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# Practice Test 16.

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## Acid Base Equilibrium

9. The Ka of hydrazoic acid, HN3 is 1.9 x 10-5 at 25.0 C. What is the pH of a 0.35 M aqueous solution of HN3? a. 11 b. 2.4 c. 5.2 d. 2.6 e. -2.4

A 0.500 mole sample of which compound below, when placed in water gives the lowest concentration of NO2-1 ions. a. NaNO2 b. HNO2 c. Pb(NO2)2 d. Al(NO2)3 e. a and b would produce the same amount The conjugate base of HSO4-1 is a. OH-1 b. H2SO4 c. SO4-2 d. HSO4-1 e. H3SO4+1 What is the pH of an aqueous solution at 25.0 C in which [H+1] is 0.00250 M? a. 3.40 b. 2.60 c. -2.60 d. -3.40 e. 2.25 What is the [OH-1] in a solution that has a pH of 5 a. 1 x 10-14 M b. 1 x 10-5 M c. 1 x 10-9 M d. 1 x 10+5 M e. 1 x 10+9 M What is the concentration (in M) of hydronium ions in a solution at 25.0 C with pOH = 4.282? a. 4.28 M b. 9.72 M c. 1.92 x 10-10 M d. 5.22 x 10-5 M e. 1.66 x 104 M What is the pOH of a 0.0150 M solution of barium hydroxide? a. 12.2 b. 12.5 c. 1.52 d. 1.82 e. 10.4 HZ is a weak acid. An aqueous solution of HZ is prepared by dissolving 0.020 mol of HZ in sufficient water to yield 1.0 L of solution. The pH of the solution was 4.93 at 25.0 C. Calculate the Ka of HZ. a. 1.2 x 10-5 b. 6.9 x 10-9 c. 1.4 x 10-10 d. 9.9 x 10-2 e. 2.8 x 10-12

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10. The pH of a 0.10 M solution of a weak base is 9.82. What is the Kb for this base? a. 2.1 x 10-4 b. 4.3 x 10-8 c. 8.8 x 10-8 d. 6.6 x 10-4 e. 2.0 x 10-5 11. Calculate the pH of 0.726 M anilinium hydrochloride, C6H5NH3Cl solution in water. Kb for aniline (C6H5NH2) is 4.1 x 10-10 a. 0.14 b. 4.75 c. 9.38 d. 2.38 e. 4.75 12. What is the concentration of the hydroxide ion in pure water at 25C? a. 0 M b. 1 x 10-7 M c. 1 x 10-14 M d. 14 M e. 7.00 M 13. In a basic solution, __________. a. [H3O+1] = [OH-1] b. [H3O+1] > [OH-1] c. [H3O+1] < [OH-1] d. [H3O+1] = 0 M e. [OH-1] > 7.00 14. Which one of the following statements regarding Kw is false? a. b. c. d. e. pKw is 14.00 at 25C The value of Kw is always 1.0 x 10-14 Kw changes with temperature. The value of Kw shows that water is a weak acid. Kw is known as the ion product of water.

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15. The Ka of hypochlorous acid (HClO) is 3.0 x 10-8 at 25.0C. What is the % ionization of hypochlorous acid in a 0.015 M aqueous solution of HClO at 25.0C? a. 4.5 x 10-8 % b. 14 % c. 2.1 x 10-5 % d. 0.14 % e. 1.4 x 10-3 % 16. Of the following substances, which of the following will form basic aqueous solutions? NH4Cl Cu(NO3)2 K2CO3 NaF a. NH4Cl, Cu(NO3)2, b. NH4Cl, K2CO3 c. NaF only d. K2CO3, NaF e. NH4Cl only f. None of the above will be basic, they are all just salt water with a pH of 7

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The Ka of hypochlorous acid (HClO) is 3.00 x 10-8 at 25.0 C. Calculate the pH of a 0.0385 M hypochlorous acid solution. a. 1.41 b. 8.94 c. 4.47 d. 7.52 e. -1.41

## Practice Test 16.1 (pg 2 of 3)

Acid Base Equilibrium 18. What is the pH of a 0.50 M solution of NaNO2? HNO2, Ka = 4.5 x 10-4. a. 12.18 b. 8.53 c. 7.00 d. 5.48 e. 1.82

17. Which of the following salts will have a pH of 7.0 for an aqueous 0.10 M solution at 25.0 C. NaOCl KNO2 NH4Cl Ca(OAc)2 a. NaOCl b. KNO2 c. NH4Cl d. Ca(OAc)2 e. KCl and NH4Cl f. None of them would have a pH of 7, they all change the pH

19. What is the pH of a sodium formate (NaCHO2) solution prepared by adding 0.680 grams of sodium formate to 100.0 ml of water at 25.0 oC? The Ka at 25C for formic acid 1.8 x 10-4

20. A solution of acetic acid is 2.0% dissociated at 25.0 oC. What was the original concentration (in M) of the acetic acid solution? (Ka for acetic acid is 1.8 x 10-5) You will need to use the quadratic for this one - or use the online equation solver. The link is on the document page of chap 16 & 17

## Acid Base Equilibrium

The substance that dissolves to give the least number of nitrates in solution would at first appear to be both a, and b since they have only one nitrate compared to c and d, however, all of a ionizes, but only some of b ionizes because it is a WA. To get a conjugate base, you must react the HSO4-1 as an acid, and the remaining ion will be its conjugate base. HSO4-1 ! H+1 + SO4-2 Thus the SO4-2 is the conjugate base. -log (0.0025) will give 2.6 First calc the pH (14 5 = 9) Then undo the pOH of 9 to get c. (solve: 10-9 = [OH-1]) First calc the pOH (14 4.282 = 9.718) Then undo the pH of 9.718 to get c. (solve: 10-9.718 = [OH-1]) Since Ba(OH)2 dissolves to produce 2 OH-1 ions in solution, [OH-1] is twice the molarity given. Thus log(0.03) to get c

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

C B C C C B C D B

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B C B D D F

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8.37

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0.045

Undo the pH (10-4.93) to get the [H+1] = 1.17 x 10-5. The [H+1] = [Z-1] because they are related to each other in 1:1 ratio. The equilibrium [HZ] is 0.020 1.17 x 10-5 (which is too small to worry about from a sig fig point of view). Then solve the Ka expression. Ka = [H+1] [Z-1] / [HZ] so (1.17 x 10-5)2 / 0.020 = b Set up an ICE-box for the equation HClO !" H+1 + ClO-1 Since the Ka is small, assume that the x is small enough to ignore when subtracted from 0.0385 M. Then plug into the Ka expression and solve for x. Ka = x2 / (0.0385) and solve. x = [H+1] = 3.4 x 10-5 so then -log the [H+1] to get c This is the exact same method of solving as the previous question. Ka = x2 / (0.35) and solve. x = [H+1] = 2.58 x 10-3 so then -log the [H+1] to get d Write out an equation to describe what happens in solution: WB + H2O !" OH-1 + conj WA Set up an ICE-box, then write the Kb expression: Kb = [OH-1] [conj WA]/ [WB]. Since the Kb is small, assume that the x is small enough to ignore when subtracted from 0.1 M. Because you need to know the [OH-1] subtract the pH from 14 to get the pOH (14 9.82 = 4.18) Undo this pOH ([OH-1] = 10-4.18 = 6.6 x 10-5) Use this in the Kb expression and solve for Kb = (6.6 x 10-5)2 / 0.1 So Kb = 4.3 x 10-8 which is b Anilinium chloride dissolves to give Cl-1 (which is the pathetic base of a very strong acid, and has no effect on pH) and C6H5NH3+1 in solution which is a the conjugate weak acid of a weak base. Thus write out this equation to describe what happens in solution: C6H5NH3+1 !" H+1 + C6H5NH2 Set up an ICE-box, then write the Ka expression: Ka = [H+1] [C6H5NH2]/ [C6H5NH3+1]. Since the Ka is small, assume that the x is small enough to ignore when subtracted from 0.726 M. Unfortunately you are only given the Kb for C6H5NH2 so you must solve for Ka with the equation Ka * Kb = Kw Thus K a = 2.44 x 10-5 Use this in the Ka expression and solve for x = [H+1] = 4.21 x 10-3 then log the [H+1] to get d Since [H+1] [OH-1] = 1 x 10-14 in room temperature pure water, we know that [H+1] = [OH-1] = 1 x 10-7 In a basic solution, [OH-1] is greater than in water, while [H+1] is less than in water. Kw like all other Keqs are temperature dependent. HClO is a weak acid that you can write a dissociation equation for: HClO !" H+1 + ClO-1 Then you can make an ICE-box and write and equilibrium expression: Ka = [H+1] [ClO-1] / [HClO] Since Ka is small you can ignore the x. So 3.0 x 10-8 = x2/ 0.015 Solve and x = [H+1] = 2.12 x 10-5 Percent ionization is the amount of H+1 that form from the original undissociated acid. Thus (2.12 x 10-5 / 0.015) * 100 = 0.14 % ionized. These are all salts, and you must look individually at each of their ion parts to decide if those parts are weak acids or weak bases, eliminating the pathetic acids of strong bases, and the pathetic bases of strong acids. This time you must look for the salt that only has the pathetic acids of strong bases, and the pathetic bases of strong acids in the same salt because both together would have no effect on pH. None of these meet this requirement, they all have either a conjugate weak base or conjugate weak acid as one of their ions. Sodium nitrite dissolves in solution to give Na+1 ions, which do not change pH because they are the pathetic weak acid of a very strong base, and NO2-1 ions which are the conjugate weak base of a weak acid. These NO2-1 ions do hydrolyze with water. Unfortunately you are only given the Ka for HNO3, 4.45 x 10-4 so you must solve for Kb of NO2-1 with the equation Ka * Kb = Kw Thus Kb = 2.25 x 10-11. Next you should set up an ICE-box for the reaction: NO2-1 + H2O !" HNO2 + OH-1 You certainly can ignore the x since the Kb is so very small. Thus Kb = [HNO2] [OH-1] / [NO2-1] So = x2 / 0.5 When you solve: x = [OH-1] = 3.35 x 10-6 so pOH = 5.47 and thus pH = 8.53 First you should realize that NaCHO2 is a salt that dissolves in water to give Na+1 ions that have no effect on pH and CHO2-1 ions that are a weak base. Write an equation for the ionization of CHO2-1 ions. CHO2-1 + H2O !" HCHO2 + OH-1 Calculate the concentration of NaCHO2 (0.68 g * 1mole/68 g = 0.01 moles/0.10 L = 0.10M) which is equal to the concentration of CHO2-1 ions. Then make an ICE-box. Then write an equilibrium expression Ka = [CHO2-1] / [HCHO2] [OH-1] Unfortunately you are only given the Ka for HCHO2 = 1.8 x 10-4 so you must solve for Kb of CHO2-1 with the equation Ka * Kb = Kw Thus Kb = 5.56 x 10-11 So 5.56 x 10-11 = x2 / 0.1 Solve for x = [OH-1] = 2.36 x 10-6 M. So pOH = 5.63 and pH = 8.37 Recall that % ionization = ([H+1] / Molarity) * 100% So we can say that 0.02 = ([H+1] / Molarity) Thus = [H+1] = 0.02x when x = Molarity. Write the dissociation reaction: HC2H3O2 !" H+1 + C2H3O2-1 then make an ice box, realizing that since the Ka is small enough, you can use our definition of Molarity in the equilibrium concentration. Also remember that [H+1] = [C2H3O2-1] So Ka = 1.8 x 10-5 = (0.02x)2 / x Use the quadratic and solve for x = [HC2H3O2] = 0.045 M