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Negative stage reactivity means

Compression

The decrease of the efficiency in the wet steam region


Rises with the drop of the steam quality

Reynolds equations concern


Turbulent flow

During compression the loss is the is the worst


When it happens in the beginning

The heat corresponding to the work of deformation is


Always positive

The efficiency of the group of compressor stages is:


Lower than the mean efficiency of the stage in the group

The turbine is:


Rotary motor Flow machine

The navier stokes equation describes the flow of:


Liquid Gas fluid

The navier stokes equation is about ..


An izotropic flow (fluid) Laminar (charater of the flow) turbulent

The flow in the turbine stage is entirely 3 dimensional and:


Nonstationary Unsteady turbulent

The most general form of the equation of motion


Includes the tensor of stress acting on the fluids particle

During expansion the stage loss is the worst


Once it happens in the end

Does the politrope descirbes the change of state of the medium?


Nobody knows

What is the physical sense of the thrust?

It is the diffference of pressure at convex and concave side of the blade (circumferential direction)

For the Re (3-6)E5 the inertia forces>> viscous forces and Reynolds criterion is satisfied
Self-modelling Reynolds number does not influence the stage characteristics

During the process of adabiatic expansion


The isentropic efficiency is higher than politropic one

The turbulent flow is


Unsteady 3 dimensional Non-stationary

In the relative flow through the rotor:


We have Coriollis acceleration perpendicular to the velocity Potential field of the centrifugal accelerations

The efficiency of the group of turbine stages is:


Is higher than the mean efficiency of stages

During compression
The polytropic efficiency is higher

The field of centrifugal accelerations is


Potential

Operation of the fluid flow machine has:


Continous character

The stage reactivity:


Is the ratio of the drop of the enthalpy at the rotor to the entire drop of enthalpy

Using what type of dependences we dont need to use the experimental data?
General differential

Turbulent viscosity:
Depends on the fluctuations velocity Is equal to zero at the walls Depends on type of fluid and it thermodynamic state

Compression factor of the ideal steam is a function of:


Entropy only

At Mach number <0,6


We have self-modelling the exact value of M is not relevant as long as it is lower than 0,6

Equation of state of the ideal steam is of the form


(K-1)/k*j=pv

Ideal steam

Superheated water steam can be treated as:

Various conditions of the operation of the turbine stage is determined usually by


Only two variables : n/sqrt(To); p2/p0; once d=const Re>Re_lim, medium not changed Medium not changed 3 variables Otherwise 4 variables

Similarity criteria can be derived


From the general differential equation with use of dimensional analysis

Mach criterion
Inertia forces/ forces of the absolute pressure

Double rim Curtis stage in comparison to de Laval stage has the output
4 times higher

The process of flow in the steam turbine is of.character


Unsteady Non-stationary 3 dimensional turbulent

Which approach is used in practise of flow machines


Integral relations we need experimental data Simplified relations

Application of the results of calculations on the real turbine requires the research:
Stages Groups of stages

Impulse turbine stages


Stages of chamber construction in which the expansion occurs at the stator

Ljungstrom stage:
Is a radial stage It has the highest efficiency The output is comparable to de Laval Purely reactive

The length of the chard of the profile is:


The funtcion of the fixing angle and the rims width; sin (By)=B/b

The Parson stage in comparison to de Laval


has higher efficiency Lower output

The optimal velocity coefficient of the turbine stage corresponds to:


The highest efficiency

During the expansion process in the stator (guide vanes) the enthalpy
drops

Reynolds criterion
Inertia forces/ viscous forces

The reactive turbine stages:


Stages of drum construction in which the expansion occurs at both rotor and stator

The lower value of the optimal velocity coefficient


Higher output, lower efficiency

Prandtl criterion
Transportation of momentum/ transportation of heat

Applied types of relations allow us to


Determine the flow through the palisade