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By Anthony Cameron

Table of Contents

Unit 1: Mechanics and Radioactivity................................................................................................... 2

Rectilinear motion............................................................................................................................2

Forces and moments........................................................................................................................ 2

Dynamics......................................................................................................................................... 3

Mechanical energy........................................................................................................................... 3

Radioactive decay and the nuclear atom..........................................................................................4

Unit 2: Electricity and thermal physics................................................................................................ 6

Electric current and potential difference..........................................................................................6

Electrical circuits............................................................................................................................. 9

Heating matter................................................................................................................................10

Kinetic model of matter................................................................................................................. 10

Conservation of energy.................................................................................................................. 11

Unit 3A Astrophysics......................................................................................................................... 12

A1 Observing stars.........................................................................................................................12

A2 The lives of stars...................................................................................................................... 14

Unit 4: Waves and our universe......................................................................................................... 16

Circular motion and oscillations.................................................................................................... 16

Waves.............................................................................................................................................18

Superposition of waves.................................................................................................................. 20

Quantum phenomena..................................................................................................................... 22

The expanding universe................................................................................................................. 26

Unit 5: Fields and forces.....................................................................................................................28

Gravitational fields........................................................................................................................ 28

Electric fields................................................................................................................................. 29

Capacitance.................................................................................................................................... 30

Magnetic fields.............................................................................................................................. 32

Simple Differences between Electric and Magnetic fields....................................................... 32

Electromagnetic induction............................................................................................................. 34

Unit 6: Synthesis.................................................................................................................................36

Analogies in physics...................................................................................................................... 36

Accelerators................................................................................................................................... 38

Appendix 1 Uncertainty and error................................................................................................... 42

Appendix 2 AS and A2 Experiment Diagrams............................................................................... 42

Experiments Units 1 and 2..........................................................................................................42

Experiments Units 4 and 5..........................................................................................................48

Appendix 3 Units and symbols........................................................................................................51

Base SI units ................................................................................................................................ 51

Common derived units...................................................................................................................51

Symbols and their units..................................................................................................................51

Appendix 4 Metric prefixes.............................................................................................................52

Common metric prefixes at A-level...............................................................................................52

All Other metric prefixes; common, rare and unused....................................................................52

Appendix 5 Formula sheet...............................................................................................................53

Alphabetical index..............................................................................................................................55

Anthony Cameron

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Rectilinear motion

1.1

Kinematics

v=uat

1

s=ut at 2

2

2

2

v =u 2as

1

s= uv t

2

u=initial velocity

v=final velocity

s=displacement

a=acceleration

t =time

1.2

Graphical interpretation

i.e.

Unit y/x is represented by gradient

Unit xy is represented by area of graph

method involving a body in free fall is expected.

Steel ball is dropped and time and distance are

measured. From this acceleration is calculated

(distance/time)

1.3

Projectiles

Vertical and horizontal motion are two separate components that contribute to the overall motion.

A projectile projected horizontally will still fall downwards at the same rate as one falling with no

horizontal movement.

1.4

Force interpreted as a push or a pull and identified as the push or pull of A on B.

ALL forces either push or pall on an object.

The gravitational force (the force between two masses) applied to a body is called weight and is

equal to the product of mass and the acceleration due to gravity (Weight = mg)

Electrostatic force force between two charged objects

Electromagnetic force force between two charged objects (includes electrostatic force)

Nuclear forces Forces that hold the nucleus of atoms together

Contact force reaction to contact between two objects

Normal reaction force Reaction to weight, equal magnitude yet opposite direction

Frictional force Force between two objects that opposes motion

Drag force exerted by a fluid or gas which resists the movement of an object through that fluid

Lift Force that lifts an object

1.5

1.6

Newton's First Law of motion

A body will remain at rest or continue to move with a constant velocity as long as the forces on it

are balanced.

Reluctance to change velocity is the inertia of the body. Inertia is proportional to mass

1.7

Newton's Third law of motion

Every action has an equal and opposite reaction

1.8

Moments about a point

Moment = downward component of force multiplied by perpendicular distance

Principle of moments. For a system to stay in equilibrium, the sum of the anticlockwise moments

must equal the sum of the clockwise moments about that point.

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1.9

Density

mass

m

Density=

=

volume

V

Solids are rigid, gases and liquids are fluid

Measure mass using scales, measure volume by displacement of water

Dynamics

1.10

Linear momentum

p=mv

Momentum is the product of mass and velocity

Principle of the Conservation of momentum The total Momentum before a collision will equal

the total momentum after the collision

1.11

Newtons second law

Newton's second law Force equals the rate of change of momentum

An Impulse is a change of momentum

mvu

t

I=Ft=mvu

F=

1) Law of inertia - A body will only accelerate if the forces acting on it are unbalanced

Every body perseveres in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward,

except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed

mv

2) Law of acceleration - F=d

dt

The rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the resultant force acting on

the body and is in the same direction

3) Law of reciprocal actions Each reaction has an equal and opposite action

All forces occur in pairs, and these two forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in

direction

Mechanical energy

1.13

Work done and energy transfer

Work done = average applied force multiplied by the distance moved in the direction of the force.

W = Fx

1.14

1

Kinetic energy= mv2

2

Gravitational potential energy=mgh

the Earth's surface, g will equal 9.81 ms-2 and so:

E = mgh

1.15

Principle of the conservation of energy

Energy may not be created or destroyed only transferred

Energy will be conserved

i.e. KE1 + GPE1 = KE2 + GPE2

An elastic collision is where all KE is conserved

Efficiency = useful output/input

1.16

Power

Anthony Cameron

P=

W

=F v

t

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1.17

The existence and nature of radioactive emissions

Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of the atom's nucleus, with the consequent

emission of particles and energy from the atom

Background radiation can come from; space, big bang, rocks (radon), carbon, et cetera

1.18 Properties of , +, and radiation and corresponding disintegration processes

(alpha) radiation

These are high-speed helium nuclei

They are very ionising, as they readily interact, but not have a very weak penetration, this is due to

there large size.

Therefore they are most dangerous when ingested as normally the can not penetrate far through skin

Alpha radiation is used in smoke detectors a stream of a particles carry a current over a

short space of air. In the presence of smoke this is blocked off, so the current stops and an

alarm will sound.

237 Np 233 Pa 4

Example

93

91

2

(beta) radiation

Less massive, less ionising but more penetrating then

- consists of one electron and + of its opposite, a positron. Hence they annihilate each other on

interaction, releasing energy proportional to there mass (E = mc2)

neutron Proton + electron

+

proton neutron + positron

(gamma) radiation

Composed of an EM wave

Most penetrating but least ionising

Emitted if there is excess energy after an or particle have been emitted.

1.19

Stable and unstable nuclei

Nucleon number (atomic mass) is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons

in the nucleus of the atom, the proton number is the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom.

237

93

Np This neptunium atom has a nucleon number of 237 and a proton number of 93 so it has 93

protons, 144 neutrons (144 is the difference between 237 and 93).

If two atoms have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons (hence different

atomic mass), then they are isotopes of the same element.

1.20

Radioactivity as a random process

Activity = N

N number of nuclei

decay constant (s-1)

- proportion of N that decays in on second

Radioactive decay

Radioactive material will decay at an exponential rate

Half life is considered the time taken for the activity of a radioactive sample to drop its original

value.

This is also the time taken for half of the unstable nuclei in a radioactive sample to decay.

hence

ln 2 0.69

t 1 =Half life=

2

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1.21

The nuclear atom

In elastic scattering, alpha particles are fired at gold leaf, most of the particles pass though however

some are deflected back at an angle greater than 90o.

Deep inelastic scattering involves firing a high energy electron at a proton. If the electron is low

energy the proton recoils and the electron is elastically scattered. However with high energy

electrons the scattering is deep and inelastic, proving the existence of protons being made up of a

smaller differently charged particles.

Geiger muller tube, for each ionising event of the argon and halogen gas mixture (inside the tube) a

current passes through the tube and is recorded

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Electric current and potential difference

2.1

Charge and Current

Charge (Q)

Current as rate of flow of charge.

I=

Q

t

The sum of a current entering a point is equal to the sum of the currents leaving that point.1

Drift velocity

The electrons in a metal don't just travel in one direction, they move in all directions more or less

randomly. Their speed is very fast perhaps 100'000 m/s.

When you add a battery or power supply this causes the random motion to be not quite random.

There is a trend of drift towards the positive terminal. The speed of this drift is called he drift

velocity. What effects drift velocity?

The number of free electrons affects this (drift velocity depends on material)

Charge carrier density

This is a measure how many free electrons there are in a material per m3.

Symbols

n = Charge carrier density

A = cross sectional area of the wire

Q or q or e = charge

v = drift velocity

Equation

I = nAqv

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Metals

1) These conduct electricity

2) They have disassociated electrons that move from ion to ion

3) These electrons move in the conduction band

Semi-conductors

1) Very few if any disassociated electrons in conduction band

2) The almost conduct electricity

3) Given energy some electrons jump into conduction band e.g. LDR, thermistor

Insulators

1) No free electrons

2) Large amount of energy needed to cause electrons to jump into a conduction bond often

material will breakdown first.

Whats the effect of temperature?

n

Metal

No significant

effect

No significant

effect

No change

Decreases

Decreases

Because atoms

vibrate more so

there are more

collisions

Insulator

No change

No significant

effect

No change

Semiconductors

Increases

No significant

because

effect

electrons are

given enough

energy to jump

to the

conduction

band

No change

Decreases

Increases

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2.2

Electrical potential difference and E.M.F. of a cell

EMF: This is a measure of a work done on the electrons per coulomb of charge

E

W

P

=Q

= Q

=I

P.D: This is a measure of the work done by the electrons on the components in the circuit per

coulomb of charge

E=IVt

W =IV t

2.3

Current Potential difference graphs

Ohmic components follow ohms

law, resistance is proportional to

voltage, graph 1

Tungsten filament lamps, as

current increase, voltage increases

but as current increases

temperature also increases this

increases resistance. Graph 2

Semiconductor diode, the diode

allows current to flow freely in one

direction only. The current increase

with voltage, but the rate of

increases increases after the voltage

has passed a certain point. Graph 3

Thermistor, as voltage and current

increase, temperature increases

increasing the number of charge

carriers, decreasing resistance. Graph 4

2.4

Resistance and resistivity

Resistance

The opposition to the movement of charge in a circuit

Collisions between charge carriers and ions mostly but also other charge carriers

Temperature increases the number of collisions (ions vibrate more)

Thickness decreases resistance because if a wires is thicker then more electrons can travel at the

same time and there is a lower chance of a collision due to increased number of path

Lengths increases resistance because there are more collisions

The resistivity is a property of that material, it has the same value no matter what dimensions the

material has.

L

R=

A

Power Dissipation

resistivity m

V2

L length

P= IV =I 2 R=

A cross sectional area

R

1

=

()

conductivity

Anthony Cameron

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Electrical circuits

2.5

Conservation of energy

Around any closed loop, the sum of the e.m.f.s is equal to the sum of the p.d.s2

= p.d.

Internal resistance

Internal resistance: All power sources in a circuit have internal resistance. Hence p.d. Across a

battery is less than e.m.f. when a current flows.

V = IR

therefore

=V IR

When the cell is connected across a component then the voltage will reduce because of its internal

resistance

On an IV graph:

EMF = V + IR

y=V

V = EMF IR

M = -R- The internal resistance of the cell

x=I

c = EMF

2.6

Series and parallel circuits

Resistor in series

The total resistance of a number of components in series is simply the sum of the individual

resistance

so for resistors in series:

Rt = R1 + R2 + ... + Rn

Resistors in parallel

I t= I 1I 2

V

Rt =

It

V V V

therefore =

Rt R1 R 2

1

1

1

1

= ...

Rt R1 R 2

Rn

Adding Cells

If a cell is added in series, the total EMF and internal resistance is the sum of the speerate cells

EMFs or resistance

When two cells are added in parallel, emf and resistance must be calculated using Kirchoffs laws

2.7

Change of resistance with temperature and illumination

Thermistors and LDRs are semi-conductors and therefore when provided with electricity, electrons

move into the conduction band, the greater the energy the greater the conductivity (less resistivity).

2.8

Potential divider

By creating a circuit with two resistors then putting another two circuits, each is in parallel with one

of the resistors, the circuit attached to the resistor with the highest value of resistance will have a

greater potential differences. This is because V = IR

2 Kirchoff's second law

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Heating matter

2.9

Specific heat capacity (c) E = mct

(Specific refers to per mass)

2.10 Specific latent heat (l)

E = ml

Energy released or absorbed by 1 kg of a substance during a phase change

P1 V 1 P 2 V 2

F

=

2.11 Pressure p=

0oC = 273K

A

T1

T2

Kinetic model of matter

2.12 & 2.13 Ideal gases

An ideal gas the time for the collision is small relative to the

time between collisions, elastic collisions, size of the molecule sis small compared to the volume,

molecules move at a constant speed between collisions

p1V 1 p2V 2

pV

=

Therefore

=Constant

T1

T2

T

pV

=nR

R molar gas constant

T

pV =nRT The ideal gas equation

In a closed box with volume xyz a molecule travels parallel to face L X at Velocity v x

hits side,

change in momentum P

P=mv x mv x

=2mv x

2L

2L

v x= x

t= x

t

vx

2L x mv x 2

P

F=

=2mv x

=

t

vx Lx

However there is usually not just one molecule but N moles,

2

2

2

mv

mv

mv

F

also there are 3 pairs of faces rather than one and the mean

x

p= = x =

= x

A Lx A Lx L y Lz

V

square speed is c 2

Nm c 2

therefore

p=

3V

1

pV = Nm c 2

3

Nm

V

c 2

p=

3

1

pV = N mc 2

3

1

pV = N 2KE

3

pV =nRT

1

N 2KE=nRT

3

3 nRT

n

R

KE=

=N 1

=k

A

2 N

N

NA

3kT

KE=

2

Browninan motion

Brownian motion states that because the forces on a particle

will be unbalanced (this is due to the particles around it) it will move randomly.

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Conservation of energy

2.14 & 2.15

Internal energy & Heating

For real gases the random distribution of potential and kinetic energy amongst molecules.

Appreciation that hot and cold objects have different concentrations of internal energy.

internal energy - total kinetic and potential energy of a molecule.

Energy will move from a hot body to a cold body and from a old body to a hot body, however a hot

body has more energy and therefore more energy moved from it, eventually the energy of the hot

and cold body become equal and the movement becomes equal.

U = internal energy

Mechanical work transferring energy by adding a force to an object.

Increase in internal energy = work done on the block

U = W

Work done = force x distance

W = Fx,

for a gas W = V

Electrical work transferring energy using electrical current

Increase in internal energy = energy transferred by working

U = W

Work done = power x time

W = VIt

Heating

Increase in internal energy = energy transferred by heating

U = Q

The zeroth law of thermodynamics If object A is in thermal equilibrium with object B and B is

in thermal equilibrium with object C. Then A must be in thermal equilibrium with C.

The first law of thermodynamics Energy is conserved therefore, the increase in internal energy

is equal to the energy gained by heating plus the energy gained by working

i.e U = Q + W

2.16 The heat engine. This describes the transfer a energy from a hot place to

a cold place and the use of this is to do work. Q1 joules of energy are

transferred to the water at the boiler, W joule is the work done on the turbine that

powers the generator and Q2 is the remaining energy that is transferred to the

atmosphere via the cold sink.

Q

W Q Q2

Efficiency of a heat engine= = 1

=1 2

Q1

Q1

Q1

T 1T 2

T2

Maximum thermal efficiency of a heat engine=

=1

T1

T1

The limitation of the efficiency of a heat engine is how cold the cold sink can

become and how hot the hot source can become.

The heat pump Work needed to pump energy from cold to hot.

The energy given to the hot object equals energy taken form the cold plus the

work done

Ordered and disordered processes

one direction only. It is predictable

Heating a system is a disordered process. Quanta of heat travel both ways in an unpredictable

way.

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A1 Observing stars

Charge coupled devices (CCD) are used to record images of stars. They are efficient, they detect

small amounts of light and the output is linear (linear response) that means that the output signal is

proportional to the light received. A problem with photographic film is that if the film has a large

grain it will be sensitive to light but the image would be clear while a smaller grain film would be

less sensitive to light and the image will be sharper.

The atmosphere affects the light from stars and thereby hinders observations. Changes in

atmospheric density cause stars to twinkle, more than 30% of the visible light is scattered and

different wavelengths of light will be received.

The Infra red Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the

Hubble telescope are satellites used for deep space imaging.

Luminosity is the power emitted by the star (measured in watts).

L = T4A

Intensity is the power radiated from the star that reaches earth (power per metre squared)

Energy Distribution

The energy distribution shows the intensity of various wavelengths of radiation emitted from a

given star.

Wiens Law max x T = 2.898 x 10-3

Where max is the wavelength of the radiation

with the greatest intensity that is emitted by the star. And T is the surface temperature of the star

Surface temperatures of stars range from near absolute zero to

107 K, corresponding to peak wavelengths from radio to X-rays.

Anthony Cameron

8

2

4

=Stefans Constant =5.67 x 10 Wm K

L

Intensity=

2

4 D

maxT =2.898 x 103

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Measuring distance by trigonometric parallax (the angular displacement of an object when viewed

from separate points). The stars position is recorded against the static background of more distant

stars when the Earth is at opposite extremes of its orbit around the sun. The parallax angle is

1

measured and using trigonometry the distance=

. This is assuming that the distance from

tan p

the earth and the sun at both points is 1 AU. A limitation of this method is that the smallest angle

that can be used to get an accurate result is 1/360000 thereby limiting the maximum distance this

method is able to measure at 1018m

Trigonometric parallax

The Hertzsprung-Russel

Diagram

1.

1)

2)

3)

Spectrum determine Temperature from max (Wiens Law)

Use temperature to determine luminosity (HR diagram)

Then use intensity and Luminosity to determine distance

Variable stars undergo variations in luminosity, Cepheid variable stars expand and contract leading

to variations in luminosity. The period of the contractions is related to the absolute magnitude of the

star and therefore if two stars have the same period their absolute magnitude will be the same and

therefore if the magnitude of one of the stars is known then the distance of the other can be

calculated.

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Stars Energy from fusion

In the centre of a star a process called the proton-proton chain. This is a process by which the star

receives its energy. This process starts when the sun is a cloud, as particles in the cloud become

closer together (gravitational collapse) PE decreases and KE increases, T KE, therefore T

increases this starts the process of fusion (burning hydrogen).

1

1

2

0 +

(a)

1H 1 H 1H 1 v

2

1

3

(b)

1H 1 H 2 He

3

3

4

1

(c)

2He 2He 2He 2 1H

v neutrino

Summary:

4 protons helium nucleus + energy

therefore

Mass of energy released =Mass of four protonsMass of helium nucleus

and from this E=mc2

Giant molecular cloud (Stellar Nursery), areas with a high density of particles. Areas of higher

density have a higher gravity and therefore particles will move towards them. As temperature and

pressure increases, the clumps of particles become protostars. As these become hotter, the fusion

of hydrogen starts at 10 megakelvin. The star becomes a main sequence star until it expands all of

its hydrogen into helium (larger and hotter stars produce helium more quickly) where it moves off

the main sequence.

Stars less with masses lass than 0.4 of the sun's mass burn hydrogen slowly. They become white

dwarf stars

Stars between 0.5 and 8 times the mass of our sun become red giants at the end of their lives. When

the hydrogen runs out the fusion of hydrogen stops and the sun starts to contract as there is no

longer hydrostatic equilibrium. As the sun contracts, temperature increases, this allows the helium

to fuse, when the helium runs out the sun contracts again and temperature increases, this allows the

carbon to fuse, this process continues until iron is created, this cannot be fused. This process creates

layers of elements with iron in the core and hydrogen near the outside, the energy from the fusion

expands the outer layers. Matter is lost from these layers as gravitational field is weak. When they

have expanded all fuels they contract and GPE decreases and the star becomes a white dwarf.

Stars with masses greater than 8 times that of the sun become super giants, when the hydrogen runs

out, the sun contracts and the temperature increases causing the helium to fuse, as the fuels run out

the star contracts and temperature increases and the elements fuse into something heavier until the

star becomes layered with iron3 at the centre and hydrogen on the outside. When the core is iron

fusion stops and the star contracts until it becomes energetically favourable for there protons and

electrons combine to form neutrons and the core collapses rapidly and a large amount of energy is

released blowing away the outer layers into space type II supernovae, leaving a core remnant.

If the core remnant after a supernova is more than 1.4 solar masses the central core of neutrons left

behind is more likely to form a neutron star, they are extremely dense and due to low temperature

they can not be seen however because they are magnetised and rotating, they continuously emit

high frequency radio signal along their magnetic axis. Hence the name pulsar.

If core remnant is greater than 2.5 solar masses it will contract until it becomes a singularity, a

black hole, anything that passes the event horizon, can never build up enough velocity to escape.

3

as this cannot produce energy by fusion due to the high amount of energy required for fusion

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White dwarfs. Hot, low volume, low mass stars. Origins and typical masses, (less than about 1.4

solar masses). Core remnants.

Red giants. Cool, high volume, stars. Origins and typical masses, (between 0.4 and 8 solar masses).

Core remnants.

Supernovae (Type II only). Rapid implosion of stars of more than eight solar masses. Shock wave:

outer layers blown away.

Neutron stars. Core remnants greater than about 1.4 solar masses. Formation from electrons and

protons. Very high density. Pulsars.

Black holes. Core remnants greater than about 2.5 solar masses. The dense core traps radiation.

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Circular motion and oscillations

4.1

Angular Speed, Period and Frequency

&

Angular speed () is the magnitude of the vector quantity angular velocity, it is the proportion of a

complete circle per second.

The period (T) of a body doing uniform circular motion is the time it takes to complete one

revolution.

The frequency of rotation is the number of rotations per second.

Distance=2 r

2

=

=

=2 f

v =r

Time=T

t

T

linear velocity=v

2 r

Average speed=v=

v2

angular velocity=

T

a= =r 2

r

4 2 r

Average acceleration= 2

mv2

T

therefore F=

r

mv 2

=the centripetal force=the sum of all forces acting on an object

r

mv2

e.g.

=mgR

r

F=

When in free-fall, none of the supportive upward forces are present and as such there is only

downward acceleration of g and so the body feels weightless. As a shuttle descends at an

acceleration almost equal to g the occupants will be falling at the same acceleration and as such

they will not move but be suspended.

Velocity is a tangent to the circle, however the change in velocity and therefore the acceleration and

force is directed towards the centre of the circle.

The centripetal force is the external force required to make a body follow a circular path at constant

speed. The force is directed inward, toward the centre of the circle.

4.3 & 4.4

SHM

Simple harmonic motion

A harmonic oscillator is a system which, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences

a restoring force F proportional to the displacement x according to Hooke's law:

F = -k x

Simple harmonic motion is the motion of a simple harmonic oscillator, a motion that is neither

driven nor damped.

SHM A periodic motion of constant frequency where the acceleration is always directed towards

the centre of the oscillation.

The motion is sinusoidal in character and as such the displacement-time, velocity-time and

acceleration-time graphs will all resemble sine/cosine waves. The graphs have a phase difference of

from the previous. This is because when displacement is greatest velocity will be zero and

acceleration will be at its lowest.

ma=kx

2

F =kx

a= 2 x

T=

k

x

compare with a=2 x

a=

m

2

k

k

2

by substituting =2 f

a=2 f x

=

=

m

m

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SHM Acceleration is proportional to displacement and directed towards the equilibrium position

4.5

Undamped simple harmonic oscillations

x0 = |maximum displacement|

x =x 0 cos t

dx

v = = x 0 sin t

as such the maximum speed is 2 f x 0

dt

dv

a= =2 x 0 cos t

dt

4.6

k

m

k is the spring stiffness

m

T =2

k

=

l

g

4.7

Resonance

When you give a small displacement to a system it can oscillate, it oscillates at its own frequency.

This is the oscillator's natural frequency.

If energy is being removed from the system, so the oscillations are becoming smaller and smaller,

we say that the oscillations are being damped. The higher the damping the faster the oscillations

will reduce in size. Critical damping is the damping required to make the oscillations stop in the

quickest possible time without going past the equilibrium position.

Resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate at maximum amplitude at a certain frequency.

This frequency is known as the system's resonance frequency, when damping is small, the

resonance frequency is approximately equal to the natural frequency of the system.

When the driving frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the driven system, large-amplitude,

even violent, oscillations may result. This effect is called resonance. Resonance occurs when the

driving frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the system you are driving.

The energy of an oscillating object is constant, as when the velocity (which KE is proportional to) is

greatest, potential energy is smallest. This potential energy changes as displacement of the object

from the ground and the potential energy in the spring changes.

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Waves

4.8

Mechanical waves on water, along springs and in air (sound)

A wave is a means of transferring energy from one point to another without there being any transfer

of matter between the points. A wave can either be mechanical or electromagnetic and a wave can

either be longitudinal or transverse.

A mechanical wave travels between two points through a medium.

4.9

Electromagnetic waves

Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves, they oscillate perpendicular to the direction they

travel. E.M. Waves with differing frequencies have different properties.

Type

Wavelength

Long-wave radio

~ 1200 m

Generation

Uses

Oscillating current in

aerials

Radio

Short-wave radio

~ 30 m

VHF

~3m

UHF

~1m

Microwaves

~ 10 cm

Directly produced in

waveguides

Infra-red

~ 1 m

Visible Light

Ultra-violet

< 400 nm

sparks, discharge tubes

marking, sterilisation

X-rays

~ 10-10 m

Nuclear decay

cancerous cells, sterilising

-12

Television

Gamma rays

~ 10

Cosmic rays

Very short

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Waves that travel out from a source and that carry energy are called travelling or progressive waves.

Stationary waves are called standing waves. These do not transmit energy. These are caused by the

superposition of 2 waves of the same frequency etcetera, propagating in opposite directions. They

do not move.

of a "Longitudinal Waves"

Longitudinal waves, the oscillations of the particles is parallel to the direction of travel. Composed

of compressions and rarefactions.

Transverse waves, the oscillations of the particles is perpendicular to the direction of travel.

Plane polarisation.

With longitudinal waves if the plane is rotated around the direction of the wave, the particles will

still be oscillating in the same direction. However as transverse waves oscillate perpendicular to

direction to travel, rotation will cause a the particles to oscillate in other directions which are still

perpendicular to the direction of the wave.

Longitudinal waves which are only oscillating in one

direction are considered plane polarised. Unpolarised light

waves can be polarised using grilles, if two grilles are

placed in front of each other and one is rotated light will

be blocked out completely.

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4.11

Conservation of energy for waves in free space from a point source

Inverse square law.

As a wave spreads out it gets weaker the further it becomes from the source. Its power is spread

over a larger area, so the power per unit area is diminished. The power per unit area is called the

P

P

energy flux () or intensity (I)

therefore D-2.

=I =

=

2

2

4r 4 D

This relationship of energy flux to the inverse of distance squared is called the inverse square law.

Superposition of waves

4.12

Superposition of waves

Superposition When two waves meet each other

When two waves meet and enhance each others amplitude, this is constructive interference.

When two waves meet each other reducing there amplitudes this is destructive interference.

When waves meet in phase constructive interference occurs

When waves meet completely out of phase destructive interference occurs

Sine and cosine wave are both sinusoidal

Phase - The phase of an oscillation or wave is the fraction of a complete cycle corresponding to an

offset in the displacement from a specified reference point at time t = 0

Path difference is the difference in the distance travelled,

At the point where two waves meet the difference in the distance they have travelled is the path

difference

When two waves of the same frequency meet with a path difference

i) n constructive interference occurs

ii) (n + ) destructive interference occurs

From two sources, when the path difference is an integer of , constructive interference occurs

When the path difference is , destructive interference occurs

The wavefront is the locus of points with the same phase.

Path difference Phase difference

=

Wavelength

2

Diffraction: The spreading out of a wave as it passes through an aperture.

Smaller aperture and larger wavelength leads to more spreading out

There will be no diffraction if the wavelength is many times larger than the aperture

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A2 Physics notes

Compiled by Anthony Cameron

4.15

4.16

Coherent

Monochromatic

Diffraction at a slit

Coherence & Two slit

interference patterns

Same phase

A wave of one frequency

a filter to give it coherency and monochrome.

The coherent wavefront of light impacting on the twin

slits is divided into two new wavefronts that are perfectly

in phase with each other. Light waves from each of the

slits must travel an equal distance to reach point A on the

screen illustrated in Figure 1, and should reach that point

still in phase or with the same phase distance.

The two waves reaching point A are in phase and

therefore constructive interference occurs, producing a

bright red interference fringe on the screen.

Where destructive interference occurs dark regions

appear on the screen. This causes a fringe.

For light, fringe separation is very short. It is difficult to

measure path differences very accurately.

x

=

D s

=wavelength m

400700nm

x=fring seperation m

a few mm

s=slit seperation

0.51.5mm

D=distance from slits to screen 110m

The difference between the distances between the two sources and the maxima is called the path

difference. At the first maxima from the central maxima the path difference equals the

wavelength and at the second maxima the path difference equals twice the wavelength

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Quantum phenomena

4.17

The photon model of electromagnetic radiation

Radiation is emitted in small discrete packet called quantum (pl. quanta), a quantum of

electromagnetic radiation is a photon.

The energy of these quanta is proportional to the frequency of the photons. E = hf were h is plank's

constant (6.626 x 10-34)

The photoelectric effect.

The Work function and the photoelectric equation.

Photoelectric effect electrons are emitted from a metal surface when exposed to light, this is

because when a photon hits an electron either the photon will be reflected or the energy would be

absorbed transferring all its energy to the electron. If the latter happens then an electron will be

promoted depending on the energy of the photon, if the photon has enough energy the electron will

be released.

The minimum frequency required for a photoelectron to be released is the threshold frequency

Properties

Emission is instantaneous (If light was completely a wave the energy would be spread along

the wavefront and no electron would instantly receive the energy required to escape from the

surface)

Emission only occurs if the frequency is above the threshold frequency f0

The number of electrons emitted is proportional to the brightness of the light

Electrons have varying Ek up to a maximum which depends on the frequency of the

radiation

The Ek of the electrons is independent of the brightness of the light

Red light will not cause the emission of electrons

A weak violet light will emit only a few electrons, but their maximum kinetic energies are

greater than those for intense light of longer wavelengths

The work function, is the minimum energy a photon requires, to remove electrons from the

surface of the metal. = hf0 , Minimum photon energy required, for photoelectron emission

from the surface of the metal

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This photoelectric can be seen using a gold leaf electroscope. If a zinc plate is cleaned of its oxide

layer, placed on top of the electroscope and negatively charged. The excess electrons repel each

other and move to the top and bottom of the stem of the electroscope. If the plate is subjected to

photons from light (UV), electrons will be repelled reducing the overall charge and causing the leaf

to slowly fall down.

The Kinetic Energy (Ek) of the electrons can be up to {hf }, the photon energy minus the work

function. Most will have less than this as they lose energy in collisions as they exit the surface.

As such KEmax = hf .

The graph is shown below

shown below, is used. When light hits the photoemissive cathode

electrons are released across the vaccum into the wire anode and

the picoammeter indicates a current.

As the voltage is increased, the current will increase as more electrons are attracted to the

anode, until the saturation current is reached. The saturation point is when all the

photoelectrons reach the anode. A greater intensity will increase the saturation current.

Negative voltage

When the voltage becomes negative it repels the electrons and at a certain negative voltage, called

the stopping potential (Vs). the current will be reduced to zero as all the electrons are repelled by

the other.

The stopping potential depends on the energy of the photoelectrons so KEmax = eVs

and therefore

qVs = hf

Hence a a greater amount of EM energy will result in a greater stopping voltage

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4.18

Energy levels

An atom has a fixed energy corresponding to the orbital in which its electrons move around the

nucleus. The atom can accept a quantum of energy to become an excited atom, if that

The electrons orbiting a nucleus can be found at different energy levels. It is possible to excite

electrons into higher energy by shining specific frequencies of light.

Each element has its own unique pattern of energy levels and frequencies that cause excitation.

When an electron becomes free the potential energy will be zero, however as the electron moves

away its potential energy increases, hence the energy levels have minus values.

The energy delivered to the electrons is equal to the energy difference between the levels

hf = E1 E2

Shortly after becoming excited the electrons will drop down to a lower state. Doing so the lose

energy as a photon. The frequency of the light emitted can be calculated using: hf = E1 E2

Electrons can exist at any of these energy levels, to move

from one level to another energy is required

To excite from ground state to the first excited level requires

-3.4 - (-13.6) = 10.2 eV as hf = E2 E1, the above transition

can occur when a photon of the right frequency is absorbed

by the electron.

hf = 10.2 x 1.6 x 10-19

1eV = 1.6 x 10-19J

-19

-34

f = 10.2 x 1.6 x 10 / 6.63 / 10 = 2.46 x 1015 Hz

Release energy level goes down Absorption opposite

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4.19

Wave properties of electrons & Wave particle duality

Diffraction is a property of waves, when a laser is shone through a diffraction grating:

When a laser is shone through two diffraction gratings at a right angle to each other:

When the laser is shone through many diffraction gratings at many angles

This shows the diffraction of light many

times will lead to concentric circles.

Electrons being particles and not waves

should not do this but when a electrons

are fired through a thin piece of graphite

(the thin graphite crystals act as the

multitude of diffraction gratings at

different angles) concentric circles form.

experiment with electrons, slowly an interference pattern

builds up.

DeBroglie suggested that electrons had wave properties and

therefore they had a wavelength inversely proportional to the

particles momentum.

h

deBroglie wavelength==

p

The rings and the interference pattern build up because the

electron is diffracted, this happens because the de broglie

wavelength is similar to the slit spacing. s

To explain the photoelectric effect, waves must be able to act Each dot is where an electron hit, slowly an

interference pattern builds up

like particles as the emission of a photo electron is

instantaneous. If light was completely a wave the energy would be spread along

the wavefront and no electron would instantly receive the energy required to

escape from the surface.

Wave-particle duality is the concept that waves carrying energy may have a

corpuscular aspect and that particles may have a wave aspect. For example to

explain the photoelectric effect, e.m. waves must act as particles, while electrons

need to be thought of as de Broglie waves in electron diffraction

If the electron in hydrogen is modelled as a particle orbiting the proton then it

Apparatus for the double-slit

should radiate energy and spiral towards the proton. It does not because of its

experiment with electrons

wave characteristics, each allowed orbit corresponds to a standing wave with all

the energy in the wave.

There are a complete number of waves in each orbit . The wave describes the probability of an

electron's location

More waves in higher orbit higher frequency higher energy.

Discrete energy levels corresponding to successive standing wave patterns

Stationary waves in the hydrogen atom Wave properties of electrons in atoms

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4.20

Optical line spectra

The emission spectrum of a body or substance is the characteristic range

of radiations it emits when it is heated, bombarded by electrons or ions, or

absorbs photons. As each atom emits a unique set of frequencies, this

method can be used to find chemical composition.

The absorption spectrum is produced by examining, through the substance

and through a spectroscope, a continuous spectrum of radiation. The

energies removed from the continuous spectrum by the absorbing medium

show up as black lines or bands. With a substance capable of emitting a

spectrum, these are in exactly the same positions in the spectrum as some

of the lines and bands in the emission spectrum.

4.21 Electromagnetic Doppler shift.

The Doppler effect is the change in frequency and wavelength of a wave

as perceived by an observer moving relative to the source of the waves.

If an object is moving away at a greater velocity from the observer than

the wavelength of light emitted behind it will lengthen. If an object is

closing on the observer than the wavelength of light will shorten. The

lengthening of the wavelength is known as red shift and the

opposite blue shift as this is to which ends of the EM spectrum

the frequencies of light will shift to.

Light year=c365.25246060 m

f v

=

=

f

c

A light year is the distance light travels in a year

By measuring the red shift of receding galaxies, astronomers

determined distant galaxies are receding faster than closer

galaxies.

Hubble plotted the distance of galaxies against their recession

velocity and found a correlation. So v = HoD where H0 (or just

H) is Hubble's constant.

H0 (2 1) x 10-18 s-1

Uncertainty in d and H

The Big Bang is the cosmological model of the universe whose primary assertion is that the

universe has expanded into its current state from a primordial condition of enormous density and

temperature.

Assuming all galaxies started at the same point in space, the age of the universe can be worked out

as

D D

Age= =

=H 1

v HD

There are three major possibilities for the end of the universe. These all depend on the average

mass-energy density of the universe and the critical density of the universe which is precisely the

value required to halt the expansion of the universe.

If the average mass density of the universe is greater than the critical density, the universe is

closed, expansion will slow down and the universe will then start contracting, collapsing back on a

single point, the big crunch.

If it is less than the critical density than the universe is open and the universe will continue

expanding but at a decreasing rate.

If it equals the critical density then the universe will expand at a lower rate than the open universe

theory, however eventually all motion of galaxies will cease.

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Graph showing fate of the universe there are two possibilities indefinite expansion or final contraction

< 1 Closed universe

= 1 Critical density

> 1 Open universe

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Gravitational fields

5.1

The concept of a field

A field is a region in which a force acts. The lines in the diagram to the right are

field lines, they represent the gravitational force of the earth. The relative density

of the arrows represents the relative strength of the field, the arrow represents

the direction of the force. In this case the arrows point towards the Earth's centre

of mass as this is the direction of the force any object will feel in this field.

Closer to the surface these lines are virtually parallel and equidistant, as such close to

the surface of the Earth, the Earth's gravitational field can be considered in this small

region, to be uniform

The region in which a body exerts the force of gravity is a gravitational field

The gravitational field strength (referred to as g) at a point in a gravitational field is the force per

unit mass exerted acting on a mass placed at that point

Gravitational field strength is a vector quantity. Its direction is that in which a mass would move

under influence of the field

For an object in free-fall; a = g

5.2

Force between point masses

Gravitational forces are the result of mutual attraction between two objects. They occur between all

pairs of objects. Newton's law of gravitation, force of gravity between two objects is proportional

to the product of their masses and is inversely proportional to their distance.

So Newton's law of gravitation

Gm1 m2 states where G, the universal gravitational

constant equals 6.67 x 10-11 Nm2kg-2 F=

2

r

With spherical objects r is the distance between there centres or mass

Gravitational field strength in radial fields.

F GM

The gravitation field strength equals g = = 2 , where m is the mass of the attracted object,

m r

and M is the mass of the attracting object.

Equipotential surfaces. (The relationship V = Gm/r is not required.)

Equipotentials join points of equal potential. As such all points in a field which have the same

potential can be imagined as lying on a surface (an equipotential surface), or a line if 2 dimensional,

moving objects from one point to another on this surface requires no energy. Equipotentials are

always perpendicular to field lines.

This allows satellites to orbit with no energy required.

For stable orbiting objects the centripetal force is the gravitational force

Kepler's first law of planetary motion:

The shape of a planetary orbit is an ellipse with

the Sun at one of the foci

Kepler's second law of planetary motion:

A line (radius vector) joining a planet and the

sun

sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.

Kepler's third law of planetary motion:

The squares of the orbital periods of planets are

directly proportional to the cubes of the semi-major axis of the orbits.

P2 a3

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g=

F

m

Electric fields

5.3

Electrostatic phenomena and electric charge

Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines

their electromagnetic interaction. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces,

electromagnetic fields. Electric charge is either positive or negative, like charges attract and

opposite charges repel, charge is discrete (it is always a multiple of e, the elementary/electronic

charge (1.6 x 1019 C) and charge is always conserved.

The unit of charge is a coulomb. The coulomb is the quantity of charge which passes any section of

a conductor in one second when a current of one ampere is flowing, i.e. 1C = 1As

5.4

Electrical lines of force

Field lines (lines of force) represent electric fields in diagrams.

The arrows show the direction of force on a small positive charge.

And the density of the arrows shows the relative strength of the

field

Electric field strength (E) at a point is the force exerted by an electric field on one

coulomb.

The unit of electric field strength is NC1.

E=

F

Q

5.5

Force between point charges

The force between two point charges is proportional to the product of the two charges and is

inversely proportional to the distance between the charges squared.

Hence F= kQ 1 Q 2 and in vacuum or air k = 9.0 x 109 otherwise k = 1

Where is the

4 0

r2

permittivity of space.

5.6

E=

F kQq 1 kq

= 2 = 2

Q

Q r

r

F V

F

Electric field strength in uniform fields

E=QV =Fx

E= =

Q

Q x

The potential difference between two points in an electric field is numerically equal to the work

done in moving a unit positive charge from the point at the lower potential to that at the higher

potential.

W = QV

5.7

E=

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Electron beams

Electron beams are emitted from electron guns, the most common sort emits electrons through

thermionic emission. A heats a cathode which emits electrons which are attracted to the anode,

some will be forced through the hole.

The potential energy lost moving from the cathode to the anode is equal to the kinetic energy gained

and as such the kinetic energy of the electron equals the product of the electrons charge and the

potential difference between the two electrodes.

1

2

m e v =e V

2

Capacitance

5.8

Capacitance

Capacitance is the measure of how much charge can be stored at a particular

voltage and is equal to the charge required to cause unit change in the potential of a

conductor.

Q

C=

the unit of capacitance is the Farad (F)

V

The charging of a

capacitor, the arrow

represents the direction

A capacitor consists of two parallel plates, when a potential difference is applied across of electron flow

the plates there will be a momentary flow of current. Electrons are drawn from plate A by the

battery's positive terminal and electrons are deposited on plate B by the action of the negative

terminal. Hence plate A becomes positively charged and plate B becomes negatively charged.

When the potential difference across the capacitor equals the potential difference across the

battery, the capacitor is 'fully charged'. The charge on plates A and B are equal and opposite.

5.9

Capacitors in series and parallel circuits

Capacitors in series

Capacitors in parallel

For components in series, voltage will be the sum For components in parallel, voltage will be the

of all the component voltages, and current (and same for each capacitor and the total sum of their

therefore charge) will remain constant.

currents will be the sum of all the component

Q

currents

V t =V 1V 2...V n

Substitute V =

I t =I 1I 2...I n

Substitute Q=It=VC

C

VC t VC 1 VC 2

VC

Q Q Q

Q

= ...

Q cancels out

=

... n

C t C1 C2

Cn

t

t

t

t

1

1

1

1

V and t cancel out leaving;

= ...

C t =C 1C 2...C n

C t C1 C 2

Cn

Comparison with resistance

Capacitance across series and parallel follows an opposite rule to that of resistance. This is because

Resistance is proportional to voltage but capacitance is inversely proportional to voltage

i.e.

V =IR=

Q

C

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V R

1

C

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5.10

Q

V Q

C

Hence if a graph of potential difference against charge of a capacitor is

graphed, the resulting will line will be straight.

As E = QV, the area under this graph will be the energy stored in the capacitor. This area under the

graph is triangular and so is equal to QV so;

1

E= QV

and by substituting in Q=VC

2

V 2C Q2

E=

=

2

2C

V=

This can also be shown using calculus, as the work done transferring charge from one plate to

another is the product of the potential difference between the two plates and the size of the charge

being transferring so;

Q

W=V Q= Q hence;

C

Q

Q

Q

Q2

Q2

W =

dQ =

=

2C 0

2C

0 C

[ ]

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Magnetic fields

5.11

Permanent magnets

The region surrounding a magnet in which magnetic effects can be

experienced is the magnetic field of the magnetic. The direction of this

field is the direction in which a north magnetic pole would move

under the influence of the field if it was placed at that point. The path

which such a pole would follow is called a magnetic field line.

Opposite poles attract, while like poles repel.

A Neutral point is a point where overlapping magnetic fields cancel

so the resultant field strength is zero. An example of a neutral point

The denser the magnetic field lines the

would be the area directly between two repelling magnetics.

stronger the magnetic field. The

magnetic field lines go from the north

to the south pole of the magnet

Field lines for magnets attracting and repelling

each other, the neutral point is directly between the

two north poles in the first diagram

describes the direction of thrust on a conductor carrying

a current in a magnetic field.

5.12

Magnetic flux density (B-field)

B is the symbol that represents Magnetic flux density,

this is the force acting per unit current length. The unit

of B is the Tesla (T). B is a vector, the direction of B is

that of a tangent to the field line at that point but can also be found if the left hand rule is applied. If

the field lines are parallel, the field is uniform so magnetic flux density is constant.

Magnetic flux density is not the strength of the magnetic field but the ability of the field to apply a

force F on a wire length L with a current of I flowing through it hence; F = BIL

Electric field E

Magnetic field B

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5.13

Magnetic effects of a steady current

Wires will have a circular magnetic field round them, the direction of the field

depends on the direction of the current.

If wires are coiled the fields combine and become directed through the centre of the

coil. This coil is called a solenoid and has a magnetic field as shown below, the

magnetic flux densities are constant throughout the centre of the solenoid as the field

there is uniform.

the current, the curled

fingers of the right hand

represents the direction

of the field

Hall effect

When a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to a conductor through which a

current is flowing, there will be an increase in potential difference on the opposite

sides of the conductor. This happens because the charge carriers will experience a force

when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the direction of current. This causes

the charge carriers to change direction and collect on one side. The surplus on one side

and the deficit on the opposite side, hence more charge carriers are attracted to one side.

This an be used to measure magnetic flux density, by taking a semiconductor passing a

current through it and connecting it to a sensitive voltmeter. This is a Hall probe. As the

Hall voltage is proportional to the magnetic flux density, the Hall probe can be used to

determine magnetic flux densities

The hall effect

Flux density due to an infinitely long straight wire

Flux density on the axis of an infinitely long

solenoid

I

B= 0

B=

0nI

2r

0 is the permeability of free space, r is the distance from the wire,

n is the turn density

(number of coil turns per unit length) and I is the current flowing through the wire

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Electromagnetic induction

5.14

Magnetic flux, flux linkage

Magnetic flux () is a measure of quantity of magnetism taking into account strength and extent of

the magnetic field. The unit of magnetic flux is the Weber (Wb) 1 T = 1Wb m2

Flux linkage () is the product of the number of turns of a coil and the magnetic flux through the

coil.

5.15

Electromagnetic induction

By passing a magnet through a coil of wire an EMF can be induced. As the free electrons in the

conductor are moved by the magnetic field.

Faraday's law. The magnitude of the induced EMF in a circuit is directly proportional to the rate of

change of flux linkage or to the rate of change of cutting of magnetic flux.

Lenz's law. The direction of the induced e.m.f. is such that it tends to to oppose the flux change

causing it, and does oppose it if induced current flows.

These two laws can be summarised as;

= dtd N

Lenz's law is an example of the principle conservation of energy. As when a magnet is pushed

towards the coil there is resistance, hence energy is required to push the magnet forward and when

the magnet is removed from the field there is resistance to that so more energy is required to keep

the magnet moving.

With induction involving a straight conductor, the direction of motion is opposite to the motion of a

conductor caused by a current flowing in the same direction a magnetic field in the same direction,

hence a right hand rule can be applied for a straight conductor inducing an EMF by passing through

a magnetic field.

EMF of a straight conductor, lengthl ,

moving through an uniform magnetic field with velocity

v

d

=N

N is constant so

dt

dA

=N B

=BA and B is constant

dt

=Blv

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F=B I l

=BA

=N

5.16

The transformer

A transformer is used to either step-up (increase) or step-down (decrease) a voltage. It is essentially

two solenoids wound around the same soft iron core so they are connected magnetically but not

electrically. The side with the input voltage is called the primary coil and the output is called the

secondary. The ratio between the two voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns on the

primary to the number of turns on the secondary, i.e V p N p

=

Vs Ns

The transformer works using the principle of mutual induction, if two coils are close together, then

changing the current in the primary coil sets up a changing magnetic field at the secondary coil

hence an EMF is induced in the second. Hence a transformer will only work with AC.

EMF induced proportional to the rate of change of flux linkage, however the number of primary and

secondary coils are constant so.

d

d

So p=N p

and s=N s

dt

dt

d

The core ensures that the flux associated with one coil also passes through the other. As dt

remains constant, the equations can be equated as p s which becomes p N p or V

Np

p

=

=

=

N p Ns

s N s

Vs Ns

Eddy currents

Any metal moving in a magnetic field or exposed to a changing one, will have EMFs induced in it.

This can cause circulating currents, called eddy currents, to flow inside the metal. They will follow

low resistance paths so they may be quite large. There magnetic fields will oppose the field which

created them, this will slow down a moving body (useful in gauges and other devices with needles

which may require electromagnetic damping) and through this and Joule heating energy can be lost.

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Unit 6: Synthesis

Analogies in physics

6.1

Comparison of springs and capacitors

Both capacitors and springs store energy, one is electrical in nature, the other mechanical.

With a capacitor the energy comes from a voltage displacing charge from one plate to another,

with the spring it is from the force that is extending the spring.

V Q and F x

hence V=Q/C and F = kx

W =V Q=

Q

Q

C

hence;

W =F x=kx x

x

hence;

x

[ ]

kx 2

Wd = kx dx =

2

0

1

= Fx

Q

Q

Q

Wd =

dQ =

=

2

0

2C 0

2C

0 C

Similarity;

Energy stored in a capacitor equals VQ and energy stored in a capacitor equals Fx

2 Q

6.2

[ ]

Gravitational fields

F = mg

Electric fields

Unit is N Kg-1

F = QE

Unit is N C-1

Point masses/charges produce a radial gravitational/electrical field

Near to the surface of a spherical body, there is an uniform gravitational/electrical field

All masses attract each other

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6.3

Comparison of capacitor discharge and radioactive decay

Over time the energy in a capacitor will discharge, like radioactive decay, capacitor discharge is

exponential. i.e. the rate of decay is proportional to the quantity that is subject to exponential

decay.

dQ

Q

dN

This can be written as: dt = N for radioactive decay or dt = RC for capacitor

discharge.

As such both processes can be graphed as either

N =N 0 e

t

RC

I =I 0 e

starting number of nuclei/ starting current. With this equation Current is interchangeable with

charge, so Q=Q e

0

or

t

RC

As both processes are subject to exponential decay, theoretically they both go on indefinitely,

however as both charge and size of an atom's nuclei have to be discrete values, this is not the case.

Both equations can be arranged in similar ways to find t (half life), except they will have

difference time constants, for radioactive decay is subject to the time constant of -1 and capacitor

discharge is subject to RC (the product of capacitance and resistance)

N =N 0 e t

ln N =ln N 0 t

N

ln 0 =ln N 0t 1

2

2

t 1 =ln 2

2

t 1=

2

ln 2 0.69

ln 2

So for radioactive decay t 1 =

& for capacitor discharge t 1 =RC ln 2

2

I=

dQ Q

=

dt RC

Q=Q 0 e

Activity=

t

RC

N =N 0 e

t 1 =ln 2 RC

2

Anthony Cameron

dN

= N

dt

Time constant; 1

ln 2

t 1=

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Note

dQ

=I

dt

Accelerators

6.4

Conservation of mass energy

Einstein proposed that mass and energy where equivalent, and therefore if the energy of a body

changes by the amount E, the mass will change by the amount m E = c2 m

When dealing with small masses in nuclear physics, the mass can be measured in unified

atomic mass units, 1u is one twelfth the mass of the carbon-12 atom. 1u 1.66 x 1027 kg

1 u=

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear fission is the process of splitting a nucleus into

smaller nuclei.

This is done by bombarding certain heavy nuclei with

neutrons causing them to fragment.

Fission of certain heavy elements will also produce

more neutrons. So essentially each fission event can

generate more neutrons each of which can start a new

event. These chain reactions can be harnessed and

controlled.

An element that can sustain a fission chain reaction is

called a fissile. An example of which is uranium 235

Fission of heavy elements is an exothermic reaction

which can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and as kinetic

energy of the fragments.

1

kg

1000 N A

Nuclear Fusion

Fusion is the union of light nuclei into heavier nuclei. This process will lead to a transfer of mass

and consequent liberation of energy. Fusion reactions require energy to start but usually the energy

produced is more than enough to propagate the reaction.

6.5

Principles of Linear accelerators

To produce charged particles with a large acceleration, it is feasible to use a Van de Graff generator

to generate beam of protons each with energy in the order if MeV (Mega Electron Volts).

A linear particle accelerator (a Linac) is a device in which charged particles are passed through an

evacuated tube with a series of charged plates. The plates are connecting to an AC power supply so

that there charge changes. A linac can acceleration particles so they have GeV's of energy.

PrincipleAs

of linear

accelerator

a particle

can not

go faster than the speed of light, electrons with extremely high energy will

have

anp.d.s

increased

mass theelectrons

closer there speed gets to the speed of light.

Switching

to keep accelerating

alternating high

frequency p.d.

at one instant

+

bunches of electrons between

electrodes are accelerated

a little later

zero p.d.

bunches of electrons

drift through tube

a little later still

Anthony Cameron

bunches of electrons between

electrodes are further accelerated

revision 88

electrons are going faster

particles collide with a target

containing protons and produce

showers of elementary particles

Colliding beams: Two identical

beams with equal but opposite

momentum will collide and have a

final KE of 0, so lots of exotic

particles will be created.

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6.6

Principles of Ring accelerators

A force acting on a current flowing at 90O to a magnetic field is given by F = BIl

The current is given by I = nAQ So F = B(nAQ)l.

As nAl equals the number of charged particles

F = BQ equals the force on each particle

F = BQv

Placing an electron gun in a glass tube filled with gas, will show the

electrons' path as due to inelastic collisions between gas particles

and electrons, photons will be released. By then placing this tube

near a permanent magnet, a force is produced on the electrons

perpendicular to their motion. This causes circular motion.

Cyclotron

An electric field is used to accelerate a charged particles across a

gap between two "D-shaped" magnetic field regions. The magnetic

field accelerates the particles in a semicircle, during which time the

electric field is reversed in polarity to accelerate the charge particle

again as it moves across the gap in the opposite direction. In this

way a moderate electric field can accelerate charges to a high

energy. This overcame the difficulty of electric discharge caused by the high DC voltages in the

Cockroft-Walton and van de Graaf accelerators.

Bq =

mv2

r

Bq v

= =

m r

Bq

f=

=

2 2 m

Colliding beam experiments

Theoretically if two beams with equal and opposite momentum collide,

they will have zero kinetic energy and momentum. All the remaining

energy is used to create new particles.

6.6

Principles of detecting particles

Principles of spark and drift chambers

A spark chamber is a sealed box with layers of stacked metal plates. High pressure gas fills the

space between the plates. A potential difference is applied across alternate layers. As a charged

particle moves through the detector, it will ionise gas particles and a spark will be produced..

A drift chamber (sometimes known as a wire chamber) is a detector

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Cloud chambers

Cloud chambers can be used to track ionised particles that pass through them, essentially they

consist of a sealed environment usually containing cooled, supersaturated ethanol vapour. The

temperature is maintained by dry ice and the air is kept saturated by felt pads soaked in ethanol.

Areas of the vapour will become ionised by the ionising radiation. These ions will act as a

condensation nuclei causing nearby ethanol droplets to coalesce and condense forming a mist (this

is very similar to the way in which water coalesces with atmospheric dirt to form fog). A light is

shined through the tank to show the track made.

Bubble chambers

A bubble chamber is filled with liquid gas (usually liquid hydrogen), the

pressure is then decreased, so the liquid enters a superheated metastable

phase, i.e. the liquid gas will stay in liquid form, even though this is

energetically unstable. Charged particles travelling through this liquid will

ionise causing liquid to vaporise, this causes bubbles along the particles

track. The chamber is placed in a magnetic field which cause the particles to

follow a helical course.

Cameras are mounted all around the chamber to produce 3d images, of the

microscopic track.

Bubble chamber

This can be done by deduction. You can tell a neutral particle exists by the gap in particle tracks.

p n + + + e

this equation wouldn't add up without the neutron, so if you start with proton

and detect a positron and neutrino you can deduce the existence of a neutron.

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Because of their larger size, particles will have shorter tracks than particles, but they will be

thicker because of the greater ionising property

i. The tracks left by alpha particles

ii. The single track was left by a highly energetic electron, the squiggly lines are tracks of

electrons knocked from atoms by X-rays from the same source as the particles

iii. e.m. radiation such as the X-rays used in this photograph is absorbed by the surface of the

cloud chamber and beta radiation is emitted in all directions

Interpretation of particle tracks from a bubble chamber

The radius of curvature of the helical course of the particle depends on the charge to mass ratio,

however with subatomic particles that have a charge of 1, the radius of curvature can be said to be

proportional to the particles momentum.

A particle with greater momentum moving through a magnetic field will be deflected less.

The direction will also give an indication of the direction of the charge.

chamber hit other nuclei creating more

particles

Diagram showing paths of particles through a bubble chamber

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Appendix 1

x

%uncertainty=

100

x

range of values

%uncertainty=

2average value

x 1 x 2

uncertainty=

x

x actual

uncertainty= 1

actual

Ruler = 1mm

Micrometer = 0.01mm

Vernier calliper = 0.1mm

Experiments Units 1 and 2

Measure of gravitational pull

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Conservation of Momentum

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Acceleration/ of a trolley

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Experiments involving waves

Polarisation, superposition and stationary waves

Effect of a polarised in the path of plane polarised light

A polaroid is placed in front of a light source, two in line if the the source is non-polarised (the first

plane polarises the light. The polaroids are placed so light is detected, if two polaroids are used they

must be inline. The polaroid is rotated, as it is rotated the intensity of light will diminish when the

polaroid has been rotated 90O, i.e. the two polaroids are at right angles.

Experiment showing two slit superposition using microwaves and calculation of wavelength

A polarised light source, i.e. a microwave source is placed facing two slits. A probe is placed a

distance away from the slits on the other side. As it is moved left and right there will be maxima

and minima. The nth maxima is taken and a measurement of distance from the central maxima is

taken. The wavelength will be this distance divided by n.

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A reflective surface is placed in front of a polarised source, such as a microwave transmitter. It will

create a standing wave. By moving a probe between the transmitter and the reflective surface

(slightly above it), maxima and minima can be found. The wavelength can be found by measuring

the distance of the nth maxima, the wavelength equals twice the distance divided by n. = 2dn-1

Attach a string under tension (this is done using a pulley and a

hanging mass) to a vibration generator, adjust frequency using a

signal generator until a standing wave is created.

Measure the effect on the period of a pendulum (T), if pendulum length (l), mass (M) or

starting angle () is changed.

Hang the pendulum, pull it back and measure the time taken for the pendulum. Measure the time, T,

taken for N oscillations. Change the mass of pendulum, starting angle or length of pendulum and

repeat again measuring the time for N oscillations. Multiple oscillations are measured as this gives

greater accuracy

Draw graphs of results

if l is variable use T2 as T l

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Photocell experiments

uses a variable power supply

uses a variable ammeter

Experiment to measure stopping potential

Shine a light of known frequency at the photocell cathode. Start with a high voltage and decrease

until current equals zero. The magnitude of this voltage is the stopping potential, Vs, and

qVs

= hf

This can also be used to calculate the work function, .

Experiment to find saturation point

Shine an ultraviolet light at the photocell cathode. Start with a low voltage and increase. Draw a

graph of current against voltage

The saturation point is where the graph levels and further

changes in voltage lead to no change in current. As this is

when all electrons reach the anode.

photoelectric effect.

A zinc plate is cleaned of its oxide layer, placed on

top of the electroscope and negatively charged.

Initially the leaf will be up

When subjected subjected to photons from light

(UV), the leaf will slowly fall down.

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Base SI units

SI Unit

is a Measure of ...

SI Unit

kg (kilograms) Mass

is a Measure of ...

cd (candela)

Luminosity

m (metres)

Distance

mol (moles)

Amount of a substance4

s (seconds)

time

K (kelvin)

A (Amperes)

Electric Current

Thermodynamic

Temperature

C Coulomb

F Farad

J Joule

Ohm

V Volts

Wb Weber

T Tesla

Newton

56 of them (so most, not all of them), labelled alphabetically

Greek letters were organised by the first letter of their name

phi; lambda; / upper and lower case omega; sigma; epsilon; rho

A to N

N to X

Acceleration (m s-2)

Activity (s-1)

O Moments (N m)

Capacitance (F)

Pressure (N m-2)

Power (J s-1)

Distance (m)

Resistivity (m)

distance

Resistivity ( m)

Energy (J)

Q Charge (C)

Ek

Force (N)

R Resistance ()

Frequency (s )

f0

g

Individual charge (C)

Radius (m)

Threshold frequency (s )

Distance (m)

Time (s)

-1

-1

H0

T Temperature (K)

Impulse (N s)

Current (A)

NA 6.022 x 10^23

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Intensity (W m-2)

KE

Kinetic Energy

V volume (m3)

Length (m)

luminosity

Wavelength (m)

Displacement (m)

B

Magnetic flux density (T)

N Number of turns on a coil

e

Common metric prefixes at A-level

Giga-

centi-

-2

Mega-

mili-

-3

kilo-

micro-

-6

Yotta-

24

deci-

-1

Zetta-

21

cent-

-2

Exa-

18

mili-

-3

Peta-

15

micro-

-6

Tera-

12

nano-

-9

Giga-

pico-

-12

Mega-

femto-

-15

myria-

my

atto-

-18

kilo-

zepto-

-21

hecto-

yocto-

-24

deka-

da

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Unit 1 Mechanics and radioactivity equations

Kinematic equations

1

v=uat

v 2 =u 22as

s=ut at 2

2

Mechanics

p=mv

m

V

F =ma

P=

F=

mv u

t

I =Ft =m v u

O= Fd

F

A

1

PE=mgh

KE= m v 2

2

P=Fv

W = Fx = Mechanical work

P=

I=

l

A

Q

t

W

t

Electricity

Q= It

I =nAqv

R=

1

s= uv t

2

P=IV

W P

E

= = p.d.=

=

Q

Q I

Gases

pV

=NR

T

1

pV = Nm c 2

3

Thermal physics

E=mc t

E=ml

V =EIR

P=

Nm

V

U =Q W

1

1 1

1

= ... Parallel

R t R1 Rt

Rn

1

p= P c2

3

0

C =273 K

L= T 4 A

I=

max T =2.898103

L

2

4D

Anthony Cameron

D=

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1

tan

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Circular motion

v=r

x=2 r

v=

2 r

T

T=

1

f

a=

x= x 0 cos t

2r

=r 2

2

T

F =kx

dx

v= = x 0 sint

dt

2

=

t

T

a= 2 x

dv

2

= x 0 cos t

dt

a=

=

k

m

T =2

m

k

T =2

v= f

E=hf

I=

P

4 r 2

The universe

v= H 0 D

E k =E

=hf 0

h

p

x

=

D s

T =H 1

Gravitational fields

G m1 m2

F GM

F=

g= = 2

2

m

r

r

Electric fields

k Q 1 Q2

F=

r2

W =QV

Capacitance

1

1

1

1

= ...

Ct C1 C 2

Cn

C t =C 1C 2...C n

series

parallel

C=

Q

V

E=

F V kq

= =

Q x r2

B=

=BA

0 I

2r

=N

k=

1

4 0

1

me v 2 =e V

2

1

E= QV

2

Magnetic fields

F =BIL

l

g

= dtd N =B l v

Vp Np

=

Vs Ns

B=0 n I

E=c2 m

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F=BQV =

mv 2

r

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Alphabetical Index

Accelerators........................................................................................................................................ 38

alpha radiation...................................................................................................................................... 4

Analogies............................................................................................................................................ 36

Angular Speed.................................................................................................................................... 16

Atmospheric effects............................................................................................................................12

AU...................................................................................................................................................... 13

B-field.................................................................................................................................................32

Background radiation........................................................................................................................... 4

beta radiation........................................................................................................................................ 4

big bang.............................................................................................................................................. 26

Black hole........................................................................................................................................... 14

Browninan motion.............................................................................................................................. 10

bubble chambers................................................................................................................................. 40

Capacitance.........................................................................................................................................30

capacitor............................................................................................................................................. 30

capacitor charging.............................................................................................................................. 31

Capacitor discharge............................................................................................................................ 37

capacitor discharging..........................................................................................................................31

capacitor, energy stored......................................................................................................................31

Capacitors in parallel.......................................................................................................................... 30

Capacitors in series.............................................................................................................................30

carbon-12............................................................................................................................................ 38

CCD, Charge coupled devices............................................................................................................12

Cepheid variable stars.........................................................................................................................13

Cetnripetal force................................................................................................................................. 16

Charge...................................................................................................................................................6

Charge carrier density...........................................................................................................................6

closed universe................................................................................................................................... 26

cloud chambers................................................................................................................................... 40

COBE, Cosmic Background Explorer................................................................................................12

Coherence........................................................................................................................................... 21

Cold sink.............................................................................................................................................11

Colliding beam experiments...............................................................................................................38

Comparison of capacitance with resistance........................................................................................30

Comparison of capacitor discharge and radioactive decay................................................................ 37

Comparison of electric and gravitational fields..................................................................................36

Comparison of springs and capacitors................................................................................................36

Compressions..................................................................................................................................... 19

Conductivity......................................................................................................................................... 8

conservation of energy....................................................................................................................... 34

Conservation of energy.............................................................................................................9, 11, 20

Conservation of energy, Principle of....................................................................................................3

Conservation of mass energy..............................................................................................................38

Conservation of Momentum...............................................................................................................43

constructive interference.................................................................................................................... 20

critical density.................................................................................................................................... 26

cross sectional area............................................................................................................................... 6

Current.................................................................................................................................................. 6

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Cyclotron............................................................................................................................................ 39

DeBroglie........................................................................................................................................... 25

decay constant...................................................................................................................................... 4

Density..................................................................................................................................................3

derived units....................................................................................................................................... 51

destructive interference...................................................................................................................... 20

Detecting neutral particles.................................................................................................................. 40

detecting particles............................................................................................................................... 39

Diffraction.......................................................................................................................................... 20

diffraction gratings............................................................................................................................. 25

Doppler shift....................................................................................................................................... 26

drift chambers..................................................................................................................................... 39

Drift velocity........................................................................................................................................ 6

E.M.F. (Electromotive forces)..............................................................................................................8

Eddy currents......................................................................................................................................35

Efficiency of a heat engine................................................................................................................. 11

Electric field strength......................................................................................................................... 29

Electric fields......................................................................................................................................29

Electrical potential difference...............................................................................................................8

Electrical work....................................................................................................................................11

Electricity............................................................................................................................................. 6

Electromagnetic induction..................................................................................................................34

electromagnetic spectrum, the............................................................................................................ 18

Electromagnetic waves....................................................................................................................... 18

Electron beams................................................................................................................................... 30

energy flux..........................................................................................................................................20

Energy levels...................................................................................................................................... 24

Energy, capacitor................................................................................................................................ 31

Equipotential surfaces........................................................................................................................ 28

error.................................................................................................................................................... 42

exponential rate.................................................................................................................................... 4

Farad................................................................................................................................................... 30

Faraday cage....................................................................................................................................... 36

Faraday's law...................................................................................................................................... 34

field strength.................................................................................................................................... 28p.

Fields.................................................................................................................................................. 28

final contraction..................................................................................................................................27

Fission.................................................................................................................................................38

Fixed target experiments.................................................................................................................... 38

Fleming's left hand rule...................................................................................................................... 32

flux linkage......................................................................................................................................... 34

Forces................................................................................................................................................... 2

Free body force diagrams..................................................................................................................... 2

Frequency........................................................................................................................................... 16

fusion.................................................................................................................................................. 14

Fusion................................................................................................................................................. 38

gamma radiation................................................................................................................................... 4

Giant molecular cloud........................................................................................................................ 14

Gold leaf electroscope........................................................................................................................ 50

Gravitational field strength.................................................................................................................28

Gravitational fields............................................................................................................................. 28

Gravitational Potential Energy............................................................................................................. 3

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Half life.................................................................................................................................................4

Hall effect........................................................................................................................................... 33

Hall probe........................................................................................................................................... 33

Heat.....................................................................................................................................................10

Heat pump.......................................................................................................................................... 11

Heating............................................................................................................................................... 11

Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram............................................................................................................. 13

Hot source...........................................................................................................................................11

Hubble telescope................................................................................................................................ 12

Hubble's constant................................................................................................................................26

Hubble's law....................................................................................................................................... 26

Hydrogen atom, stationary waves...................................................................................................... 25

Ideal gases.......................................................................................................................................... 10

indefinite expansion of the universe...................................................................................................27

infinitely long straight wire, Flux density.......................................................................................... 33

Insulators.............................................................................................................................................. 7

intensity.............................................................................................................................................. 20

Intensity.............................................................................................................................................. 12

Internal energy....................................................................................................................................11

Internal resistance................................................................................................................................. 9

Interpretation of particle tracks from a bubble chamber.................................................................... 41

Interpretation of particle tracks from a cloud chamber...................................................................... 41

Inverse square law.............................................................................................................................. 20

IRAS, Infra red Astronomical Satellite.............................................................................................. 12

isotopes................................................................................................................................................. 4

Kepler's three laws of planetary motion............................................................................................ 28

Kinematics............................................................................................................................................ 2

Kinetic Energy......................................................................................................................................3

Kinetic model of matter......................................................................................................................10

Kirchoff's first law................................................................................................................................ 6

Kirchoff's second law........................................................................................................................... 9

Laws of thermodynamics................................................................................................................... 11

LDRs (Light Dependant resistors)........................................................................................................9

left hand rule.......................................................................................................................................32

Lenz's law........................................................................................................................................... 34

light year............................................................................................................................................. 26

Linear momentum................................................................................................................................ 3

Linear particle accelerators.................................................................................................................38

linear response.................................................................................................................................... 12

Longitudinal Waves............................................................................................................................19

Luminosity..........................................................................................................................................12

magnetic field line.............................................................................................................................. 32

Magnetic fields................................................................................................................................... 32

Magnetic flux......................................................................................................................................34

Magnetic flux density......................................................................................................................... 32

Magnetic Flux linkage........................................................................................................................ 34

mass-energy density........................................................................................................................... 26

Mechanical energy................................................................................................................................3

Mechanical oscillators........................................................................................................................ 17

Mechanical work................................................................................................................................ 11

Metals................................................................................................................................................... 7

Metric prefixes....................................................................................................................................52

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moments............................................................................................................................................... 2

momentum............................................................................................................................................ 3

Monochromatic...................................................................................................................................21

Natural frequency............................................................................................................................... 17

Nebulars..............................................................................................................................................14

neutral particles.................................................................................................................................. 40

Neutral point....................................................................................................................................... 32

Neutron star........................................................................................................................................ 14

Newton's First Law of motion.............................................................................................................. 2

Newton's Third law of motion.............................................................................................................. 2

Newton's three laws of motion............................................................................................................. 3

Newtons second law of motion........................................................................................................... 3

Nuclear Fission................................................................................................................................... 38

Nuclear Fusion....................................................................................................................................38

open universe......................................................................................................................................26

Optical line spectra............................................................................................................................. 26

Ordered and disordered processes...................................................................................................... 11

Parallax............................................................................................................................................... 13

Parallel circuits..................................................................................................................................... 9

Path difference....................................................................................................................................20

Peak wavelengths............................................................................................................................... 12

pendulums...........................................................................................................................................49

Pendulums.......................................................................................................................................... 16

Period..................................................................................................................................................16

Permanent magnets.............................................................................................................................32

Phase...................................................................................................................................................20

Photocell............................................................................................................................................. 50

photoelectron...................................................................................................................................... 22

photoelectrons.....................................................................................................................................50

photoemmisive cell.............................................................................................................................23

pi-mesons............................................................................................................................................41

pions................................................................................................................................................... 41

Plane polarisation............................................................................................................................... 19

point charges.......................................................................................................................................29

point masses........................................................................................................................................28

Polarisation................................................................................................................................... 19, 48

Potential difference graphs................................................................................................................... 8

Potential divider....................................................................................................................................9

Power.................................................................................................................................................... 3

Power dissipation..................................................................................................................................8

Pressure...............................................................................................................................................10

Progressive waves.............................................................................................................................. 19

Projectiles............................................................................................................................................. 2

proton-proton chain............................................................................................................................ 14

Protostars............................................................................................................................................ 14

pulsar.................................................................................................................................................. 14

Quantum phenomena..........................................................................................................................22

radial fields...................................................................................................................................... 28p.

radioactive decay................................................................................................................................ 37

Radioactive decay.................................................................................................................................4

Radioactivity.........................................................................................................................................4

Rarefactions........................................................................................................................................ 19

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Red giants........................................................................................................................................... 14

Resistance............................................................................................................................................. 8

resistivity.............................................................................................................................................. 8

Resonance...........................................................................................................................................17

right hand rule..................................................................................................................................33p.

Ring accelerators................................................................................................................................ 39

Saturation point.................................................................................................................................. 23

Semi-conductors................................................................................................................................... 7

Series circuits........................................................................................................................................9

SHM, Simple harmonic motion..........................................................................................................16

SI units................................................................................................................................................51

sinusoidal............................................................................................................................................ 20

solenoid...............................................................................................................................................33

spark chambers................................................................................................................................... 39

Specific heat capacity......................................................................................................................... 10

specific heat capacity of an aluminium block.................................................................................... 44

specific heat capacity of water............................................................................................................43

Specific latent heat............................................................................................................................. 10

specific latent heat of fusion...............................................................................................................45

specific latent heat of vaporisation..................................................................................................... 46

Springs................................................................................................................................................ 17

Standing waves in Hydrogen..............................................................................................................25

Star classes, Summary........................................................................................................................ 15

Stars................................................................................................................................................. 12p.

Stationary waves.................................................................................................................................19

Stefans constant.................................................................................................................................. 12

Stellar Nursery....................................................................................................................................14

Stopping potential...............................................................................................................................23

super giants......................................................................................................................................... 14

Supernovae, type II.............................................................................................................................14

superposition.......................................................................................................................................48

Superposition...................................................................................................................................... 20

Surface temperature............................................................................................................................12

Symbols.............................................................................................................................................. 51

Tesla................................................................................................................................................... 32

The heat engine...................................................................................................................................11

The nuclear atom.................................................................................................................................. 5

The photoelectric effect...................................................................................................................... 22

Thermistors...........................................................................................................................................9

time constant.......................................................................................................................................37

Time Period........................................................................................................................................ 16

transformer......................................................................................................................................... 35

Transverse waves................................................................................................................................19

two slit superposition using................................................................................................................ 48

u.......................................................................................................................................................... 38

Uncertainty......................................................................................................................................... 42

uniform............................................................................................................................................ 28p.

Wave particle duality..........................................................................................................................25

Wave properties of electrons.............................................................................................................. 25

wavefront............................................................................................................................................ 20

Waves................................................................................................................................................. 18

Weber................................................................................................................................................. 34

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Wiens Law..........................................................................................................................................12

wire..................................................................................................................................................... 33

wire chamber...................................................................................................................................... 39

work function......................................................................................................................................50

Work function.....................................................................................................................................22

Young's double slit experiment.......................................................................................................... 21

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