, Z would coincide with +R axis.

If current lags the voltage by 180°, Z would coincide with –R axis.

When I lags behind V, the Z vector lies in upper semi-circle and when I leads V, the Z vector lies in the lower semi-circle.

Independent of the phase relation between I & V, the operating characteristic is a circle .

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Hence it is a non-directional relay.

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DIRECTIONAL RELAY-1
The torque developed by a directional element is given by ,
T
= VI
cos(
)
K
for a particular installation
cos(
)
=
K
and
1 ,
the torque equation becomes
T =
K VI
K
1
Under threshold condition when the relay is about to start
,
,
T =
0
=
K VI
K
1
K
VI =
= K ′
K
1
This characteristic is known as constant product characteristic
and is of the form of rectangular hyperbola.
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DIRECTIONAL RELAY-2

For the operation of the relay the product V and I should give a minimum torque which exceeds the friction and spring torque.

It is not enough that the product is greater than Kʹ ʹ but also, there should be a minimum value of voltage and current.

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DIRECTIONAL RELAY-3

Consider A is the location of directional relay.

In case, the fault is close to the relay, the voltage to be fed to the relay may be less than the minimum voltage required.

The maximum distance up to which the voltage is less than the
minimum voltage required is known as dead zone of a directional
relay.
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DIRECTIONAL RELAY-4

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DIRECTIONAL RELAY-5
Consider the torque equation ,
T
= VI
cos(
− −
)
K
if V is fixed and under operating condition K is negligible then
,
I cos(
)
=
0
I cannot be zero for torque production .
2
=
±
2
The above equation is described as polar characteristic of directional relay .
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(

)

= ±

IMPEDANCE RELAY WITH DIRECTIONAL ELEMENT

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Over-current relay with directional restraint.
2
T
= K I
K VI cos(
)
1
3
2
T
= K I
K VI cos(
90 )
°
1
3
1
3
K I
2
K
3 VI sin
1
VI
K
1
sin
<
3
K
Z sin
<
1
K
3
K
X <
1
K 3
Operating torque current coil.
Restraining torque current-voltage directional element.
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T

= K I

2

K VI sin

I

2

K

REACTANCE RELAY- FEATURES

Operating torque- Current.

Restraining torque- Current-Voltage directional element.

Reactance relay is an over-current relay with directional restraint. Directional relay- maximum torque angle, =90°.

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Resistance component has no effect on the operation of the relay.

Responds only to the reactance component of the relay.

The relay will operate for all impedances whose heads lie below the operating characteristic whether below or above the R-axis.

Non-directional relay.

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MHO RELAY

Operating torque V-I element. Restraining torque voltage element.

T =
K VI cos( − ) − K V
3
2
For relay operation,
K VI
cos(
)
2
>
K V
3
2
V 2
K
3
>
cos(
)
VI
K
2
K
Z <
3
cos(
)
K
2

2

Voltage restrained directional relay.

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EFFECT OF EARTH RESISTANCE

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ARC RESISTANCE- EFFECTS

If a flashover from phase to phase or phase to ground occurs, an arc resistance is introduced into fault path. The arc resistance is appreciable at higher voltages.

The arc resistance is added to impedance of the line and hence the resultant impedance which is seen by distance relays is increased.

In case of ground faults, the resistance of the earth is also introduced in fault path.

Earth resistance and arc resistance combined together are known as fault resistance.

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DISTANCE CHARACTERISTICS

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EFFECT OF ARC RESISTANCE

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STATIC OVER-CURRENT RELAYS

TYPES:
1.
Instantaneous
Over current
relays.
3.
Inverse time over
current relays.
2.
Definite time
Over current
relays.
4.
Directional over
current relays.
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STATIC INSTANATANEOUS OC RELAY

Operates in a definite time when the current exceeds its pick-up value. The operating time is constant irrespective of the magnitude of the current. There is no intentional time delay. It operates in 0.1 s or less.

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INSTANTANEOUS RELAY- CONSTRUCTION

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STATIC DEFINITE - TIME OC RELAY

V
T
=
RC log
C
e
V
V T 

Operates after a predetermined time when the current exceeds its pick-up value. The operating time is constant, irrespective of the magnitude of the current above the pick- up value. Definite operating time can be set with the help of intentional time delay mechanism provided in the relaying unit.

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STATIC INVERSE - TIME OC RELAY

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Operates when the current exceeds its pick-up value. The operating time depends on the magnitude of the operating current. The operating time decreases as the current increases.

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INVERSE RELAY CONSTRUCTION

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INVERSE-TIME CHARACTERISTICS

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INVERSE TIME-CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS

Inverse-time over-
current relays
IDMT(inverse definite
minimum time) over-
current relays
INVERSE
RELAYS
Very inverse relays
Extremely inverse
relays
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TIME OVER-CURRENT: EXPRESSION
The general Expression for time
− current characteristics
K
t =
I n − 1
The approximate Expression
K
t =
n
I
Definite
time characteristis n
:
=
0&
t
=
K
0.14
I D M T
0.02 − 1
I
13.5
Very inverse t =
:
I − 1
80
Extemely inverse t =
:
2
I
− 1
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.

.

.

:

t =

CHARACTERISTICS OF OC RELAYS

PSM =

=

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Secondary current

Re lay current setting

primary current during fault i e fault current

,

.

.

Re lay current setting X CT ratio

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STANDARD IDMT CURVE

X- axis: PSM Y-axis: Time in seconds

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
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PROBLEM

1.The current rating of an over-current relay is 5 A. The relay has a plug setting of 150% and time multiplier setting (TMS) of 0.4. The CT ratio is 400/5. Determine the operating time of the relay for a fault current of 6000 A. At TMS=1, operating time at various PSM are give in the table below.

 PSM 2 4 5 8 10 20 Operating time in seconds 10 5 4 3 2.8 2.4

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SOLUTION

CT ratio = 400/5 = 80 Relay current setting = 150% 0f 5 A = 7.5 A PSM = 6000/(7.5 x 80) = 10

From the table, the corresponding time is 2.8 s. This corresponds to TMS = 1.

The operating time for TMS = 0.4 will be = 2.8 x 0.4

Total operating time is 1.12 s

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PROBLEM

2. Determine the time of operation of a relay of rating 5A , 2.2 sec I.D.M.T and having a relay setting of 125% TMS=0.6. It is connected to a supply circuit through a C.T. 400/5 ratio. The fault current is 4000A.

SOLUTION:

PSM= 4000/(6.25 x 80) = 8 Time corresponding to 8 is 3.2 sec. Total operating time = 3.2 x 0.6 = 1.92 s

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STATIC DIREECTIONAL OC RELAY

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