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A level Physics notes

By Anthony Cameron

Table of Contents
Unit 1: Mechanics and Radioactivity................................................................................................... 2
Rectilinear motion............................................................................................................................2
Forces and moments........................................................................................................................ 2
Dynamics......................................................................................................................................... 3
Mechanical energy........................................................................................................................... 3
Radioactive decay and the nuclear atom..........................................................................................4
Unit 2: Electricity and thermal physics................................................................................................ 6
Electric current and potential difference..........................................................................................6
Electrical circuits............................................................................................................................. 9
Heating matter................................................................................................................................10
Kinetic model of matter................................................................................................................. 10
Conservation of energy.................................................................................................................. 11
Unit 3A Astrophysics......................................................................................................................... 12
A1 Observing stars.........................................................................................................................12
A2 The lives of stars...................................................................................................................... 14
Unit 4: Waves and our universe......................................................................................................... 16
Circular motion and oscillations.................................................................................................... 16
Waves.............................................................................................................................................18
Superposition of waves.................................................................................................................. 20
Quantum phenomena..................................................................................................................... 22
The expanding universe................................................................................................................. 26
Unit 5: Fields and forces.....................................................................................................................28
Gravitational fields........................................................................................................................ 28
Electric fields................................................................................................................................. 29
Capacitance.................................................................................................................................... 30
Magnetic fields.............................................................................................................................. 32
Simple Differences between Electric and Magnetic fields....................................................... 32
Electromagnetic induction............................................................................................................. 34
Unit 6: Synthesis.................................................................................................................................36
Analogies in physics...................................................................................................................... 36
Accelerators................................................................................................................................... 38
Appendix 1 Uncertainty and error................................................................................................... 42
Appendix 2 AS and A2 Experiment Diagrams............................................................................... 42
Experiments Units 1 and 2..........................................................................................................42
Experiments Units 4 and 5..........................................................................................................48
Appendix 3 Units and symbols........................................................................................................51
Base SI units ................................................................................................................................ 51
Common derived units...................................................................................................................51
Symbols and their units..................................................................................................................51
Appendix 4 Metric prefixes.............................................................................................................52
Common metric prefixes at A-level...............................................................................................52
All Other metric prefixes; common, rare and unused....................................................................52
Appendix 5 Formula sheet...............................................................................................................53
Alphabetical index..............................................................................................................................55

Anthony Cameron

A level Physics notes;

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Unit 1: Mechanics and Radioactivity


Rectilinear motion
1.1
Kinematics
v=uat
1
s=ut at 2
2
2
2
v =u 2as
1
s= uv t
2

u=initial velocity
v=final velocity
s=displacement
a=acceleration
t =time

1.2
Graphical interpretation
i.e.
Unit y/x is represented by gradient
Unit xy is represented by area of graph

Measurement of the acceleration of free fall. A


method involving a body in free fall is expected.
Steel ball is dropped and time and distance are
measured. From this acceleration is calculated

On a distance time graph, the gradient is the velocity


(distance/time)

1.3
Projectiles
Vertical and horizontal motion are two separate components that contribute to the overall motion.
A projectile projected horizontally will still fall downwards at the same rate as one falling with no
horizontal movement.

Forces and moments


1.4
Force interpreted as a push or a pull and identified as the push or pull of A on B.
ALL forces either push or pall on an object.
The gravitational force (the force between two masses) applied to a body is called weight and is
equal to the product of mass and the acceleration due to gravity (Weight = mg)
Electrostatic force force between two charged objects
Electromagnetic force force between two charged objects (includes electrostatic force)
Nuclear forces Forces that hold the nucleus of atoms together
Contact force reaction to contact between two objects
Normal reaction force Reaction to weight, equal magnitude yet opposite direction
Frictional force Force between two objects that opposes motion
Drag force exerted by a fluid or gas which resists the movement of an object through that fluid
Lift Force that lifts an object
1.5

Free body force diagrams

1.6
Newton's First Law of motion
A body will remain at rest or continue to move with a constant velocity as long as the forces on it
are balanced.
Reluctance to change velocity is the inertia of the body. Inertia is proportional to mass
1.7
Newton's Third law of motion
Every action has an equal and opposite reaction
1.8
Moments about a point
Moment = downward component of force multiplied by perpendicular distance
Principle of moments. For a system to stay in equilibrium, the sum of the anticlockwise moments
must equal the sum of the clockwise moments about that point.
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1.9

Density
mass
m
Density=
=
volume
V
Solids are rigid, gases and liquids are fluid
Measure mass using scales, measure volume by displacement of water

Dynamics
1.10
Linear momentum
p=mv
Momentum is the product of mass and velocity
Principle of the Conservation of momentum The total Momentum before a collision will equal
the total momentum after the collision
1.11
Newtons second law
Newton's second law Force equals the rate of change of momentum
An Impulse is a change of momentum

mvu
t
I=Ft=mvu
F=

Newton's three laws of motion


1) Law of inertia - A body will only accelerate if the forces acting on it are unbalanced
Every body perseveres in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward,
except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed
mv
2) Law of acceleration - F=d
dt
The rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the resultant force acting on
the body and is in the same direction
3) Law of reciprocal actions Each reaction has an equal and opposite action
All forces occur in pairs, and these two forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in
direction
Mechanical energy
1.13
Work done and energy transfer
Work done = average applied force multiplied by the distance moved in the direction of the force.
W = Fx
1.14

K.E. and G.P.E.


1
Kinetic energy= mv2
2
Gravitational potential energy=mgh

It can be assumed that for calculations involving heights close to


the Earth's surface, g will equal 9.81 ms-2 and so:
E = mgh

1.15
Principle of the conservation of energy
Energy may not be created or destroyed only transferred
Energy will be conserved
i.e. KE1 + GPE1 = KE2 + GPE2
An elastic collision is where all KE is conserved
Efficiency = useful output/input
1.16

Power

Power is the rate of energy transfer (or of work done)

Anthony Cameron

A level Physics notes;

P=

W
=F v
t

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Radioactive decay and the nuclear atom


1.17
The existence and nature of radioactive emissions
Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of the atom's nucleus, with the consequent
emission of particles and energy from the atom
Background radiation can come from; space, big bang, rocks (radon), carbon, et cetera
1.18 Properties of , +, and radiation and corresponding disintegration processes
(alpha) radiation
These are high-speed helium nuclei
They are very ionising, as they readily interact, but not have a very weak penetration, this is due to
there large size.
Therefore they are most dangerous when ingested as normally the can not penetrate far through skin
Alpha radiation is used in smoke detectors a stream of a particles carry a current over a
short space of air. In the presence of smoke this is blocked off, so the current stops and an
alarm will sound.
237 Np 233 Pa 4
Example
93
91
2
(beta) radiation
Less massive, less ionising but more penetrating then
- consists of one electron and + of its opposite, a positron. Hence they annihilate each other on
interaction, releasing energy proportional to there mass (E = mc2)
neutron Proton + electron
+
proton neutron + positron
(gamma) radiation
Composed of an EM wave
Most penetrating but least ionising
Emitted if there is excess energy after an or particle have been emitted.
1.19
Stable and unstable nuclei
Nucleon number (atomic mass) is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons
in the nucleus of the atom, the proton number is the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom.
237
93

Np This neptunium atom has a nucleon number of 237 and a proton number of 93 so it has 93
protons, 144 neutrons (144 is the difference between 237 and 93).
If two atoms have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons (hence different
atomic mass), then they are isotopes of the same element.
1.20
Radioactivity as a random process
Activity = N
N number of nuclei
decay constant (s-1)
- proportion of N that decays in on second
Radioactive decay
Radioactive material will decay at an exponential rate
Half life is considered the time taken for the activity of a radioactive sample to drop its original
value.
This is also the time taken for half of the unstable nuclei in a radioactive sample to decay.
hence
ln 2 0.69
t 1 =Half life=

2
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1.21
The nuclear atom
In elastic scattering, alpha particles are fired at gold leaf, most of the particles pass though however
some are deflected back at an angle greater than 90o.
Deep inelastic scattering involves firing a high energy electron at a proton. If the electron is low
energy the proton recoils and the electron is elastically scattered. However with high energy
electrons the scattering is deep and inelastic, proving the existence of protons being made up of a
smaller differently charged particles.
Geiger muller tube, for each ionising event of the argon and halogen gas mixture (inside the tube) a
current passes through the tube and is recorded

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Unit 2: Electricity and thermal physics


Electric current and potential difference
2.1
Charge and Current
Charge (Q)
Current as rate of flow of charge.
I=

Q
t

The sum of a current entering a point is equal to the sum of the currents leaving that point.1
Drift velocity
The electrons in a metal don't just travel in one direction, they move in all directions more or less
randomly. Their speed is very fast perhaps 100'000 m/s.
When you add a battery or power supply this causes the random motion to be not quite random.
There is a trend of drift towards the positive terminal. The speed of this drift is called he drift
velocity. What effects drift velocity?

More collisions, more drift velocity

The thickness of the wire affects this

The speed of the electrons affect this

The number of free electrons affects this (drift velocity depends on material)
Charge carrier density
This is a measure how many free electrons there are in a material per m3.
Symbols
n = Charge carrier density
A = cross sectional area of the wire
Q or q or e = charge
v = drift velocity
Equation
I = nAqv

1 Kirchoff's first law

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Metals
1) These conduct electricity
2) They have disassociated electrons that move from ion to ion
3) These electrons move in the conduction band
Semi-conductors
1) Very few if any disassociated electrons in conduction band
2) The almost conduct electricity
3) Given energy some electrons jump into conduction band e.g. LDR, thermistor
Insulators
1) No free electrons
2) Large amount of energy needed to cause electrons to jump into a conduction bond often
material will breakdown first.
Whats the effect of temperature?
n

Metal

No significant
effect

No significant
effect

No change

Decreases
Decreases
Because atoms
vibrate more so
there are more
collisions

Insulator

No change

No significant
effect

No change

Semiconductors

Increases
No significant
because
effect
electrons are
given enough
energy to jump
to the
conduction
band

No change

Decreases

Increases

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2.2
Electrical potential difference and E.M.F. of a cell
EMF: This is a measure of a work done on the electrons per coulomb of charge
E
W
P
=Q
= Q
=I
P.D: This is a measure of the work done by the electrons on the components in the circuit per
coulomb of charge

E=IVt
W =IV t

2.3
Current Potential difference graphs
Ohmic components follow ohms
law, resistance is proportional to
voltage, graph 1
Tungsten filament lamps, as
current increase, voltage increases
but as current increases
temperature also increases this
increases resistance. Graph 2
Semiconductor diode, the diode
allows current to flow freely in one
direction only. The current increase
with voltage, but the rate of
increases increases after the voltage
has passed a certain point. Graph 3
Thermistor, as voltage and current
increase, temperature increases
increasing the number of charge
carriers, decreasing resistance. Graph 4
2.4
Resistance and resistivity
Resistance
The opposition to the movement of charge in a circuit
Collisions between charge carriers and ions mostly but also other charge carriers
Temperature increases the number of collisions (ions vibrate more)
Thickness decreases resistance because if a wires is thicker then more electrons can travel at the
same time and there is a lower chance of a collision due to increased number of path
Lengths increases resistance because there are more collisions
The resistivity is a property of that material, it has the same value no matter what dimensions the
material has.
L
R=
A
Power Dissipation
resistivity m
V2
L length
P= IV =I 2 R=
A cross sectional area
R
1
=
()
conductivity
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Electrical circuits
2.5
Conservation of energy
Around any closed loop, the sum of the e.m.f.s is equal to the sum of the p.d.s2

= p.d.
Internal resistance
Internal resistance: All power sources in a circuit have internal resistance. Hence p.d. Across a
battery is less than e.m.f. when a current flows.

V = IR

therefore

=V IR

When the battery is disconnected from the circuit I =0 therefore =V


When the cell is connected across a component then the voltage will reduce because of its internal
resistance
On an IV graph:
EMF = V + IR
y=V
V = EMF IR
M = -R- The internal resistance of the cell
x=I
c = EMF
2.6
Series and parallel circuits
Resistor in series
The total resistance of a number of components in series is simply the sum of the individual
resistance
so for resistors in series:
Rt = R1 + R2 + ... + Rn
Resistors in parallel
I t= I 1I 2
V
Rt =
It
V V V
therefore =
Rt R1 R 2

so for resistors in parallel

1
1
1
1
= ...
Rt R1 R 2
Rn

Adding Cells
If a cell is added in series, the total EMF and internal resistance is the sum of the speerate cells
EMFs or resistance
When two cells are added in parallel, emf and resistance must be calculated using Kirchoffs laws
2.7
Change of resistance with temperature and illumination
Thermistors and LDRs are semi-conductors and therefore when provided with electricity, electrons
move into the conduction band, the greater the energy the greater the conductivity (less resistivity).
2.8
Potential divider
By creating a circuit with two resistors then putting another two circuits, each is in parallel with one
of the resistors, the circuit attached to the resistor with the highest value of resistance will have a
greater potential differences. This is because V = IR
2 Kirchoff's second law

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Heating matter
2.9
Specific heat capacity (c) E = mct
(Specific refers to per mass)
2.10 Specific latent heat (l)
E = ml
Energy released or absorbed by 1 kg of a substance during a phase change
P1 V 1 P 2 V 2
F
=
2.11 Pressure p=
0oC = 273K
A
T1
T2
Kinetic model of matter
2.12 & 2.13 Ideal gases
An ideal gas the time for the collision is small relative to the
time between collisions, elastic collisions, size of the molecule sis small compared to the volume,
molecules move at a constant speed between collisions
p1V 1 p2V 2
pV
=
Therefore
=Constant
T1
T2
T
pV
=nR
R molar gas constant
T
pV =nRT The ideal gas equation
In a closed box with volume xyz a molecule travels parallel to face L X at Velocity v x
hits side,
change in momentum P
P=mv x mv x
=2mv x
2L
2L
v x= x
t= x
t
vx
2L x mv x 2
P
F=
=2mv x
=
t
vx Lx
However there is usually not just one molecule but N moles,
2
2
2
mv
mv
mv
F
also there are 3 pairs of faces rather than one and the mean
x
p= = x =
= x
A Lx A Lx L y Lz
V
square speed is c 2
Nm c 2
therefore
p=
3V
1
pV = Nm c 2
3
Nm
V
c 2
p=
3

1
pV = N mc 2
3
1
pV = N 2KE
3
pV =nRT
1
N 2KE=nRT
3
3 nRT
n
R
KE=
=N 1
=k
A
2 N
N
NA
3kT
KE=
2
Browninan motion
Brownian motion states that because the forces on a particle
will be unbalanced (this is due to the particles around it) it will move randomly.
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Conservation of energy
2.14 & 2.15
Internal energy & Heating
For real gases the random distribution of potential and kinetic energy amongst molecules.
Appreciation that hot and cold objects have different concentrations of internal energy.
internal energy - total kinetic and potential energy of a molecule.
Energy will move from a hot body to a cold body and from a old body to a hot body, however a hot
body has more energy and therefore more energy moved from it, eventually the energy of the hot
and cold body become equal and the movement becomes equal.
U = internal energy
Mechanical work transferring energy by adding a force to an object.
Increase in internal energy = work done on the block
U = W
Work done = force x distance
W = Fx,
for a gas W = V
Electrical work transferring energy using electrical current
Increase in internal energy = energy transferred by working
U = W
Work done = power x time
W = VIt
Heating
Increase in internal energy = energy transferred by heating
U = Q
The zeroth law of thermodynamics If object A is in thermal equilibrium with object B and B is
in thermal equilibrium with object C. Then A must be in thermal equilibrium with C.
The first law of thermodynamics Energy is conserved therefore, the increase in internal energy
is equal to the energy gained by heating plus the energy gained by working
i.e U = Q + W
2.16 The heat engine. This describes the transfer a energy from a hot place to
a cold place and the use of this is to do work. Q1 joules of energy are
transferred to the water at the boiler, W joule is the work done on the turbine that
powers the generator and Q2 is the remaining energy that is transferred to the
atmosphere via the cold sink.
Q
W Q Q2
Efficiency of a heat engine= = 1
=1 2
Q1
Q1
Q1
T 1T 2
T2
Maximum thermal efficiency of a heat engine=
=1
T1
T1
The limitation of the efficiency of a heat engine is how cold the cold sink can
become and how hot the hot source can become.
The heat pump Work needed to pump energy from cold to hot.
The energy given to the hot object equals energy taken form the cold plus the
work done
Ordered and disordered processes

Doing work on a system is an ordered process, the energy transfer travels in


one direction only. It is predictable

Heating a system is a disordered process. Quanta of heat travel both ways in an unpredictable
way.
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Unit 3A: Astrophysics


A1 Observing stars
Charge coupled devices (CCD) are used to record images of stars. They are efficient, they detect
small amounts of light and the output is linear (linear response) that means that the output signal is
proportional to the light received. A problem with photographic film is that if the film has a large
grain it will be sensitive to light but the image would be clear while a smaller grain film would be
less sensitive to light and the image will be sharper.
The atmosphere affects the light from stars and thereby hinders observations. Changes in
atmospheric density cause stars to twinkle, more than 30% of the visible light is scattered and
different wavelengths of light will be received.
The Infra red Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the
Hubble telescope are satellites used for deep space imaging.
Luminosity is the power emitted by the star (measured in watts).
L = T4A
Intensity is the power radiated from the star that reaches earth (power per metre squared)
Energy Distribution

The energy distribution shows the intensity of various wavelengths of radiation emitted from a
given star.
Wiens Law max x T = 2.898 x 10-3
Where max is the wavelength of the radiation
with the greatest intensity that is emitted by the star. And T is the surface temperature of the star
Surface temperatures of stars range from near absolute zero to
107 K, corresponding to peak wavelengths from radio to X-rays.

Anthony Cameron

A level Physics notes;

Luminosity=T 4 surface area


8
2
4
=Stefans Constant =5.67 x 10 Wm K
L
Intensity=
2
4 D
maxT =2.898 x 103
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Measuring distance by trigonometric parallax (the angular displacement of an object when viewed
from separate points). The stars position is recorded against the static background of more distant
stars when the Earth is at opposite extremes of its orbit around the sun. The parallax angle is
1
measured and using trigonometry the distance=
. This is assuming that the distance from
tan p
the earth and the sun at both points is 1 AU. A limitation of this method is that the smallest angle
that can be used to get an accurate result is 1/360000 thereby limiting the maximum distance this
method is able to measure at 1018m

Trigonometric parallax
The Hertzsprung-Russel
Diagram

1.
1)
2)
3)

Measuring the distance of distant stars


Spectrum determine Temperature from max (Wiens Law)
Use temperature to determine luminosity (HR diagram)
Then use intensity and Luminosity to determine distance

Cepheid variable stars


Variable stars undergo variations in luminosity, Cepheid variable stars expand and contract leading
to variations in luminosity. The period of the contractions is related to the absolute magnitude of the
star and therefore if two stars have the same period their absolute magnitude will be the same and
therefore if the magnitude of one of the stars is known then the distance of the other can be
calculated.

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A2 The lives of stars


Stars Energy from fusion
In the centre of a star a process called the proton-proton chain. This is a process by which the star
receives its energy. This process starts when the sun is a cloud, as particles in the cloud become
closer together (gravitational collapse) PE decreases and KE increases, T KE, therefore T
increases this starts the process of fusion (burning hydrogen).
1
1
2
0 +
(a)
1H 1 H 1H 1 v
2
1
3
(b)
1H 1 H 2 He
3
3
4
1
(c)
2He 2He 2He 2 1H
v neutrino
Summary:
4 protons helium nucleus + energy
therefore
Mass of energy released =Mass of four protonsMass of helium nucleus
and from this E=mc2
Giant molecular cloud (Stellar Nursery), areas with a high density of particles. Areas of higher
density have a higher gravity and therefore particles will move towards them. As temperature and
pressure increases, the clumps of particles become protostars. As these become hotter, the fusion
of hydrogen starts at 10 megakelvin. The star becomes a main sequence star until it expands all of
its hydrogen into helium (larger and hotter stars produce helium more quickly) where it moves off
the main sequence.
Stars less with masses lass than 0.4 of the sun's mass burn hydrogen slowly. They become white
dwarf stars
Stars between 0.5 and 8 times the mass of our sun become red giants at the end of their lives. When
the hydrogen runs out the fusion of hydrogen stops and the sun starts to contract as there is no
longer hydrostatic equilibrium. As the sun contracts, temperature increases, this allows the helium
to fuse, when the helium runs out the sun contracts again and temperature increases, this allows the
carbon to fuse, this process continues until iron is created, this cannot be fused. This process creates
layers of elements with iron in the core and hydrogen near the outside, the energy from the fusion
expands the outer layers. Matter is lost from these layers as gravitational field is weak. When they
have expanded all fuels they contract and GPE decreases and the star becomes a white dwarf.
Stars with masses greater than 8 times that of the sun become super giants, when the hydrogen runs
out, the sun contracts and the temperature increases causing the helium to fuse, as the fuels run out
the star contracts and temperature increases and the elements fuse into something heavier until the
star becomes layered with iron3 at the centre and hydrogen on the outside. When the core is iron
fusion stops and the star contracts until it becomes energetically favourable for there protons and
electrons combine to form neutrons and the core collapses rapidly and a large amount of energy is
released blowing away the outer layers into space type II supernovae, leaving a core remnant.
If the core remnant after a supernova is more than 1.4 solar masses the central core of neutrons left
behind is more likely to form a neutron star, they are extremely dense and due to low temperature
they can not be seen however because they are magnetised and rotating, they continuously emit
high frequency radio signal along their magnetic axis. Hence the name pulsar.
If core remnant is greater than 2.5 solar masses it will contract until it becomes a singularity, a
black hole, anything that passes the event horizon, can never build up enough velocity to escape.
3

as this cannot produce energy by fusion due to the high amount of energy required for fusion

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Summary of star classes


White dwarfs. Hot, low volume, low mass stars. Origins and typical masses, (less than about 1.4
solar masses). Core remnants.
Red giants. Cool, high volume, stars. Origins and typical masses, (between 0.4 and 8 solar masses).
Core remnants.
Supernovae (Type II only). Rapid implosion of stars of more than eight solar masses. Shock wave:
outer layers blown away.
Neutron stars. Core remnants greater than about 1.4 solar masses. Formation from electrons and
protons. Very high density. Pulsars.
Black holes. Core remnants greater than about 2.5 solar masses. The dense core traps radiation.

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Unit 4: Waves and our universe


Circular motion and oscillations
4.1
Angular Speed, Period and Frequency

&

4.2 Acceleration and resultant force

Following a circular path at a constant velocity is called 'uniform circular motion'


Angular speed () is the magnitude of the vector quantity angular velocity, it is the proportion of a
complete circle per second.
The period (T) of a body doing uniform circular motion is the time it takes to complete one
revolution.
The frequency of rotation is the number of rotations per second.
Distance=2 r
2
=
=
=2 f
v =r
Time=T
t
T
linear velocity=v
2 r
Average speed=v=
v2
angular velocity=
T
a= =r 2
r
4 2 r
Average acceleration= 2
mv2
T
therefore F=
r
mv 2
=the centripetal force=the sum of all forces acting on an object
r
mv2
e.g.
=mgR
r
F=

When in free-fall, none of the supportive upward forces are present and as such there is only
downward acceleration of g and so the body feels weightless. As a shuttle descends at an
acceleration almost equal to g the occupants will be falling at the same acceleration and as such
they will not move but be suspended.
Velocity is a tangent to the circle, however the change in velocity and therefore the acceleration and
force is directed towards the centre of the circle.
The centripetal force is the external force required to make a body follow a circular path at constant
speed. The force is directed inward, toward the centre of the circle.
4.3 & 4.4
SHM
Simple harmonic motion
A harmonic oscillator is a system which, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences
a restoring force F proportional to the displacement x according to Hooke's law:
F = -k x
Simple harmonic motion is the motion of a simple harmonic oscillator, a motion that is neither
driven nor damped.
SHM A periodic motion of constant frequency where the acceleration is always directed towards
the centre of the oscillation.
The motion is sinusoidal in character and as such the displacement-time, velocity-time and
acceleration-time graphs will all resemble sine/cosine waves. The graphs have a phase difference of
from the previous. This is because when displacement is greatest velocity will be zero and
acceleration will be at its lowest.
ma=kx
2
F =kx
a= 2 x
T=
k

x
compare with a=2 x
a=
m
2
k
k
2
by substituting =2 f
a=2 f x
=
=
m
m

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SHM Acceleration is proportional to displacement and directed towards the equilibrium position

4.5
Undamped simple harmonic oscillations
x0 = |maximum displacement|
x =x 0 cos t
dx
v = = x 0 sin t
as such the maximum speed is 2 f x 0
dt
dv
a= =2 x 0 cos t
dt
4.6

Mechanical oscillators, pendulums and springs

k
m
k is the spring stiffness
m
T =2
k
=

For small-angle swings, the period of a pendulum length of l is given by: T =2

l
g

4.7
Resonance
When you give a small displacement to a system it can oscillate, it oscillates at its own frequency.
This is the oscillator's natural frequency.
If energy is being removed from the system, so the oscillations are becoming smaller and smaller,
we say that the oscillations are being damped. The higher the damping the faster the oscillations
will reduce in size. Critical damping is the damping required to make the oscillations stop in the
quickest possible time without going past the equilibrium position.
Resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate at maximum amplitude at a certain frequency.
This frequency is known as the system's resonance frequency, when damping is small, the
resonance frequency is approximately equal to the natural frequency of the system.
When the driving frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the driven system, large-amplitude,
even violent, oscillations may result. This effect is called resonance. Resonance occurs when the
driving frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the system you are driving.
The energy of an oscillating object is constant, as when the velocity (which KE is proportional to) is
greatest, potential energy is smallest. This potential energy changes as displacement of the object
from the ground and the potential energy in the spring changes.

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Waves
4.8
Mechanical waves on water, along springs and in air (sound)
A wave is a means of transferring energy from one point to another without there being any transfer
of matter between the points. A wave can either be mechanical or electromagnetic and a wave can
either be longitudinal or transverse.
A mechanical wave travels between two points through a medium.
4.9
Electromagnetic waves
Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves, they oscillate perpendicular to the direction they
travel. E.M. Waves with differing frequencies have different properties.

The electromagnetic spectrum


Type

Wavelength

Long-wave radio

~ 1200 m

Medium-wave radio ~ 300 m

Generation

Uses

Oscillating current in
aerials

Radio

Short-wave radio

~ 30 m

VHF

~3m

UHF

~1m

Microwaves

~ 10 cm

Directly produced in
waveguides

Radar, cooking, communicating

Infra-red

~ 1 m

Hot bodies, LEDs

Night-sights, heating, shortdistance communication

Visible Light

700 400 nm Very hot bodies, LEDs

Ultra-violet

< 400 nm

Extremely hot bodies,


sparks, discharge tubes

Sun-tanning, detecting invisible


marking, sterilisation

X-rays

~ 10-10 m

Stopping fast electrons

X-raying people and materials

Nuclear decay

X-raying thick objects, killing


cancerous cells, sterilising

-12

Television

Gamma rays

~ 10

Cosmic rays

Very short

Anthony Cameron

Radio

From distant parts of the


universe

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4.14 & 4.10 Stationary and progressive waves


Waves that travel out from a source and that carry energy are called travelling or progressive waves.
Stationary waves are called standing waves. These do not transmit energy. These are caused by the
superposition of 2 waves of the same frequency etcetera, propagating in opposite directions. They
do not move.

Compressions and Rarefactions


of a "Longitudinal Waves"
Longitudinal waves, the oscillations of the particles is parallel to the direction of travel. Composed
of compressions and rarefactions.
Transverse waves, the oscillations of the particles is perpendicular to the direction of travel.

Plane polarisation.
With longitudinal waves if the plane is rotated around the direction of the wave, the particles will
still be oscillating in the same direction. However as transverse waves oscillate perpendicular to
direction to travel, rotation will cause a the particles to oscillate in other directions which are still
perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
Longitudinal waves which are only oscillating in one
direction are considered plane polarised. Unpolarised light
waves can be polarised using grilles, if two grilles are
placed in front of each other and one is rotated light will
be blocked out completely.

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4.11
Conservation of energy for waves in free space from a point source
Inverse square law.
As a wave spreads out it gets weaker the further it becomes from the source. Its power is spread
over a larger area, so the power per unit area is diminished. The power per unit area is called the
P
P
energy flux () or intensity (I)
therefore D-2.
=I =
=
2
2
4r 4 D
This relationship of energy flux to the inverse of distance squared is called the inverse square law.
Superposition of waves
4.12
Superposition of waves
Superposition When two waves meet each other
When two waves meet and enhance each others amplitude, this is constructive interference.
When two waves meet each other reducing there amplitudes this is destructive interference.
When waves meet in phase constructive interference occurs
When waves meet completely out of phase destructive interference occurs
Sine and cosine wave are both sinusoidal
Phase - The phase of an oscillation or wave is the fraction of a complete cycle corresponding to an
offset in the displacement from a specified reference point at time t = 0
Path difference is the difference in the distance travelled,
At the point where two waves meet the difference in the distance they have travelled is the path
difference

The path difference here is the difference between two peaks.


When two waves of the same frequency meet with a path difference
i) n constructive interference occurs
ii) (n + ) destructive interference occurs
From two sources, when the path difference is an integer of , constructive interference occurs
When the path difference is , destructive interference occurs
The wavefront is the locus of points with the same phase.
Path difference Phase difference
=
Wavelength
2
Diffraction: The spreading out of a wave as it passes through an aperture.
Smaller aperture and larger wavelength leads to more spreading out
There will be no diffraction if the wavelength is many times larger than the aperture

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A2 Physics notes
Compiled by Anthony Cameron
4.15
4.16
Coherent
Monochromatic

Diffraction at a slit
Coherence & Two slit
interference patterns
Same phase
A wave of one frequency

Young's 2 slit experiment

Sunlight is passed through a screen with a single slit and


a filter to give it coherency and monochrome.
The coherent wavefront of light impacting on the twin
slits is divided into two new wavefronts that are perfectly
in phase with each other. Light waves from each of the
slits must travel an equal distance to reach point A on the
screen illustrated in Figure 1, and should reach that point
still in phase or with the same phase distance.
The two waves reaching point A are in phase and
therefore constructive interference occurs, producing a
bright red interference fringe on the screen.
Where destructive interference occurs dark regions
appear on the screen. This causes a fringe.
For light, fringe separation is very short. It is difficult to
measure path differences very accurately.
x
=
D s
=wavelength m
400700nm
x=fring seperation m
a few mm
s=slit seperation
0.51.5mm
D=distance from slits to screen 110m
The difference between the distances between the two sources and the maxima is called the path
difference. At the first maxima from the central maxima the path difference equals the
wavelength and at the second maxima the path difference equals twice the wavelength
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Quantum phenomena
4.17
The photon model of electromagnetic radiation
Radiation is emitted in small discrete packet called quantum (pl. quanta), a quantum of
electromagnetic radiation is a photon.
The energy of these quanta is proportional to the frequency of the photons. E = hf were h is plank's
constant (6.626 x 10-34)
The photoelectric effect.
The Work function and the photoelectric equation.
Photoelectric effect electrons are emitted from a metal surface when exposed to light, this is
because when a photon hits an electron either the photon will be reflected or the energy would be
absorbed transferring all its energy to the electron. If the latter happens then an electron will be
promoted depending on the energy of the photon, if the photon has enough energy the electron will
be released.
The minimum frequency required for a photoelectron to be released is the threshold frequency
Properties
Emission is instantaneous (If light was completely a wave the energy would be spread along
the wavefront and no electron would instantly receive the energy required to escape from the
surface)
Emission only occurs if the frequency is above the threshold frequency f0
The number of electrons emitted is proportional to the brightness of the light
Electrons have varying Ek up to a maximum which depends on the frequency of the
radiation
The Ek of the electrons is independent of the brightness of the light
Red light will not cause the emission of electrons
A weak violet light will emit only a few electrons, but their maximum kinetic energies are
greater than those for intense light of longer wavelengths
The work function, is the minimum energy a photon requires, to remove electrons from the
surface of the metal. = hf0 , Minimum photon energy required, for photoelectron emission
from the surface of the metal

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Photoelectric emission experiments


This photoelectric can be seen using a gold leaf electroscope. If a zinc plate is cleaned of its oxide
layer, placed on top of the electroscope and negatively charged. The excess electrons repel each
other and move to the top and bottom of the stem of the electroscope. If the plate is subjected to
photons from light (UV), electrons will be repelled reducing the overall charge and causing the leaf
to slowly fall down.
The Kinetic Energy (Ek) of the electrons can be up to {hf }, the photon energy minus the work
function. Most will have less than this as they lose energy in collisions as they exit the surface.
As such KEmax = hf .
The graph is shown below

To measure the energy of a photoelectron a photoemmisive cell,


shown below, is used. When light hits the photoemissive cathode
electrons are released across the vaccum into the wire anode and
the picoammeter indicates a current.

Effect of increasing voltage


As the voltage is increased, the current will increase as more electrons are attracted to the
anode, until the saturation current is reached. The saturation point is when all the
photoelectrons reach the anode. A greater intensity will increase the saturation current.
Negative voltage
When the voltage becomes negative it repels the electrons and at a certain negative voltage, called
the stopping potential (Vs). the current will be reduced to zero as all the electrons are repelled by
the other.
The stopping potential depends on the energy of the photoelectrons so KEmax = eVs
and therefore
qVs = hf
Hence a a greater amount of EM energy will result in a greater stopping voltage

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4.18
Energy levels
An atom has a fixed energy corresponding to the orbital in which its electrons move around the
nucleus. The atom can accept a quantum of energy to become an excited atom, if that
The electrons orbiting a nucleus can be found at different energy levels. It is possible to excite
electrons into higher energy by shining specific frequencies of light.
Each element has its own unique pattern of energy levels and frequencies that cause excitation.
When an electron becomes free the potential energy will be zero, however as the electron moves
away its potential energy increases, hence the energy levels have minus values.
The energy delivered to the electrons is equal to the energy difference between the levels
hf = E1 E2
Shortly after becoming excited the electrons will drop down to a lower state. Doing so the lose
energy as a photon. The frequency of the light emitted can be calculated using: hf = E1 E2
Electrons can exist at any of these energy levels, to move
from one level to another energy is required
To excite from ground state to the first excited level requires
-3.4 - (-13.6) = 10.2 eV as hf = E2 E1, the above transition
can occur when a photon of the right frequency is absorbed
by the electron.
hf = 10.2 x 1.6 x 10-19
1eV = 1.6 x 10-19J
-19
-34
f = 10.2 x 1.6 x 10 / 6.63 / 10 = 2.46 x 1015 Hz
Release energy level goes down Absorption opposite

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4.19
Wave properties of electrons & Wave particle duality
Diffraction is a property of waves, when a laser is shone through a diffraction grating:
When a laser is shone through two diffraction gratings at a right angle to each other:
When the laser is shone through many diffraction gratings at many angles
This shows the diffraction of light many
times will lead to concentric circles.
Electrons being particles and not waves
should not do this but when a electrons
are fired through a thin piece of graphite
(the thin graphite crystals act as the
multitude of diffraction gratings at
different angles) concentric circles form.

This can also be seen when performing the double slit


experiment with electrons, slowly an interference pattern
builds up.
DeBroglie suggested that electrons had wave properties and
therefore they had a wavelength inversely proportional to the
particles momentum.
h
deBroglie wavelength==
p
The rings and the interference pattern build up because the
electron is diffracted, this happens because the de broglie
wavelength is similar to the slit spacing. s
To explain the photoelectric effect, waves must be able to act Each dot is where an electron hit, slowly an
interference pattern builds up
like particles as the emission of a photo electron is
instantaneous. If light was completely a wave the energy would be spread along
the wavefront and no electron would instantly receive the energy required to
escape from the surface.
Wave-particle duality is the concept that waves carrying energy may have a
corpuscular aspect and that particles may have a wave aspect. For example to
explain the photoelectric effect, e.m. waves must act as particles, while electrons
need to be thought of as de Broglie waves in electron diffraction
If the electron in hydrogen is modelled as a particle orbiting the proton then it
Apparatus for the double-slit
should radiate energy and spiral towards the proton. It does not because of its
experiment with electrons
wave characteristics, each allowed orbit corresponds to a standing wave with all
the energy in the wave.
There are a complete number of waves in each orbit . The wave describes the probability of an
electron's location
More waves in higher orbit higher frequency higher energy.
Discrete energy levels corresponding to successive standing wave patterns
Stationary waves in the hydrogen atom Wave properties of electrons in atoms
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The expanding universe


4.20
Optical line spectra
The emission spectrum of a body or substance is the characteristic range
of radiations it emits when it is heated, bombarded by electrons or ions, or
absorbs photons. As each atom emits a unique set of frequencies, this
method can be used to find chemical composition.
The absorption spectrum is produced by examining, through the substance
and through a spectroscope, a continuous spectrum of radiation. The
energies removed from the continuous spectrum by the absorbing medium
show up as black lines or bands. With a substance capable of emitting a
spectrum, these are in exactly the same positions in the spectrum as some
of the lines and bands in the emission spectrum.
4.21 Electromagnetic Doppler shift.
The Doppler effect is the change in frequency and wavelength of a wave
as perceived by an observer moving relative to the source of the waves.
If an object is moving away at a greater velocity from the observer than
the wavelength of light emitted behind it will lengthen. If an object is
closing on the observer than the wavelength of light will shorten. The
lengthening of the wavelength is known as red shift and the
opposite blue shift as this is to which ends of the EM spectrum
the frequencies of light will shift to.
Light year=c365.25246060 m
f v
=
=
f
c
A light year is the distance light travels in a year
By measuring the red shift of receding galaxies, astronomers
determined distant galaxies are receding faster than closer
galaxies.
Hubble plotted the distance of galaxies against their recession
velocity and found a correlation. So v = HoD where H0 (or just
H) is Hubble's constant.
H0 (2 1) x 10-18 s-1

Uncertainty in d and H

Explanation of the universe, Hubble's law & the big bang


The Big Bang is the cosmological model of the universe whose primary assertion is that the
universe has expanded into its current state from a primordial condition of enormous density and
temperature.
Assuming all galaxies started at the same point in space, the age of the universe can be worked out
as
D D
Age= =
=H 1
v HD
There are three major possibilities for the end of the universe. These all depend on the average
mass-energy density of the universe and the critical density of the universe which is precisely the
value required to halt the expansion of the universe.
If the average mass density of the universe is greater than the critical density, the universe is
closed, expansion will slow down and the universe will then start contracting, collapsing back on a
single point, the big crunch.
If it is less than the critical density than the universe is open and the universe will continue
expanding but at a decreasing rate.
If it equals the critical density then the universe will expand at a lower rate than the open universe
theory, however eventually all motion of galaxies will cease.
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Graph showing fate of the universe there are two possibilities indefinite expansion or final contraction
< 1 Closed universe
= 1 Critical density
> 1 Open universe

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Unit 5: Fields and forces


Gravitational fields
5.1
The concept of a field
A field is a region in which a force acts. The lines in the diagram to the right are
field lines, they represent the gravitational force of the earth. The relative density
of the arrows represents the relative strength of the field, the arrow represents
the direction of the force. In this case the arrows point towards the Earth's centre
of mass as this is the direction of the force any object will feel in this field.
Closer to the surface these lines are virtually parallel and equidistant, as such close to
the surface of the Earth, the Earth's gravitational field can be considered in this small
region, to be uniform

Gravitational field strength.


The region in which a body exerts the force of gravity is a gravitational field
The gravitational field strength (referred to as g) at a point in a gravitational field is the force per
unit mass exerted acting on a mass placed at that point
Gravitational field strength is a vector quantity. Its direction is that in which a mass would move
under influence of the field
For an object in free-fall; a = g
5.2
Force between point masses
Gravitational forces are the result of mutual attraction between two objects. They occur between all
pairs of objects. Newton's law of gravitation, force of gravity between two objects is proportional
to the product of their masses and is inversely proportional to their distance.
So Newton's law of gravitation
Gm1 m2 states where G, the universal gravitational
constant equals 6.67 x 10-11 Nm2kg-2 F=
2
r
With spherical objects r is the distance between there centres or mass
Gravitational field strength in radial fields.
F GM
The gravitation field strength equals g = = 2 , where m is the mass of the attracted object,
m r
and M is the mass of the attracting object.
Equipotential surfaces. (The relationship V = Gm/r is not required.)
Equipotentials join points of equal potential. As such all points in a field which have the same
potential can be imagined as lying on a surface (an equipotential surface), or a line if 2 dimensional,
moving objects from one point to another on this surface requires no energy. Equipotentials are
always perpendicular to field lines.
This allows satellites to orbit with no energy required.
For stable orbiting objects the centripetal force is the gravitational force
Kepler's first law of planetary motion:
The shape of a planetary orbit is an ellipse with
the Sun at one of the foci
Kepler's second law of planetary motion:
A line (radius vector) joining a planet and the
sun
sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
Kepler's third law of planetary motion:
The squares of the orbital periods of planets are
directly proportional to the cubes of the semi-major axis of the orbits.
P2 a3
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g=

F
m

Electric fields
5.3
Electrostatic phenomena and electric charge
Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines
their electromagnetic interaction. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces,
electromagnetic fields. Electric charge is either positive or negative, like charges attract and
opposite charges repel, charge is discrete (it is always a multiple of e, the elementary/electronic
charge (1.6 x 1019 C) and charge is always conserved.
The unit of charge is a coulomb. The coulomb is the quantity of charge which passes any section of
a conductor in one second when a current of one ampere is flowing, i.e. 1C = 1As
5.4
Electrical lines of force
Field lines (lines of force) represent electric fields in diagrams.
The arrows show the direction of force on a small positive charge.
And the density of the arrows shows the relative strength of the
field

Electric field strength


Electric field strength (E) at a point is the force exerted by an electric field on one
coulomb.
The unit of electric field strength is NC1.

E=

F
Q

5.5
Force between point charges
The force between two point charges is proportional to the product of the two charges and is
inversely proportional to the distance between the charges squared.
Hence F= kQ 1 Q 2 and in vacuum or air k = 9.0 x 109 otherwise k = 1
Where is the
4 0
r2
permittivity of space.

5.6

E=

F kQq 1 kq
= 2 = 2
Q
Q r
r

Electric field strength in radial fields

F V
F
Electric field strength in uniform fields
E=QV =Fx
E= =
Q
Q x
The potential difference between two points in an electric field is numerically equal to the work
done in moving a unit positive charge from the point at the lower potential to that at the higher
potential.
W = QV
5.7

E=

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Electron beams
Electron beams are emitted from electron guns, the most common sort emits electrons through
thermionic emission. A heats a cathode which emits electrons which are attracted to the anode,
some will be forced through the hole.
The potential energy lost moving from the cathode to the anode is equal to the kinetic energy gained
and as such the kinetic energy of the electron equals the product of the electrons charge and the
potential difference between the two electrodes.
1
2
m e v =e V
2

Capacitance
5.8
Capacitance
Capacitance is the measure of how much charge can be stored at a particular
voltage and is equal to the charge required to cause unit change in the potential of a
conductor.
Q
C=
the unit of capacitance is the Farad (F)
V

The charging of a
capacitor, the arrow
represents the direction
A capacitor consists of two parallel plates, when a potential difference is applied across of electron flow

the plates there will be a momentary flow of current. Electrons are drawn from plate A by the
battery's positive terminal and electrons are deposited on plate B by the action of the negative
terminal. Hence plate A becomes positively charged and plate B becomes negatively charged.
When the potential difference across the capacitor equals the potential difference across the
battery, the capacitor is 'fully charged'. The charge on plates A and B are equal and opposite.
5.9
Capacitors in series and parallel circuits
Capacitors in series
Capacitors in parallel
For components in series, voltage will be the sum For components in parallel, voltage will be the
of all the component voltages, and current (and same for each capacitor and the total sum of their
therefore charge) will remain constant.
currents will be the sum of all the component
Q
currents
V t =V 1V 2...V n
Substitute V =
I t =I 1I 2...I n
Substitute Q=It=VC
C
VC t VC 1 VC 2
VC
Q Q Q
Q
= ...
Q cancels out
=

... n
C t C1 C2
Cn
t
t
t
t
1
1
1
1
V and t cancel out leaving;
= ...
C t =C 1C 2...C n
C t C1 C 2
Cn
Comparison with resistance
Capacitance across series and parallel follows an opposite rule to that of resistance. This is because
Resistance is proportional to voltage but capacitance is inversely proportional to voltage
i.e.

V =IR=

Q
C

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hence

V R

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C

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Graphs for a capacitor charging

Charge against time

Current against time

Graphs for a capacitor discharging

Charge against time

5.10

Current against time

Energy stored in a charged capacitor.

Q
V Q
C
Hence if a graph of potential difference against charge of a capacitor is
graphed, the resulting will line will be straight.
As E = QV, the area under this graph will be the energy stored in the capacitor. This area under the
graph is triangular and so is equal to QV so;
1
E= QV
and by substituting in Q=VC
2
V 2C Q2
E=
=
2
2C
V=

This can also be shown using calculus, as the work done transferring charge from one plate to
another is the product of the potential difference between the two plates and the size of the charge
being transferring so;
Q
W=V Q= Q hence;
C
Q
Q
Q
Q2
Q2
W =
dQ =
=
2C 0
2C
0 C

[ ]

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Magnetic fields
5.11
Permanent magnets
The region surrounding a magnet in which magnetic effects can be
experienced is the magnetic field of the magnetic. The direction of this
field is the direction in which a north magnetic pole would move
under the influence of the field if it was placed at that point. The path
which such a pole would follow is called a magnetic field line.
Opposite poles attract, while like poles repel.
A Neutral point is a point where overlapping magnetic fields cancel
so the resultant field strength is zero. An example of a neutral point
The denser the magnetic field lines the
would be the area directly between two repelling magnetics.
stronger the magnetic field. The
magnetic field lines go from the north
to the south pole of the magnet
Field lines for magnets attracting and repelling
each other, the neutral point is directly between the
two north poles in the first diagram

Fleming's left hand rule


describes the direction of thrust on a conductor carrying
a current in a magnetic field.
5.12
Magnetic flux density (B-field)
B is the symbol that represents Magnetic flux density,
this is the force acting per unit current length. The unit
of B is the Tesla (T). B is a vector, the direction of B is
that of a tangent to the field line at that point but can also be found if the left hand rule is applied. If
the field lines are parallel, the field is uniform so magnetic flux density is constant.
Magnetic flux density is not the strength of the magnetic field but the ability of the field to apply a
force F on a wire length L with a current of I flowing through it hence; F = BIL

Simple Differences between Electric and Magnetic fields


Electric field E

Magnetic field B

Can be due to single charges

Cannot be due to single poles

Acts on moving and stationary charges

Only acts on moving charges

Produces force parallel to field

Produces force perpendicular to field

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5.13
Magnetic effects of a steady current
Wires will have a circular magnetic field round them, the direction of the field
depends on the direction of the current.
If wires are coiled the fields combine and become directed through the centre of the
coil. This coil is called a solenoid and has a magnetic field as shown below, the
magnetic flux densities are constant throughout the centre of the solenoid as the field
there is uniform.

If the thumb represents


the current, the curled
fingers of the right hand
represents the direction
of the field

Hall effect
When a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to a conductor through which a
current is flowing, there will be an increase in potential difference on the opposite
sides of the conductor. This happens because the charge carriers will experience a force
when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the direction of current. This causes
the charge carriers to change direction and collect on one side. The surplus on one side
and the deficit on the opposite side, hence more charge carriers are attracted to one side.
This an be used to measure magnetic flux density, by taking a semiconductor passing a
current through it and connecting it to a sensitive voltmeter. This is a Hall probe. As the
Hall voltage is proportional to the magnetic flux density, the Hall probe can be used to
determine magnetic flux densities
The hall effect
Flux density due to an infinitely long straight wire
Flux density on the axis of an infinitely long
solenoid
I
B= 0
B=
0nI
2r
0 is the permeability of free space, r is the distance from the wire,
n is the turn density
(number of coil turns per unit length) and I is the current flowing through the wire

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Electromagnetic induction
5.14
Magnetic flux, flux linkage
Magnetic flux () is a measure of quantity of magnetism taking into account strength and extent of
the magnetic field. The unit of magnetic flux is the Weber (Wb) 1 T = 1Wb m2
Flux linkage () is the product of the number of turns of a coil and the magnetic flux through the
coil.
5.15
Electromagnetic induction
By passing a magnet through a coil of wire an EMF can be induced. As the free electrons in the
conductor are moved by the magnetic field.
Faraday's law. The magnitude of the induced EMF in a circuit is directly proportional to the rate of
change of flux linkage or to the rate of change of cutting of magnetic flux.
Lenz's law. The direction of the induced e.m.f. is such that it tends to to oppose the flux change
causing it, and does oppose it if induced current flows.
These two laws can be summarised as;

= dtd N
Lenz's law is an example of the principle conservation of energy. As when a magnet is pushed
towards the coil there is resistance, hence energy is required to push the magnet forward and when
the magnet is removed from the field there is resistance to that so more energy is required to keep
the magnet moving.
With induction involving a straight conductor, the direction of motion is opposite to the motion of a
conductor caused by a current flowing in the same direction a magnetic field in the same direction,
hence a right hand rule can be applied for a straight conductor inducing an EMF by passing through
a magnetic field.
EMF of a straight conductor, lengthl ,
moving through an uniform magnetic field with velocity
v
d
=N
N is constant so
dt
dA
=N B
=BA and B is constant
dt

=Blv

Anthony Cameron

A level Physics notes;

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revision 88

34 of 60

F=B I l
=BA
=N

5.16
The transformer
A transformer is used to either step-up (increase) or step-down (decrease) a voltage. It is essentially
two solenoids wound around the same soft iron core so they are connected magnetically but not
electrically. The side with the input voltage is called the primary coil and the output is called the
secondary. The ratio between the two voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns on the
primary to the number of turns on the secondary, i.e V p N p
=
Vs Ns
The transformer works using the principle of mutual induction, if two coils are close together, then
changing the current in the primary coil sets up a changing magnetic field at the secondary coil
hence an EMF is induced in the second. Hence a transformer will only work with AC.
EMF induced proportional to the rate of change of flux linkage, however the number of primary and
secondary coils are constant so.
d
d
So p=N p
and s=N s
dt
dt
d
The core ensures that the flux associated with one coil also passes through the other. As dt
remains constant, the equations can be equated as p s which becomes p N p or V
Np
p
=
=
=
N p Ns
s N s
Vs Ns
Eddy currents
Any metal moving in a magnetic field or exposed to a changing one, will have EMFs induced in it.
This can cause circulating currents, called eddy currents, to flow inside the metal. They will follow
low resistance paths so they may be quite large. There magnetic fields will oppose the field which
created them, this will slow down a moving body (useful in gauges and other devices with needles
which may require electromagnetic damping) and through this and Joule heating energy can be lost.

A common design of transformer

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Unit 6: Synthesis
Analogies in physics
6.1
Comparison of springs and capacitors
Both capacitors and springs store energy, one is electrical in nature, the other mechanical.
With a capacitor the energy comes from a voltage displacing charge from one plate to another,
with the spring it is from the force that is extending the spring.
V Q and F x
hence V=Q/C and F = kx
W =V Q=

Q
Q
C

hence;

W =F x=kx x
x

hence;
x

[ ]

kx 2
Wd = kx dx =
2
0

1
= Fx
Q
Q
Q
Wd =
dQ =
=
2
0
2C 0
2C
0 C
Similarity;
Energy stored in a capacitor equals VQ and energy stored in a capacitor equals Fx
2 Q

6.2

[ ]

Comparison of electric and gravitational fields


Gravitational fields

Affects all masses


F = mg

Electric fields

Affects all charges

Unit is N Kg-1

F = QE

Unit is N C-1

Obeys an inverse square law


Point masses/charges produce a radial gravitational/electrical field
Near to the surface of a spherical body, there is an uniform gravitational/electrical field
All masses attract each other

Charges can attract or repel

There is no shielding from gravity

Charges can be shielded (Faraday cage)

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6.3
Comparison of capacitor discharge and radioactive decay
Over time the energy in a capacitor will discharge, like radioactive decay, capacitor discharge is
exponential. i.e. the rate of decay is proportional to the quantity that is subject to exponential
decay.
dQ
Q
dN
This can be written as: dt = N for radioactive decay or dt = RC for capacitor
discharge.
As such both processes can be graphed as either

N =N 0 e

t
RC

, where N0/I0 is the


I =I 0 e
starting number of nuclei/ starting current. With this equation Current is interchangeable with
charge, so Q=Q e
0

or

t
RC

As both processes are subject to exponential decay, theoretically they both go on indefinitely,
however as both charge and size of an atom's nuclei have to be discrete values, this is not the case.
Both equations can be arranged in similar ways to find t (half life), except they will have
difference time constants, for radioactive decay is subject to the time constant of -1 and capacitor
discharge is subject to RC (the product of capacitance and resistance)

N =N 0 e t
ln N =ln N 0 t
N
ln 0 =ln N 0t 1
2
2
t 1 =ln 2
2

t 1=
2

ln 2 0.69

ln 2
So for radioactive decay t 1 =
& for capacitor discharge t 1 =RC ln 2
2

Capacitor discharge Radioactive decay


I=

dQ Q
=
dt RC

Q=Q 0 e

Activity=

t
RC

N =N 0 e

Time constant; RC,


t 1 =ln 2 RC
2

Anthony Cameron

dN
= N
dt

Time constant; 1
ln 2
t 1=

A level Physics notes;

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Note
dQ
=I
dt

Accelerators
6.4
Conservation of mass energy
Einstein proposed that mass and energy where equivalent, and therefore if the energy of a body
changes by the amount E, the mass will change by the amount m E = c2 m
When dealing with small masses in nuclear physics, the mass can be measured in unified
atomic mass units, 1u is one twelfth the mass of the carbon-12 atom. 1u 1.66 x 1027 kg
1 u=
Nuclear Fission
Nuclear fission is the process of splitting a nucleus into
smaller nuclei.
This is done by bombarding certain heavy nuclei with
neutrons causing them to fragment.
Fission of certain heavy elements will also produce
more neutrons. So essentially each fission event can
generate more neutrons each of which can start a new
event. These chain reactions can be harnessed and
controlled.
An element that can sustain a fission chain reaction is
called a fissile. An example of which is uranium 235
Fission of heavy elements is an exothermic reaction
which can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and as kinetic
energy of the fragments.

1
kg
1000 N A

Nuclear Fusion
Fusion is the union of light nuclei into heavier nuclei. This process will lead to a transfer of mass
and consequent liberation of energy. Fusion reactions require energy to start but usually the energy
produced is more than enough to propagate the reaction.
6.5
Principles of Linear accelerators
To produce charged particles with a large acceleration, it is feasible to use a Van de Graff generator
to generate beam of protons each with energy in the order if MeV (Mega Electron Volts).
A linear particle accelerator (a Linac) is a device in which charged particles are passed through an
evacuated tube with a series of charged plates. The plates are connecting to an AC power supply so
that there charge changes. A linac can acceleration particles so they have GeV's of energy.
PrincipleAs
of linear
accelerator
a particle
can not

go faster than the speed of light, electrons with extremely high energy will
have
anp.d.s
increased
mass theelectrons
closer there speed gets to the speed of light.
Switching
to keep accelerating
alternating high
frequency p.d.

at one instant

+
bunches of electrons between
electrodes are accelerated
a little later

zero p.d.

bunches of electrons
drift through tube
a little later still

Anthony Cameron
bunches of electrons between
electrodes are further accelerated

A level Physics notes;

revision 88

electrodes must be longer because


electrons are going faster

Fixed target experiments : The


particles collide with a target
containing protons and produce
showers of elementary particles
Colliding beams: Two identical
beams with equal but opposite
momentum will collide and have a
final KE of 0, so lots of exotic
particles will be created.
38 of 60

6.6
Principles of Ring accelerators
A force acting on a current flowing at 90O to a magnetic field is given by F = BIl
The current is given by I = nAQ So F = B(nAQ)l.
As nAl equals the number of charged particles
F = BQ equals the force on each particle

F = BQv

Placing an electron gun in a glass tube filled with gas, will show the
electrons' path as due to inelastic collisions between gas particles
and electrons, photons will be released. By then placing this tube
near a permanent magnet, a force is produced on the electrons
perpendicular to their motion. This causes circular motion.
Cyclotron
An electric field is used to accelerate a charged particles across a
gap between two "D-shaped" magnetic field regions. The magnetic
field accelerates the particles in a semicircle, during which time the
electric field is reversed in polarity to accelerate the charge particle
again as it moves across the gap in the opposite direction. In this
way a moderate electric field can accelerate charges to a high
energy. This overcame the difficulty of electric discharge caused by the high DC voltages in the
Cockroft-Walton and van de Graaf accelerators.
Bq =

mv2
r

Bq v
= =
m r
Bq

f=
=
2 2 m
Colliding beam experiments
Theoretically if two beams with equal and opposite momentum collide,
they will have zero kinetic energy and momentum. All the remaining
energy is used to create new particles.

6.6
Principles of detecting particles
Principles of spark and drift chambers
A spark chamber is a sealed box with layers of stacked metal plates. High pressure gas fills the
space between the plates. A potential difference is applied across alternate layers. As a charged
particle moves through the detector, it will ionise gas particles and a spark will be produced..
A drift chamber (sometimes known as a wire chamber) is a detector

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Principle of cloud and bubble chambers


Cloud chambers
Cloud chambers can be used to track ionised particles that pass through them, essentially they
consist of a sealed environment usually containing cooled, supersaturated ethanol vapour. The
temperature is maintained by dry ice and the air is kept saturated by felt pads soaked in ethanol.
Areas of the vapour will become ionised by the ionising radiation. These ions will act as a
condensation nuclei causing nearby ethanol droplets to coalesce and condense forming a mist (this
is very similar to the way in which water coalesces with atmospheric dirt to form fog). A light is
shined through the tank to show the track made.

Bubble chambers
A bubble chamber is filled with liquid gas (usually liquid hydrogen), the
pressure is then decreased, so the liquid enters a superheated metastable
phase, i.e. the liquid gas will stay in liquid form, even though this is
energetically unstable. Charged particles travelling through this liquid will
ionise causing liquid to vaporise, this causes bubbles along the particles
track. The chamber is placed in a magnetic field which cause the particles to
follow a helical course.
Cameras are mounted all around the chamber to produce 3d images, of the
microscopic track.

Bubble chamber

Detecting neutral particles


This can be done by deduction. You can tell a neutral particle exists by the gap in particle tracks.
p n + + + e
this equation wouldn't add up without the neutron, so if you start with proton
and detect a positron and neutrino you can deduce the existence of a neutron.
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Interpretation of particle tracks from a cloud chamber


Because of their larger size, particles will have shorter tracks than particles, but they will be
thicker because of the greater ionising property

From left to right


i. The tracks left by alpha particles
ii. The single track was left by a highly energetic electron, the squiggly lines are tracks of
electrons knocked from atoms by X-rays from the same source as the particles
iii. e.m. radiation such as the X-rays used in this photograph is absorbed by the surface of the
cloud chamber and beta radiation is emitted in all directions
Interpretation of particle tracks from a bubble chamber
The radius of curvature of the helical course of the particle depends on the charge to mass ratio,
however with subatomic particles that have a charge of 1, the radius of curvature can be said to be
proportional to the particles momentum.
A particle with greater momentum moving through a magnetic field will be deflected less.
The direction will also give an indication of the direction of the charge.

The pions directed through this bubble


chamber hit other nuclei creating more
particles
Diagram showing paths of particles through a bubble chamber
Anthony Cameron

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Appendix 1

Uncertainty and error

Uncertainty accuracy of readings


x
%uncertainty=
100
x
range of values
%uncertainty=
2average value
x 1 x 2
uncertainty=
x
x actual
uncertainty= 1
actual
Ruler = 1mm
Micrometer = 0.01mm
Vernier calliper = 0.1mm

Appendix 2 AS and A2 Experiment Diagrams


Experiments Units 1 and 2
Measure of gravitational pull

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Conservation of Momentum

Experiment to measure the specific heat capacity of water

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Experiment to measure the specific heat capacity of an aluminium block

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Experiment to measure the specific latent heat of fusion

Acceleration/ of a trolley

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Experiment to measure the specific latent heat of vaporisation

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Experiment to measure the effect of temperature on pressure

Experiment to measure the effect of pressure on volume

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Experiments Units 4 and 5


Experiments involving waves
Polarisation, superposition and stationary waves
Effect of a polarised in the path of plane polarised light

A polaroid is placed in front of a light source, two in line if the the source is non-polarised (the first
plane polarises the light. The polaroids are placed so light is detected, if two polaroids are used they
must be inline. The polaroid is rotated, as it is rotated the intensity of light will diminish when the
polaroid has been rotated 90O, i.e. the two polaroids are at right angles.

Experiment showing two slit superposition using microwaves and calculation of wavelength

A polarised light source, i.e. a microwave source is placed facing two slits. A probe is placed a
distance away from the slits on the other side. As it is moved left and right there will be maxima
and minima. The nth maxima is taken and a measurement of distance from the central maxima is
taken. The wavelength will be this distance divided by n.

Anthony Cameron

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Creating a standing wave using microwaves

and using this to calculate wavelength

A reflective surface is placed in front of a polarised source, such as a microwave transmitter. It will
create a standing wave. By moving a probe between the transmitter and the reflective surface
(slightly above it), maxima and minima can be found. The wavelength can be found by measuring
the distance of the nth maxima, the wavelength equals twice the distance divided by n. = 2dn-1

Creating a standard wave


Attach a string under tension (this is done using a pulley and a
hanging mass) to a vibration generator, adjust frequency using a
signal generator until a standing wave is created.

Experiments involving pendulums


Measure the effect on the period of a pendulum (T), if pendulum length (l), mass (M) or
starting angle () is changed.

Hang the pendulum, pull it back and measure the time taken for the pendulum. Measure the time, T,
taken for N oscillations. Change the mass of pendulum, starting angle or length of pendulum and
repeat again measuring the time for N oscillations. Multiple oscillations are measured as this gives
greater accuracy
Draw graphs of results
if l is variable use T2 as T l

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Experiments involving the emission of photoelectrons


Photocell experiments

Two possible setups. They use different methods to vary voltage


uses a variable power supply
uses a variable ammeter
Experiment to measure stopping potential
Shine a light of known frequency at the photocell cathode. Start with a high voltage and decrease
until current equals zero. The magnitude of this voltage is the stopping potential, Vs, and
qVs
= hf
This can also be used to calculate the work function, .
Experiment to find saturation point
Shine an ultraviolet light at the photocell cathode. Start with a low voltage and increase. Draw a
graph of current against voltage
The saturation point is where the graph levels and further
changes in voltage lead to no change in current. As this is
when all electrons reach the anode.

A gold leaf electroscope can be used to show the


photoelectric effect.
A zinc plate is cleaned of its oxide layer, placed on
top of the electroscope and negatively charged.
Initially the leaf will be up
When subjected subjected to photons from light
(UV), the leaf will slowly fall down.

Anthony Cameron

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Appendix 3 Units and symbols


Base SI units
SI Unit

is a Measure of ...

SI Unit

kg (kilograms) Mass

is a Measure of ...

cd (candela)

Luminosity

m (metres)

Distance

mol (moles)

Amount of a substance4

s (seconds)

time

K (kelvin)

A (Amperes)

Electric Current

Thermodynamic
Temperature

Common derived units


C Coulomb
F Farad

J Joule

Ohm

V Volts

Wb Weber

T Tesla

Newton

Symbols and their units


56 of them (so most, not all of them), labelled alphabetically
Greek letters were organised by the first letter of their name
phi; lambda; / upper and lower case omega; sigma; epsilon; rho
A to N

N to X

Acceleration (m s-2)

Activity (s-1)

O Moments (N m)

Cross sectional area (m2)

The density parameter (the Average massenergy density of the universe)

Specific heat capacity (J kg-1 K-1)

Momentum (kg m s-1)

Capacitance (F)

Pressure (N m-2)

Power (J s-1)

<c2> Mean square speed (m2 s-2)

Charge carrier density (m-3)

Distance (m)

Resistivity (m)

distance

Resistivity ( m)

Energy (J)

Work function (J)

Charge of an electron (C)

Electromotive force (V)

Q Charge (C)

Ek

KE of a photo electron (J)

Force (N)

R Resistance ()

Frequency (s )

f0
g

Density (kg m-3)


Individual charge (C)

Radius (m)

Threshold frequency (s )

Distance (m)

Gravitational field strength (m s-2)

Conductivity (-1 m-1)

Time (s)

-1

-1

GPE Gravitational potential energy


H0

Hubble constant (s-1)

T Temperature (K)

Impulse (N s)

t Half life (s)

Current (A)

4 Subject to Avogadro's number

NA 6.022 x 10^23

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Intensity (W m-2)

U Internal energy (J)

KE

Kinetic Energy

Specific latent heat (J kg-1)

V volume (m3)

Length (m)

V Potential Difference (V)

luminosity

Decay constant (s-1)

W Work done (J)

Wavelength (m)

Angular velocity (s-1)

number of moles (mol)

Velocity / final velocity (m s-1)

Drift velocity (m s-1)

Displacement (m)

Units missing from previous table (mainly do to with magnetic fields)


B
Magnetic flux density (T)
N Number of turns on a coil
e

Electric field strength (N C-1)

Number of coil turns per unit length

Magnetic flux linkage (Wb)

Magnetic flux (Wb)

Permeability of free space

Appendix 4 Metric prefixes


Common metric prefixes at A-level

Prefix Symbol Magnitude 10x

Prefix Symbol Magnitude 10x

Giga-

centi-

-2

Mega-

mili-

-3

kilo-

micro-

-6

All Other metric prefixes; common, rare and unused

Prefix Symbol Magnitude 10x

Prefix Symbol Magnitude 10x

Yotta-

24

deci-

-1

Zetta-

21

cent-

-2

Exa-

18

mili-

-3

Peta-

15

micro-

-6

Tera-

12

nano-

-9

Giga-

pico-

-12

Mega-

femto-

-15

myria-

my

atto-

-18

kilo-

zepto-

-21

hecto-

yocto-

-24

deka-

da

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Appendix 5 Formula sheet


Unit 1 Mechanics and radioactivity equations
Kinematic equations
1
v=uat
v 2 =u 22as
s=ut at 2
2
Mechanics
p=mv
m
V

F =ma
P=

F=

mv u
t

I =Ft =m v u

O= Fd

F
A

Energy, Power and Work


1
PE=mgh
KE= m v 2
2

P=Fv

W = Fx = Mechanical work

P=

I=

l
A

Q
t

W
t

W = Ivt = Electrical work

Unit 2 Electricity and thermal physics equations


Electricity
Q= It
I =nAqv
R=

1
s= uv t
2

P=IV

W P
E
= = p.d.=
=
Q
Q I

Gases
pV
=NR
T

1
pV = Nm c 2
3

Thermal physics
E=mc t

E=ml

V =EIR

P=

Nm
V

U =Q W

R t=R1 R2... Rn Series


1
1 1
1
= ... Parallel
R t R1 Rt
Rn
1
p= P c2
3
0

C =273 K

Unit 3A Astrophysics equations


L= T 4 A
I=

max T =2.898103

L
2
4D

Anthony Cameron

D=

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1
tan

53 of 60

Unit 4 Waves and our universe equations


Circular motion
v=r
x=2 r
v=

2 r
T

T=

1
f

a=

Simple harmonic motion


x= x 0 cos t

2r
=r 2
2
T

F =kx
dx
v= = x 0 sint
dt

2
=
t
T

a= 2 x

dv
2
= x 0 cos t
dt

a=

SHM Springs and pendulums


=

k
m

T =2

m
k

T =2

Light and wave particle duality


v= f
E=hf
I=

P
4 r 2

The universe
v= H 0 D

E k =E

=hf 0

h
p

x
=
D s

T =H 1

Unit 5 Field and forces equations


Gravitational fields
G m1 m2
F GM
F=
g= = 2
2
m
r
r

Electric fields
k Q 1 Q2
F=
r2
W =QV

Capacitance
1
1
1
1
= ...
Ct C1 C 2
Cn
C t =C 1C 2...C n

series
parallel

C=

Q
V

E=

F V kq
= =
Q x r2

B=

=BA

0 I
2r

=N

k=

1
4 0

1
me v 2 =e V
2

1
E= QV
2

Magnetic fields

F =BIL

l
g

= dtd N =B l v

Vp Np
=
Vs Ns

B=0 n I

Unit 6 Synthesis equations


E=c2 m

Anthony Cameron

F=BQV =

mv 2
r

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Alphabetical Index
Accelerators........................................................................................................................................ 38
alpha radiation...................................................................................................................................... 4
Analogies............................................................................................................................................ 36
Angular Speed.................................................................................................................................... 16
Atmospheric effects............................................................................................................................12
AU...................................................................................................................................................... 13
B-field.................................................................................................................................................32
Background radiation........................................................................................................................... 4
beta radiation........................................................................................................................................ 4
big bang.............................................................................................................................................. 26
Black hole........................................................................................................................................... 14
Browninan motion.............................................................................................................................. 10
bubble chambers................................................................................................................................. 40
Capacitance.........................................................................................................................................30
capacitor............................................................................................................................................. 30
capacitor charging.............................................................................................................................. 31
Capacitor discharge............................................................................................................................ 37
capacitor discharging..........................................................................................................................31
capacitor, energy stored......................................................................................................................31
Capacitors in parallel.......................................................................................................................... 30
Capacitors in series.............................................................................................................................30
carbon-12............................................................................................................................................ 38
CCD, Charge coupled devices............................................................................................................12
Cepheid variable stars.........................................................................................................................13
Cetnripetal force................................................................................................................................. 16
Charge...................................................................................................................................................6
Charge carrier density...........................................................................................................................6
closed universe................................................................................................................................... 26
cloud chambers................................................................................................................................... 40
COBE, Cosmic Background Explorer................................................................................................12
Coherence........................................................................................................................................... 21
Cold sink.............................................................................................................................................11
Colliding beam experiments...............................................................................................................38
Comparison of capacitance with resistance........................................................................................30
Comparison of capacitor discharge and radioactive decay................................................................ 37
Comparison of electric and gravitational fields..................................................................................36
Comparison of springs and capacitors................................................................................................36
Compressions..................................................................................................................................... 19
Conductivity......................................................................................................................................... 8
conservation of energy....................................................................................................................... 34
Conservation of energy.............................................................................................................9, 11, 20
Conservation of energy, Principle of....................................................................................................3
Conservation of mass energy..............................................................................................................38
Conservation of Momentum...............................................................................................................43
constructive interference.................................................................................................................... 20
critical density.................................................................................................................................... 26
cross sectional area............................................................................................................................... 6
Current.................................................................................................................................................. 6
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Cyclotron............................................................................................................................................ 39
DeBroglie........................................................................................................................................... 25
decay constant...................................................................................................................................... 4
Density..................................................................................................................................................3
derived units....................................................................................................................................... 51
destructive interference...................................................................................................................... 20
Detecting neutral particles.................................................................................................................. 40
detecting particles............................................................................................................................... 39
Diffraction.......................................................................................................................................... 20
diffraction gratings............................................................................................................................. 25
Doppler shift....................................................................................................................................... 26
drift chambers..................................................................................................................................... 39
Drift velocity........................................................................................................................................ 6
E.M.F. (Electromotive forces)..............................................................................................................8
Eddy currents......................................................................................................................................35
Efficiency of a heat engine................................................................................................................. 11
Electric field strength......................................................................................................................... 29
Electric fields......................................................................................................................................29
Electrical potential difference...............................................................................................................8
Electrical work....................................................................................................................................11
Electricity............................................................................................................................................. 6
Electromagnetic induction..................................................................................................................34
electromagnetic spectrum, the............................................................................................................ 18
Electromagnetic waves....................................................................................................................... 18
Electron beams................................................................................................................................... 30
energy flux..........................................................................................................................................20
Energy levels...................................................................................................................................... 24
Energy, capacitor................................................................................................................................ 31
Equipotential surfaces........................................................................................................................ 28
error.................................................................................................................................................... 42
exponential rate.................................................................................................................................... 4
Farad................................................................................................................................................... 30
Faraday cage....................................................................................................................................... 36
Faraday's law...................................................................................................................................... 34
field strength.................................................................................................................................... 28p.
Fields.................................................................................................................................................. 28
final contraction..................................................................................................................................27
Fission.................................................................................................................................................38
Fixed target experiments.................................................................................................................... 38
Fleming's left hand rule...................................................................................................................... 32
flux linkage......................................................................................................................................... 34
Forces................................................................................................................................................... 2
Free body force diagrams..................................................................................................................... 2
Frequency........................................................................................................................................... 16
fusion.................................................................................................................................................. 14
Fusion................................................................................................................................................. 38
gamma radiation................................................................................................................................... 4
Giant molecular cloud........................................................................................................................ 14
Gold leaf electroscope........................................................................................................................ 50
Gravitational field strength.................................................................................................................28
Gravitational fields............................................................................................................................. 28
Gravitational Potential Energy............................................................................................................. 3
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Half life.................................................................................................................................................4
Hall effect........................................................................................................................................... 33
Hall probe........................................................................................................................................... 33
Heat.....................................................................................................................................................10
Heat pump.......................................................................................................................................... 11
Heating............................................................................................................................................... 11
Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram............................................................................................................. 13
Hot source...........................................................................................................................................11
Hubble telescope................................................................................................................................ 12
Hubble's constant................................................................................................................................26
Hubble's law....................................................................................................................................... 26
Hydrogen atom, stationary waves...................................................................................................... 25
Ideal gases.......................................................................................................................................... 10
indefinite expansion of the universe...................................................................................................27
infinitely long straight wire, Flux density.......................................................................................... 33
Insulators.............................................................................................................................................. 7
intensity.............................................................................................................................................. 20
Intensity.............................................................................................................................................. 12
Internal energy....................................................................................................................................11
Internal resistance................................................................................................................................. 9
Interpretation of particle tracks from a bubble chamber.................................................................... 41
Interpretation of particle tracks from a cloud chamber...................................................................... 41
Inverse square law.............................................................................................................................. 20
IRAS, Infra red Astronomical Satellite.............................................................................................. 12
isotopes................................................................................................................................................. 4
Kepler's three laws of planetary motion............................................................................................ 28
Kinematics............................................................................................................................................ 2
Kinetic Energy......................................................................................................................................3
Kinetic model of matter......................................................................................................................10
Kirchoff's first law................................................................................................................................ 6
Kirchoff's second law........................................................................................................................... 9
Laws of thermodynamics................................................................................................................... 11
LDRs (Light Dependant resistors)........................................................................................................9
left hand rule.......................................................................................................................................32
Lenz's law........................................................................................................................................... 34
light year............................................................................................................................................. 26
Linear momentum................................................................................................................................ 3
Linear particle accelerators.................................................................................................................38
linear response.................................................................................................................................... 12
Longitudinal Waves............................................................................................................................19
Luminosity..........................................................................................................................................12
magnetic field line.............................................................................................................................. 32
Magnetic fields................................................................................................................................... 32
Magnetic flux......................................................................................................................................34
Magnetic flux density......................................................................................................................... 32
Magnetic Flux linkage........................................................................................................................ 34
mass-energy density........................................................................................................................... 26
Mechanical energy................................................................................................................................3
Mechanical oscillators........................................................................................................................ 17
Mechanical work................................................................................................................................ 11
Metals................................................................................................................................................... 7
Metric prefixes....................................................................................................................................52
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moments............................................................................................................................................... 2
momentum............................................................................................................................................ 3
Monochromatic...................................................................................................................................21
Natural frequency............................................................................................................................... 17
Nebulars..............................................................................................................................................14
neutral particles.................................................................................................................................. 40
Neutral point....................................................................................................................................... 32
Neutron star........................................................................................................................................ 14
Newton's First Law of motion.............................................................................................................. 2
Newton's Third law of motion.............................................................................................................. 2
Newton's three laws of motion............................................................................................................. 3
Newtons second law of motion........................................................................................................... 3
Nuclear Fission................................................................................................................................... 38
Nuclear Fusion....................................................................................................................................38
open universe......................................................................................................................................26
Optical line spectra............................................................................................................................. 26
Ordered and disordered processes...................................................................................................... 11
Parallax............................................................................................................................................... 13
Parallel circuits..................................................................................................................................... 9
Path difference....................................................................................................................................20
Peak wavelengths............................................................................................................................... 12
pendulums...........................................................................................................................................49
Pendulums.......................................................................................................................................... 16
Period..................................................................................................................................................16
Permanent magnets.............................................................................................................................32
Phase...................................................................................................................................................20
Photocell............................................................................................................................................. 50
photoelectron...................................................................................................................................... 22
photoelectrons.....................................................................................................................................50
photoemmisive cell.............................................................................................................................23
pi-mesons............................................................................................................................................41
pions................................................................................................................................................... 41
Plane polarisation............................................................................................................................... 19
point charges.......................................................................................................................................29
point masses........................................................................................................................................28
Polarisation................................................................................................................................... 19, 48
Potential difference graphs................................................................................................................... 8
Potential divider....................................................................................................................................9
Power.................................................................................................................................................... 3
Power dissipation..................................................................................................................................8
Pressure...............................................................................................................................................10
Progressive waves.............................................................................................................................. 19
Projectiles............................................................................................................................................. 2
proton-proton chain............................................................................................................................ 14
Protostars............................................................................................................................................ 14
pulsar.................................................................................................................................................. 14
Quantum phenomena..........................................................................................................................22
radial fields...................................................................................................................................... 28p.
radioactive decay................................................................................................................................ 37
Radioactive decay.................................................................................................................................4
Radioactivity.........................................................................................................................................4
Rarefactions........................................................................................................................................ 19
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Red giants........................................................................................................................................... 14
Resistance............................................................................................................................................. 8
resistivity.............................................................................................................................................. 8
Resonance...........................................................................................................................................17
right hand rule..................................................................................................................................33p.
Ring accelerators................................................................................................................................ 39
Saturation point.................................................................................................................................. 23
Semi-conductors................................................................................................................................... 7
Series circuits........................................................................................................................................9
SHM, Simple harmonic motion..........................................................................................................16
SI units................................................................................................................................................51
sinusoidal............................................................................................................................................ 20
solenoid...............................................................................................................................................33
spark chambers................................................................................................................................... 39
Specific heat capacity......................................................................................................................... 10
specific heat capacity of an aluminium block.................................................................................... 44
specific heat capacity of water............................................................................................................43
Specific latent heat............................................................................................................................. 10
specific latent heat of fusion...............................................................................................................45
specific latent heat of vaporisation..................................................................................................... 46
Springs................................................................................................................................................ 17
Standing waves in Hydrogen..............................................................................................................25
Star classes, Summary........................................................................................................................ 15
Stars................................................................................................................................................. 12p.
Stationary waves.................................................................................................................................19
Stefans constant.................................................................................................................................. 12
Stellar Nursery....................................................................................................................................14
Stopping potential...............................................................................................................................23
super giants......................................................................................................................................... 14
Supernovae, type II.............................................................................................................................14
superposition.......................................................................................................................................48
Superposition...................................................................................................................................... 20
Surface temperature............................................................................................................................12
Symbols.............................................................................................................................................. 51
Tesla................................................................................................................................................... 32
The heat engine...................................................................................................................................11
The nuclear atom.................................................................................................................................. 5
The photoelectric effect...................................................................................................................... 22
Thermistors...........................................................................................................................................9
time constant.......................................................................................................................................37
Time Period........................................................................................................................................ 16
transformer......................................................................................................................................... 35
Transverse waves................................................................................................................................19
two slit superposition using................................................................................................................ 48
u.......................................................................................................................................................... 38
Uncertainty......................................................................................................................................... 42
uniform............................................................................................................................................ 28p.
Wave particle duality..........................................................................................................................25
Wave properties of electrons.............................................................................................................. 25
wavefront............................................................................................................................................ 20
Waves................................................................................................................................................. 18
Weber................................................................................................................................................. 34
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White dwarf stars................................................................................................................................14


Wiens Law..........................................................................................................................................12
wire..................................................................................................................................................... 33
wire chamber...................................................................................................................................... 39
work function......................................................................................................................................50
Work function.....................................................................................................................................22
Young's double slit experiment.......................................................................................................... 21

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