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Echipa tiinific : prof. univ. dr. ION NEGRE-DOBRIDOR, conf. univ. dr. CRENGUA OPREA, asist. univ. dr.

SILVIA FT, prof. dr. CRISTINA ELENA ANTON, prof. DIANA BRATOSIN, prof. ECATERINA BONCIU

DEZVOLTAREA PROFESIONALA CONTINUA PE COMPONENTA INSTRUIRII DIFERENTIATE A ELEVILOR

-suport de curs-

Cuprins
CAPITOLUL I Noiuni generale despre managementul carierei n nvmnt
1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. Cariera profesional i viaa n societatea modern i postmodern Procesul dezvoltrii profesionale Specificul profesiei didactice. Misiunea soteriologic i paideutic a educatorului Competenele educatorului de vocaie i optimizarea lor de-a lungul carierei. 1.4.1. Modelarea competenelor 1.4.2. Structura competenelor de-a lungul carierei didactice standard

Aplicaia Nr. 1: Un model de carier didactic

1.5.

Exigenele profesiei didactice ca job, ca ocupaie i ca vocaie


Aplicaia Nr. 2. :Un studiu comparativ despre competenele unor educatori celebri

CAPITOLUL II Optimizarea competenelor didactice de-a lungul carierei.


2.1.Stadiile carierei didactice 2.1.1. Modele ale carierei ideale 2.1.2. Un model al stadiilor carierei didactice de succes
2.2. Ierarhiile profesionale i succesul n cariera didactic 2.3. Optimizarea continu a competenelor n cariera didactic 2.3.1. Avansarea n cariera didactic 2.3.2. Iniiere, consolidare, avansare, apogeu i declin n cariera didactic

CAPITOLUL III Formarea i optimizarea continu a abilitilor de difereniere i motivare a instruirii.


3.1. Importana optimizrii capacitilor i abilitilor didactice de difereniere i motivare a instruirii 3.1.1. Dimensiunile i semnificaiile diferenierii instruirii n clasa de elevi 3.1.2.Cror factori se datoreaz aceste diferene? 3.2. Distincii ntre individualizarea instruirii, diferenierea instruirii i discriminarea n instruire 3.3. Aspectele negative ale discriminrii i aspectele pozitive ale individualizrii i diferenierii
Aplicaia Nr 3. Elaborare de microproiecte pentru diferenierea i motivarea instruirii n clas

Aplicaia Nr. 4. Elaborare de dramatizri simulate

Aplicaia Nr. 5. Convertirea unor situaii problematice n studii de caz i/sau incidente critice

CAPITOLUL IV Managementul instruirii difereniate n clas


( un ghid pragmatic pentru elaborarea microproiectelor i scenariilor didactice pentru nvarea diferniat n clas )

Aplicaia Nr. 6: Elaborare de procedee de captare a ateniei Aplicaia Nr. 7: Elaborarea scenariilor unor microproiecte realizate n prealabil Aplicaia Nr.8: Transformarea unor scenarii didactice n scenarii de film/material didactic Aplicaia Nr. 9: Elaborarea unui studiu tiinific pe baza aplicaiilor 7 i 8 i transpunerea lui pe site-ul ISJ Brila *

BIBLIOGRAFIE ANEXE DOCUMENTARE


Documentarul nr. 1: MANAGEMENTUL CARIEREI 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. Ce este cariera? Managementul carierei Career Planning

John Holland Frank Parsons Edgar Henry Schein

1.4. Programul KUDOS pentru alegerea carierei de ctre tineri Documentarul nr. 2 : COMPETENELE CADRULUI DIDACTIC 2.1. Key Competences for Lifelong Learning Education Competencies (North Carolina

2.2. Teacher University ) 2.3.

Proiectul european DICE

2.4. Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students (American Federation of Teachers, NEA, USA ) 2.5. Teaching Grammar ( National Capital Language Resource Center, Washigton DC ) Documentarul nr. 3 : DIFERENTIEREA I INDIVIDUALIZAREA INSTRUIRII a. INDIVIDUALIZAREA 3.1. O sintez a cercetrilor

Keller Plan IPI Individually Prescribed Instruction for Learning in

PLAN Program Accordance with Needs

3.2.Studii semnificative privind individualizarea instruirii 3.3. Un exemplu sugestiv b. DIFERENIEREA 3.4. O sintez a cercetrilor 3.5. Studii semnficative privind diferenierea instruirii

Studiile Reading Rockets for Writing

Differentiated Instruction (ACCESS Center, USA ) Documentarul nr. 4 : DESIGN INSTRUCIONAL 4.1. Definition of Instructional Design 4.2. O istorie a designului instrucional 4.3. Gagne's Conditions of Learning Theory 4.4. Carroll's Minimalist Theory of Instruction 4.5. Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains 4.6. Instructional Desighn & Learning Theories 4.7. Mastery Learning Paradigm

CAPITOLUL I Noiuni generale despre managementul carierei n nvmnt


1.1. Cariera profesional i viaa n societatea modern i postmodern

Societatea secolului XXI difer radical de cea a secolului XX. Lumea profesiilor i a meseriilor s-a schimbat dramatic. In prima parte a secolului XX s-a dezvoltat spectaculos i a atins apogeul industria capitalist : societatea a devenit o lume a coului de fum, simbolul i baza ei fiind fabrica n care proletarii muncesc i produc bunuri pentru consumul de mas prestnd de-a lungul ntregii viei fiecare aceeai meserie repetitiv nsuit nc din copilrie i adolescen. Strungarul, oelarul, forjorul, sudorul, minerul sau, mai generic, mecaniculetc. sunt personajele emblematice ale acestei lumi n care domnesc specializarea profesional ngust i permanena. Rzboaiele mondiale i nevoia de progres au generat ns promovarea accelerat a transpunerii n practic a cunoaterii tiinifice producnd o copleitoare revoluie tehnologic. Dup Al doilea Val al civilizaiei omeneti1 s-a nstaurat n a doua jumtate a secolului XX, mai nti lent, apoi de-a dreptul copleitor, Al Treilea Val. Revoluia n informatic i electronic cu precdere au generat tehnologii uimitoare n centrul crora se afl computerul i televiziunea. Nu are rost s inventariem aici toat gama de ustensile noi care prelungesc capacitile creierului omenesc, mondializeaz cunoaterea, globalizeaz economia i transform ntreaga lume ntr-un kosmos oikoeumenos fabulos pe care unii l-au botezat deja ca fiind un Global Village n care fiecare tie totul despre fiecare i despre orice n fiecare clip. Condiia uman nsi i condiia vieii ca atare s-au modificat catastrofic. Permanena, stabilitatea, specializarea , ba chiar i valorile legate de acestea au fost abandonate i nlocuite cu sintagme oximoromice precum permanentizarea schimbrii, adaptarea la nou, mobilitatea profesional, polispecializarea etc. aducnd cu ele alte valori i o nou mentalitate n strategiile de supravieuire a speciei i a fiecrui individ uman n parte. Pe scurt, la sfritul secolului XX s-a zvonit venirea unei Lumi Noi - mai ndrznea, mai primejdioas, mai nesigur, mai ambiioas - i acum trim n ea cu bucurii i spaime noi. Un paradis terestru somptuos care ns a fortificat i Iadul cu feerii multiple. Este suficient s butonezi o zi ntreag televizorul conectat la cablu pentru a tri din plin aceast senzaie de fericire i dezgust trite laolalt. Aceast transformare produs n numai cteva decenii a antrenat o adevrat catastrof n lumea profesiilor i meseriilor specifice civilizaiei coului de fum. Majoritatea au devenit anacronice i au fost abandonate. O generaie nc tnr i viguroas, nscut imediat dup
1 Expresia celebr a folosit n anul 1981 de viitorologul Alvin Toffler n cartea Al Treilea Val pentru a

desemna civilizaia coului de fum.

Cel de-al Doile Rzboi Mondial, a fost luat prin surprindere. Oelarul, strungarul, tbcarul etc. s-au vzut nlocuii de microprocesoare i roboi i trimii la recalificare sau chiar abandonai complet de noua societate. Meterul curelar din Koenisberg, Johann Georg Kant (1683-1746 ), tatl i modelul de via demn i prestigiu profesional al marelui filosof Immanuel Kant, dac ar fi trit n anii '80 ai veacului trecut, ar fi fost la fel de nuc ca muli dintre muli fotii meseriai i proletari prestigioi nc n via. Exegezele au avut nevoie de etichete privind tririle spirituale i ideologiile acestor transformri. Filosofi care strbtuser secolul XX precum Jacques Derrida, Jean-Francois Lyotard, Gilles Deleuze, Jean Baudrillard au botezat era coului de fum ca aparinnd modernismului iniiat de Secolul Luminilor i au declarat c acesta a murit fiind nlocuit de un spirit nou, postmodernismul. Dar se pare c noua etichet era prea modest. Actualmente se consider c nsui postmodernismul a murit i c ne prbuim vijelios ntr-un alt viitor furind o spiritualitate i mai nou, aa-zisul after-posmodernism. Oare profesia de educator, veche de cel puin cinci milenii, a intrat i ea n drama declaat de acest vertij tiinifico-tehnic ? Desigur, ea nu a fost abandonat dei n a doua parte a secolului XX s-a ncercat acest lucru de cteva ori. Avem n vedere eresurile americane ale lui Ivan Illich2 i tentativa mult mai pragmatic a lui B.F. Skinner3 de a desfiina colile i de a declara defunct profesia de educator. Pare ns nendoielnic faptul c att postmodernismul ct i after-postmodernismul au impus i impun colii i educatorilor provocri i exigene fr precedent. n cursul dedicat Abilitrii curriculare am struit asupra acestor aspecte.In cele ce urmeaz struim asupra condiiei educatorului n faa exigenelor i provocrilor impuse de Al Treilea Val, de Civilizaia Tehnotronic, de Satul global. Care este noua menire a educatorului u ce responsabiliti implic ea?
2 Rspopitul american de origine ruso elveian IVAN ILLICH ta susinut n cartea sa, devenit best seller, Deschooling Society (1971) necesitatea de a desfina coala pe motiv c este Fecioara Maria care s-a prostituat la curtea regilor, vrnd s spun c coala se supune i reproduce ideologia sistemului politic n vigoare. 3 BURRHUS FREDERIC SKINNER ( 1904 1990) a propus ntr-o serie lung de cercetri i lucrri nlocuirea tehnicilor tradiionale de nvmnt cu instruirea programat bazat pe manuale programete i maini de nvat. n lucrarea The Technology of Teaching( 1968) tradus la noi cu titlul Revoluia tiinific a nvmntului (1971) i mai ales n romanele utopic - tehnologizanteWalden Two i Beyond Freedom and Dignity a decretat moartea colii.

De ce competene are nevoie i cum i le poate forma? n ce const specificul profesiei i carierei didactice? Cum trebuie s-i planifice educatorul progresul profesional i cariera didactic? Ce modele de succes pot fi urmate n dezvoltarea i managementul carierei didactice? Cum pot fi perfecionate continuu competenele educatorului de vocaie? Cum se poate optimiza concret competena didactic prin nsuirea unor nouti psihopedagogiec de exemplu cele privind tehnicile de difereniere a instruirii?.a.

1.2. Procesul dezvoltrii profesionale


1.2.1.Cercetarea tiinific modern i postmodern din domeniul psihologiei organizaionale a studiat posibilitatea construirii unor modele generale ale dezvoltrii profesionale indiferent de profesia vizat. Iat unul dintre cele mai cunoscute modele:

FazaI: AUTOEVALUAREA

Faza V: PERFORMARE

Dezvoltarea carierei

Faza II:EXPLORAREA OPIUNILOR

Faza IV: AFIRMARE(marketing self)

Faza III:DEZVOLTAREA ABILITILOR

Figura Nr. 1: Modelul general al dezvoltrii n cariera profesional Conform acestui model pentafazic nsui proiectul de dezvoltare a carierei trebuie s aib n vedere urmtoarele elemente:

Faza I ( Assessing Self &Preferences )

- cunoatere i nelegere de sine

presupune:

- abiliti proprii - interese proprii - valori la care aderi

Faza a II-a ( Exploring options )

- identificare proactiv -nelegerea de sine i jocul/compararea/potrivirea sinelui cu posibilitile proprii

presupune:

Faza a III-a (Developing skills &

- dezvoltarea abilitilor - aprofundarea conotinelor - ctigarea de reputaie

Experience ) presupune:

Faza a IV-a ( Marketing Self )

presupune:

- obinerea abilitilor de a cuta i obine locul de munc - abilitile de a menine locol de munc - abilitile de a schimba locuri de munc

Faza a V-a ( Performing & Planning

Next Steps

) presupune:

- dezvoltarea abilitilor de a lua decizii eficiente legate de carier - dezvoltarea abilitilor de a lua decizii eficiente legate de tranziiile din carier

1.2.2. S considerm acum un model specific. Procesul dezvoltrii i carierei profesionale n MANAGEME domenii industriale figurat mai jos i are o anumit specificitate. NT
JOB SEARCH

CAREER

FOCUS /PREPARATION

CERCETAREA INDUSTRIAL PERSONALITATEA

9 AUTOEVALUARE
Abilit i, aptitudini

VALORILE

interese

Figura Nr 2. Procesul dezvoltrii carierei n domenii profesionale industriale Iat un ghid pragmatic n acest sens.

Self-Assessment

Se ncepe cu explorarea interioar care ajut la nelegerea unor elementele vitale, care v tine conectat la munc ntr-un mod semnificativ. Integrnd n personalitate aptitudinile, valorile, interesele i vei fi ntr-o poziie mai bun pentru a crea o via de munc, care v va permite s te exprimi pe deplin. Lucru are nevoie pentru a se potrivi personalitii dumneavoastr i cunoaterea de sine este primul pas n acest proces. Planificarea carierei profesionale eficient necesit informaii despre piaa de munc actual i tendinele din industrie. Prin intermediul bibliotecii i publicate pe Internet surse, clienii pot extinde cunotinele despre titluri de locuri de munc i funciile de locuri de munc. Integrarea auto-informaii despre proppria persoan cu informaii actuale de pe piaa de locuri de munc v permite s v focalizai pe o direcie de carier precis. Inva care sunt tendinele pieei care potrivite i alege ceea ce este unic despre tine apoi nva cele mai eficiente strategii pentru a obine un anumit loc de munc. Aceasta include

II

Industry Research

III Goal Clarification

IV Job Search

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dezvoltarea unui CV concentrat, o scrisoare de nsoire scurt i eficient, relaionare i intervievare.

Career Management

nelegerea relaiilor interpersonale la locul de munc, mbuntirea abilitilor de comunicare i de adoptarea unei abordri flexibile de gestionare a schimbrii.

Desigur exist similitudini, dar mai ales deosebiri ntre modelul general i modelul specific dezvoltrii n cariera unei profesii industriale fa de modelul carierei didactice.

1.3. Specificul profesiei didactice.


1.3.1.Procesul dezvoltrii n cariera didactic poate fi i el modelat. Propunem n acest sens un model relativ cunoscut. Specificul acesteia ELOR, CAPACIT ILOR A CUNO TIN este uor de identificat. Urmrii cu atenie Figura Nr. 3. Rezult cu claritate urmtoarele:
I COMPETEN ELOR Natura profesiei didactice difer de natura muncii de producerea bunurilor de consum : PN LA NIVELUL Profesia didactic nu este doar un job oarecare; OPTIMIZARE CONTINU

Profesia didactic nu este doar o ocupaie profesional

MIESTRIEI PEDAGOGICE
FORMAREA DEPLIN A
Reinei:

Atunci ce este profesia didactic?

COMPETEN ELOR PEDAGOGICE DE SPECIALITATE I MORALE

PERSONALITAT E

CULTURII
cunotine Motivaie,

VALORI FORMAREA CULTURII I MORALE ESENIALMENTE PROFESIA DIDACTIC ESTE FORMAREA COMPETENELOR O VOCA IE DE SPECIALITATE PEDAGOGICE INIIALE deprinderi aptitudini NTR-UN DOMENIU minimale

Valori morale, Aceasta nu nseamn c ea nu este i ocupaie sau job. Dar nu se restrnge la aceste dimensiuni empatie, atitudini practice. Reinei datele din figura din figura Nr.4 aptitudini, cunotine, DECIZIA DE ALEGERE soteriologice, ideal de via paideutic

exemple pedagogice

A PROFESIEI DIDACTICE Experiene proprii, modele de profesori, consiliere avizat, sentimente, nclinaii privind 11 VOCAIA PEDAGOGIC

CULTURA GENERAL

Figura Nr. 3. Un model al dezvoltrii carierei didactice Job


(5 %) OCUPAIE (15%)

12 VOCA IE (80%)

Figura Nr. 4. Structura praxeologic a profesiei didactice

1.3.2. Ce confer profesiei didactice aceast specificitate? Pot fi invocate ca fundamentale elementele de mai jos: Natura i scopul muncii Misiunile ce trebuie asumate pentru ndeplinirea ei cu succes Cunotinele, capacitile, competenele solicitate pentru desfurarea acestei munci
Weltanschauung

NATURA/SCOPUL MUNCII - Educaia

MISIUNI

COMPETENE FUNDAMENTALE

WELTANSCHAUUNG

-Misiunea soteriologic:salvarea

-Competena pedagogic -Viziune despre lume ca un loc n care individul - Cultur general vast

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-Transformarea animalului din specia Homo n personalitate uman prin physiopoiesis( a doua natur-Democritus din Abdera, sec.V . Hr. )

indivizilor umani de maladia apaideusiei(ignoran, gr.); - Misiunea paideutic - Misiunile socialeconomice i umanitare( eradicarea ignoranei i srciei prin educaie; etc. )

i profund i uman este o entitate competen maximal n unic, irepetabil i sacr specialitatea predat - Credina c individul - Competena moral uman trebuie considerat ntotdeauna ca scop i niciodat ca mijloc.

Se poate observa cu uurin c aproape nici una dintre aceste componente nu sunt absolut necesare pentru ndeplinirea cu succes a unor job-uri i meserii de tip industrial, funcionresc sau de orice alt natur. Deosebirea profund fa de acestea o constituie faptul c munca educativ nu produce bunuri de consum ci druiete indivizilor umani i societilor demnitatea i puterea de a le putea produce.

1.4. Competenele educatorului de vocaie i optimizarea lor de-a lungul carierei


1.4.1. Modelarea competenelor Din perspectiv practic, munca didactic incumb, n proporiile sus specificate, toate componentele de mai sus. S-a ncercat modelarea competenelor cadrului didactic att sub raport vocaional ct i sub raport tehnico pragmatic. Figura de mai jos4 este numai una dintre ncercrile de a modela competenele cadrului didactic ntr-o manier exhaustiv:

CURRICULUMUL COMPETENELOR
Cercetarea competenelor

Lifelong learning comp.

DOMENIUL Comp. social-culturale COMPETENELE PROFESIONALE 4 KIYMET SELVY, Teacher's Competencies. In Cultura. International Journal of Philosophy of Culture ALE EDUCATORULUI and Axiology, vol.VII, no. 1/2010 COMPETENELOR Comp. ambientale 14 Competene. digitale Comp. comunicaionale Competene afective

Fig. Nr. 5 Componentele competenelor profesionale ale profesorului ( apud Kiymet Selvy)

APLICAIA NR. 1 Desciei un model de carier didactic excepional cunoscut sau imaginar. Scriei un eseu pe aceast tem de minimum 5 pagini i prezentai-l n seminar pentru dezbatere.

1.4.2. Structura competenelor de-a lungul carierei didactice standard

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S-a ncercat chiar radiografierea structurrii competenelor de-a lungul carierei didactice standard. Redm un model propus de TeachNM de la University of New Mexico College of Education ( New Mexico ) n anul 2010.

I. Profesorul demonstreaz cunoaterea cu exactitate a zonei de coninut i curriculumul aprobat


Profesor provizoriu
- Nivelul I Cadru didactic profesionistNivel II

Master Teacher
- Nivelul III

A. Utilizeaza i mbuntete A. mbuntete i extinde curriculumul aprobat. curriculumul aprobat.

A. Contribuie la perfecionarea i dezvoltarea curriculumului aprobat.

B. D explicaii clare cu privire B. D explicaii clare cu privire B. Ofer explicaii clare cu privire la coninutul lecieii la coninutul lecieii la coninutul leciei i la procedurile didactice procedurile didactice proceduri n mai multe moduri i este contient de cunotinele i ideile preconcepute pe care elevii le pot aduce la subiect C. Comunic cu precizie n zona de coninut. C. Comunic cu precizie n zona de coninut. C. Comunic cu precizie n zona de coninut i poate crea mai multe modaliti de abordare a problemelor studiate.

D. Evideniaz strnsa corelaie a componentelor zonei de coninut ..

D. Integrates other subjects into D. Poate articula n logic the content curriculum. D. pedagogic corelaiile dintre Integreaz alte subiecte n disciplinele studiate. coninutul curricular.

II. Profesorul utilizeaz n mod corespunztor o varietate de metode de


predare i a resurselor pentru fiecare zon de nvat.
Profesor provizoriu - Nivelul I Cadru didactic profesionistNivel II Master Teacher - Nivelul III

A. Ofer oportuniti pentru A. Proiecteaz de posibiliti A. Proiecteaz activiti i ca elevii s lucreze adecvate de nvare n angajeaz studeni n grup mare, independent, n grupuri mici, grupuri mari, grupri mici, i grup mic, activiti independente i n grupuri mari. prin experiene independente . i de lucru. B. Utilizeaz o varietate de B. Selecteaz dintr-o varietate B. selecie Demonstreaza i

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metode, inclusiv demonstraii, de metode de predare utilizarea eficient a o varietate prelegeri, student iniiat de (demonstraii, prelegeri, de metode de a face cunotine lucru, grupuri de lucru, proiecte studentesti, grupuri de accesibile tuturor elevilor. interogatoriu, i practica lucru, practica independent), independenta. pentru obiective specifice de instruire i scopuri. C. Utilizeaza o varietate de resurse, cum ar fi excursii, materialele suplimentare tiprite, manipulatives, i tehnologie. C. integreaz o varietate de C. Demonstreaza integrarea resurse n instruire, inclusiv efectiv de o varietate de resurse excursii pe teren, materiale i experiene de nvare n suplimentare tiprite, curriculum. manipulatives, i tehnologie.

D. Ofer oportuniti pentru D. demonstreaz nelegerea i D. Modeleaz oportuniti ca elevii s se aplice, practic, aplicarea corespunztoare a pentru ca elevii s aplice, i demonstreze cunotinele i stilurilor de nvare, practic, i s demonstreze abilitile nvate prin modalitile, i teoriile cunotinele i abilitile bazate modaliti diferite. inteligenelor. pe cunotine de modalitile de nvare, stil de preferine, i de inteligen. E. implementeaz modificrile necesare i adaptri n instruire i curriculum, astfel nct elevii cu handicap au acces la programa de nvmnt general n mediu mai puin restrictiv. E. desene i pune n aplicare E. se angajeaz, cu colegii i modificrile necesare i prinii pentru a proiecta adaptri n instruire i colaborare i punerea n aplicare curriculum, astfel nct elevii modificrile necesare i adaptri cu handicap au acces la n instruire i curriculum, astfel programa de nvmnt nct elevii cu handicap au acces general n mediu mai puin la programa de nvmnt restrictiv. general n mediu mai puin

III. Profesorul comunic cu i obine feedback de la elevi ntr-o manier care

mbuntete nvarea i nelegerea.


Profesor provizoriu - Nivelul I A.. explic i / sau demonstreaz relevana subiectelor i activitilor. B. Comunic elevilor intenia de instruire, direcii, sau plan. Cadru didactic profesionist - Nivel II A. Efectiv explic, demonstreaz sau comunic relevana subiectelor i activitilor. B. constant comunica elevilor intenia de instruire, direcii, i Master Teacher - Nivelul III A. Angajeaz elevii n explicarea i / sau s demonstreaz relevana subiectelor i activitilor. B. studenii implic n stabilirea

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planuri. C. Stabilete expectanele i standardele oficiale privind performanele elevilor. C. Stabilete expectanele i standardele oficiale privind performanele elevilor.

direcie de instruire i planuri. C. Stabilete expectanele i standardele oficiale privind performanele elevilor. D. Prezint direcii i explicaii ntr-o varietate de moduri pentru a asigura elevilor nelegerea celor studiate. E. Angajeaz elevii n analiza i evaluarea rezultatelor nvrii i ajusteaz instruirea bazndu-se pe feedback-ul oferit de student.

D. Prezint direcii i explicaii D. Clarific aciuni, direcii, i ntr-o varietate de moduri d explicaii atunci cnd elevii pentru a asigura elevilor nu neleg. nelegerea celor studiate. E. Solicit elevii s participe E. Solicit de comunicare activ n nvare pentru a activ din partea studentilor cu realiza scopul instruirii privire la procesul de nvare. planificate i aflat n curs de desfurare.

F. Comunic n mod regulat cu F. Comunic n mod regulat cu F. Comunic n mod regulat cu elevii despre progresul lor. elevii despre progresul lor. elevii despre progresul lor.

IV. Profesorul ntelege principiile de progres n dezvoltare i nvare i le aplic n mod corespunztor.
Profesor provizoriu - Nivelul I A. Instruiete elevii prin utilizarea de abiliti de gndire cognitive, cum ar fi gndirea critic, rezolvarea problemelor, gndirea divergent, i luarea deciziilor. Cadru didactic profesionist l II - Nivel II A. Integreaz consecvent n instruire abiliti utile de gndire cognitiv, cum ar fi gndirea critic, rezolvarea problemelor, gndirea divergent i de luarea deciziilor. Master Teacher - Nivelul III A. Integreaz consecvent n instruire abiliti utile de gndire cognitiv, cum ar fi gndirea critic, rezolvarea problemelor, gndirea divergent i de luarea deciziilor.

B. Selecteaz cele mai eficiente B. Adapteaz tehnici de predare B. Utilizeaz tehnici de tehnici de predare pentru a aborda pentru a acomoda o serie de predare adaptate nivelurilor de o varietate niveluri, ritmuri, stiluri niveluri, ritmuri, stiluri de nvare, ritmuri i stilurilor de de nvare i nevoi ale nvare i nevoi speciale ale nvare ale elevilor. studentului, precum i interese studentului. referitoare la diverse medii.

18

C. Utilizeaz materiale i mass-media adaptndu-le la niveluri de nvare, ritmuri i stiluri ale elevului.

C. Selecteaz materiale dintre C. Adapteaz materiale i cele mai eficiente i mass-media mass-media ptr. a aborda o serie de a aborda o varietate de de niveluri, ritmuri, stiluri i niveluri, ritmuri de nvare, nevoi speciale ale studentului. stiluri i nevoi ale elevului. D. Selecteaz dintr-o varietate de agenii n folosul comunitii, personal colar specializat i prinii pentru a aborda diferite niveluri de nvare, ritmuri, stiluri i nevoi ale elevilor. D. Integreaz resurselor comunitare, agenii de servicii, alte categorii de personal coal, prini, i membrii comunitii n curriculum.

D. Utilizeaza resurse cum ar fi: agenii de servicii comunitii, personalul din coal, i prinii pentru a satisface Niveluri, ritmuri i stiluri ale elevului.

V. Profesorul utilizeaz eficient tehnicile i procedurile de evaluare.


Profesor provizoriu - Nivelul I A. Utilizeaza o varietate de instrumente de evaluare i de strategii. B. Utilizeaz informaii obinute din evaluarea continu pentru remedierea i planificarea instruirii. C. Menine documentaia privind progresul elevilor. D. Comunic progresul elevilor i familiilor n timp util. Cadru didactic profesionist -Nivel II A. Selecteaz instrumente adecvate de evaluare i strategii pentru rezultate specifice ale nvrii. B. Utilizeaz evaluarea formativ i sumativ pentru remedierea i planificarea instruirii. C. Menine documentaia privind progresul elevilor. D. Menine constant comunicarea cu elevii i cu familiile despre progresul elevilor. Master Teacher - Nivelul III A. Proiecteaz i foloseste metode multiple de msurare a nelegerii elevilor i de progres al nvrii. B. Integreaza date din surse multiple de evaluare n planificarea i optimizarea instruirii. C. Menine documentaia privind progresul elevilor. D. Dezvolt un sistem cu dou sensuri de comunicare cu elevii i cu familiile despre progresul elevilor.

VI. Profesorul gestioneaz starea educaiei ntr-o manier care promoveaz comportamentul pozitiv al elevilor i un mediu sigur i sntos.
Profesor provizoriu Cadru didactic profesionist Master Teacher

19

- Nivelul I

Nivel II

- Nivelul III A. Integreaz n mod regulat n predare comportamente constructive, pro-sociale. B. Stabilete i nva rutine efective i eficiente. C. Elevii se angajeaz n stabilirea ateptrilor pentru a construi o comunitate de nvare n clas.

A. Identific, explic, i A. Servete drept model pentru modele constructive de comportamentul constructiv. comportament. B. Executa sarcini de rutin efectiv i eficient. C. Stabilete i consolideaz ateptri/sperane pentru comportamentul elevilor. D. Handles transitions effectively. B. Stabilete i nva rutine efective i eficiente. C. Stabilete i consolideaz comportamentele studentului care promoveaz cetenia n comunitatea clasei de elevi.

D. Menine relaii manierate n D. Menine relaii manierate n clasa de elevi. clasa de elevi. E. Stabilete un mediu n care materialele i mass-media sunt disponibile i gata de utilizare de ctre student. F. Minimizeaz distragerile i ntreruperile. G. Dezvolt un sistem de management al clasei care promoveaz comportamentul elevilor acceptabil i adecvat. H. Identific pericolele, evalueaz riscurile i ia msurile corespunztoare.

E. Are materiale i mass-media E. Pregtete dinainte i gata pregtite pentru utilizare de aranjeaz materiale pentru a ctre elevi. accesibiliza nvarea elevilor. F. Minimizeaz distragerile i F. Minimizeaz distragerile i ntreruperile. ntreruperile. G. Conduce comportamentul elevilor n mod eficient i corespunztor. H. Identific pericolele, evalueaz riscurile i ia msurile corespunztoare. G. Monitorizeaz i direcioneaz comportamentul elevilor n mod eficient i corespunztor. H. Identific pericolele, evalueaz riscurile i ia msurile corespunztoare.

VII. Profesorul recunoate diversitatea elevilor i creeaz o atmosfer care s conduc la promovarea implicrii pozitive a studenilor pe calea proprie.
Profesor provizoriu - Nivelul I Cadru didactic profesionist - Nivel II Master Teacher - Nivelul III

20

A. Demonstreaz sensibilitatea i capacitatea de reacie la A. Recunoate i valideaz ideile personale, de nvare a idei, de nvare a nevoilor, nevoilor, intereselor, i intereselor, i sentimentele de sentimentele studenilor cu studeni cu dizabiliti i / sau dizabiliti i / sau din punct de din punct de vedere cultural i vedere cultural i lingvistic lingvistic medii diverse (de medii diverse (de exemplu, exemplu, nativii americani, nativii americani, hispanici hispanici americani, afroamericani, afro-americani, americani, asiatici americani, asiatici americani, precum i precum i alte grupuri recente alte grupurilor recente de de imigrani . imigrani). B. Recunoate performanele i realizrile elevilor . B. Recunoate constant performanele i realizrile elevilor .

A. Regleaz practici bazate pe observaie i cunoatere a elevilor cu dizabiliti i / sau din punct de vedere cultural i lingvistic diverse grupuri (de exemplu, nativii americani, hispanici americani, afro-americani, asiatici americani, precum i alte grupuri recente de imigrani).

B. Creeaz proiecte curriculare care includ performanele elevilor i confirm de realizrile lor. C. Demonstreaza o contientizare a influenelor de context, handicap, limba, cultura i pe student de nvare.

C. nelege modul n care elevii difer n modul lor de a aborda C. Recunoate c fiecare elev nvarea i adapteaz instruirea poate nva. pentru a satisface nevoile diverse. D. Ofer oportuniti pentru fiecare student pentru a reui i a nelege modul n care elevii difer n demersurile lor de nvare bazate pe diverse medii culturale i lingvistice i exceptionalities.

D. Proiecteaz oportuniti pentru fiecare elev pentru a reui, pe baza nevoilor individuale de nvare.

D. Ofer acomodri i intervenii care s permit fiecrui student de a reui pe baza nevoilor individuale de nvare.

E. Angajeaz elevii n experiene E. ofer studenilor cu E. Proiecteaz activiti de nvare care promoveaz posibiliti de implicare activ specifice care necesit o creativitatea, critic i gndirea i creativitate. implicare activ i creativitate. divergent. F. Ofer oportuniti pentru ca elevii s fie responsabili pentru comportamentul lor i de nvare. G. Promoveaz pozitiv F. Proiecteaz oportuniti care F. Proiecteaz oportuniti care necesit i consolideaz necesit i consolideaz responsabilitatea studentului responsabilitatea studentului pentru nvare. pentru nvare. G. Dezvolta la studeni "stima G. ncurajeaz dezvoltarea

21

relaiile student / profesor.

de sine, motivatia, caracterul i respectului pentru individualitate, simul de responsabilitate diferenele culturale, lingvistice, civic. religioase i de handicap.

H. Angajeaz elevii n stabilirea H. ncurajeaz ateptri foarte H. Stabilete i comunic unor standarde de performan mari student. ateptri mari pentru toi elevii. nalte. I . Demonstreaz cunotine despre background-ul fiecrui I. Demonstreaz o student, despre medii diferite, contientizare i respect pentru despre experienele background-ul fiecrui elev, fundamentale ale fiecruia, experienta, pentru capacitatea despre abiliti sale de nvare, lui de nvare, pentru limba, si limbi, i culturi i ncorporeaz cultura sa. aceste cunotine n deciziile curriculare i metodologia de instruire.

I. Trateaz toi studenii echitabil, recunoscnd i proiectnd instruirea pentru diferenele individuale dintre culturi, limbi, abilitile de nvare, background -uri i experiene personale.

VIII. Profesorul demonstreaz dorina de a examina i de a implementa schimbarea, dup caz.

Profesor provizoriu -Nivelul I Cadru didactic profesionist Nivel II

Master Teacher -Nivel III

A. Caut informaii cu privire la metodologia, de cercetare i tendinele actuale n domeniul educaiei pentru a spori i a mbunti calitatea nvrii.

A. caut informaii cu privire la metodologia, de cercetare i tendinele actuale n domeniul educaiei pentru a spori i a mbunti calitatea nvrii.

A. Demonstreaza capacitatea de a raiona de a motiva, de a aborda mai multe perspective, de a fi creativ, motivat i de a-i asuma riscuri pentru mbuntirea procesului de predare.

B. Implementeaz o varietate de strategii pentru a optimiza nvarea. C. Recunoate c schimbarea

B. Colaboreaz cu colegii din B. Demonstreaza cunotine de cercetare i proiectare pentru bune practici care sporesc optimizarea strategiilor de nvarea. instruire . C. Participa la mbuntirea C. Asum rol de leader n studiul

22

implic un risc dar modificrile instruirii i la iniiativele de pot fi necesare. reform colar.

i punerea n aplicare a optimizrii instrucionale i a iniiativelor de reform colar.

IX. Profesorul lucreaz productiv cu colegii, prinii i membrii comunitii.


Profesor provizoriu - Nivelul I Cadru didactic profesionist - Nivel II A. Promoveaz activ relaii colegiale cu personal din alte coli. Master Teacher - Nivelul III A. Servete ca un model pentru relaiile de colaborare n ntreaga profesie. B. Demonstreaza cunotine specifice despre coal, familie, comunitate i resursele care pot sprijini nvarea elevilor.

A. Colaboreaz cu colegii.

B. Ofer un sistem de B. Comunic cu prinii n mod comunicare interactiv ntre regulat. profesor i prini.

C. Utilizeaza strategii de C. Utilizeaza strategii de C. Asist colegii n utilizarea soluionare a conflictelor atunci soluionare a conflictelor, dup strategiilor de soluionare a cnd este necesar. caz. conflictelor. D. Implic prinii n comunitatea i n mediul de nvare. E. Comunic ntr-un mod profesionist cu colegii, prinii, i membrii comunitii cu privire la problemele educaionale. D. Promoveaz roluri active pentru prini i membrii comunitii n nvare. D. Angajeaza parintii si membrii comunitatii n mod productiv n activitatea colii.

E. Comunic ntr-un mod E. Lucreaz colaborativ i profesionist cu colegii, prinii, creativ cu colegii, prinii, i i membrii comunitii cu membrii comunitii cu privire la privire la problemele problemele educaionale. educaionale.

1.5. Exigenele profesiei didactice ca job, ca ocupaie i ca vocaie n continuitate cu tradiiile pedagogice ale Europei i, cvasi-implicit, ale Romniei putem sistematiza caracteristicile i exigenele ale profesiei didactice astfel:

CA JOB

CA OCUPAIE

CA VOCAIE

23

(5%)

LUCRATIV (15%)

(80%)

Loc de munc

Cultur general larg i

Aptitudini i atitudini

profund, erudiie
Prestaia unei munci Stpnirea unuia sau mai

pedagogice pozitive
Convingeri i pasiune

specializate pentru obinerea unui salariu

multor domenii ale culturii cuprinse n curriculum


Cunotine teoretice vaste

pentru misiunea paideutic

Respectarea legislaiei, a

Convingeri, atitudini i

regulamentelor colare i ndeplinirea corect a sarcinilor


Cunoaterea acceptabil

n domeniul tiinelor educaiei

conduite motivate soteriologic

Cunotine de psihologie

Capaciti empatice

i stpnirea adecvat a meseriei de educator


Cunotine de Weltanschauug centrat pe

filosofie,sociologie, antroplogie, biologie etc.


Capaciti de

importana omului n Univers


Convingeri i triri

comprehensiune pedagogic i demonstrare logic a cunotinelor de specialitate


Capaciti de aplicare a

filantropice, respingerea mizantropiei

Caliti morale ilustrate

cunotinelor de specialitate n contexte revelatoare pentru cel care nva

prin conduite adecvate lor: -demnitate - onoare -distincie -modestie

Capaciti de analiz a

Caliti morale privind

24

coninuturilor de predare prevzute n curriculum

conducerea de sine: -contiin de sine -ncredere n sine -discernmnt -calm -curaj -moderaie -echilibru sufletesc

Capaciti de interpretare

Caliti morale privind

relaionarea cu ceilali: -reinere -responsabilitate -intenii bune -prietenie -devotament -blndee

Capaciti de sintez i

Caliti morale privind

abiliti de proiectare pedagogic

credina: -iubirea (universal, christic) -ncrederea -sperana -rbdarea

Capaciti de apreciere i

Caliti morale privind

evaluare

nelegerea celorlali: -iertarea -mila

25

-compasiunea
Caliti morale privind

recunotina: -recunotina universal -generozitatea -mrinimia -aprecierea


Caliti morale privind

armonia: -optimism -cooperare -entuziasm


Caliti morale privind

perseverena: -efort -strduin -rezisten


Caliti morale privind

respectul pentru viaa social: -toleran -curtoazie -cooperare


Caliti morale speciale

privind grija fa de copii: -iubire filetic -compasiune -ndatorare

26

-respect -buntate -responsabilitate -autoritate -nelegere -empatie -simpatie ;etc.

APLICAIA NR.2 1. Realizai un studiu comparativ pornind de la personajele de mai jos


PERSONAJUL COMPETENA DE SPECIALITATE COMPETENA PEDAGOGIC COMPETENA MORAL

Dasclul Chiosea Dl.Trandafir Dl.Vucea Dl. Mariu Chico Rostogan Cel mai competent profesor din coala dvs.

27

Cel mai incompetent profesor pe care l-ai cunoscut

2. Organizai n seminar o dezbatere liber privind cele 6 personaje indicnd i argumentnd caliti i defecte.

CAPITOLUL II Optimizarea competenelor didactice de-a lungul carierei


2.1. Stadiile carierei didactice
2.1.1. Modele ale carierei ideale Exist oare o carier didactic standard? Poate fi ea descris i reglementat strict? n privina job-ilor i a profesiilor obinuite s-a ncercat i s-a reuit acest lucru. Iat cteva exemple celebre. Modelul lui Schein. S-a ncercat modelarea stadiilor carierei psihologic:
ETAPE VRSTA

ideale 1 pornind de la stadiile de dezvoltare

STADIILE

1 Vide SCHEIN n D.T. HALL Personnel Management, Prentice Hall, London, 1995

28

0 -21

EXPLORARE, DEZVOLTARE, FANTEZIE Intrarea n cmpul muncii Pregtirea de baz Cariera timpurie Mijlocul carierei Crizele de la mijlocul carierei Cariera trzie Declin Eliberare i pensionare

II III IV V VI VII VIII IX

16 -25 16 -25 17- 30 25 + 35 - 45 40 + 40 + 60 +

O simpl privire a tabloului de mai sus este suficient pentru a observa c modelul ideal nu se potrivete dect vag cu stadiile carierei didactice.

Modelul lui Klatt Ali autori2 didactice. au propus modele mai adecvate dar fr a surprinde specificul profesiei

2 V.L.A. KLATT &col.,Human Resource Management, 1985

29

Fig.Nr. 6. Stadiile carierei ( dup Klatt, 1985 )

Modelul lui Wagner i Hollenbeck3

3 J. A. WAGNER & J.R. HOLLENBECK, Management of Organizational Behaviour, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, london, 1992

30

Fig. Nr. 7 Modelul lui Wagner i Hollenbeck (1992)

2. 2. 1.Un model al stadiilor carierei didactice de succes

Ce este cariera didactic de succes?

Cariera n genere i cariera profesional n special este o curs cu obstacole care se poate ntrerupe brusc la fiecare confruntare cu oricare dintre ele. Depirea lor la timp i cu performane maximale constituie conditio sine-qua-non a ceea ce numim cariera de succes. Care sunt aceste obstacole? Sunt mai multe i relativ diferite, n funcie de ruta i dimensiunile, pe care le poate lua cariera didactic. Exist dou condiii eseniale ale reuitei n profesia didactic:

ALEGEREA CORECT A RUTEI PROGRESUL NENCETAT PE CALEA ALEAS

31

Aceste itinerarii sunt deschise de ierarhiile sistemului i procesului educaional. Cele mai importante dimensiuni de organizare ierarhic sunt:

IERARHIA PROFESIONAL PROPRIU-ZIS : este deschis tuturor celor care au luat decizia de a urma cariera didactic; - permite profesorului progresul nencetat al competenelor de specialitate, pedagogice i morale; - aduce profesorului prestigiul de doctor singularis i de illustrissimus magister n comunitatea educativ i n societate; - aduce dasclului recunotina acelor diligenter studiosi care au devenit, n timp, splendens discipuli i chiar scolaribus magna vitae fermentum superbus... - atinge apogeul atunci cnd comunitatea recunoate profesorului calitile de Magistratus Artes Disciplina

IERARHIA MANAGERIAL : - este numai acelor educatori care i descoper aptitudini i caliti de organizator i leader; -nu i acelora care cred c dac au slujit la catedr sau au trecut ca elevi prin coal, stultis non scientia paedagogica, sunt capabili s o i conduc; nu vor avea o carier managerial de succes ci, dimpotriv, se vor face de rs i vor aduce multe daune colii ; - permite celor cu talent, cu sim al responsabilitii paideutice profund, mistic chiar i cu cunotine manageriale temeinice s se ilustreze ca mari conductori i reformatori de coal obinnd gloria i recunoaterea sublim a dreptului de a intra n galeria mrea a marilor personaliti pedagogice romneti n fruntea crora strlucete etern Spiru Haret.

IERARHIA MATHETIC: - este deschis de obsesia de a studia i cerceta nencetat pentru creterea cunoaterii i mbogirea culturii universale care nutrete instituiile academice; - aduce dasclului prestigiu academic i recunoatere naional i internaional;

32

- ofer ansa de a intra n galeria marilor personaliti ale culturii romne; -efemere i consumatoare de timp funciile de conducere din nvmntul superior nu confer prin ele nsele nici presigiu nalt i nici recunoatere acadic aparte; - informarea permanent, autoformarea continu i creativitatea confer prin ele nsele momentele de succes necesare mplinirii carierei academice. *

2.2. Ierarhiile profesionale i succesul n cariera didactic


Putem ns descrie succesul n cariera didactic lund n considerare criteriul avansare n carier lund n considerare aceste trei dimensiuni. Rutele carierei de succes sunt urmtoarele:
IERARHIA PROFESIONAL n nvmntul preuniversitar

IERARHIA MANAGERIAL n sistemul de nvmnt -

IERARHIA MATHETIC n nvmntul preuniversitar i universitar Obinerea Licenei i a atestatului de cadru didactic masterat

VRSTA

Pregtire pedagogic i de specialitate in perioada studiilor de licen Profesor fr definitivat Profesor definitiv/posibiliti de avansare pe ruta nvmnt superior i cercetare tiinific Profesor cu gradul didactic II/posibiliti de avansare pe ruta nvmnt superior i cercetare tiinific Profesor cu gradul didactic I; apogeu creativ

19-21 ani

profesor

21-23 ani 22-2528 ani

ef de catedr

Doctorat/ lector universitar

Director de coal

Confereniar universitar/ef de catedr/ director de departament/ prodecan Profesor universitar/ prodecan/decan

25-35 ani

Inspector colar de specialitate judeean

30-3540 ani

33

Apogeu creativ Inspector colar minister Director general ministerial Ministru al educaiei Declin i pensionare

prorector/rector Apogeu creativ Apogeu creativ

30-45 ani 35 45 ani 45-60 ani 60 -70 ani

Apogeu creativ

Apogeu creativ

Apogeu creativ

Declin i pensionare

Apogeu creativ Pensionare

2.3. Optimizarea continu a competenelor n cariera didactic


2.3.1. Avansarea n cariera didactic. Dincolo de vditele deosebiri dintre modelele de dezvoltare a carierei profesionale fa de modele care vizeaz profesii i meserii lucrative n domenii precum cele industriale sau funcionreti, exist unele similitudini care ne permit s decelm trei mari stadii:
I. decizia de alegere a profesiei didactice

II. iniierea -formarea de specialitate - iniierea pedagogic III. consolidarea IV. avansarea V. apogeul VI. declinul VII. eliberarea i pensionarea 2.3.2.Iniiere, consolidare, avansare, apogeu i declin n profesia didactic Cum trebuie realizat optimizarea continu a competenelor cadrului didactic de-alungul acestor stadii?

34

Vom reine desigur numai pe cele semnificative. Lsm de o parte stadiile I, VI i VII din motive care se subneleg. Considernd eseniale opt categorii i capaciti implicate n exercitarea cu succes a profesiei didactice vom reine urmtoarele exigene de optimizare
INIIERE CONSOLIDA RE AVANSARE APOGEU DECLIN

INFORMARE -aprofundarea -studiu zilnic n A CONTINU culturii generale domeniul specialitii -studiu zilnic n domeniul -cunotine specialitii aprofundate de pedagogie , - iniere n psihologie , tiinele sociologie, educaiei filosofie, etc. -nsuirea tehnicilor informatice -didactica specialitii - exploatarea surselor de informare

-studiu zilnic n domeniul specialitii i iaprofundare n tiinele educaiei; -filosofia educaiei -doctrine pedagogice -teoria curriculumului -teorii ale motivaiei; teorii ale personalitii; - mastery n designul instrucional - capaciti de proiectare diversificat

-studiu zilnic n domeniul specialitii i aprofundare n tiinele educaiei -aspiraie spre erudiie i completaea continu a culturii proprii

-studiu zilnic n domeniul specialitii i aprofundare n tiinele educaiei -proces de contiin i autoevaluare profesional

FORMAREA - Abiliti de CONTINU design instrucional

- Competen deplin n proiectarea pedagogic -abiliti de -Competen management al deplin n clasei de elevi managementul clasei -

mastery n designul instrucional - capaciti de proiectare diversificat -stpnire complet a teoriei i a metodelor de predare nvare

-stpnire complet a teoriei i a metodelor de predare nvare -proces de contiin i autoevaluare profesional

DEZVOLTAR EA CAPACITI -LOR DE

-stpnirea complet a domeniului de specialitate;

-stpnirea complet a domeniului de specialitate; - stpnirea

-stpnirea complet a domeniului de specialitate; - stpnirea

-stpnirea complet a domeniului de specialitate; - stpnirea

-trirea sentimentului de misiune paideutic ndeplinit;

35

COMPREHE -nelegerea NSIprincipiilor i exigenelor UNE fundamentale de proiectare pedagogic i de motivare a elevilor

deplin a principiilor i exigenelor fundamentale de proiectare pedagogic i de motivare a elevilor; -determinarea mastery learning

deplin a principiilor i exigenelor fundamentale de proiectare pedagogic i de motivare a elevilor; -determinarea eficacitii generale a instruirii;

deplin a principiilor i exigenelor fundamentale de proiectare pedagogic i de motivare a elevilor; -determinarea eficacitii generale a instruirii; - stpnirea complet a tehnicilor de instruire difereniat i activ

-stpnirea complet a domeniului de specialitate; - stpnirea deplin a principiilor i exigenelor fundamentale de proiectare pedagogic i de motivare a elevilor; -determinarea eficacitii generale a instruirii; - stpnirea complet a tehnicilor de instruire difereniat i activ

- abiliti de instruire activ, - stpnirea difereniat, complet a individualizat tehnicilor de instruire difereniat i activ

36

OPTIMIZAR EA CAPACITI -LOR DE EMPATIE I COMUNICAR E

-asimilarea exigenelor de comunicare educaional; -exersarea aptitudinilor empatice

-stpnirea exigenelor de comunicare educaional; -dezvoltarea aptitudinilor empatice

-stpnirea deplin a exigenelor de comunicare educaional; -dezvoltarea i aprofundarea aptitudinilor empatice;

-stpnirea deplin a exigenelor de comunicare educaional; -dezvoltarea , aprofundarea aptitudinilor i stpnirea complet a tehnicilor empatice;

-trirea sentimentului de responsabilitate paideutic profund; stpnirea deplin a exigenelor de comunicare educaional;

-dezvoltarea , aprofundarea -trirea aptitudinilor i sentimentului stpnirea de complet a responsabilitate tehnicilor paideutic empatice; profund MULTIPLICA -REA ABILITIL OR APLICATIVE -Abiliti elementare de proiectare i implementare a exigenelor de tehnologie educaional -abiliti elementare de difereniere i motivare a instruirii -Competen n proiectare i n implementarea exigenelor de tehnologie educaional n clasa de elevi; - Construirea corect de strategii didactice centrate pe obiective operaionale Stpnirea complet a tehnicilor de proiectare i transpunere n clasa de elevi; -Construirea creativ de strategii didactice centrate pe obiective operaionale -Stpnirea deplin a exigenelor tiinifice de tehnologie educaional; - Aplicare creativ a exigenelor de tehnologie educaional --elaborare creativ de sarcini de instruire difereniat -elaborare creativ de situaii optime de nvare -Stpnirea deplin a exigenelor tiinifice de tehnologie educaional; - Aplicare creativ a exigenelor de tehnologie educaional -Proces de contiin i autoevaluare profesional

-elaborare -abiliti i corect de competene de sarcini de baz pentru instruire diferenierea i difereniat motivarea -elaborare instruirii corect de situaii optime de nvare

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EXERSAREA CONTINU A CAPACITI -LOR DE ANALIZ I SINTEZ

-Identificare de tehnici i procedee pedagogice adecvate pentru predareanvarea n domeniul de specialitate

-Identificarea continu i folosirea ingenioas de noi tehnici i procedee pedagogice adecvate pentru predareanvarea n -Organizarea i domeniul de desfurarea de specialitate microcercetri pedagogice n -Organizarea i didactica desfurarea de specialitii cercetri pedagogice n didactica specialitii

-Identificarea continu i folosirea ingenioas de noi tehnici i procedee pedagogice adecvate pentru predareanvarea n domeniul de specialitate --Organizarea i desfurarea de cercetri experimentale riguroase pedagogice n didactica specialitii

-Identificarea continu i folosirea ingenioas de noi tehnici i procedee pedagogice adecvate pentru predareanvarea n domeniul de specialitate --Organizarea i desfurarea de cercetri experimentale riguroase pedagogice n didactica specialitii -Proces de contiin i autoevaluare profesional

CREATIVITA - eseuri privind TEA profesia PEDAGOGIC didactic

- Producie de noi tehnici, procedee i materiale pentru eficientizarea instruirii i educrii

I. Cercetri tiinifice n domeniul educaiei de tip: -experimental -documentar -hermeneutic etc.

I. Cercetri tiinifice n domeniul educaiei de tip: -experimental -documentar -hermeneutic etc.

I. Cercetri tiinifice n domeniul educaiei de tip: -experimental -documentar -hermeneutic etc. II. Studii de sintez pe teme pedagogice fundamentale III. Proiecte

II. Studii de II. Studii de sintez pe teme sintez pe teme pedagogice pedagogice fundamentale III. Proiecte

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naionale i internaionale

naionale i internaionale -Proces de contiin i autoevaluare profesional

PERFECIO NA-REA CAPACITI -LOR DE EVALUARE

-Asimilarea exigenelor de teoria modern a evalurii;

-Elaborare corect de teste docimologice --Crearea de noi tehnici i metode de evaluare a performanelor colare; -Promovarea procedeelor de autoevaluare continu a elevului

-Stpnirea complet a tehnicilor i exigenelor docimologice modern

-Stpnirea complet a tehnicilor i exigenelor docimologice moderne -Crearea de noi tehnici i metode de evaluare a performanelor colare; -Promovarea procedeelor de autoevaluare continu a elevului

-Stpnirea complet a tehnicilor i exigenelor docimologice moderne -Promovarea procedeelor de autoevaluare continu a elevului

-Stpnirea complet a tehnicilor i exigenelor docimologice moderne -Promovarea procedeelor de autoevaluare continu a elevului -Proces de contiin i autoevaluare profesional

CAPITOLUL III Formarea i optimizarea continu a abilitilor de difereniere i individualizare a instruirii.


n primele dou capitole am analizat problematica teoretic a profesiei didactice i a necesitii de optimizare a competenelor educatorului de-a lungul ntregii cariere didactice.

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Dar aceasta nu se realizeaz n general. Fiecare competen i capacitate nscris n tablourile de mai sus trebuie abordat concret. n acest capitol am ales una dintre aceste componente: un set de abiliti necesare pentru a determina eficacitatea instruirii, reuita tuturor elevilor la nvtur ( mastery) n condiiile actuale ale nvmntului romnesc. Este vorba de individualizarea, diferenierea i motivarea nvrii n condiiile instruirii dirijate difereniate n clas i n cadrul unor programe compensatorii. n capitolul IV vom arta practic modalitile pedagogice la care poate i trebuie s recurg n acest sens un educator creativ i eficient. Procedurile propuse, dup cum se va vedea, au mare aplicabilitate n predarea-nvarea limbii materne i a limbilor strine. Dar inainte de a trce direct la problematica practic sunt necesare cteva lmuriri teoretice.

3.1. Importana optimizrii capacitilor i abilitilor de difereniere i individualizare a instruirii


3.1.1. Dimensiunile i semnificaiile diferenierii instruirii Venim pe lume cu un genofond unic care ne difereniaz net de alte specii: suntem cu toii bipezi, posedm limbaj articulat, avem dou membre superioare cu deget opozabil et. Suntem aadar egali? Nu. nluntrul speciei Homo Sapiens exist o varietate halucinant: nici un individ uman nu este identic cu altul, nu a existat niciodat pa Terra un individ uman identic cu dumneta sau cu mine i probabilitatea ca vreunul dintre noi s fie vreodat repetateste aproape imposibil. Fiecare dintre noi este un unicat , un accident cromozomial non-iterabil. Aadar,s lum n consideraie aceast variabilitate i n planul educaiei. Toi elevii care sau nscut normal dispun de toate capacitile psihice necesare nvrii i supravieuirii: ele fac parte din genofond. Dar n genotipul individual ele variaz considerabil:nu toi elevii i folosesc aceste capaciti ntr-un mod unic; dimpotriv, fiecare se exprim n activitatea de nvare foarte diferit. De aceea instruirea i educarea trebuie s se desfoare cel puin n mod difereniat. Desigur, cea mai bun instruire este cea individualizat, realizat cu preceptor unic i n condiii cu totul originale. Ea s-a practicat n istoria educaiei europene deseori, cu rezultate cel mai adesea excepionale; dar aceast strategie optim este costisitoare i greu de organizat n condiiile nvmntului de mas organizat pe clase i lecii. Instruirea individualizat nu este ns panaceu. Deseori instruirea diferniat se dovedete mai avantajoas de ct cea strict individualizat. Este cazul nvrii limbilor streine moderne n care individualizarea strict comport dezavantajul de a se trasforma n solilocviu i n dialog restrns la comunicarea dintre profesor i elev. Dimpotriv, predarea difereniat a acestor limbi comport numeroase faciliti de organizare a strategiilor de nvare bazat pe comunicare i internvare.

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Totui, nu este vorba de un proces simplu; dimpotiv, este vorba de o problematic multidimensional care trebuie bine neleas att n plan practic ct i n plan teoretic. Figura de mai jos surprinde numai parial ntreaga complexitate a acestui fenomen i proces psihopedagogic.

Fig. Nr.8 Dimensiunile diferenierii instruirii


( Schumm, Vaughn & Lazarell, 1994)

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Proiectarea instruirii difereniate implic luarea n considerare a cel puin 5 categorii de variabile. Educatorul creativ i eficient care practic instruirea difereniat raportndu-se strict la programa analitic oficial, nu poate neglija ntrebri precum cele de mai jos i rspunsurile ele:

Ce vor nva doar mai puini elevi? Ce vor nva civa elevi? Ce vor nva cei mai muli elevi?

Este modalitatea cea mai simpl de a depista c n clasa de elevi exist cel puin trei categorii de elevi:

elevi cu ritm lent de nvare aprox. 15% elevi cu ritm de nvare mediu aprox. 70% elevi cu ritm de nvare rapid aprox. 15%

3.1.2.Cror factori se datoreaz aceste diferene? Prima tentaie, datorat tradiiilor colare i prejudecilor este aceea de a atribui aceste fenomene unor cauze naturale i unor factori endogeni precum vestitul coeficient de inteligen. Este una dintre marile erori ale pedagogiei tradiionale i ale practicilor instrucionale cu rdcini n Antichitatea elin i mai ales n colile eclesiastice medievale. In realitate, exceplnd copii speciali care s-au nscut cu unele deficiene psihice, toi copii considerai normali dispun de toate capacitile psihice implicate n activitatea complex pe care o numim nvare sunt capabili s nvee i s obin performane colare cel puin la nivelul unor standarde acceptabile ( prestabilite sau nu prin curriculum i precizate n programele analitice ale materiilor). Avem de a face cu un fenomen universal: Exprimarea variabilitii intraspecifice a lui Homo Sapiens n cadrul concret al unei activiti practice: instruirea colar. Dei dispun de toate capacitile psihice implicate n nvare copiii le folosesc foarte diferit. Ca observatori obiectivi sau ca educatori noi percepem aceast realitate folosindu-ne de singura modalitate observaional de care dispunem: cea behaviorist-comportamentist. Ea ne determin s percepem n orice clas colar c : unii elevi nva mai greu i pierd ritmul instruirii impus de organizarea nvmntului, n mod procustian, pe clase i lecii; aceti elevi sunt botezai i

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etichetai n fel i chip:lenei, slabi, moli etc. Exemple ilustre: elevii Georg Wilhelm Hegel, Lucian Blaga, Charles Darwin .a. mai muli elevi constituie pe cei etichetai ca mediocri;Exemple ilustre: Michel de Montaigne, Albert Einstein .a.

un numr restrns de elevi care i folosesc foarte bine capacitile psihice i deci nva rapid; ei sunt considerai inteligeni, geniali, foarte detepi; Exemple ilustre: Diogene din Sinope Cinicul, mpratul Nero, Alexandru Macedon, Aristotel, Pico della Mirandola.

Ce concluzii se pot trage pentru planul instruirii dac lum foarte n serios exemplele date? Desigur, nu unele foarte favorabile pentru educatorii predispui s eticheteze n grab... n realitate avem de a face cu celebra curb n form de clopot a lui Gauss, citit repede i greit, n termenii unei psihologii arhaice, depit demult de cercetri revelatoare care au desfiinat mitul inteligenei generale i mitul coeficientului de inteligen unic.

Fig.Nr. 9Curba n form de clopot lui Gauss4


4 Explicaie: This equation is plotted below. The dark vertical lines indicate the area under the curve from -1 to +1 , and the lighter lines indicate the area under the curve for 2 .

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Curba lui Gauss exprim grafic hazardul. Este totui o lege a naturii. Este legea dup care caracteristicile unei populaii se reparttizeaz simetric n jurul unei valori centrale de aa natur nct rezul c n populaie exist 70% membri mijlocii, 13% membri buni, 13% membi mediocri, 2% membri inferiori i 2% membri superiori. E uor - dar profund greit - s traducem ntr-un limbaj pseudo-psihologic5 termenul de mediocru cu elev cu QI mediu sau termenul de elev foarte slab cu elev cu QI inferior !Dar cu riscuri enorme. Imaginai-v c n clasa de elvi l ntlnii pe molul gimnazist Albert Einstein sau pe tntlul Hegel! Oare i-i eticheta pe aceti elevi ca avnd QI inferior? n realitate, exist inteligene multiple la mai toi oamenii iar toi copiii care s-au nscut normal sunt api s nvee. Dar aceast afirmaie poate rmne retoric dac nu se caut soluii pentru depirea numeroaselor dificulti pe care le ridic diferenele individuale din clasa de elevi.

3.2. Distincii ntre individualizarea instruirii, diferenierea instruirii i discriminarea n instruire

Constituie difereele individuale o fatalitate colar? Desigur, nu. Dar care sunt remediile? Tradiia european, care s-a impus i n coala romneasc organizat pe clase i lecii a impus urmtoarele remedii ale acestei presupuse boli: INDIVIDUALIZAREA

DIFERENIEREA

DISCRIMINAREA

nvmnt particular cu preceptor sau meditator individual

Folosirea sarcinilor difereniate n microgrupuri eterogene n clasa de elevi Folosirea de sarcini difereniate n microgrupuri omogene n funcie de performan Internvarea n

Grupuri omogene

Sisteme de nvmnt individualizate complet

Sarcini diferite i obiective de nivel

Programe

coli i clase de elit

5 JEAN PIAGET: Nu cunoatem natura nici unui proces psihic. Nu cunoatem nici n ce const natura

inteligenei. Prin urmare nu se pune problema de a msura obiectiv ceva a crui natur ne este necunoscut. Nu se pune deci problema msurrii obiective a inteligenei umane ( 1945)

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compensatorii

microgrupuri eterogene

Tratament pedagogic individual

Programe compensatorii de ratrapare i de mbogire Internvarea m microgrupuri falsetrogene

Dicriminri pe baz de sex, pe baz de ras, pe baz de avere etc.

ntruct aceste aspecte sunt reluate cu detalii i ntr-o manier practic n capitolul urmtor nu insistm cu mai multe explicaii aici. Cititorul interesat de aspectele teoretice este invitat s consulte Documentarul Nr. 3 dedicat individualizrii i diferenierii instruirii Totui sunt necesare unele precizri importante privind...

3.3. Aspectele negative ale discriminrii i aspectele pozitive ale individualizrii i diferenierii

Citii cu maxim atenie, reinei i nu uitai niciodat informaiile din tabelul de mai jos.

INDIVIDUALIZAREA I DIFERENIEREA INSTRUIRII

DISCRIMINAREA N EDUCAIE I NVMNT

Comport modaliti i strategii cu fundamenare pedagogic pe deplin justificate din punct de vedere tiinific (detalii n capitolul urmtor)

Comport practici rasiste i/sau discriminatorii care ncalc marile principii ale pedagogiei Presupun nclcri grave ale demnitii umane Sunt contrare deontologiei profesiei de dascl

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(detalii n capitolul urmtor )

APLICAII
( Titularul de seminar va decide momentul cel mai oportun n care vor fi folosire urmtoarelor aplicaii de-a lungul desfurrii cursului )

Aplicaia Nr 3.

Elaborai n scris, aa cum v pricepei acum, un microproiect de romn/francez/englez pentru o clas oarecare la care predai. n seminar se vor trage la sori 5 dintre proiectele realizate. Cei alei vor prezenta microproiectele precind i arumentnd clar: a)-sarcinile de nvaredifereniate b) -situaiile optime de nvare c)- prin ce procedee urmeaz s prevenii fenomenul de push-down ?

Aplicaia Nr. 4

Pornind de la programa analitic, elaborai 3 dramatizri i/sau simulri care ar putea fi filmate i folosite la lecii cu ajutorul computerului

Aplicaia Nr. 5

Pornind de la programa analitic, elaborai n scris 5 situaii problematice care ar putea fi convertite n studii de caz, incidente critice sau jocuri de roli folosite ulterior n lecii de romn/francez/englez

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CAPITOLUL IV MANAGEMENTUL INSTRUIRII DIFERENIATE N CLAS ( un ghid pragmatic pentru elaborarea micro-proiectelor i scenariilor didactice pentru nvarea difereniat n clas )
A determina eficacitatea general a instruirii! A determina reuita la nvtur a tuturor elevilor din clasele colilor noastre! Acestea nu mai sunt himere, cum se credea n urm cu numai cinci decenii. Ele sunt pe deplin realizabile din punct de vedere tiinific. Dar cum s-ar putea realiza acst lucru n colile de azi cu clase nc aglomerate, cu elevi care trebuie s continue studiul acas pentru c timpul de nvare n coal este prea scurt iar tratamentul se restrnge la plicticoase i obositoare lecii frontale care se sfresc obsedant cu cerine imperioase precum Luai ca teme pntru acas...5 ..10..50 de probleme de matematic....Luai 20...30...50...probleme de fizic; nvai pe de rost...5...10...20 strofe din Luceafrul...etc ? Din punct de vedere tiinific se pot depi aceste practici bizare care se transform uneori n comar . Soluia practic? Instruirea difereniat n clasa de elevi ! Ea i valorific virtuile n modul cel mai eficient cu putin n condiiile respectrii exigenelor de tehnologie educaional (Gagne) i ale paradigmei mastery learning. V propunem n continuare un mod tiinific de determinare a eficacitii instruirii din acest perspectiv. Am ales o manier simpl i pragmatic dar nendoielnic util de redactare. Citind cu atenie textul de mai multe ori, fragment cu fragment putei supune aseriunile unor gedankenexperiment revelatoare, dar mai ales putei s probai n practica de la catedr ndemnurile, sugestiile i exigenele care v sunt propuse. Scoulmeste aceala ca,n urma acestor exerciii, s cptai abiliti noi de diferenierea icinstruieii la disciplina pe care o ndrgii i pe care o predai elevilor Dvs. Va trebui s nvai, s v formai i s stpnii dou categorii de capacitti i abiliti:

de microproiectare a activitilor de instruire difereniat i

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de conducere efectiv a activitilor de instruire difereniat n clas Calea nu este nici uoar dar nici grea. Totul este s nu v grbii s criticai; adic s nu respingei nimic din ceea ce vi se spune dac nu ai probat mai nti n practic, n clasa de elevi, ceea ce vi se spune n textul care urmeaz.

4.1. Elaborarea micro-proiectelor i scenariilor didactice

4.1.1.PATRU PRECIZRI PRELIMINARE I UN AUTOTEST PREDICTIV

n cursul de abilitare curricular am struit asupra acestor probleme dintr-o perspectiv general, cvasi-teoretic. Revenim asupra lor acum dintr-o perspectiv nou, pragmatic cu scopul precis de a facilita o dimensiune esenial a instruirii eficiente. Profesorii de limba romn, de limba englez i de limba francez vor gsi n paginile care urmeaz un ghid pragmatic cu ajutorul cruia vor putea realiza activiti didactice eficiente practicnd individualizarea i diferenierea instruirii. Sunt necesare ns cel puin patru lmuriri prealabile. CUI ESTE ADRESAT ACEST GHID ? Prezentul ghid este necesar numai acelor educatori-nvtori, profesori, specialiti, care nu au gsit nc suficiente mijloace pentru a determina reuita la nvtur a tuturor elevilor pe care i instruiesc sau a marii majoriti( peste 90%). ( Vezi Documentarele i explicaiile tiinifice privind modelele istrucionale de tip mastery learning n cursul Abilitare Curricular ) Prezentul ghid poate fi folosit cu succes i de ctre acei educatori care, avnd o experien bogat n nvmnt, determin reuita la nvtur a elevilor lor, dar ar dori ca, la aceasta, s adauge i o dragoste deosebit pentru domeniul specialitii lor la fiecare dintre cei pe care i educ. Este i cazul profesorilor de limba materni de limbi strine moderne. Multe din sfaturile acestui ghid pot fi urmate i pentru obinerea unor performane excepionale de ctre copiii cu dotare intelectual superioar. DE CE ESTE ASTFEL REDACTAT ACEST GHID ? n cursul Abilitare curricular s-a folosit un limbaj specializat, accesibil cercettorilor in domeniul psihopedagogiei. Partea de curs care urmeaz se adreseaz practicienilor-educatori cu niveluri diferite de pregtire i specializai n domenii, de asemenea, foarte diferite, singurul limbaj comun pe care acetia l pot avea fiind acela al aciunii educative concrete. De aceea, am cutat s redactm ghidul n termenii aciunii eficiente. Inerent, n aceast situaie, foarte multe din propoziiile care urmeaz vor fi sfaturi i recomandri. Uneori s-a adoptat chiar modul imperativ i numeroase dintre judecile exprimate sunt apodictice. Nu ntotdeauna tonul categoric al acestor afirmaii sau negaii se bazeaz pe certitudini experimentale; el se impune ns ntotdeauna pe

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considerente de ordin moral, deontologic sau praxiologic. Ele pot fi puse sub semnul ndoielii ori de cte ori cititorul se va simi jignit sau surprins de modul imperativ.
Autorii roag cititorii s nu resping ns cele propuse de aceste aseriuni numai pe aceast

baz, ci numai dup ce le-a verificat n practic neadevrul. In cazul n care se va dovedi c ele sunt juste, recomandm cititorului s-i depeasc firescul orgoliu profesional i s le accepte pe considerentul c sunt ndemnuri folositoare. In cazul n care se va dovedi c respectivele sugestii apodictice sunt injuste, autorii cer anticipat scuze rugnd cititorul s gseasc soluii mai bune dect cele propuse-acesta fiind chiar obiectivul cel mai important urmrit de lucrarea de fa. SCOPURILE ACESTUI GHID Dup studierea acestui ghid, apelnd la experiena dumneavoastr i lund n considerare i informaiile din prima parte a lucrrii vei fi capabili: 1. s conducei activitatea instructiv-educativ pe care o desfurai intr-o manier care s permit tuturor elevilor dumneavoastr s ating i s depeasc standardele de performan presupuse de programele colare n vigoare, n funcie de posibilitile proprii de nvare; 2. s proiectai tiinific activiti de nvare eficient n clas, programe compensatorii de recuperare i de mbogire a cunotinelor i programe de studiu individual eficient acas pentru diferite categorii de elevi cu care lucrai; 3. s diagnosticai precis starea motivaional i nivelul pregtirii fiecrui elev, identificnd lacunele i erorile individuale de operare cu informaii achiziionate; 4. s motivai nvarea n clas, la programe compensatorii i studiul individual prin adecvarea corect a mecanismului de nvare la obiectivele urmrite i prin folosirea tehnicilor de stimulare a intereselor pentru domeniul n care suntei specializat. 5. s evaluai continuu progresul instruirii prevenind la timp tendinele de eec, insucces i nereuit colar la fiecare dintre elevii dumneavoastr.

CUM TREBUIE FOLOSIT ACEST GHID?

Capacitile definite prin scopurile de mai sus vor aduga competenei dumneavoastr de specialitate mai mult competen psihopedagogic transformndu-v ntr-un educator deosebit de ingenios i eficace, dac i numai dac: 1. vei studia atent fiecare dintre informaiile ce v sunt puse la dispoziie n continuare astfel nct s avei sigurana c le-ai neles perfect; 2. v vei autoevalua progresul nregistrat folosind testele propuse; 3. vei rezolva contiincios exerciiile i problemele i vei verifica, de fiecare dat, corectitudinea soluiilor pe care le-ai propus;

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4. vei apela numai la dicionarul pedagogic din anexe ori de cte ori termenii folosii de autori v sunt neclari i nu vei cuta s le dai accepiunea pe care credei probabil sau ntlnit n lucrri; 5. vei acorda aceeai importan i ghidului propus n aceast lucrare elevului pentru a-i nva cum s nvee dirijnd nelegerea i folosirea acestuia ctre cei pe care i dirijai; 6. nu vei nutri convingerea c amestecnd elementele modelului de instruire propus aici cu elemente ale altor modele de instruire ntr-un hibrid vei obine instrument de aciune mai eficient; (acest hibrid ar putea fi mai bun, dar aceast ipotez trebuie verificat, i ea, n practic); 7. dac vei da urmare, imediat, urmtorului ndemn:

NAINTE DE A NCEPE STUDIUL GHIDULUI AUTODIAGNOSTICAI-V NIVELUL COMPETENEI PEDAGOGICE PE CARE L-AI ATINS PN N ACEAST CLIP.

4.1.2.. IDENTIFICAI-V PROPRIUL NIVEL DE COMPETEN PEDAGOGIC


(autotest predictiv)

Instruciuni Testul conine probleme pe care trebuie s ncercai s le rezolvai pentru a v putea verifica nivelul competenei pedagogice teoretice (itemii 1-10) i nivelul competenei pedagogice practice (itemii 11-20). ncercai rezolvarea tuturor celor 20 de probleme propuse in maximum de 30 de minute. Pentru aceasta este suficient s punei semnul + lng rspunsul pe care l socotii adecvat n coloanele A-B-C:

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I. COMPETENA TEORETIC

Nr crt 1

Itemul

Prin expresia mastery learning se nelege

miestria pedagogic a educatorului coninutul fiecrei lecii n parte

toi elevii pot fi nvai totul rezultatul preconizat

stpnirea complet a materiei de studiu expresia verbal prin care se desemneaz o capacitate mental cu ajutorul creia se poate opera asupra unui coninut pentru a putea produce o performan colar. B.S.Bloom colaboratorii i

Prin obiectiv operaional se nelege..

Prima taxonomie de obiective Pestalozzi pedagogice a fost elaborat de Comenius ctre A evalua nseamn

i DHainaut

a sanciona elevii care nu s-au pregtit deloc sau nu s-au pregtit cum trebuie

a aprecia fie-care elev n parte n funcie de ce poate el i a nu-l nota dect atunci cnd s-a pregtit corespunztor

a mbina msurarea obiectiv i aprecierea (subiectiv) a eforturilor celui care nva

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Scopul evalurii formative sau de a-l nota ct mai de progres este acela des pe elev pentru a nu-i permite s se lase pe tnjal

a-l informa pe profesor n legtur cu ce i-a rmas elevului in minte dintr-o lecie o clasificare de finaliti i scopuri pedago-gice

de conexiune invers pentru educator i educat n legtur cu progresul i corectitudinea nv-rii o clasificare ierarhic a capacitilor i competenelor ce pot fi create prin influene educative Prof.Z: La sfritul activitii didactice toi elevii vor fi capabili s construiasc un aparat de radio cu tran-zistori, alegnd ei nii piesele din magazine; obiectivul va fi atins dac aparatul va recepiona cel puin dou posturi emitoare pe unde lungi i medii i

Taxonomia de pedagogice este

obiective o modalitate de instru-ire din categoria metode-lor active

Care dintre expresiile urmtoare constituie un obiectiv operaional corect formulat?

Prof.X: Scopul meu este s stimulez creativitatea i gndirea logic a elevilor

Prof.Y: La sfritul activitii didactice toi elevii vor fi capabili s resimt fiorul ne-firesc al poemului Luceafrul

8 9

Bazele instruirii programate le- J.B.Watson i R.C. E.L.Thorndike B.F.Skinner au pus Hooke i E.Guthrie S.Pressey Primul model de instruire de tip D.P.Ausubel i F.C. Keller mastery learning a fost creat Robinson (1977) Shermann de ctre. n anul .. (1952)

i John B.Carroll (1963,1968)

52

10 Prin sanciune pozitiv o pedeaps mai psihopedagogii neleg. blnd dat elevilor pentru erori nesemnificative.

o pedeaps o ncurajare, nsoit de o recompens glu-m a laud. educatoru-lui pentru a nu-l speria prea tare pe elev. ? ?

TOTAL

Totalizai pentru fiecare coloan semnele de + pe care le-ai pus. Dac ai pus mai mult de cinci semne pe coloana A - bucurai-v; ghidul de fa v va fi de mare sprijin n a v clarifica multe neclariti pe care le avei din cauza unor lecturi pedagogice prea sporadice; trebuie ns, NEAPRAT I DE URGEN s studiai bibliografia selectiv precizat la sfritul acestei cri. Dac ai totalizat cele mai multe semne de + n coloana B suntei pe un drum foarte bun; studiind nc o dat prima parte a lucrrii de fa vei putea elimina complet unele lacune din cunotinele dumneavoastr de teoria educaiei i nvmntului. Competena dumneavoastr teoretic n acest domeniu este de nivel mediu dar poate fi sporit n mod remarcabil prin lecturi mai atente i mai bine ordonate. Dac ai totalizat cele mai multe puncte pe coloana C- tot ce va urma vi se pare extrem de simplu. Avei lecturi pedagogice solide totui nu privii proba practicii cu uurin. II. COMPETENA PRACTIC

Nr. crt. 11

Itemul

n timp ce expuneai aspectul cel mai interesant al noii lecii obser-vai c trei elevi nu sunt ateni. Cum procedai?

Caut s confer expli-caiilor un caracter mai interesant

M prefac c M opresc i le nu-i observ i spun Fii ateni! mi conti-nui explicaiile Deschid catalogul, fac prezena i verific riguros moul in care iau rezolvat Fac prezena i examinez oral 5-6 elevi care nu au not

12

Abia ai intrat n clas; elevii Verific prezena i v salut i i invitai s se ncep s expun un aeze. Ce facei n procedeu de continuare? captare a interesului i ateniei pentru o

53

nou lecie nvare 13 Ai reuit n primele 5 minute s strnii interesul tuturor elevilor pentru nvarea unui nou coninut. Ce facei imediat?

de temele acas

pentru

Enun clar, pe nele-sul elevilor obiectivele prioritare pe care le vom urmri mpreun

Le dau sarcini ncep predarea de munc i i noii lecii las n pace s lucreze

14

n timpul rezolvrii unei l ajut s o l ndemn s se i dau de neles c sarcini de lucru date, un elev rezolvm lucrnd strduiasc mai nu toate mutele pe care l cu-noatei ca avnd mpreun cu el mult fac miere ritm lent de lucru renun la activitate declarndu-v deschis c nu o poate soluiona. Ce facei? Ai aplicat un test formativ. Corectez testul Ce facei imediat? astfel nct elevii s poat afla imediat rezultatele Strng lucrrile elevilor, le examinez sumar i, n funcie de rezultate, le dau teme difereniate pentru acas Insist asupra importanei disciplinei i atrag atenia c voi corecta testul cu maxim severitate

15

16

La sfritul unei activiti didactice doi elevi v cer permisiunea s fac urmtoarea observaie: dei dumneavoastr i-ai anunat c vor deveni capabili s realizeze anumite sarcini de lucru, din cele cinci amintite ei nu pot realiza dect trei; elevii invoc n acest sens rezultatele obinute la testul de progres. Cum procedai? Cu prilejul verificrii temelor pentru acas descoperii c elevul A.A. nu i-a ndeplinit sarcina dat.

i solicit participe la program recuperare

s Le dau teme i un exerciii pentru de a-cas care s-i ajute s depeasc obstacolele

Le atrag atenia c fr strduin din partea lor nu este posibil nici un progres profesional elevul fiind singurul responsabil de rezultatele actului de nvare

17

ncerc s identific motivele, pentru care nu-i realizeaz teme-

i atrag atenia c este pentru ultima oar cnd l mai iert i la

Este clar c am dea face cu un lene. i aplic un 2(doi) n catalog i

54

V amintii c A.A. n-a realizat tema pentru acas nici la lecia precedent. Ce facei n aceast situaie? 18 Suntei profesor la o clas a IX-a ntr-un liceu industrial, cu profil mecanic. Avei de realizat prima dumneavoastr lecie la aceast clas. Ce trebuie s facei nainte de orice?

le. Dac nu lecia viitoare l reuesc l solicit verific primul, s vin la orele de foarte amnunit meditaii Fac cunotin cu cla-sa, le expun, ct mai atractiv, frumuseea disciplinei pe care o predau sau ce m-a de-terminat s m specializez n dome-niu i-i anun c la ora urmtoare vor susine un test de verificare a cunotinelor, indic apoi obiectivele i temele din care va fi construit testul Alctuiesc dou liste de probleme: -aplicaii ale celor studiate n domeniile spre care se orienteaz; probleme deosebite, fascinante, de viitor ale domeniului nc nestudiate. Propun o bibliografie spre studiu individual Verific oral sau scris ct de bine au fost pregtii n gimnaziu i apoi le expun exigenele mele n legtur cu materia clasei a IX- a

informez dirigintele clasei s ia legtura cu familia lui A.A. M prezint, le expun exigenele mele fa de pregtirea lor i le explic n special modul meu de a nota

19

Este ultima or pe care o predai la clasa a XII-a. Ce recomandai elevilor n legtur cu disciplina pe care ai predat-o?

Atrag atenia asu-pra importanei domeniului i recomand spre studiu o bibliografie.

Insist asupra necesitii de a nu ne-glija domeniul apoi nchei mediile generale i le urez tuturor succes n via

20

Un profesor de la clasa la care suntei diriginte v atrage atenia c elevul A.A. lipsete sistematic de la orele

ncerc s aflu i scad nota la moti-vele pentru purtare care elevul nu absenteaz dect

55

sale. Ce facei n primul rnd? la orele colegului meu. TOTAL ? ? ?

Procedai ca i la proba anterioar. Dac ai pus mai multe semne + pe coloana A dect n celelalte, dovedii o competen pedagogic practic bun. Este posibil chiar s fii n posesia unor caliti native de educator care v vor permite s progresai foarte uor n continuare. Dac avei mai multe puncte totalizate n coloana B, dovedii un comportament didactic nesigur. Ghidul care urmeaz v va ajuta ns s-l corijai cu uurin. Dac avei mai multe puncte cumulate n coloana C avei o conduit didactic magistrocentrist autoritar de natur s inhibe pe cei care nva i s-i determine s v ocoleasc sau chiar s v deteste. Precaritatea metodelor pe care le folosii este cauza nemplinirilor dumneavoastr profesionale. Dei aruncai vina pe elevi n legtur cu nereuitele, ea v aparine n ntregime. Este obligatoriu s v revizuii ntreaga concepie metodico-didactic. ncepei imediat s studiai ghidul care urmeaz, dar nu v limitai la el. Nu dispreuii inovaiile didactice; amnai-v aceast atitudine pn nu le-ai verificat n practic. Nu uitai c avei o misiune nobil i practicai cea mai frumoas profesie cu putin! Folosii aceast ans procurndu-v satisfaciile profesionale pe care nu le poate avea oricine. Ele constituie o parte nsemnat a nsi fericirii dumneavoastr.

N FUNCIE DE REZULTATELE AUTOTESTRII, ADECVAI-V COM-PORTAMENTUL DE AUTOPERFECIONARE NSUINDU-V NDEMNURILE CARE URMEAZ, EXERSNDU-LE N TRSTURI ALE CONTIINEI I CONDUITEI DUMNEAVOASTR PEDAGOGICE.

Mai nti, cel mai general ndemn:

INSTRUII EFICIENT!

4.1. 3.Cte ceva despre miestria pedagogic


Experiena la catedr, stpnirea domeniului de specialitate, priceperea de a lucra cu copiii .a. sunt atribuii pe care, de cele mai multe ori, orice educator consider c le posed.

56

Exist chiar un foarte mare numr de educatori-nvtori, profesori, ingineri, economiti, arhiteci, medici, maitri etc.-care nutresc convingerea c n munca lor dau dovad de miestrie pedagogic. Autorul acestor rnduri mrturisete c ei nsui triete cu un astfel de sentiment. Convingerea de a fi posesorii miestriei pedagogice ni se ntrete ori de cte ori unii dintre care i instruim obin performane deosebite sau excepionale; dar ni se slbete sau se spulber cnd alii dintre elevii notri cad victim insuccesului la nvtur. Eecurile lor ne apar ca rezultate fie ale incompetenei lor fie a lipsei de contiinciozitate sau a insuficientei strduine. Aa s stea lucrurile? Dac rspundem afirmativ la aceast ntrebare, atunci ndemnul ce ine loc de titlu acestui paragraf ne va apare fie ca jignitor, fie ca ridicol. S examinm ns lucrurile ntr-o manier lucid lund n considerare dou adevruri pe deplin dovedite de cercetarea tiinific:

a) ADEVRUL NUMRUL 1: CEI MAI MULI ELEVI (aprox. 95-98%) DIN POPULAII

COLARE NESELECIONATE SUNT CAPABILI CEL PUIN DE PERFORMANE INSTRUCIONALE ACCEPTABILE N RAPORT CU CERINELE PROGRAMELOR DE NVMNT OBINUITE.
b) ADEVRUL NUMRUL 2: APTITUDINILE PEDAGOGICE EXCEPIONALE CARE

INTR N COMPONENA MIESTRIEI PEDAGOGICE (sau HARULUI DIDACTIC) SUNT EXTREM DE RARE (apar aproximativ o dat la un milion de educatori).

Dac astfel stau lucrurile nseamn c un numr de iluzii i prejudeci-determinate de factori diveri - ntunec judecata noastr cu privire la problema ci pot s reueasc n activitatea instructiv-educativ. Iat cel puin cteva dintre cele formulate adesea ca aforisme, proverbe i zictori ce alctuiesc un etos pedagogic devenit anacronic n raport cu rezultatele cercetrii tiinifice din ultimele decenii i realitile colii romneti de astzi: PREJUDECATA NR. 1: Nu toate mutele fac miere, O treime sunt slabi, jumtate sunt mediocri i numai restul sunt buni sau foarte buni; coala nu este pentru toi; La elevi egali-tratament pedagogic egal; Elevii trebuie luai, de la nceput, ct mai tare. PREJUDECATA NR. 2: Eu predau-ei trebuie s nvee. Nu dasclul trebuie s se pregteasc pentru lecie, ci elevul trebuie s se pregteasc dup lecie!. A preda bine nseamn a stpni bine disciplina pe care o predai. Cel care este foarte bun specialist n-are nevoie de nici

57

o metod. Metoda vine de la sine. Fiecare cu metoda i cu modul su didactic!. Lucrul cel mai important ntr-o lecie bun este inspiraia de moment a dasclului (etc. etc. etc.). PREJUDECATA NR. 3: Nuiaua i certarea dau nelepciunea. A educa nseamn a pedepsi elevul-de attea ori de cte ori l prinzi nepregtit. Datoria educatorului este s aleag grul pentru hambar i s azvrle neghina la gunoi. Elevul nu nva dect de fric. Mi-a tras o palm (dasclul), dar m-a fcut om. Btaia e rupt din rai. PREJUDECATA NR. 4: Elevul nu trebuie s tie ce urmresc cu prioritate pentru simplu motiv c el trebuie s nvee tot. Nota maxim nu o merit, cu adevrat, dect cel de la catedr. Nu tiu alii cum noteaz, dar eu nu greesc niciodat cnd apreciez un elev. Dasclul este singurul stpn pe nota dat elevului. A comunica elevului nota nu nseamn dect a-l mpinge spre dascl! PREJUDECATA NR. 5: La coal elevul ascult i este ascultat; acas trebuie s nvee ceea ce a ascultat. Cei mai muli fie c nu tiu, fie c nu vor s nvee acas. Rezultatele slabe ale multor elevi se datoreaz faptului c prinii nu-i ajut s-i fac temele. Cei care nu tiu s nvee sunt de fapt cei care nu pot s nvee. PREJUDECATA NR. 6: Nu exist nici o <<tiin a nvrii>>, srguina este totul!. Orict i-a cere unui elev s nvee cum s nvee, dac el nu vrea s nvee, nu va nva nici s nvee. Plcerea de a nva nu vine pe parcurs, precum alte soiuri de plceri. Plcerea e sdit de la nceput n unii i lipsete la alii cu desvrire etc. etc. OBSERVAII: n toate cele ase categorii de aforisme elevul apare ca un personaj negativ al activitii didactice. Etosul pedagogic pe care toate prejudecile l evideniaz nu se circumscrie mult teoretizatului optimism pedagogic dimpotriv el este marcat de un profund scepticism pedagogic, generat de ndoiala c toi sunt capabili s nvee. Or, n lumina rezultatelor cercetrilor tiinifice, aceast ndoial apare ca profund nefondat. Prejudecata nr. 6 contrazice flagrant adevrul nr.1- cum l-am formulat mai sus. Adevrul nr.2 este contrazis nemijlocit de numeroase aforisme i proverbe care alctuiesc prejudecile urmtoare; cci acestea las s se neleag o serie de obiceiuri, modaliti de aciune didactic absolut ineficace; de ex. prejudecata nr. 3 se nal pe ideea greit c singura modalitate de determinare a eficacitii instruirii este sanciunea negativ a elevului, urmrind selecia aleilor; prejudecata nr. 2 evideniaz dispreul pentru aciunea metodic eficient, izvornd din orgoliul celui care crede c poate aciona cum l taie capul; prejudecata nr. 4 se instituie, de asemenea, pe convingeri greite n legtur cu rolul i scopul evalurii n activitatea de nvmnt; n fine prejudecile 5 i 6 se nasc n baza unor credine eronate n legtur cu studiul individual i pregtirea independent a elevului acas. Astfel nct, dup cum vedem, avem de-a face cu un ntreg eafodaj de erori privind instruirea eficient. Ele pot fi ns cu uurin depite dac sunt contientizate ca atare. ntruct, cu siguran. ORICE EDUCATOR CONTIENT DE ROLUL LOR I DE IMPORTANA MISIUNII SALE DORETE S REALIZEZE O INSTRUIRE EFICIENT

58

Aceasta nu se realizeaz ns cu metodica precar sugerat de prejudecile de mai sus, ci valorificnd ct mai mult rezultatele cercetrii psihopedagogice intr-o manier coerent, bine gndit i corect realizat. Desigur, expresiile bine gndit i corect realizat nu v spun mai nimic, fiind generice i neclare dac le privim din unghiul practicii i dac avem n vedere complexitatea i vastitatea cercetrilor psihopedagogice din ultimele decenii. De aceea, v propunem mai jos o prim concretizare a lor:

NOT IMPORTANT. In acest ghid se vor folosi pentru simplitatea explicaiilor expresii precum OBIECTIV, OBIECTIV OPERAIONAL, OBIECTIV TERMINAL etc. Am artat c acestea sunt convertibile cu expresii precum Competen, Capacitate, Abilitate pe care le gsim n programe mai recente. V rugm s consultai cursul de Abilitare curricular pentru eventuale dificulti sau nelmuriri. Se va vedea pe parcurs c operaionalizarea obiectivelor pedagogice reprezint avantaje practice inestimabile i c renunarea la aceast tehnic ar fi doar o opiune nefast indus de ceea ce vechii latini numeau periculosus et stultissimus error.

Dar aceast prim concretizare nu este suficient pentru a face operaional ndemnul de a instrui eficient. De aceea, v propunem o a doua concretizare: 1. DIAGNOSTICAI STAREA INIIAL A INSTRUIRII, CAPACITATEA DE NVARE I MOTIVAIA NVRII 2. PROIECTAI I DESFURAI ACTIVITI DE NVARE N CLAS A CONINUTURILOR ESENIALE!
59

2.5. Transpunei n practic n mod eficient proiectele didactice! 2.5.1. Captai atenia celor care nva! 1.1. Determinai OBIECTIVELE ate! 2.5.2. Enunai obiectivele enun TERMINALE a ciclului de instruire anterior parcurs! 2.5.3. Actualizai ancorele nvrii! 1.2. Elaborai i aplicai un test predictiv! 2.4. Proiectai tiinific activiti didactice! 2.5.4. Prezentai sarcinile de nvare i 1.3. Stabilinvarea i programe compensatorii! inerea dirija pn 2.4.1. i Definii obiectivele nvla rii! ob performanelor! 1.3.1. Proiectai programul de recuperare! 2.4.2. Alegei coninuturile eseniale! 2.5.5. Asigurai conexiunea invers! 1.3.2. Proiectai programul de mbogire! 2.4.3. Concepei strategii de nvare 2.5.6. Evalua difereniat! i progresul instruirii! 2.5.7. Asigurai continuarea de aprofundarea i evaluare a 2.4.4. Elaborai teste studiului! instruirii! progresului

3. EVALUAI CONTINUU I PERIODIC PROGRESUL INSTRUIRII!

3.6. Aplicai i valorificai teste formative de progres! 3.7. Aplicai periodic teste sumative i controlai modul n care se integreaz achiziiile n structuri de lung durat!

4. ASIGURAI CONTINUITATEA I EFICIENA STUDIULUI INDEPENDENT!

3.8. Propunei elevilor o art de a nva pentru a ajuta s-i formeze un stil eficient de munc intelectual.

Fig.nr.11. Operaiile instruirii eficiente

Dar nici chiar acest tablou nu este suficient pentru a putea determina eficacitatea general a instruirii, reuita tuturor elevilor pe care i pregtii. De aceea v furnizm n continuare informaii, exerciii i probleme n legtur cu fiecare dintre categoriile de operaii precizate anterior.

4.2. DIAGNOSTICAI EXACT STAREA INIIAL A INSTRUIRII


Modelul instrucional pe care dorii s vi-l nsuii studiindu-l n acest moment se bazeaz pe urmtorul postulat:

CALITATEA UNEI NVRI NOI DEPINDE DE CALITATEA NVRILOR ANTERIOARE I DE NIVELUL MOTIVAIONAL

De aici se poate deduce un principiu elementar:

60

DAC LA UN MOMENT DAT VREM S CONTINUM INSTRUIREA UNUI ELEV TREBUIE S TIM EXACT CE TREBUIE S TIE I CE TIE S FAC ELEVUL PN LA ACEL MOMENT.

Astfel spus, n fiecare elev trebuie s vedei rezultatul unei istorii instrucionale pe parcursul creia el a achiziionat mai multe sau mai puine informaii din domeniul disciplinei pe care o predai, precum i capaciti de a opera cu aceste informaii; calitatea acestor achiziii condiioneaz calitatea i eficiena instruirii ce va urma. Educatorul care accept aceste adevruri se va vedea obligat ca nainte de a declana un proces instructiv-educativ

S EXAMINEZE MINUIOS STAREA INIIAL A PREGTIRII CELOR CARE NVA I CAPACITILE LOR DE NVARE.

Aceasta presupune: s determine precis obiectivele materiei anterior parcurse de elev; s elaboreze, s aplice i s examineze detaliat rezultatele unui test predictiv; s stabileasc programe compensatorii. Iat cteva sugestii n legtur cu fiecare dintre aceste operaii:

4.2.1. Cum se determin obiectivele ciclului de instruire anterior parcurs de elevi


4.2.1.1. DOU INSTRUMENTE IO MN DE AJUTOR Pentru realizarea corect a acestor operaii ne sunt necesare dou instrumente: A. TAXONOMIA OBIECTIVELOR PEDAGOGICE (BLOOM I COLAB.) B. PROGRAMA DE NVMNT A DISCIPLINEI PE CARE O PREDAI. precum i COLABORAREA CU CEILALI MEMBRI AI CATEDREI SAU COMISIEI METODICE DIN CARE FACEI PARTE. nainte de a ncerca s aplicai cele ce urmeaz, V RECOMANDM n legtur cu fiecare, unsprezece reguli de aciune:

1) Citii atent ntreaga program


STUDIAI ATENT

T TAXONOMIA
2) Consultai bibliografia (recomandm, mai ales, lucrarea lui G. de Landsheere Definirea 61 obiectivelor educaiei)

3) Ai neles de ce taxonomia obiectivelor pedagogice poate fi definit ca un model de dezvoltare tiinific a fiinelor umane cu ajutorul educaiei

PUTEI CONSIDERA STUDIUL EFICIENT DAC:

4) Ai neles precis de ce taxonomia obiectivelor pedagogice este restrictiv

5) Putei identifica uor avantajele utilizrii taxonomiei n practica instruirii i educaiei

6) Reuii s corelai clasele de comportament din taxonomie obiectivelor domeniului cognitiv cu coninuturile materiei de studiu profilnd un model pedagogic al nsuirii acesteia

1) Se impune convertii competenele i capacitile n obiective pedagogice?

REVEDEI INC O DAT PREVEDERILE PROGRAMEI DE INSTRUIRE LA DISCIPLINA PE CARE O PREDAI P

2) Rspunde-i la ntrebarea Ce trebuie s tie sau s tie s fac un elev care a parcurs programa n ntregime? 3) Analizai materia prevzut pentru ciclul de instruire anterior parcurs de elev, rspunznd la aceeai ntrebare.

4) Realizai un tabel de specificaie pentru ciclul respectiv ca n modelul de mai jos.

PUTEI CONSIDERA NDEPLINIT DAC:

SARCINA

5) Putei realiza interferene de tipul celor exemplificate n tabelul de specificaie de mai jos.

62

Fig.12. Cele 11 reguli ale declanrii instruirii eficiente

4.2.1.2. Tabelul de specificaie pentru definirea obiectivelor terminale/capacitilor/abilitilor

Gramatic-clasa a III-a (Tabel de specificaie a obiectivelor terminale ale capitolului Adjectivul) La sfritul capitolului toi elevii ar trebui s fie capabili:

Cerin S e ale CUNOASC claselo r de reuind; compo rtament

S NELEA G reuind;

S APLICE reuind;

S ANALIZEZ E reuind;

S SINTETIZE ZE reuind;

S EVALUEZE reuind;

63

O B I E C T I V E

OT1 - s defi-neasc adjec-tivul ca parte de vorbire ce exprim nsu-iri ale fiine-lor, lucrurilor i fenomenelo r naturii; OT2 - s recu-noasc adjec-tivul n textele date. . .

OT1 - s demonstreze prin exemple rela-ia adjectiv substantiv de terminat . . . . . .

OT1 - s utilizeze adjectivul n alctuirea unor propoziii date n limbajul o-ral, ct i n cel scris. . . .

OT1 - s disting particularitile morfosintact ice ale substantivelor n texte date sau create de el nsui ale adjectivelor care le nsoesc . . .

OT1 - s modi-fice modelele date prin folosiri ale antonimelor i sinonimelor unor adjective. . . . . .

OT1 - s argumenteze necesitatea scrierii adjectivului naintea substantivului determinat. . . . . .

T E R M I N A L E

OTn s arOTn - s OTn - s-i stabileasc aminteasc funcia sinregulile gratactic pe maticale care o poate orto-grafice avea i de adjectivul n punctuaie texte date specifice sau create adde el nsui jectivului OTn - s foloseasc regulile gramatica le de scriere a adjectivul ui OTn - s descopere ad-jectivele adec-vate pentru completarea unui text lacu-nar dat OTn - s creeze texte gumenteze cu sens pe baza unor liste de . adjective date

Fig.nr.13. Determinarea obiectivelor terminale cu taxonomia Bloom (model)

64

4.2.2.COLABORAI CU CEILALI MEMBRI AI CATEDREI SAU COMISIEI METODICE

Exerciiile propuse anterior v vor sugera concluzia c taxonomia de obiective pedagogice este un instrument orb care nu v poate conduce de la sine spre alctuirea unui inventar rezonabil de obiective pedagogice terminale. Mai nti vei constata c unele obiective par s se repete exasperant, iar altele sunt prea concrete. Sunt toate la fel de importante? Rspunsul la aceast ntrebare nu este bine s-l dai singuri. Consultai-i pe ceilali membri ai catedrei sau comisiei metodice. Atenie ns!

NU CONSULTAI UN SINGUR COLEG, ORICT DE MULT I-AI APRECIA COMPETENA! APELAI LA CT MAI MULI I NU LUAI N CONSIDERARE DECT OPNIILE CELE MAI CONVERGENTE!

Numai n acest fel vei putea evita subiectivismul specific al fiecruia i tentaia unei soluii ct mai comode. Experiena colegilor trebuie considerat ca o resurs utilizabil, dar nu uitai c ea conine i elemente care v pot influena negativ. De aceea, iat cinci sfaturi care le vei primi, dar pe care nu trebuie s le urmai:

Renun la aceste instrumente sofisticate i procedeaz dup cum i dicteaz contiina! F ca mine, eu nu greesc niciodat! Nu te complica inutil! Nu face prea mult zgomot pentru nimic! Nimeni nu te oblig la aa ceva, n-are rost s-i pui probleme n plus!

Cel mai indicat ar fi s provocai o edin de lucru a catedrei sau a comisiei metodice n care s prezentai tabloul de specificaie pe care l-ai realizat. n timpul discuiilor nregistrai fr prtinire toate prerile apoi, n linite examinai-le. Eliminai pe cele care v ndeamn s renunai. Analizai atent argumentele celor care v solicita s eliminai sau adugai obiective terminale. Stabilii dac cele propuse se circumscriu finalitii generale i scopurilor cu nivel de generalitate mediu ale disciplinei pe care o predai. NU IGNORAI PROGRAMA AMALITIC

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CHIAR DAC V DISPLACE! n acest fel vei ajunge la un inventar complet de obiective terminale. 4.2.3 CUM SE ELABOREAZ, SE APLIC I SE VALORIFIC UN TEST PREDICTIV 4.2.3.1 Elaborarea unui test predictiv n concepia noast test predictiv nseamn test iniial aplicat la nceputul unei noi etape de instruire pentru a identifica nivelul de realizare a obiectivelor studiului ntr-o etap anterioar, riguros delimitat i lacunele intervenite n pregtirea fiecrui elev al clasei pe parcursul instruirii sau ulterior (de ex. , n vacanele dintre semestre). Lista de obiective terminale constituie baza derivrii itemilor (problemelor) care alctuiesc testul predictiv. Regula simpl de elaborare a unui test predictiv este urmtoarea: PENTRU FIECARE OBIECTIV TERMINAL TREBUIE ELABORAT CEL PUIN UN ITEM CARE VERIFIC REALIZAREA SAU NEREALIZAREA ACESTUIA LA UN NIVEL DE PERFORMAN SUFICIENT DE NALT PENTRU CA ELEVUL S POAT CONTINUA ADECVAT INSTRUIREA.

Schema derivrii itemilor este urmtoarea: I O


1 1

O1 O2 . . .

O2 . . .

I2 . . .

On

In

On

Obiectivele ciclului de

Testul predictiv

Ciclul nou de instruire

instruire anterior parcurs Fig.nr.14. Schema elaborrii unui test predictiv

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4.2.3.2. Construirea testului predictiv Se observ c, dei baza testului predictiv o constituie obiectivele instruirii deja desfurate, n elaborarea sa trebuie inut seama i de ceea ce urmeaz s nvee elevii. Numai n acest fel se pot stabili performane minimal acceptabile n raport cu care se va aprecia reuita sau nereuita elevilor i n baza crora se anticipeaz posibilitatea sau imposibilitatea continurii instruirii n ritmul impus de parcurgerea programei de nvmnt. Iat un exemplu, de corelare corect itemilor cu obiectivele ciclului de instruire anterior parcurs ntr-un test predictiv de matematic aplicat unei clase a III-a aflat n primele zile ale semestrului al II-lea.

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OBIECTIVE Mai sunt toi elevii care ncep semestrul al IIlea capabili:

ITEMI

I1: Efectueaz cel puin prima coloan de O1 s efectueze toate operaiile aritmetice exerciii: elementare? Obiectivul va fi considerat atins 205 + 502 = ? 68 : 3 = ? dac toi elevii vor rezolva cel puin un exerciiu dat fr nici un fel de eroare. 361 x 2 = ? 421 x 2 = ? 372 - 194 = ? 364 : 3=? 285 - 195 = ? 129 + 3 = ?

O2 s rezolve corect exerciii specifice I2: - a) Cu ct este mai mare suma numerelor respectnd limbajul matematic? Obiectivul va 137 i 205 dect produsul numerelor fi considerat atins dac fiecare elev va rezolva 23 i 7? suma, diferena, ctul i produsul unor numere - b) Cu ct este mai mare diferena date. numerelor 791 i 314 dect ctul . numerelor 318 i 3? . . . .

On s rezolve probleme specifice formulate de nvtor? Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac va fi rezolvat fr eroare cel puin o problem dat.

In: Pentru o cantin colar s-au cumprat 145 cni a 40 lei bucata, iar de restul pn la 9900 lei s-au cumprat lingurie mici de 20 lei bucata. Cte lingurie s-au cumprat? De ce? (Justificai).

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4.2.3.3. Calitile unui test predictiv Ce alte caliti trebuie s ntruneasc un test predictiv pentru a putea fi considerat bun i folositor? Iat inventarul celor mai importante: A. VALIDITATEA Un test este valid dac i numai dac este astfel construit nct msoar exact ceea ce trebuie s msoare. Un test docimologic nu este valid dac itemii care l compun nu acoper ntregul cmp de probleme care intereseaz msurarea sau acoper un cmp de probleme mai vast dect intereseaz. Validitatea predictiv a testului iniial este asigurat dac acesta este astfel construit nct poate indica n ce fel se poate continua n viitor instruirea fiecruia dintre cei care au fost testai. B. FIDELITATEA Un test docimologic este fidel dac i numai dac, aplicat n situaii analoge sau identice, conduce spre rezultate analoge sau identice. Un test predictiv nu este fidel dac aplicat la doi elevi cu aceleai lacune n instruire le evideniaz numai la unul dintre ei. Fidelitatea unui test nu poate fi niciodat absolut (100%), fiind admisibil o anumit abatere standard, dar infidelitatea unui test nu trebuie s depesc niciodat 2,5 3%; un test accentuat infidel este, prin definiie, nevalid. C. REPREZENTATIVITATEA Un test docimologic este reprezentativ dac acoper un cmp ct mai larg de cunotine sau capaciti din domeniul de instruire pentru care a fost elaborat; un test predictiv nu poate fi considerat reprezentativ dac verific doar pri sau elemente ale materiei anterior studiate i nu esenialul ntregii materii parcurse. D. PUTEREA DE DISCRIMINARE un test predictiv este eficient dac identific exact nuvelul de performan de care este capabil elevul i toate lacunele care au intervenit n instruirea lui anterioar. Gradul sczut de discriminare al unui test iniial reduce corespunztor capacitatea lui predictiv. E. APLICABILITATEA Un test predictiv este aplicabil dac i numai dac ofer date utile att elevului ct i educatorului, asigurnd un feed-back diferenial. Un test predictiv este inaplicabil dac nu ofer datele necesare diagnosticului i remediului.

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4.2.3.4.apte reguli pentru aplicarea unui test predictiv Revedei nc o dat subcapitolul anterior. Insistai asupra calitilor pe care trebuie s le ndeplineasc un test. Dac avei convingerea c toate cerinele au fost indeplinite, atunci procedai la aplicare. inei seama, n acest sens, de urmtoarele reguli:

nainte de a aplica un test predictiv unei clase avei obligaia de a face elevilor cunoscute obiectivele pe care le urmai; Insistai, pe un ton adecvat, c nu dorii s-i prindei pe elevi nepregtii, c nu vei nota n catalog rezultatele i nici nu v vei forma o impresie definitiv asupra potenialului lor de nvare; Asigurai un climat de munc ne-stressant, prevenii emoia exagerat a elevilor care e manifestat, dar nu-i sprijinii pe nici unul, n nici un fel, in depirea dificultilor pe care le ridic testul nsui; Stabilii o limit de timp pentru rezolvarea testului, respectai-o cu strictee, dar notai numele elevilor care ar fi putut s rezolve testul ntr-un timp mai mare dect cel stabilit, precum i pe acela al elevilor care rezolv testul ntr-un timp mai scurt; Corectai imediat testul predictiv mpreun cu elevii folosind o gril pregtit din timp sau un elev-proctor (elev care rezolv perfect naintea altora testul i care poate fi transformat n gril de corectare); Lsai timp elevilor s-i examineze erorile dup confruntarea cu grila, dar apoi strngei testele completate i examinai acas cu maximum de atenie fiecare test n parte; Stabilii mpreun cu elevii c vor avea nevoie de un caiet suplimentar pentru exerciii compensatorii pe care l vor purta zilnic la ei; confecionndu-v i dumneavoastr un asemenea caiet n care vei consemna datele testului predictiv, proiectele programelor compensatorii i vei urmri, or de or, ameliorrile care se vor produce n comportamentul de nvare al elevilor.

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4.2.4 PROIECTAI PROGRAME COMPENSATORII! Recitii atent ultima dintre regulile aplicrii unui test predictiv. diagnosticului pedagogic n ntregime. Ea v sugereaz scopul

IDENTIFICAREA CRITERIILOR DE DIFERENIERE A INSTRUIRII N VEDEREA OPTIMIZRII CONTINUE A PERFORMANELOR DE NVARE ALE FIECRUI ELEV.

Modelul de instruire pe care vi-l propunem v solicit s practicai INSTRUIREA DIFERENIAT n trei forme:
n cadrul PROGRAMELOR COMPENSATORII n timpul NVRII DIRIJATE N CLAS n cadrul STUDIULUI INDIVIDUAL

Deocamdat s vedem n ce mod se pot valorifica rezultatele testelor predictive pentru a practica instruirea difereniat n cadrul unor programe compensatorii. Iat dou imagini sugestive. Prima dintre ele sugereaz c un mare numr de elevi (ordonata ) obin note mari i foarte mari. Este vestita curb n J, semnul clar al unei instruiri anterioare corespunztoare. Cea de a doua se afl n situai invers: un numr mare de elevi au performane slabe i foarte slabe. Este teribila curb n i, semnul ineficacitii generale a instruirii.

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Fig.nr.15. Rezultatele unui test predictiv, ca efect al unei instruiri anterioare corespunztoare (eficient)

Fig.nr.16. Rezultatele unui test predictiv, ca efect al unei instruiri anterioare necorespunztoare (ineficient)

n ambele situaii figurate mai sus dar cu precdere n cea de-a doua se impune apelul la PROGRAME COMPENSATORII de RECUPERARE i de MBOGIRE.

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S le definim pe scurt:

PROGRAME COMPENSATORII Program de instruire suplimentar, desf-urat simultan cu procesul de nvmnt, n vederea atingerii sau dep-irii standardelor de performan solicitate de programele colare.

PROGRAM DE RECUPERARE

Program suplimentar destinat elevilor cu lacune eseniale n instruirea anterioar, organizat n vederea atingerii performanelor minimal acceptabile, desfurat sub form de MEDITAII.

PROGRAM DE MBOGIRE

Program suplimentar destinat elevilor capabili de performane superioare standardelor prevzute n programele colare, desfurat sub form de CONSULTAII menite s i ndrume pregtirea pentru concursurile colare.

Fig. nr.17. Construirea programelor compensatorii Ce exigene solicit proiectarea i realizare a fiecruia dintre ele?

4.2.4.1 Cinci reguli de urmat pentru proiectarea i realizarea programelor de recuperare

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Regula nr.1

Acordai prioritate proiectrii, organizrii i desfurrii programelor de recuperare de la fiecare clas la care predai: a) trecnd ct mai rapid cu putin la desfurarea lor; b) afectnd ntregul timp de care dispunei dumneavoastr i elevii respectivi; c) considerndu-l obligaia dumneavoastr elementar i o stringen pentru elevi.

Regula nr.2

Scopul principal n care organizai programe de recuperare este acela de a anula lacunele intervenite n pregtirea elevilor derivat din scopul general care const n autodesfiinarea programului prin eliminarea motivelor care l-au impus n legtur cu fiecare elev participant n parte.

Regula nr.3

Nu meninei la programul de recuperare un elev care a recuperat n ntregime materia i este capabil s nainteze adecvat n instruirea pe care o parcurge n clas.

Regula nr.4

Solicitai elevii la programul de recuperare s realizeze numai obiective pedagogice i sarcini care: a) acoper lacunele identificate cu prilejul evalurii predictive i al evalurii formative de progres; b) privesc nlturarea dificultilor, inconsecvenelor, achiziiilor nesigure.

Regula nr.5

Ajutai-i pe toi s reueasc! Dai dovad de nelegere! Motivai nvarea! Sugerai-le tuturor ci viabile de rezolvare! Trezii tuturor participanilor ncrederea n ei nii! Nu admonestai niciodat! Fii ct mai politicos, blnd chiar! Comportai-v cu elevii pe care i chemai la recuperare ca i cnd ar fi proprii dumneavoastr copii! Ludai (exagerat chiar!) pe cei care reuesc. Folosii orice alte stimulente pozitive!

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4.2.4.2. Alte zece reguli de urmat pentru organizarea i

desfurarea programelor de mbogire


participani ar putea depi propria

Postulai c oricare dintre dumneavoastr competen!

Facei-i pe toi s cread c pot depi propriile lor performane, ba chiar i pe cei ale cror idei le studiaz! Obligai-i pe toi s nu se lase nvini de dificultile sarcinilor! Furnizai ntotdeauna sarcinile de nvare gndindu-le dup dificultate! Nu v speriai c v pierdei autoritatea i recunoatei cu sinceritate cnd elevii gsesc soluii mai ingenioase dect dumneavoastr. Sugerai-le s persevereze n a v depi! nvai-i s colaboreze dar i s se ntreac unul pe altul! Nu folosii alt stimulent dect dorina de a progresa mai rapid i de a obine performane excepionale! Sugerai, fiecruia n parte, n mod discret, c este capabil de performane extraordinare dac va depune eforturi mai mari i se va concentra mai mult! Nu permitei nici un fel de discuii ironice ntre ei n legtur cu nereuitele temporare ale unora dintre participani! Oferii celor capabili de performane superioare ct mai mult libertate de gndire i de aciune. Renunai la ddceal. Permitei-le s aib idei proprii i preri personale dar sugerai-le s le susin numai dup ce le-au verificat. Dac manifest conduite ce vi se par aberante, nu-i admonestai imediat, punei-i n faa consecinelor pe care ieirile lor le isc. Raportai v la copiii capabili de performane superioare ca i cnd ei ar fi copii obinuii n restul activitii instructiv-educative, egali cu colegii lor, nu le admitei atitudini i gesturi de superioritate fa de ceilali i sugerai-le c au obligaia moral s-i sprijine pe cei care ntmpin dificulti la nvtur.
22

Exerciii i probleme

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APLICAIE SPECIAL
Dac vrei s stpnii corespunztor tehnica elaborrii si folosirii textelor predictive precum i exigenele organizrii programelor compensatorii, strduii-v s rezolvai exerciiile propuse n continuare. Verificai corectitudinea soluiilor pe care le propunei prin rspunsurile ce v sunt oferite la sfritul acestei lucrri. Ori de cte ori rspunsurile i soluiile oferite de autori nu vor coincide cu cele gsite de dumneavoastr, reluai exerciiul sau problema ncercnd s descoperii unde ai greit. V sugerm n acest sens s revedei informaiile oferite n cursul de Abilitare curricular. Nr.1. Elaborai un test predictiv pentru materia parcurs cu elevii unei clase care nva bine n ultimul trimestru ncheiat. Verificai validitatea testului. Rspundei cu da sau nu la ntrebarea: A fost testul astfel construit nct dvs. ai putut ti n mod anticipat: a) care elevi se vor dovedi capabili de performane superioare; b) care elevi au lacune n instruire i n ce ritm ei vor recupera cunotinele pierdute?; c) cror cauze s-a datorat rmnerea n urm la nvtur a anumitor elevi? Nr.2 Ai elaborat un test predictiv pentru dou clase paralele. Crui fapt se datoreaz diferena net dintre rezultatele obinute n urma aplicrii? Nr.6 Ai aplicat deja un test predictiv. Totui, la jumtatea trimestrului descoperii c unii elevi au lacune neidentificate de test. Ce determin aceast situaie surprinztoare? Nr.3 Ai pregtit deja un test predictiv. Ce trebuie s facei nainte de a-l aplica? i cum? Nr.4 Ai aplicat deja un test predictiv, timpul stabilit pentru soluionare s-a epuizat, iar un elev v solicit s mai lucreze n continuare. Cum procedai Nr.9 nainte de consumarea timpului afectat unui test predictiv, un elev v prezint deja testul rezolvat perfect. Ce vei face n aceast situaie? Nr.5 Ai realizat un test predictiv realizat dup toate exigenele prezentate n acest capitol. Prezentndu-l directorului colii acesta v felicit i v roag s l prezentai ca model n edina de catedr. Instrumentul dvs. ns este dezaprobat de ctre colegi n unanimitate. Ce vei face Nr.6 n timpul programului de recuperare, doi elevi cu rezultate slabe la un test predictiv rezolv succesiv dou sarcini dificile foarte rapid i fr erori. Cum vei proceda n aceast situaie neateptat? Nr.7 n timpul unui program de mbogire observai c un elev se plictisete. Crui fapt se poate datora acest lucru? Nr.8 n timp ce ncerca cu dificultate s rezolve a doua sarcin de lucru furnizat la programul de recuperare, elevul A.A se ridic nervos i v declar c renun, considernd c nu are aptitudini pentru disciplina pe care o predai. Cum vei proceda?

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3.4.3. PROIECTAI RIGUROS I DESFURAI TIINIFIC ACTIVITI DE NVARE N CLAS


4.3.1 Cum se proiecteaz riguros activitile de invare n clas

4.3.1.1 CTEVA LMURIRI TERMINOLOGICE I PATRU EXIGENE PENTRU PLANIFICAREA MATERIEI

Termenul de proiectare pedagogic (sau design instrucional) are mai multe accepiuni.

Noi l vom folosi n continuare n mai multe sensuri sensuri:

Sensul nr. 1: PROIECTAREA SISTEMELOR EDUCAIONALE CURRICULUM DESIGN sau macro-proiectarea ( = curriculum design ) Sensul nr.2: PROIECTAREA CICLULUI (sau ETAPEI) DE NVMNT sau mezo-proiectarea (= conceperea succesiunii de activiti didactice i a programelor compensatorii necesare realizrii unor obiective terminale ale unui ciclu de instruire delimitat temporal) Sensul nr.3: PROIECTAREA ACTIVITILOR DIDACTICE sau micro-proiectarea (= conceperea activitilor ce trebuie desfurate pentru a determina ntr-o lecie sau grup de lecii realizarea anumitor obiective operaionale derivate ale ciclului de instruire n curs). CURRICULUM

n primele sensuri, proiectarea instruirii prezint similitudini cu DESIGN i cu PLANIFICAREA SEMESTRIAL A MATERIEI.

n cel de-al treilea sens, MICRO-PROIECTAREA INSTRUIRII prezint similitudini cu planul de lecie. Dar, n practica instruirii, deosebirile sunt mai importante dect asemnrile.

CEEA CE DEOSEBETE PROIECTAREA INSTRUIRII DE PLANIFICAREA MATERIEI I PLANUL DE LECIE ESTE RIGOAREA CU CARE DEMERSURILE SUNT SUBORDONATE REALIZRII UNOR OBIECTIVE PEDAGOGICE MSURABILE.

De asemenea:

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PLANIFICAREA CALENDARISTIC (SEMESTRIAL SAU ANUAL) I PROIECTAREA FIECREI ACTIVITI DIDACTICE TREBUIE CONSIDERATE FORME DE CONTINUARE I CONCRETIZARE A DESIGNULUI CURRICULAR PRIN CARE S-AU ELABORAT PLANUL DE NVMNT I PROGRAMELE ANALITICE. Exigenele mezoproiectrii ale PROIECTRII CICLULUI (sau ETAPEI) DE NVMNT - prezentate parial n cursul Abilitare curricular i pot fi adugate planificrii semestriale a materiei cu foarte bune rezultate. Cu alte cuvinte, pentru a facilita proiectarea activitilor didactice i a realiza controlul riguros al progresului instruirii: 1. obiectivele terminale al materiei ce va fi parcurs att pentru fiecare capitol n parte, ct i pentru ntregul coninut; PLANIFICATEA TRIMESTRIAL MATERIEI TREBUIE PRECIZEZE: 2. coninutul testului predictiv i al testelor sumative ce A vor fi aplicate de-a lungul trimestrului; S 3. succesiunea temporal a activitilor didactice ce vor fi proiectate; 4. datele, mijloacele de realizare, tipul activitilor.

3.3. CE ESTE UN MICRO-PROIECT PEDAGOGIC BINE GNDIT I CUM SE REALIZEAZ

Urmrii, apoi, unul dintre proiectele cuprinse n partea a IV-a a lucrrii pe care o avei n fa. Principiul care anim inferenele teoretizate i exemplificate n locurile artate este derivat dintr-un adevr incontestabil, stabilit de praxiologie tiina care studiaz eficiena aciunii.

ORICE LUCRU BINE FCUT ESTE REZULTATUL UNUI PROIECT BINE GNDIT.

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Posibilitatea de a-i anticipa pe plan mental aciunile, nainte de a le executa, pentru a preveni erorile confer omului ntreaga superioritate. Dac a gndi nainte de a face constituie o regul universal a aciunii eficiente, ea se impune i domeniului sensibil al aciunii instructiv-educative. Prin urmare suntem silii s admitem ca pe un adevr incontestabil i afirmaia urmtoare:
ORICE LUCRU DIDACTIC BINE FCUT ESTE REZULTATUL UNUI PROIECT DIDACTIC BINE GNDIT.

1. precizeaz obiectivele instruirii n manier operaional, n termeni de sub raportul Un proiect didactic bine gndit descrie anticipat modul cel mai simplu de realizare i de testri a comportament observabil i testabil; coninutului

unui set de obiective operaionale:

2. precizeaz attea obiective cte pot fi atinse n timpul afectat activitii didactice respective; 3. OBIECTIVE precizeaz obiective operaionale ale materiei de studiu; OPERAIONALE RESURSE acoper coninuturile eseniale 4. ale materiei de studiu; 5. STRATEGII permite diferenierea instruirii n funcie de pregtirea i de ritmul celor care nva; EVALUARE precizeaz sarcini de lucru pentru 6. realizarea fiecarui obiectiv. 1. are o dimensiune rezonabil;

UN PROIECT PEDAGOGIC ESTE BINE GNDIT dac:

2. este redactat ntr-o form clar care permite urmrirea modului n care fiecare obiectiv poate fi Pentru a putea fi apreciat ca bine gndit un proiect pedagogic trebuie s ntruneasc o transformat ntr-un rezultat serie de caliti privind coninutul specificaiilor sale surabil; forma n care aceste specificaii m i privind

Fig.nr. 18. Corelarea componentelor ntr-un proiect pedagogic


sub raportul formei

sunt fcute.
Reinei schema urmtoare:

3. conine numai specificaiile care privesc demersul de la obiective la rezultate; 4. ofer posibilitatea de a face economie de scris fr a fi n dauna 79 efortului de gndire; 5. permite, n timp, renunarea la scrierea unor specificaii i

Fig. nr. 19. Condiiile micro-proiectrii

Iat, acum cteva exigene i reguli pentru parcurgerea fiecrei etape a proiectrii unei activiti didactice n vederea asimilrii cunotinelor eseniale n clas de ctre toi elevii, prin dirijarea mecanismelor de nvare implicate n instruire.

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4.4. ETAPELE MICRO-PROIECTRII PEDAGOGICE


ETAPA I. DEFINII CORECT OBIECTIVELE OPERAIONALE ALE ACTIVITII DIDACTICE!
nc din subcapitolul anterior ai descoperit c definirea obiectivelor pedagogice n form operaional este o operaie fundamental a conceperii actului didactic, dar ea implic serioase dificulti. Acestea din urm provin din faptul c noi putem enuna uor scopurile generale i finaliti ndeprtate, dar nu putem anticipa precis rezultatele i efectele concrete ale aciunilor noastre. De exemplu, putem anticipa c pn n anul 2020 omenirea va progresa pe toate planurile, dar nu putem etapiza anticipat pentru fiecare zi, sptmn sau lun ce efecte se vor produce. Cauza este simpl: viitorul ridic n faa posibilitilor noastre de cunoatere cele mai mari obstacole pentru c de fapt... nu exist. De aceea viitorologii nu ezit n a spune c problema esenial pe care o avem n legtur cu el nu este de a-l atepta, ci de a-l construi. Acest mod de a gndi prezint analogii cu proiectarea instruirii. ntruct:
OBIECTIVELE PEDAGOGICE SUNT REZULTATE SCONTATE ALE INSTRUIRII.

Dar pentru a putea declana, controla i dirija ntr-o manier sigur PROCESUL INSTRUIRII prin realizarea unei succesiuni de obiective pedagogice acestea trebuie s fie astfel definite nct s permit MSURAREA PRECIS, PERMANENT I PERIODIC.
MSURAREA PRECIS A PROGRESULUI INSTRUIRII ESTE POSIBIL DAC I NUMAI DAC OBIECTIVELE EI AU FOST DEFINITE N TERMENI OPERAIONALI.

Cnd putem spune c un obiectiv pedagogic a fost corect i complet operaionalizat? Reinei!

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1. SUBIECTUL

Cine sunt cei care vor fi afectai ameliorativ sau optimal prin influena pedagogic

2.CAPACITATE A de nvare

Aciunea mental sau operaia de care vor deveni capabili cei care nva datorit influenei educative

UN OBIECTIV PEDA-OGIC ESTE CORECT I COMPLET OPERAIONALIZAT DAC N ENUNUL SU SUNT CUPRINSE:

5 PRECIZRI

4.SITUAIA DE NVARE

Condiiile concrete n care se va realiza noua capacitate de nvare i n care eventual ar putea fi testat fr echivoc producerea ei

3.PERFORMAN A

exersarea capacitii mentale asupra unui coninut de nvare

5.STANDARDUL PERFORMANEI ateptate

Fig. Nr. 21. Operaionalizarea corect a obiectivelor pedagogice

Nivelul de performan de nvare care va permite continuarea acesteia cel puin n acelai ritm fr riscul de a cumula lacune n nvare; caracteristici ale performanei care o fac acceptabil i n funcie de care se va aprecia reuita n realizarea obiectivului

Cele 5 precizri se constituie, de fapt, ntr-o procedur standard de operaionalizare a obiectivelor pedagogice, elaborat de noi pa baza celor propuse de ctre Gilbert de Landsheere (1979).

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Ea prezint numeroase avantaje practice ntruct presupune fundamentarea ntregului demers pe care l implic transformarea obiectivului pedagogic ntr-un rezultat msurabil al instruirii.
Urmrii aceste avantaje pe baza unui exemplu concret: OBIECTIV OPERAIONAL La sfritul activitii didactice toi elevii vor fi capabili (SUBIECTUL) s analizeze (CAPACITATEA) verbele (PERFORMANA) SPECIFICAII N PROIECTUL PEDAGOGIC Indicatorul eficacitii generale a instruirii

Sarcini de lucru

ntr-un text dat, exclusiv n baza cunotinelor dobndite, fr nici un ajutor din partea educatorului (SITUAIA) Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac vor fi analizate corect 7 din cele 10 verbe existente n text (PERFORMANA STANDARD)

Situaia de nvare

Item n testul de evaluare a progresului instruirii

Fig. Nr. 22. Predeteminrile obiectivului operaional Prin urmare, dac obiectivul pedagogic este corect i complet operaionalizat, el va sugera i modul n care se va transforma ntr-un rezultat al nvrii testabil la toi cei care nva. De aceea, se poate aprecia c:

OPERAIONALIZAREA OBIECTIVELOR REPREZINT 90 % NU NUMAI DIN EFORTUL DE PROIECTARE A INSTRUIRII, CI CHIAR I DIN EFORTUL DE REALIZARE A ACESTEIA.

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Atenie, ns! Trebuie s v nsuii tehnica de operaionalizare a obiectivelor pedagogice cu dorina de a o transforma n:

DEPRINDERE DE A VEDEA NTOTDEAUNA ACTIVITATEA DIDACTIC PRIN PRISMA UNOR REZULTATE MSURABILE.

Dar nu este uor. Trebuie s exersai vreme ndelungat tehnica pe care v-o propunem. V va fi din ce n ce mai uor n timp, dar...
EFORTURILE DE NCEPUT SUNT EXTREM DE MARI.

De ce? Pentru c fiecare din cele 5 precizri cu excepia celei dinti v solicit s inei seama de numeroase exigene. Iat n acest sens cteva sugestii care v vor ajuta s depii atari dificulti:

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Precizarea SUBIECTUL

Sfaturi utile 1.Folosii ntotdeauna expresia La sfritul activitii didactice TOI elevii vor fi capabili... 2. Nu-l uitai niciodat pe toi 3. Ferii-v de expresiile: La sfritul activitii didactice elevii vor fi capabili i elevii vor sti... (pentru c pierd din vedere necesitatea de a determina eficacitatea general a instruirii prima- i cantoneaz instruirea la nivelul memorrii ce-a de-a doua)

CAPACITATEA DE NVARE

4. Nu folosii dect verbe ce indic aciuni mentale ce se manifest sub form de comportamente observabile. Apelai la inventarul lui Metfessel, Michael i Kirshner (vezi anexa) 5. Evitai expresiile care se refer la conduita dvs. (voi stimula, voi mbogi) 6. Evitai expresiile generale (a cunoate, a ti, a nelege) 7. Evitai expresiile metaforice 8. Evitai expresiile care trimit la comportament inobservebile (a simi, a resimi, a iubi, a dori)

PERFORMANA

9. Nu confundai performana nici cu capacitatea i nici cu coninutul: ea reprezint aplicarea primei asupra celui de-al doilea 10. Nu acordai termenului de performan accepiunea pe care i-o dau sportivii (orice achiziie de nvare este o performan, nu numai cele excepionale) 11. Utilizai numai coninuturi eseniale n formularea performanelor (expresia capacitilor pe mai multe coninuturi determin dezvoltarea capacitilor; dar numrul coninuturilor neeseniale este att de mare nct riscai s producei o puzderie de obiective mrunte i s nu mai terminai niciodat instruirea) 12. Nu uitai c nu avei obligaia s-i nvai pe toi totul, ci doar pe toi lucrurile pe care nu le-ar putea nva singuri. 13. Folosii-v competena de specialitate n a oferi elevilor spre nvare ceea ce este fundamental n domeniul dvs., nu spunndu-le tot ce tii n legtur cu fiecare subiect pe care l tratai

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SITUAIA DE NVARE

14. Combinai metode materiale i mijloace cunoscute sau inventai altele pentru a construi condiii externe apte s declaneze condiii interne al nvrii, astfel nct elevii s poat atinge obiectivul ct mai repede, ct mai uor, ct mai plcut, i eventual, singuri, neajutai de dvs. 15. Apreciai drept nivelul acceptabil de performan de nvare numai pe acela care va permite continuarea instruirii fr diminuarea ritmului impus de programa colar 16. Numii suficienta caracteristici ale performanei standard pentru a putea aprecia fr echivoc reuita sau nereuita elevilor 17. Raportai-v la potenialul de nvare al claselor lund n considerare pe cel al elevului cu ritmul cel mai lent. 18. Nu folosii aceleai criterii de reuit la clasele cu potenial diferit de nvare 19. Evitai din start criteriile de reuit ce definesc performane sub limita acceptabil 20. Evitai s definii performane maximale i performane optimale pentru ntreaga clas.

STANDARDUL PERFORMANEI ACCEPTABILE

Cele 20 de sfaturi utile v vor ajuta s depii dificulti ce in de subiectivitatea dvs. Exist ns i dificulti obiective pentru care sfaturile anterioare nu v vor fi de nici un folos:
DIFICULTI OBIECTIVE 1.Proliferarea unui numr prea mare de obiective operaionale 2. Repetarea exasperant a obiectivelor la diverse clase de comportament.

Exemplu S presupunem c ntr-o lecie oarecare sunt 5 informaii eseniale care trebuie asimilate n memoria elevului pe baza unor obiective operaionale derivate din clasa CUNOATERII a taxonomiei lui BLOOM (Trebuie s recunoatem c numrul de informaii este modest). Dac informaiile sunt eseniale ele trebuie s fie NELESE dac la cele 5 obiective de cunoatere se vor aduga alte 5 obiective de comprehensiune.

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Dar tot astfel se va pune problema i cu celelalte clase din taxonomie, informaiile trebuind s fie APLICATE, ANALIZATE, SINTETIZATE i, n fine, EVALUATE. Rezultatul? 5 informaii x 6 clase = 30 obiective operaionale! Pot fi ele realizate n rstimpul scurt al unei lecii de 40-50 de minute? Evident, nu! Din exemplul de mai sus trebuie s derivm o nelepciune specific. Mai nti trebuie s observm c succesul taxonomiei a determinat un complex al lurii deciziei n rndul multor educatori care au nceput s se raporteze la aceasta ca la un tablou absolut precum cel mendeleevian de chimie. Dar pn i autoritatea tabloului lui Mendeleev este zguduit de transmutarea elementelor prin reaciile de fuziune i de fisiune nuclear! Aadar:
NU UITAI C TAXONOMIA DE OBIECTIVE ESTE UN INSTRUMENT PE CARE TREBUIE S-L STPNII DVS. I NU PENTRU A V LSA STPNII DE EL!

n al doilea rnd, trebuie observat c, dincolo de avantajele evidente, operaionalizarea obiectivelor s-a transformat, pentru unii, n mod. Foarte multe informaii neeseniale sau chiar eseniale se pot transmite eficient elevilor, nglobndu-le n situaiile de nvare adecvate pentru a realiza obiective operaionale importante, fr a fi necesar alt operaionalizare. Pentru depirea dificultilor obiective, menionate anterior, iat o regul sigur:

PROPUNEI-V I REALIZAI N ACTIVITILE DIDACTICE NUMAI I NUMAI OBIECTIVE OPERAIONALE PRIORITARE.

Ce se nelege ns prin obiectiv pedagogic prioritar? Urmrii cu atenie organizarea ierarhic a claselor de comportament n taxonomia lui Bloom, nfiat n tabloul de mai jos (Sanders, 1966):

Cuno ater e

Comprehensiune

Aplicare

Analiz

Sintez

Evaluare

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Evaluare Sintez Analiz Aplicare Aplicare Analiz Aplicare Sintez Analiz Aplicare Interpolare Traducere Memorare

Interpolare Interpolare Interpolare Interpolare Traducere Memorare Memorare Traducere Memorare Traducere Memorare Traducere Memorare Traducere Memorare

Fig.30. Organizarea ierarhic a claselor de obiective (Sanders, 1966)

Ierarhia sugereaz c anumite obiective ar putea fi abordate direct, fr parcurgerea scrilor anterioare. De exemplu, nelegerea unei definiii presupune memorarea sa mai nainte, dac urmm dogmatic ierarhia; orice educator tie ns c elevii pot fi ajutai s neleag o definiie sau s aplice o regul, fr s le fi memorat n prealabil. Pe de alt parte, ierarhia claselor de obiective se structureaz nu numai de la simplu la complex, ci si de la inferior la superior. Este evident c o capacitate de analiz a unui coninut este superioar memorrii aceluiai coninut. Se poate spune c ultimele trei clase ale taxonomiei sunt superioare primelor trei. Aceasta ar putea constitui un criteriu de alegere preferenial a obiectivelor operaionale ale unei activiti didactice. V propunem, in acest sens, un ghid complet de alegere a obiectivelor operaionale prioritare. Pasul I Pasul II Pasul III Pasul IV Trasai un tabel cu apte coloane (lund ca model tabloul lui Sanders reprezentat mai sus) Completai tabelul n ordinea de la simplu la complex ncepnd cu coloana cu toate obiectivele operaionale pe care le putei defini pentru activitatea dvs. Verificai tabelul identificnd corespondenele dintre obiective (folosind ca gril tabloul lui Sanders). Examinai fiecare obiectiv n parte, ncepnd cu obiectivul nscris pe treapta cea mai de sus a ultimei coloane, a VII-a, rspunznd la ntrebarea Oare ar putea fi realizat acest obiectiv fr s fi fost realizat n prealabil cel situat pe coloana din stnga n dreptul su?

Dac rspunsul este afirmativ, atunci se vor elimina toate obiectivele

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nscrise pe toate celelalte coloane din partea stng.

Dac rspunsul este negativ, atunci continuai examinarea obiectivelor n acelai mod.

Pasul V

Copiai toate obiectivele neeliminate ncepnd din partea stng; aceasta va fi lista obiectivelor prioritare aranjate n ordinea de la simplu la complex, de la inferior la superior.

ETAPA A II-A. ANALIZAI RESURSELE NECESARE REALIZRII OBIECTIVELOR!


Principalele categorii de resurse disponibile pentru realizarea obiectivelor pedagogice sunt: A. POTENIALUL DE NVARE (aflat n mintea celui care nva: mecanisme de nvare, aptitudini, capacitate, etc.), care se exprim n planul instruirii sub forma unui anumit RITM DE NVARE. B. CONINUTUL PROCESULUI DE NVMNT (informaii, operaii cu informaiile, adic ceea ce se afl n mintea celui care instruiete i este specificat n PLANUL, PROGRAMA DE NVMNT i n MANUALUL COLAR). C. RESURSELE MATARIALE (condiiile de instruire din clas, laborator sau atelier, auxiliare precum filme, diafilme, diapozitive, scheme, grafice, plane, hri, machete, simulatore, cri, etc.). D. Acestor resurse ar trebui s le adugm pe cea mai important dintre cele cte pot afecta nvarea: TIMPUL; n condiiile instruirii desfurate n sistemul bazat pe clase i lecii, trebuie s observm ns c timpul este o resurs limitat deci este o restricie. Asupra felului n care trebuie folosit aceast resurs esenial vom reveni n urmtorul capitol dedicat realizrii activitilor didactice. A. CTEVA ADEVRURI I APTE REGULI DE FOLOSIRE INGENIOAS A POTENIALULUI DE INVARE

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Modelul de instruire pe care vi-l propunem v solicit s renunai la pretenia de a cunoate n mod obiectiv i exact cauzele care determin diferenele individuale dintre copii i care afecteaz bineneles i conduita lor n nvare. Aceasta nu nseamn c modelul v interzice orice preocupare n aceast direcie. Dimpotriv:
NCERCAI PERMANENT, PRIN ORICE MIJLOACE, INCLUSIV PRIN CELE DESPRE CARE SE PRETINDE C V OFER O CUNOATERE OBIECTIV (teste de inteligen, teste de aptitudini, probe standardizate, chestionare, etc.) S CUNOATEI CT MAI PROFUND INDIVIDUALITATEA CELOR CARE NVA.

Contactul nemijlocit cu elevii v ofer de fapt, posibilitatea de a culege intuitiv numeroase informaii despre elevi. Nu uitai ns:
TOATE PARTICULARITILE INDIVIDUALE ALE ELEVILOR INTERESEAZ INSTRUIREA DOAR N MSURA N CARE AFECTEAZ RITMUL (VITEZA) CU CARE NVA FIECARE.

De aici rezult un avantaj enorm. Nu tim deocamdat cum s-ar putea spori gradul de dezvoltare al unor capaciti intelectuale (precum inteligena, de exemplu) dect foarte vag pentru c nu cunoatem natura lor endogen. n schimb,

TIM N CE FEL PUTEM PROCEDA PENTRU A ACCELERA PERMANENT RITMUL NVRII ORICRUI ELEV.

n ce fel putem proceda n acest sens?

EXACT N MODUL PE CARE VI-L PROPUNE MODELUL INSTRUCIONAL PE CARE TOCMAI VI-L NSUII ACUM

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ntr-adevr, modelul este conceput ca o tehnic de sporire general a ritmurilor de nvare. Dup ce vi-l vei fi nsuit i l vei fi aplicat mai mult vreme, VEI OBSERVA C ELEVII DUMNEAVOASTR:

- nva din ce n ce mai rapid - nva din ce n ce mai uor - nva din ce n ce cu mai mult plcere - nva din ce n ce mai temeinic

Aceste efecte benefice nu se vor produce dect dac vei lua n considerare cel puin ase adevruri:

Adevrul nr. 1 Adevrul nr. 2 Adevrul nr. 3 Adevrul nr. 4 Adevrul nr. 5 Adevrul nr. 6

Viteza nvrii este condiionat de corectitudinea adecvrii mecanismelor nvrii la obiectivele urmrite. Viteza nvrii este direct proporional cu gradul de motivaie intrinsec a nvrii. Viteza nvrii este dependent de gradul de satisfacie pe care nvarea o produce la cel care nva. Viteza nvrii este dependent de economia de timp cu care obiectivele sale sunt realizate de ctre elev. Viteza nvrii este dependent de economia de efort cu care obiectivele sale sunt realizate de ctre elev. Viteza nvrii este dependent de contientizarea prealabil a scopurilor acesteia de ctre elev.

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Despre adevrul nr. 6 vom discuta mai pe larg n subcapitolul urmtor al acestei lucrri. Deocamdat ns cteva precizri n legtur cu primele 5. Desigur, viteza nvrii este afectat i de ctre aptitudinile generale i speciale; coeficientul de inteligen, de exemplu, sau volumul memoriei, capacitatea de concentrare a ateniei sunt de natur s o influeneze pozitiv sau negativ. Nu putem solicita ns elevul s aib un coeficient de inteligen mai mare dect cel pe care l are pentru a-i spori viteza nvrii. n schimb, PUTEM MOTIVA ELEVUL, L PUTEM PUNE N SITUAII OPTIME PENTRU A-I FOLOSI MECANISMELE DE NVARE CU ECONOMIE DE EFORT, DE TIMP I CU CTIGURI MAXIME N PLANUL SATISFACIEI NVRII. Cum? V propunem n continuare cteva sugestii pe care le putei considera ca un adevrat

NDREPTAR DE FOLOSIRE RAIONAL A RESURSELOR DE NVARE DE CARE DISPUN TOI ELEVII


Nu trecei ns la nsuirea lor dect dup ce ai recitit nc o dat, n ntregime, capitolul al II-lea din lucrarea pe care o avei n fa.

Regula nr. 1 Regula nr. 2 Regula nr. 3

Ori de cte ori proiectai instruirea revedei rezultatele testului predictiv i ale ultimelor teste de progres pe care le-ai aplicat i folosii-le pentru a grupa elevii n funcie de ritmul cu care ei nva. Identificai mecanismul (tipul) de nvare adecvat realizrii fiecrui obiectiv pe care vi l-ai propus i gndii-v cum vei ajuta fiecare grup sau elev s-l foloseasc mai bine n realizarea obiectivului. Ori de cte ori urmrii un obiectiv aflat pe o clas taxonomic superioar trebuie s-i anexai un mecanism de nvare aflat pe o scar ierarhic superioar; motivaia intrinsec vine de la sine(Gagn) i putei neglija motivarea nvrii; ori de cte ori v aflai n alt situaie trebuie s subliniai nvarea cu elemente motivaionale. Solicitai elevii la eforturi orict de intense, dar nu dincolo de limita n care ei resimt consumul de efort sub form de stres sau oboseal. Nu obligai elevii s consume mai mult timp dect ei socotesc necesar pentru a realiza obiectivele i nu le furnizai sarcini de lucru care le consum inutil timpul. Orice sarcin de nvare ai furniza elevilor asigurai-v din vreme c realizarea ei se va finaliza cu o stare de satisfacie. Nu apelai la sanciuni negative pentru motivarea nvrii dect dup ce le-ai

Regula nr. 4 Regula nr. 5 Regula nr. 6 Regula nr.

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epuizat pe toate cele pozitive i v-ai convins pe deplin de ineficacitatea lor.

APLICAIE SPECIAL
(EXERCIII I PROBLEME) Nr.1. Pe ce fapte tiinifice se ntemeiaz regula nr. 3? Comentai-le! Nr.2. Ce lege psihologic s-ar nclca prin nerespectarea regulii nr.4? Nr.3. Ce s-ar ntmpla dac educatorul nu ar lua n considerare regula nr.5? Nr.4. Numii cteva tehnici de motivare a nvrii pe care le cunoatei din experien. Aprofundai-v cunotinele studiind capitolul 12 din cartea nvarea n coal de D.P.Ausubel i F.G.Robinson (ed.E.D.P., 1981) ( Dac avei dificulti n rezolvarea acestor exerciii, consultai titularii de curs i de seminar )

B. SELECIONAI CONINUTUL ESENIAL NECESAR NVRII N CLAS

Aceast operaie dificil solicit din competena dumneavoastr de specialitate. Grij extrem! Sensul expresiei subliniate anterior este altul n pedagogie dect cel folosit n vorbirea obinuit.
PENTRU PRACTICAREA INSTRUIRII, COMPETENA DE SPECIALITATE PRESUPUNE MAI ALES CAPACITATEA DE A DISCRIMINA INFORMAIILE ESENIALE DE AMNUNTE, NTR-UN DOMENIU DAT.

Psihopedagogii ofer educatorilor sofisticate instrumente i tehnici de analiz a coninutului n vederea alegerii coninuturilor eseniale n procesul de proiectare a instruirii. Le putei studia n Anexe i n diverse lucrri. Dar este vorba, n ultim instan, de o chestiune de...mndrie profesional! ntr-adevr, competena de specialitate poate avea diverse grade. Gradul ridicat de competen de specialitate este dat de profunzimea stpnirii problemelor dintr-un anumit domeniu i nu de mulimea cunotinelor ntr-un subdomeniu limitat al acestuia. Prima l ajut pe competent s sesizeze exact logica tiinific a disciplinei n timp ce cellalt l determin pe specialist s nu vad pdurea din cauza copacilor. Un profesor de matematic care tie foarte bine algebr, dar prea puin geometrie, trigonometrie, teoria mulimilor, logic matematic, teoria

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numerelor etc., nu va putea s-i nvee pe elevii si esenialul din aceste domenii care reprezint marea construcie care este matematica; ci, mult dintr-un domeniu, algebra. Extragerea esenialului dintr-un capitol, lecie, grup de lecii este doar prima operaie dintr-un lan ntreg de activiti care conduc subordonarea logicii tiinifice a disciplinei, logicii pedagogice a nvrii. Criteriile de alegere a coninuturilor eseniale sunt, de fapt, dou: unul impus de logica tiinific, altul impus de logica pedagogic (didactic). Aadar,

orice coninut care condiioneaz achiziia altor coninuturi mai complexe n domeniul respectiv (LOGICA TIINIFIC) CONINUT ESENIAL este

orice coninut care nu poate fi asimilat de elev prin efort propriu pe baza altor achiziii realizate, ci numai sub ndrumarea profesorului (LOGICA PEDAGOGIC).

Fig. nr. 23 Logica seleciei coninuturilor eseniale

Considernd aceast definiie ca un instrument de discriminare n cadrul prevederilor programelor de nvmnt, orice educator specialist va putea decide cu uurin n legtur cu fiecare obiectiv operaional pe care i-l propune, cte informaii s furnizeze elevului astfel nct aceasta s poat atinge cel puin un nivel acceptabil de performan colar n clas i s continue instruirea n mod independent prin aprofundare i detaliere. E drept c, n acest sens, factorii responsabili ar trebui s ia n considerare posibilitatea optimizrii autentice a programelor i manualelor colare de la multe discipline de nvmnt, s favorizeze construirea modelelor pedagogice ale disciplinelor ca fundament solid pentru un Curriculum nou, gndit infailibil, i pentru reelaborarea manualelor alternative, att pentru elevi, ct i pentru educatori.

C. ANALIZAI RESURSELE MATERIALE

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Proiectarea instruirii nu pretinde resurse materiale costisitoare. Majoritatea colilor le au n dotare. Unele obiective pot solicita educatorul s confecioneze el nsui materiale de instruire (fie, folii transparente, teste etc.) Apreciem c avem de-a face cu o obligaie elementar, impus de profesia de dascl prin definiie, fr a o mai comenta struitor. Esenial este ca fiecrui obiectiv s-i fie asigurate toate condiiile necesare pentru a putea fi realizat de ctre toi elevii ct mai repede, ct mai uor, ct mai plcut, ct mai temeinic.

ETAPA A III-A. ELABORAI STRATEGII DIDACTICE FOCALIZATE ASUPRA OBIECTIVELOR URMRITe!


A. CE TREBUIES NELEGEM PRIN STRATEGIA DIDACTIC

Multitudinea sensurilor cu care expresia strategie este folosit de ctre psihopedagogi ne oblig s precizm sensul pe care i-l acordm aici:

PRIN STRATEGIE DIDACTIC NELEGEM CUPLUL DINTRE SARCINA DE NVARE I SITUAIA DE NVARE ELABORATE PENTRU A-I OFERI ELEVULUI OCAZIA S REALIZEZE UN ANUMIT OBIECTIV OPERAIONAL.

Reinei schema care urmeaz:

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Expresii care desemneaz NATURA SARCINII SARCINA DE LUCRU Enun imperativ adresat elevilor n mod difereniat pentru a realiza prin aciune obiectivul SITUAIA DE NVARE Cumul de condiii asigurate elevului pentru a putea realiza sarcina conex n minimum de timp i cu maximum de satisfacie a nvrii. Expresii care desemneaz NIVELUL DE PERFORMAN scontat CONDIII INTERNE mecanisme de nvare, aptitudini, motivaie etc. CONDIII EXTERNE metode, materiale, mijloace, instruciuni, sprijin direct, ndrumri astfel organizate nct s declaneze i s ntrein condiiile interne ale nvrii eficiente.

STRATEGIA DIDACTIC

Fig.nr. 24. Structura strategiei didactice focalizate pe un obiectiv operaional

B. CUM SE DERIV SARCINILE DE NVARE N CLAS Nu uitai, de asemenea, cteva caracteristici ale fiecrei componente ale unei strategii didactice:

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1.

Se construiete prin derivare direct din obiectivul operaional urmrit. Prin natura sa este identic cu obiectivul urmrit i aceeai pentru toi elevii din clas. Difereniaz instruirea solicitnd elevii s realizeze niveluri de performan diferit, n funcie de capacitile lor. Oblig elevii s realizeze un minimum de performan de nvare, dar nu-i oprete s-l depeasc

SARCINA DE NVARE

2. 3.

4.

n construirea sarcinilor de nvare aplicai consecvent aceste dou reguli:


4.1. 4.2.

Regula intirii obiectivului operaional: Solicitai elevii s fac exact aciunea care definete capacitatea (comportamentul) specificat n obiectivul operaional urmrit Regula diferenierii: Cerei tuturor s fac n acelai timp acelai lucru, dar niciodat mai puin dect poate fiecare. Exemplu:
OBIECTIV OPERAIONAL SARCINA DE NVARE Citii cu atenie textul, identificai adjectivele i subliniai cu o linie: G1- cel puin 5 adjective G2- cel puin 7 adjective G3- cel puin 9 adjective

La sfritul activitii didactice toi elevii vor fi capabili s identifice adjectivele ntr-un text dat: obiectivul va fi atins dac vor fi subliniate cel puin 5 din cele 10 adjective existente i nu va fi subliniat vre-un cuvnt care nu este adjectiv.

Fig.nr 25. Corelaia dintre obiectiv i sarcina de nvare n clas n exemplu, G1 = grupul de elevi cu ritm lent de nvare; G2 = elevi cu ritm mediu; G3 = elevi cu ritm rapid. Recitii nc o dat exemplul. Analizai sugestiile generate de sintagma cel puin n formularea unei sarcini de nvare.

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NU UITAI NICIODAT S FOLOSII EXPRESIA CEL PUIN CARE LIMITEAZ NIVELUL DE PERFORMAN N JOS I SUGEREAZ TUTUROR ELEVILOR S SE DEPEASC PE EI NII!

D. CUM SE CONSTRUIESC SITUAII OPTIME DE NVARE

SITUAIA DE INVARE

1. SE CONSTRUIETE CU PRECDERE PENTRU A ADECVA OBIECTIVELE URMRITE LA MECANISMELE I POSIBILITILE DE NVARE NECESARE PRODUCERII NVRII N CONDIIILE LEGILOR ECONOMIEI DE EFORT I DE TIMP I ALE LEGII EFECTULUI. 2. Se construiete prin raportarea strict la NATURA sarcinii de lucru, se ia n considerare NIVELUL DE PERFORMAN MINIM pe care trebuie s-l realizeze fiecare elev sau grup de elevi n parte. 3. Oblig la luarea n considerare a efectelor motivaionale ale diverselor tipuri de nvare ca schema de mai jos:

Fig nr.26. Structura i exigenele situaiei optime de nvare


Domeniul Sinteza i

Comprehensiu Cunoater Aplicarea Analiza psihomot nea evaluare ea Analizai atent schema din figura 32. Ea cuprinde marele secret al nvrii eficiente ( or a

nvar e de semnal Legturi e S-R

Rezolva nvare prin nvarea re de descoperi de reguli problem re Discrimin nvare Lanuri i e de ri motorii Asociaii principii multiple concepte verbale

98 INSATISFACIE MAXIM SATISFACIE NUL SATISFACIE MAXIM

-3

-2

-1

Fig.nr.27 Fluctuaiile efectelor ndeplinirii sarcinilor de nvare derivate din obiective operaionale

Poate prea gongoric afirmaia urmtoare. n schema anterioar se simte intervenia divin n natura uman. Se confirm viziunea comenian: Dumnezeu a vrut ca Homo Sapiens s poat nva totul ca o condiie a mntuirii i desvririi sale. Toi copiii normali dispun de toate condiiile interne pentru aceasta. Dar condiiile externe trebuie s le fie asigurate de oamenii numii educatori. Obiectivul prioritar al crerii unui complex de condiii externe instruirii l constituie declanarea i funciona-rea eficient a mecanismelor de nvare. Trebuie neles c:

NU ESTE POSIBIL INSTRUIREA EFICIENT DAC SE IGNOR FAPTUL C EA SE PRODUCE PE BAZA UNOR MECANISME NATURALE DE NVARE.

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De fapt,
A INSTRUI EFICIENT NSEAMN A DIRIJA MECANISMELE INTERNE ALE NVRII N DIRECIA OBIECTIVELOR PEDAGOGICE STABILITE.

Mecanismele de nvare sunt universale, n sensul c toate fiinele normale posed, chiar dac funcionarea lor este diferit de la un individ la altul.
EFICACITATEA GENERAL A INSTRUIRII POATE FI DETERMINAT NTRUCT TOI CEI CARE NVA DISPUN DE CONDIIILE INTERNE NECESARE PRODUCERII NVRII, IAR DIRIJAREA ACESTORA ESTE POSIBIL.

Dar figura anterioar sugereaz nu numai adevrurile de mai sus, ci o serie de reguli de aciune. Dac vrei s realizai situaii optime de nvare, pe care elevul le va resimi ca ocazii de a nva, regsindu-i nclinarea fireasc spre cunoatere, atunci studiai-le consecvent n practic: Regula nr.1 Ori de cte ori obiectivul pe care l urmrii face parte din clasa CUNOATERII elevul va fi determinat s apeleze la mecanismul nvrii prin ASOCIAII VERBALE care i vor procura doar o satisfacie sczut sau nici una; avei obligaia s motivai intens instruirea prin sanciuni pozitive puternice. Regula nr.2 Ori de cte ori vei solicita elevii s realizeze obiective de COMPREHENSIUNE, nvai-i s DISCRIMINEZE i/sau s GENERALIZEZE prevenind eecurile, ori de cte ori acestea sunt iminenete; procedai ca la regula nr.1. Regula nr.3 Orice obiectiv de APLICARE, ANALIZ, SINTEZ SAU EVALUARE constituie o ocazie pentru dumneavoastr de a-i face pe elevi contieni de faptul c posed i pot folosi mecanismele NVRII PRIN DESCOPERIRE ajutndu-i s-i formeze un stil propriu de studiu eficient.

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APLICAIE SPECIAL ( Exerciii i probleme) Nr.1. Alegei un capitol oarecare din programa de nvmnt la o clas pe care o cunoatei bine i la care vei preda disciplina dvs. n trimestrul urmtor. Specificai obiectivele terminale i apoi obiectivele operaionale pentru ntregul capitol. Elaborai sarcini de nvare diferenial corespunztoare fiecrui obiectiv. Nr.2. Elaborai situaii de nvare pentru zece dintre sarcinile pe care le-ai derivat anterior, preciznd condiiile interne pentru fiecare. Imaginai-v cum ar reaciona elevii clasei n aceste condiii. Nr.3. Elaborai un material n care s contrazicei cu argumente de care dispunei afirmaia eficacitatea general a instruirii poate fi determinat. Pstrai cu grij acest material. Recitii-l dup ce vei fi realizat succesiv, la aceeai clas, trei lecii proiectate n conformitate cu cele expuse n aceast lucrare. Nr.4. Procurai-v lucrarea Condiiile nvrii de R.M. Gagn (E.D.P., 1975), studiaio atent i redactai un referat. Prezentai referatul ntr-o edin a comisiei metodice sau a catedrei. Notai-v opiniile colegilor pe marginea referatului dvs. dar nu dai nici o contrareplic. ( Dac avei dificulti n rezolvarea acestor exerciii, consultai colegii sau, n ultim instan, titularul de curs )

ETAPA A IV-A. ELABORAI TESTE PENTRU EVALUAREA PROGRESULUI INSTRUIRII


Dac dorim s avem permanent sub control modul n care se desfoar instruirea pentru a preveni la timp dereglrile procesului sau pentru a le corecta oportun atunci cnd s-au produs, trebuie s practicm dou tipuri de evaluare:
- EVALUAREA FORMATIV CONTINU - EVALUAREA SUMATIV PERIODIC

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A. De la MSD la MLD nvarea uman se consum la nivelul a dou tipuri de memorie: memoria de scurt durat (MSD) i memoria de lung durat (MLD). Reinei cteva dintre caracteristicile lor: MSD
Funcioneaz

MLD Funcioneaz un timp ndelungat ; nregistreaz numai parial informaiile i nu permite subiectului s le actualizeze cu fidelitate; Este puin i numai n timp ndelungat afectat de uitare; Funcioneaz pe baza unei pri din achiziiile MSD.

un timp foarte scurt, limitat la cteva secunde sau minute; nregistreaz complet (sau aproape complet) informaiile dnd posibilitatea subiectului s le actualizeze cu maximum de fidelitate; Este puternic i rapid afectat de uitare; Condiioneaz achiziiile n MLD

Fig.nr. 29 Raporturile dintre MSD i MLD

Observai cu atenie figura de mai jos:

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Fig. nr. 30. nregistrarea informaiilor n MSD i MLD n procesul nvrii

Fr ndoial, MLD este cea care asigur temeinicia nvrii; observm ns c aceasta nu se poate obine dect n baza reteniei imediate.
N MDL NU EXIST NIMIC CARE S NU FI FOST ANTERIOR N MSD.

AADAR, nu uitai c:

este aadar imperios necesar ca: Acest proces trebuie s fie permanent controlat.
ORICE CUNOTIN ESENIAL S FIE ACHIZIIONAT MAI NTI N MSD

REGULA DE AUR:
EVALUAREA FORMATIV TREBUIE S FIE CONTINU IAR

EVALUAREA SUMATIV S NU FIE IGNORAT NICIODAT !

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A ceasta nseamn c trebuie s...

PRACTICAI DUP ORICE NVARE N CLAS EVALUAREA FORMATIV A PROGRESULUI INSTRUIRII

Evaluarea continu a progreselor instruirii v va permite, att dvs. ct i elevilor s... PREVENII LA TIMP I S CORECTAI IMEDIAT APARIIA UNOR LACUNE ESENIALE N CUNOTINELE ELEVILOR.

N plus, periodic trebuie s verificai modul n care se realizeaz transferul cunotinelor din msd n mld. n acest sens se impune practicarea evalurii sumative sau cumulative. reinei cteva deosebiri ntre cele dou tipuri de evaluare: EVALUAREA FORMATIV Verific achiziia cunotinelor n MSD. Se realizeaz n baza unor standarde de performan unitare, fiind deci, nivelatoare. Se realizeaz imediat ncheierea nvrii. dup EVALUAREA SUMATIV Verific reintegrarea cunotinelor n MLD i temeinicia nvturii. Se realizeaz n raport cu puterea de pstrare i integrare a cunotinelor n MLD fiind difereniatoare. Se realizeaz la perioade i date de timp care marcheaz ncheierea unor uniti (capitole, grup de lecii, etc.) de instruire. Depisteaz pierderile de cunotine i dificultile provocate de uitare. Se raporteaz la obiectivele terminale ale unitii de instruire.

Depisteaz erorile i lacunele instrucionale care nu vor permite continuarea instruirii. ndeplinete rol de conexiune invers imediat. Se raporteaz strict la obiectivele operaionale ale activitii didactice.

Este de dorit ca evaluarea formativ i evaluarea sumativ s se bazeze pe MSURAREA OBIECTIV a cunotinelor i capacitilor de a opera cu ele, dar nu trebuie s exclud APRECIEREA PERSONAL, nuanat, a performanelor elevilor.

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n vederea asigurrii OBIECTIVIII MSURRII educatorii trebuie s fac apel la TESTE DOCIMOLOGICE elaborate de ei nii n chiar procesul planificrii i proiectrii instruirii. Cum se pot realiza acestea? nainte de a studia cele ce urmeaz, mai recitii nc o dat cap. Diagnosticai starea iniial a instruirii, struii asupra paragrafelor dedicate problemei elaborrii testelor predictive. C. CUM SE ELABOREAZ TESTELE FORMATIVE PENTRU EVALUAREA CONTINU? Reinei! PRINCIPIUL FUNDAMENTAL AL ELABORRII TESTELOR ESTE URMTORUL: PUNE-L PE ELEV N SITUAIA DE A MAI REALIZA NC O DAT OBIECTIVELE URMRITE CEL PUIN LA UN NIVEL ACCEPTABIL.

Prin urmare, testul formativ face parte integrant din proiectul pedagogic; itemii si conin NOI SARCINI DE LUCRU DERIVATE DIN OBIECTIVELE OPERAONALE URMRITE DIFERIT SUB RAPORTUL CONINUTULUI DAR DE ACEEAI NATUR CU SARCINILE DE NVARE N CLAS.

OBIECTIV OPERAIONAL

SARCINA DE NVARE

ITEM N TESTUL FORMATIV

La sfritul activitii didactice toi elevii vor fi capabili s aplice regula de 3 simpl, rezolvnd un set de probleme date; obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac vor fi rezolvate 3 din cele 7 probleme date

Aplicai regula de 3 simpl i rezolvai: G1 cel puin 3 probleme date G2 cel puin 5 probleme date G3 cel puin 6 probleme date

10. Rezolvai cel puin primele 3 probleme din cele date mai jos: a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

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Fig.31. Corelaiile obiective sarcini evaluare

Reinei:

Regula nr.1 Itemii testului formativ trebuie astfel formulat nct s vizeze EXACT natura obiectivului urmrit. Regula nr.2 Itemii testului formativ trebuie s ofere posibilitatea de a depi standardul minimal de performan colar, dar reuita sau nereuita se vor judeca n funcie de acest standard. Regula nr.3 Nu formulai niciodat itemii diferii: toi elevii trebuie pui n faa acelorai sarcini. Regula nr. 4 Nu ajutai niciodat elevii n timpul rezolvrii unui test formativ i nici nu-i lsai s se ajute ntre ei.

D. CUM SE ELABOREAZ TESTELE SUMATIVE? Revedei exemplu anterior. nlocuii expresia obiectiv operaional cu expresia obiectiv terminal(sau competen/capacitate) i eliminai sarcina de nvare i vei obine formula de derivare a itemilor testului sumativ. De fapt, ea prezint analogii cu cea de elaborare a testelor predictive. Deosebirea dintre testele sumative i cele predicative const n faptul c primele vizeaz un ciclu de instruire aflat n curs de desfurare i nu unul ncheiat anterior.

Reinei:
Este

de dorit ca testele sumative s fie aplicate de cel puin 3-4 ori ntr-un semestru; ultimul test sumativ trebuie s conin itemi care verific ntreaga

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materie parcurs ntr-un trimestru.


Este

firesc ca teza semestrial s se constituie dup principiile evalurii sumative.

4.5..ELABORAREA SCENARIILOR DIDACTICE

4.5.1. Ce sunt i ce nu sunt evenimentele instrucionale


nainte de a studia cele ce urmeaz mai citii cu atenie teoria i modelul celor nine events propuse de ctre Robert Mainard Gagne. ( Folosii Documentarul ataat la aceast lucrare). Strduii-v s nelegei ct mai exact conceptul de eveniment instrucional. Vei constata c urmtoarele:

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-momente sau trepte formale ale leciei; - zece p ri distincte ale timului de nv are n clas ;

-conduite ale educatorului NU SUNT

EVENIMENTELE INSTRUCTIONALE

-aciuni al educatorului menite s declaeze categrii diferite de motivaie i motivare a nv rii - fenomene psihologice menite s ntrein activ nvarea pnla sfritul activit ii didactice; - o succesiune de procedee menite s focalizeze efortul de nv are asupra obiectivelor i sarcinilor de lucru; - efectul cumulat al mai multor procedee de motivare menit s accelereze ritmurile individuale de nv are; - asigurarea continuit ii n nv are dup ce dirijarea ei n clas a ncetat

SUNT

Figura Nr. 32 Deosebirile dintre evenimentele instrucionale i treptele/momentele leciei

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Din cele de mai sus se pot deduce cteva reguli de declanare i realizare a evenimentelor instrucionale. Nu le uitai:

Regula nr.1 Producei evenimente instrucionale pe ct posibil n succesiunea artat. Regula nr.2 Evitai procedura formal a evenimentelor instrucionale. Regula nr.3 Parcurgei fiecare eveniment n ritmul cel mai rapid cu putin. Regula nr.4 Asigurai legturi organice ntre evenimentele instruirii, conferind ansamblului lor funcia de feed-back permanent. Regula nr.5 Acordai importan tuturor evenimentelor dar rezervai maximum de importan evalurii progresului nvrii.

n fine, nu uitai sugestiile pe care vi le propunem n legtur cu fiecare dintre evenimentele instruirii.

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4.5.2.CUM SE CAPTEAZ ATENIA TUTUROR ELEVILOR PN LA SFRITUL ACTIVITII?

Nu v lsai indui n eroare de expresia de mai sus. Expresia captarea ateniei este formulat n termenii specifici psihologiei behavioriste. Dincolo de atenie ca proces de focalizare a energiei trebuie avute n vedere celelalte procese psihice care furnizeaz aceast energie. Folosii-v de aceast sugestie care pare bizar.

DAC DORII S CAPTAI I S MENINEI ATENIA ELEVILOR CEL PUIN PN L A SFRITUL ACTIVITII, PUNEI-I S CNTEAIDA!

Adic:

A I D A

- strnindu-le ATENIA i - INTERESUL pentru nvare - declanndu-le DORINA de a nva - n mod ACTIV, prin efort propriu

Captarea ateniei elevilor v solicit s dai dovad dentreaga dvs. miestrie pedagogic. Acesta nct NUMAI DAC PROCEDEUL DE CAPTARE A ATENIEI ESTE EFICACE. ATUNCI SE POATE SCONTA C OBIECTIVELE ACTIVITII VOR FI REALIZATE. Din pcate, nu v putem recomanda procedee universal valabile. Putei apela, desigur, la:

-tehnicile de condiionare a comportamentului;

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-la procedeul sarcinilor ntrerupte; -implicarea n sarcin; -simulri didactice; etc.

Dar

V SUNT PERMISE ORICE PROCEDEE CARE STRRNESC ATENIA I INTERESUL ELEVILOR PENTRU ACTIVITATEA DIDACTIC I GENEREAZ DORINA DE A NVA ACTIV.

Imaginaia pedagogic i creativitatea didactic v sunt solicitate la maximum. Dac nu v putei transpune prin EMPATIE n personalitatea i mentalitatea celui care nva, vei putea susine doar cu mare dificultate c suntei un educator autentic

4.5.3. DE CE I CUM SE ENUN OBIECTIVELE URMRITE?


Acestor dou ntrebri li se poate oferi un singur rspuns: OBIECTIVELE PEDAGOGICE SE ENUN NTOTDEAUNA PE NELESUL ELEVULUI. Aa cum am mai spus, activitatea de instruire trebuie s fie ieducativ. Or, EDUCAIA ESTE, PRIN DEFINIIE, UN PROCES CONTIENT.

Orice instruire rmne doar dresaj ct vreme cel instruit nu cunoate scopurile pentru care este instruit. Urmai schema de mai jos:

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Fig. Nr. 33. Scurt -circuitul colar

n acest mod ncerca s reprezinte, pe la jumtatea secolului XX Eduard Claparede evoluia psihologic a activitii umane n condiiile colii tradiionale. Renumitul pedagog deplngea faptul c n coala tradiional sarcinile de instruire formulate de educatorul magistral erau, de regul, fr sens pentru elev. Suntei obligat nu numai de raiuni pedagogice, dar i etice s evitai manifestrile didactice de tipul celor criticate de Claparede.

n plus,

CONTIENTIZAREA REZULTATELOR SCONTATE ALE NVRII DE CTRE ELEV CONSTITUIE I UN FACTOR DE MOTIVARE PUTERNIC A ACESTUIA. Se poate ignora faptul c fiecare fiin omeneasc dorete, n chip natural, s se perfecioneze, s-i mbunteasc n mod permanent capacitile? Aceast ultim ntrebare este retoric. Educatorul raional i pasionat i va rspunde ntotdeauna negativ.

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4.5.4. CUM SE ACTUALIZEAZ ANCORELE NVRII

O dat enunate clar obiectivele instruirii, educatorul este dator s verifice dac acestea pot fi realizate! Reinei: ORICE NVARE NOU ESTE CONDIIONAT DE ALTA ANTERIOAR

Problema este ns de a VERIFICA CEEA CE TREBUIE! Ce nseamn a verifica ceea ce trebuie? n coala noastr tradiia verificrii leciei anterioare are o lungime considerabil. Modelul pe care vi-l propunem v solicit modificarea atitudinii fa de aceast obligaie.

N LOCUL VERIFICRII DETALIATE A LECIEI PRECEDENTE ESTE NECESAR S VERIFICAI PERMANENT NTREAGA MATERIE PARCURS DE ELEV N CHEI ESENIALE.

Orice obiectiv operaional se leag de alte obiective realizate anterior. Aceste legturi trebuie s v fie dumneavoastr niv foarte clare i le actualizai solicitnd elevii.

S DEMONSTREZE C MAI PSTREAZ N MEMORIE CUNOTINELE NECESARE PENTRU A PUTEA REALIZA NOILE OBICTIVE. Chiar dac nu toi elevii vor reui acest lucru, este suficient ca unul (unii) s realizeze acest lucru: actualizarea va antrena reamintirea cunotinelor respective de ctre elevi, citind considerabil continuarea instruirii. Atenie ns:

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Nu v strduii s verificai altceva dect ceea ce se refer la obiectivele pe care le urmai! Nu intrai n amnunte nesemnificative! Nu pierdei cu actualizarea ancorelor mai mult de 5-6 minute ntr-o lecie! Nu transformai actualizarea ancorelor ntr-un eveniment de verificare sever! Evitai stresul i demotivarea! Acordai note n timpul actualizrii ancorelor, dar nu pedepsii pe cei care au pierdut informaii sau capaciti anterior ctigate.

Raiunea ultim a actualizrii ancorelor o constituie

DIMINUAREA PIERDERILOR LA NIVELUL MEMORIEI DE LUNG DURAT Prin urmare, acest eveniment instrucional constituie un moment delicat pentru elevi, n special pentru elevii la care fenomenele de uitare se manifest mai intens. De aceea:

Este de dorit ca n actualizarea ancorelor s fie antrenai ct mai muli elevi, dar nu trebuie s insistai cnd unii dintre ei ntmpin dificulti; Este preferabil s desfurai acest eveniment adresnd elevilor ntrebri frontale i s-i solicitai s rspund, dar nu mereu pe aceiai elevi; Este recomandabil s transformai evenimentul ntr-un moment de ncurajare a tuturor elevilor n vederea noii nvri.

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4.5.5. PREZENTAREA SARCINILOR DE LUCRU, DIRIJAREA NVRII, OBINEREA PERFORMANELOR I ASIGURAREA CONEXIUNII INVERSE.

ndat ce v-ai asigurat c elevii pot continua nvarea, atacai, obiectivele pe rnd. Transmitei mai nti sarcina de lucru, apoi oferii condiii pentru a o realiza; nu pierdei din vedere c acestea din urm trebuie s fie suficiente pentru ca elevii s:

triasc sentimentul c au OCAZIA DE A NVA; poate realiza sarcina cu ECONOMIE DE EFORT, DE TIMP i cu SATISFACIA REUITEI.

Nu uitai c din situaia de nvare fac parte i informaiile de care elevii au nevoie pentru a realiza sarcina de nvare, dar evitai ct mai mult predarea cunotinelor. Procedai astfel nct

ELEVII S NVEE FCND ACIUNILE MENTALE SPECIFICATE N OBIECTIVELE OPERAIONALE ALE ACTIVITII. Stabilii un timp limit pentru realizarea fiecrei sarcini, precizai-l elevilor i nu permitei depirea lui. Ajutai-i cu precdere pe elevii cu ritm lent s se ncadreze n acest timp. Rspundei ns oricror solicitri de sprijin i prevenii dificultile unor elevi. Lsai-i, ba chiar ndemnai-i pe elevi s colaboreze n grupuri mici. Fii permanent n alert fa de grupul elevilor cu vitez de lucru sczut, ncurajai-i s se autodepeasc. Concentrai-v atenia n dirijarea nvrii acestui aspect:

ELEVII NU TREBUIE LSAI CU NICI UN PRE S NCERCE S REZOLVE SARCINILE DE NVARE NTR-UN MOD INADECVAT OBIECTIVULUI URMRIT.

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Nu uitai c toi elevii, inclusiv cei cu ritmuri i potenial mare de nvare, manifest tendina de a realiza sarcinile de lucru cu mecanisme de nvare aflate pe trepte inferioare ale ierarhiei prezentate n subcapitolele anterioare. Prevenii permanent acest efect de mpingere n jos a comportamentului de nvare. Facei-i pe elevi contieni de acest lucru. Explicai-le c nu fac economie de efort i de timp abordnd cu metode simple probleme care li se par dificile. Ajutai-i s-i contientizeze exact resursele interne de nvare i ajutai-i s le adecveze precis la natura fiecrei sarcini de lucru. Informai-i, dup fiecare sarcin, n legtur cu corectitudinea utilizrii de ctre ei a condiiilor interne de nvare. ncurajai-i s persevereze n depirea dificultilor. Informai-i c fiecare dintre ei poate s nvee ceea ce trebuie nvat. Explicai-le c aceasta nu este o afirmaie gratuit, ci una demonstrat tiinific. ncurajai-i prin orice alte mijloace.

4.5. 6. EVALUAREA PROGRESULUI INSTRUIRII

Acesta constituie momentul cel mai important al instruirii. Evaluarea formativ a nvrii este de fapt, tot nvare. Este nvarea de consolidare adic de asigurarea a reteniei mnemonice i de asigurare anticipat a TRANSFERULUI PROACTIV. Prin urmare...

ABORDAI EVALUAREA FORMATIV CA PE


UN PRILEJ ACORDAT ELEVULUI S-I FIXEZE TEMEINIC CUNOTINELE i de

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A-I IDENTIFICA N TIMP DIFICULTILE N PREGTIRE.

OPORTUN

LACUNELE

Instruirea prin evaluare formativ trebuie s fie exclusive una independent. Reinei DOU INTERDICII:

Nu-i sprijinii pe elevi n nici un fel n timpul testului de progres! Nu permitei elevilor n timpul rezolvrii testelor de progres s se ajute ntre ei!

Pentru evaluarea formativ trebuie rezervat, de la nceput, un cuantum de timp rezonabil din timpul disponibil. Acesta trebuie submprit n dou pri:

timp destinat REZOLVRII testului timp destinat AUTOCORECTRII testului

Educatorul nelept va cuta s desfoare ntreaga activitate didactic fcnd economie de timp. Orice astfel de economie trebuie fcut n beneficiul evalurii progresului colar. Reinei DOU NOI REGULI:

Regula nr.1 PENTRU REZOLVAREA TESTULUI STABILII UN TIMP LIMIT I NU PERMITEI DEPIREA LUI DE CTRE ELEVI. Regula nr.2 PIERDEI CT MAI MULT TIMP POSIBIL CU AUTOCORECTAREA TESTELOR DE PROGRES DE CTRE ELEVI.

Raiunea care ntemeiaz aceste dou reguli este uor de dedus: cunoaterea rezultatelor este momentul de maxim intensitate a nvrii, reprezentnd producerea conexiunii inverse. Chiar i elevii care i descoper greeli nva; probabilitatea ca ei s greeasc a doua oar n acelai fel scade vertiginos. Aceasta atrage atenia asupra importanei autocorectrii este net mai avantajoas dect corectarea testelor de ctre educator prin efectul formativ imediat pe care l

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produce asupra oricrui elev, intensificnd retenia la nivelul memoriei de scurt durat i asigurnd condiii de trecere masiv a cunotinelor n memoria de lung durat.

4.5.7.ASIGURAI RETENIA, INTENSIFICAI

TRANSFERUL I PREGTII NVAREA ACAS

Rezultatele testului de progres trebuie folosit n tot ceea ce intereseaz asigurarea continuitii nvrii. nc din timpul autocorectrii putei stabili

SARCINI DIFERENIATE DE LUCRU PENTRU ACAS

pentru a acoperi lacunele descoperite la unii elevi, a intensifica RETENIA cunotinelor de ctre toi elevii i a sprijini TRANSFERUL acestora:

PE VERTICAL PE ORIZONTAL

TRANSFERUL VERTICAL presupune aprofundarea, adncirea cunotinelor eseniale, ntrirea capacitilor formate,

TRANSFERUL ORIZONTAL presupune lrgirea cunotinelor, adugarea de detalii la coninuturile eseniale deja nsuite.

Ambele se pot soluiona furniznd elevilor noi sarcini de nvare ca teme pentru acas i asigurnd condiii interne i externe de realizare.

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TEMELE PENTRU ACAS VOR FI REZOLVATE N AFARA CONTROLULUI DVS. NEMIJLOCIT.

APLICAII
( titularii de seminar au libertatea de a folosi aceste aplicaii mn momentele cele mai adecvate pentru desfurarea cursului )

Aplicaia Nr.7

Elaborai scenariile didactice de implementare la 5 proiecte de romn/francez/englez realizate pe parcurs/anterior respectnd exigenele de tehnologie educaional i n conformitate strict cu cele nine instructional events ( Gagne).

Aplicaia Nr.8

Continuai aplicaia nr.7 transformnd cel puin unul dintre scenariile didactice ntrun scenariu care ar putea fi transpus pe film ifolosit ca material didacic modern ( lucru n echipe de 7-6 cursani, cu asisten tehnic avizat ).

Aplicaia Nr. 9

Dac aplicaiile nr. 7 i nr.8 au fost realizate cu succes atunci scriei un text explicativ, redactat corespunztor, i plasai-l pe site-ul ISJ-Braila pentru a recomanda experiena i opera dvs. didactic tuturor colegilor din alte regiuni ale Romniei i chiar n strintate

***

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AUTOTESTAI-V CUNOTINELE!

I. Alturat sunt reproduse micro-proiecte foarte simple din nvmntul primar, accesibile oricrui profesor, numerotate de la 1 la 5. S-au ales intenionat teme simple i diferite de specialitatea dvs. pentru a putea sesiza n mod obiectiv aspectele pozitive i erorile. Atenie, numai unele dintre micro-proiecte ele sunt corecte. Citii-le cu atenie i spunei cte dintre ele conin erori grave. II. Numii proiectele incorecte. III. Identificai i numii cel puin 5 erori n fiecare proiect incorect pe care l-ai gsit. IV. Deducei pentru fiecare eroare identificat consecinele negative care s-ar produce n practic dac proiectul(ele) ar fi aplicat(e). V. Corectai proiectele eronate. Ce modificri vei aduce? VI. Argumentai pe scurt ameliorrile propuse la pct. V. *

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OBIECTUL: GRAMATICA TEMA: SUBIECTUL clasa a III-a PROIECT DIDACTIC NR. 1

OBIECTIVE OPERATION ALE La sfritul activitii didactice elevii vor fi capabili:

CONINUT ADECVAT CO1-Definiia subiectului:

CAPACITI DE NVARE

STRATEGII DIDACTICE

ITEMII TESTULUI DE EVALUARE

O1 S se scrie definiia subiectului rezolvnd exerciiul 1 pag. 14. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac vor scrie c subiectul este partea de propoziie care arat despre cine se vorbete n propoziie. Se apropie iarna. O2 S Se scutur din salcm o ploaie identifice de miresme. subiectele ntr-un text Bunicul st pe prisp. Pletele dat, lui albe i cree sublinindu-le flutur n vnt.

Clasa are un efectiv de 34 de elevi; toi api Partea de pentru nvtura propoziie care fiind de niveluri: arat despre cine se vorbete n RITM LENT 5 propoziie se elevi numete subiect. RITM MEDIU CO2-Toamna 18 elevi natura RITM RAPID amorete. Animalele se 11 elevi pregtesc pentru iernat. Soarele nclzete tot mai puin. Vntul bate puternic. Pe drum, copiii merg la coal.

S1-Scriei puin: G1 + definiia subiectului

cel IO1-Scriei definiia subiectului G2: IO2-Identificai cel puin 6 subiecte n textul de mai jos:

G3: definiia subiectului + ntrebrile acestuia

Fluier mierlele. Cucul i cnt numele. Adie vntul. Pdurea vuiete. Pe sus norii alearg S2-Subliniai n amenintori. A textul de mai nceput ploaia. Ceaa jos: este deas. Cu greu G1 cel puin 6 se pot zri trectorii. subiecte IO Introducei cel
3-

G2 cel puin 8 puin 3 subiecte n textul de mai jos: subiecte n G3 toate lucreaz fabrici. Pe ogoare subiectele muncesc cu spor existente . La coal Sit. tip de nva bine. nvare au creioane rezolvate de roii. iubesc probleme copiii (prini, elevi, muncitorii, S3-Introducei n

121

cu o linie. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac vor sublinia cel puin 6 din cele 10 subiecte i nu vor sublinia alt cuvnt care nu este subiect.

Ochii bunicului au rmas ca odinioar.

textul urmtor:

profesorii, ranii)

CO3-Elevii merg la coal. Le-a explicat o lecie nou nvtoarea. Pe bnci crile stau deschise. Ei deschid caietele. Stilourile sunt O3 S pline cu cerneal introduc ntr- albastr. un text dat CO4-Propoziii lacunar cuvintele: subiectele n cu ger, locul spaiilor iarn, gheu, zpad, libere. Obiectivul va animale. fi considerat atins dac vor completa cu alt parte de propoziie. O4 S creeze propoziii utiliznd cuvintele: iarn, ger, zpad, gheu, animale, ca subiecte (o singur dat). Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac vor scrie cel puin 3 propoziii

G1 cel puin 4 IO4--Scriei cel puin subiecte 3 propoziii utiliznd cuvintele de mai jos G2 toate ca subiecte: Decebal, subiectele date Traian, strmoii, Sit. tip de viteaz, ocupaii (o singur dat) nvare discriminri multiple S4-Creai propoziii utiliznd cuvintele date (o singur dat) ca subiect G1 cel puin 3 subiecte G2 cel puin 4 subiecte G3 5 propoziii

122

din 5 propoziii posibile, cuvintele date fiind subiecte i nu alt parte de propoziie.

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OBIECTUL: MATEMATICA TEMA: ADUNAREA CU 3

CONSOLIDAREA ADUNRII I A SCDERII CU 0,1,2

PROIECT DIDACTIC NR. 2

OBIECTIVE OPERAION ALE La sfritul activitii didactice elevii vor fi capabili:

CONINUT ADECVAT CO1 1+3= 2+3= 3+0= 3+3=

CAPACITI DE NVARE

STRATEGII DIDACTICE

ITEMII TESTULUI DE EVALUARE

O1 S aplice tehnica n Fi cazul adunrii mbogire cu 3, 3+ =6 rezolvnd 5+ =8 dou coloane de exerciii + 7=10 din caietul tip. Obiectivul va di considerat atins dac elevii vor rezolva cel puin 5 exerciii din cele 8 i nu vor confunda adunarea cu scderea

Clasa are un efectiv de 38 de 4+3= elevi; toi api 5+3= pentru 6+3= nvtur. 7+3= Nivelurile: de RITM G1

SO1 Scriei I(O1)(rezolvai):

2+3= 3+4= 6+3= 3+6= 0+3= 3+5= 7+3= 3+3=

G1 cel puin 5 din cele 8 LENT: exerciii G2 cel puin 6 S.M., din 8

D.A., F.N., N.M.

G3 toate cele 8 fia de RITM MEDIU: + mbogire G2 L.I., T.T., G.C., C.F., M.S., Sit. tip M.R., C.A., nvare B.G., B.I. rezolvate RITM RAPID : probleme G3 U.C., D.A., D.I., D.O., P.A., L.G., S.S., D.C., B.A., B.M., S.O., Z.A., D.L., P.A.,

de de

124

C.C., A.F., S.V., I.M., S.A., T.E., P.M., C.G., M.A., M.M., P.I. O2 S completeze spaiile punctate cu semnul corespunztor operaiei + sau CO2 3.=6 7.=5 8.= SO2 Punei +sau I(O2) n: G1 cel puin 4 operaii din 6 G2 5 din 6 G3 6 din 6 + fia de mbogire de + Sit. tip nvare discriminri multiple SO3 de

2.2=4 5.1=4 0.0=0 3.4=7 5.1=6 8.1=9

7 9.=10 7.=10 Obiectivul va 7.3=10 fi atins dac 6.1=5 vor pune cel Fi puin 4 semne mbogire din 6 7= 9= O3 S disting rezultatele greite i cele corecte, dndu-se 5 egalitii. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac elevii vor reui s recunoasc cel puin 3 rezultate corecte din cele 5 egaliti existente. +

CO3 Tiai cu o linie rezultatele greite: 3+3= 5+2= 6+3= 8+2=

I(O3)

G1 cel puin 3 4+3= din 5 1+1= G2 4 din 5 3+5= G3 5 din 5 4+2= Sit. tip de nvare 6-1= rezolvare de probleme

7-1=

O4 S creeze CO4 Creai probleme problemele dup dndu-se 3 operaiile

SO4

I(O4) Punndu-se n faa elevilor 3 G1 cel puin o probleme ilustrate, ei

125

operaii. 3+6=9 Obiectivul va fi considerat 5-1=4 atins dac vor 3+3=6 compune cel puin o problem

probleme G2 cel puin dou probleme G3 3 din 3 Sit. tip de nvare nvare prin descoperire SO5

s scrie operaia.

O5 S completeze ptrelele libere cu cifrele corespunztoa re, dndu-se dou coloane de exerciii din manual. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac elevii vor rezolva corect cel puin 5 exerciii din 8 existente, fr a confunda cifrele.

CO5 6+ =9 5+ =8 7+ =10 4+ =6 2 +2 =4 3+ =5 2 - 2 =2 10- =8

I(O5)

G1 cel puin 5 6+ =8 operaii din 8 2 +2 =5 G2 cel puin 6 3+ =4 din 8 G3 8 din 8 Sit. tip nvare rezolvare probleme 4 - =2 de 8 - =8 2 - 0 =0 de 7 - =6 3+ =6

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OBIECTUL: CITIRE SUBIECTUL:SUNETUL I LITERELE I, L

PROIECT DIDACTIC NR. 3

OBIECTIVELE CONINUT OPERAIONA ADECVAT LE La sfritul CO1: activitii didactice elevii ncercuii literele I,L vor fi capabili: O1 s recunoasc literele I, L, dndu-se fiele pe care sunt scrise cuvinte. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac cel puin 3 litere din cele existente i nu le vor confunda cu alte litere. lalele Alina ele Elena

CAPACITI NVARE

DE STRATEGI I DIDACTIC E

ITEMII TESTULUI DE EVALUARE

Clasa are un efectiv SO1 de 38 elevi; toi api SCRIEI pentru nvmnt. (rezolvai): Nivelele: RITM LENT:G1 C.F.,V.D.,O.G.,P.C. RITM MEDIU:G2

I(O1) - Tiai o linie literele I,L orar Cornelia

G1 - cel puin 3 din lalea 5 alune

G2 - cel B.L.,G.I.,L.I.,M.A., puin 4 din B.I.,A.N.,F.M.,V.R., 5 D.G.,I.I. G3 - 5 din RITM RAPID: G3 5+ncercuire tuturor S.N.,A.D.,C.A.,M.D a .,N.M.,D.G.,P.F.,G. literelor A.,R.D.,S.M.,B.R.,C nvate .N.,I.G.,M.V.,F.I.,A. I.,P.C.,B.V.,B.A.,G. B.,N.C.

O2 - s creeze independent, din literele alfabetului, 4 cuvinte care s conin litera nou nvat. Ova fi

CO2: ele lalele Alina Lina

SO2

I(O2)

G1 - cel Scriei dup dictare: puin 2 din lalea 4 G2 - cel Alina puin 3 din Alo

127

considerat atins dac vor crea cel puin 2 cuvinte din cele 4.

4 G3 - cele 4 cuvinte propoziia Lina e mare Alina mere. Ea e mare. Elena alune. are are

ale

O1 s completeze propoziiile cu semnele de punctuaie nvate, dnduse o fi pe care sunt scrise 4 propoziii (!...?). Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac elevii vor pune corect cel puin 2 semne de punctuaie din 4. O4 - s cuvintele cu silaba care lipsete, dnduse fia cu 6 cuvinte. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac elevii vor pune cel

SO3 -G1 - cel I(O3) -Punei semnele puin 2 din de punctuaie potrivite 4 (pe fi): G2 - cel Ea are alune. Corina e puin 3 din mare. Alin are mere. 4 Rica e mic. G3 - 4 din 4

Lina are un anumit.

CO4 a_na e_ la_le _ca

SO4- G1 - cel I(O4) puin 3 din Li_ 6 G2 - cel Ma_ puin 4 din _re 6 _na G3 - 6 din 6 Sit. in de nvare-n

128

GRAMATICA CLASA A III-A

PROIECT DIDACTIC NR.4 Pentru desfurarea activitii didactice cu tema VERBUL - recapitulare -

OBIECTIV E OPERAI ONALE La sfritul activitii didactice elevii vor fi capabili :

CONINUT ADECVAT

CAPACIT STRATEGII SITUIAII I DE DIDACTIC DE NVARE E NVARE G1 SO1

ITEMII TESTULUI DE EVALUARE

CO1:

a stat, i-a cutat, este, se gndete, era, nu va O1 - s face, utilizeze mulumete cuvinte care arat aciunea, starea, existena fiinelor, lucrurilor, fenomenelo r naturii, n alctuirea unui text scurt, fr ajutor din afar, text alctuit din cel puin 4 propoziii. O2 s CO2

nvarea de I(O1) concepte, G2 Continuai Subliniaz i exerciii povestirea grupeaz cel puin G3 nceput mai cte 3 verbe gsite n textul alctuit de cu ritmuri de jos, alctuind cel tine. nvare puin 4 diferite propoziii folosind aciuni, stri din cele date: A sosit noaptea. Sandu, un copil neasculttor, nu a venit acas

G1

SO2

exerciiul,

I(O2)

129

analizeze verbele din textul alctuit, pe baza cunotinelo r dobndite; vor fi analizate complet cel puin 5 verbe; obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac vor fi precizate numrul, timpul, rolul n propoziie. O3 - s utilizeze verbe cu neles opus celor exprimate; obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac fiecare elev va reui s utilizeze cel puin 5 verbe.

G2 Compunerea G3 gramatical alctuit la punctual 1.

explicaia, nvarea de Analizai n Analiznd cel puin concepte i scris cel 5 verbe din poezia: nvarea de puin: n lan erau feciori reguli. i fete, i ei cntau G1 - 5 verbe o doin-n cor. Juca viaa-n ochii lor, i G2 - 6 verbe vntul le juca n G3 - 7 verbe plete. Miei albi fugeau ctre izvor. din textul i grauri mari alctuit, zburau n cete (G. specificnd Cobuc-Vara) numrul, timpul, rolul n propoziie.

CO2 a merge, a vorbi, a vrea, a veni, a rsri, a se culca, a scdea, a rde, a dezlega, a pleca, a cobor

SO3 - Gsii cuvinte care arat aciuni opuse celor exprimate de cel puin 5 dintre verbele date.

explicaia, munc independent , discriminri multiple

I(O3): Alctuii cel puin 5 propoziii cu verbe care arat aciuni opuse celor gsite anterior (la IO2)

130

O4 - s alctuiasc schema unor propoziii date, folosind simbolurile. Obiectivul va fi atins dac fiecare elev va reui s schematizez e o propoziie.

CO4

G1

1.Plopul G2 mldios i G3 tremur frunzele fonitoare. 2.Dup slcii urmau plcuri de salcmi nflorii (M.Sadovea nu) 3.Pereii stncoi ai palatului sunt nali i vopsii

SO4 Alctuiete n scris cel puin o schem a uneia dintre cele 5 propoziii date.

nvarea de principii, exerciiul, rezolvarea de probleme.

I(O3)- Cu ajutorul simbolurilor gramaticale alctuii cel puin o schem complet

I.S. s.p. s.p. . s p . . adj p

s.p. s.p. . s

. .. V s

(model)

131

SCENARIUL DESFURRII ACTIVITII

EVENIMENTUL INSTRUCIONA L Captarea ateniei

ACTIVITATEA DE NVARE

DURATA

Vom desfura un rebus de unde va reiei tipul leciei: 3 RECAPITULARE (pe coloana A-B)

4. 6. A

N D

10. S 12.

1. V E 2. C I N 3. U M E R 5. P R O J E C T 7. P A R 8. N 9. U B S T 11. O C A R T

A R E C A P I T U L A R E B

B U L E L O V E M U N A

Z I U L A R N I T I R

1.Parte de vorbire care arata actiunea, starea, existenta; 2.O intrebare a subiectului; 3.Alta intrebare a subiectului; 4.Parte de vorbire care arata un numar; T I A 5.O comunicare cu un singur predicat; 6.Arata insusiri; 7. ..de vorbire si de propozitie; U L 8.Arata o fiinta sau mai multe; 9. Ziua cand incepe saptamana; V U L 10.Parte de vorbire care se numara; 11.Programul scolarului 12."Cine areare patru ochi"

Enunul obiectivelor Reactualizarea celor nvate anterior ideile ancor Prezentarea sarcinilor de nvare i dirijarea nvrii: obinerea performanelor

Obiectivele sunt trecute n prima parte a proiectului didactic

Verificm cantitativ frontal tema dat acas: de analizat n 5 scris cel puin primele 10 verbe din lecia de citire Delta Dunrii, ocazie cu care repetm definiia verbului, cu 3 exemple. SO1 - Continuai povestirea nceput cu cel puin patru 25 propoziii, folosind aciuni, stri din cele scrise pe tabl; SO2 - Analizai n scris cel puin 5 verbe din cele descoperite n compunerea creat de tine la punctual 1; SO3 - Gsii aciuni opuse celor date de mine, la cel puin 5 verbe; SO4 - Alctuii n scris cel puin o schem a unei propoziii din cele date;

Evaluarea

Prezentarea i rezolvarea testului formative:

10

132

performanei

a) Subliniaz i grupeaz cel puin 3 aciuni la fiecare din timpurile verbului; b) Analizeaz n scris cel puin 5 verbe din poezia Vara de G. Cobuc ; c) Alctuiete cel puin 3 propoziii cu verbele care arat aciuni opuse celor date mai sus; d) Cu ajutorul simbolurilor gramaticale, alctuiete cel puin o schem complet pentru propoziiile date.

Asigurarea reteniei Asigurarea transferului

Comentm eventualele erori aprute la testele formative

Tema pentru acas: Exerciiul 19 pag.83 (s se alctuiasc 1 propoziii dup scheme date).

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133

COMPETENELE CADRULUI DIDACTIC


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ANEXE
CUPRINS
1. INSTRUMENTE I TEHNICI NECESARE PENTRU A REALIZA UN PROIECT BINE GNDIT

1.1. Taxonomiile de obiective pedagogice


Studiile lui Benjamin S. Bloom Taxonomia lui Krathwohl Taxonomia lui Harrow Studiile lui J. P. Guilford Tipologia transdisciplinar a demersurilor intelectuale Lista de verbe i complemente directe pentru domeniul afectiv

1.2. Procedurile de definire i operaionalizare a obiectivelor pedagogice


Schema general a definirii obiectivelor pedagogice Procedura lui G. de Landsheere

1.3. Tehnici de analiz a coninutului 1.3.1. Analiza coninutului instruirii Arborii logici Sistemul mathetic i analiza sarcinilor Grafuri i reele de cunotine Bncile de coninuturi

2. ALTE MODALITI DE PROIECTARE PEDAGOGIC

3. STRUCTURI GRAFICE DE PROIECTE PEDAGOGICE

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1. INSTRUMENTE I TEHNICI NECESARE

PENTRU A REALIZA UN PROIECT PEDAGOGIC BINE GNDIT

Am prezentat n cursurile Abilitaare curricular i Diferenierea instruirii aspecte teoretice i practice referitoare la proiectarea pedagogic i exigenele generale ale acestei activiti educative fundamentale insistnd asupra unui model de instuire eficient (mastery learning) elaborat pentru condiiile specifice ale nvmntului romnesc i experimentat ntre anii 1982 1988 (Jinga i Negre,1993, 2005). Dar acesta nu este singurul model de proiectare pedagogic; n acest capitol-anex vom prezenta i alte modele cu eficien la fel de ridicat. Considerm c este posibil o varietate de forme grafice de redactare a proiectelor pedagogice. Esenialul este ca educatorii s stpneasc cteva instrumente i tehnici care sunt invocate de ctre toi specialitii domeniului care le consider condiii sine-qua-non pentru orice redactare a oricrui tip de proiect pedagogic. Acestea sunt: taxonomiile de obiective pedagogice, procedurile de operaionalizare a obiectivelor educaionale, tehnicile de selecie a coninuturilor eseniale pentru instruire i educare, cteva teorii ale nvrii care descriu mecanisme psihice solicitate ntotdeauna n instruirea i nvarea colar. Dei unele dintre ele au mai fost amintite, considerm strict necesar s revenim asupra lor cu unele informaii i detalii strict necesare pentru a realiza proiecte pedagogice bine gndite. 1.1. TAXONOMIILE DE OBIECTIVE PEDAGOGICE
Iniiatorul acestora a fost Benjamin S. Bloom. La apariie s-a apreciat c taxonomia de obiective pedagogice are pentru tiinele educaiei importana pe care a avut-o n chimie tabloul realizat de Mendeleev. S-a susinut chiar c pedagogia a devenit tiin autentic, depind faza alchimic odat cu B. S. Bloom. Sunt, desigur, aprecieri exagerate. Ulterior, s-au construit taxonomii de obiective i finaliti pedagogice superioare celei a lui B. S. Bloom. Din pcate condiiile impuse de nvmntul romnesc nu ne permite s o folosim pe cea mai bun dintre ele. 1.1.1. Studiile lui Benjamin S. Bloom1 Prima taxonomie este i cea care s-a rspndit mai mult: cea a lui Bloom; ea pare s rspund necesitii de a raionaliza, sistematiza i evalua, aducnd o clarificare, o punere n ordine relativ uoar ntr-o activitate eminamente complex. Taxonomiile lui Bloom servesc drept surse de inspiraie dar i ca modele pentru cele urmtoare. Sunt stabilite pe temeiul a patru principii: didactic, psihologic, logic i obiectiv.

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Se tie c n taxonomia lui Bloom sunt articulate trei planuri: domeniul cognitiv, domeniul afectiv i domeniul psihomotor. Aceste trei aspecte ne vor ajuta s structurm o prezentare i un studiu metodic al principalelor taxonomii existente. Aa cum amintete Bloom n prefaa Taxonomiei sale, ideea elaborrii studiului, i-a aprut la Boston, n 1948, cu ocazia unei simple ntruniri a examinatorilor din nvmntul superior care participau la un congres al Asociaiei americane de psihologie. A elabora o taxonomie a obiectivelor pedagogice nseamn: a) A evalua problema educaiei; b) A clasifica scopurile nvmntului; c) A pregti programele colare; d) A pregti exerciiile de nvare. Pe msur ce naintm n ierarhia taxonomiei, importana legturilor dintre nivelurile adiacente scade i apar numeroase legturi la nivelurile neadiacente. Introducerea factorului g ca agent explicativ, limpezete situaia. (Madaus i colaboratorii lui, apropie definiia dat de Spearman factorului g de definiia propus de Bloom pentru analiz. Similitudinea este izbitoare. Pentru Spearman g este capacitatea de a desprinde relaii i corelaii, de a descoperi n elementul particular un exemplu al generalului. Or, Bloom, scrie: n analiz, ceea ce se scoate n relief este faptul de a descompune materialul n prile sale componente i de sesiza raporturile existente dintre aceste pri i modul n care ele sunt organizate.2 Iat n schem, ierarhia propus: Analiz Evaluare Sintez

Aplicare

Comprehensiune

Cunoatere

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Fig.1. Ierarhia claselor n taxonomia lui Bloom

Taxonomia lui Bloom este formulat n plan abstract. Pentru a ajuta pe practicieni s treac la un nivel mai concret, acela al obiectivelor operaionale, N. Matfessell, W. Michael i D. Kirshner propun un tablou unde se gsete o list de verbe i o list de obiective, care, combinate n mod adecvat, ofer scheletul unui obiectiv operaional. Spre exemplificare, vom lua nivelurile taxonomiei lui Bloom din domeniul cognitiv.

1.1.2. Lista verbelor care definesc comportamente observabile i a complementelor necesare operaionalizrii obiectivelor (Jinga i Negre, 1983, Negre-Dobridor, 2005; dup Metfessell, Michael i Kirshner)

Ori de cte ori

Finalitatea general Obiectivul de generalitate medie este: fiind 1 2 1.10. Cunoaterea datelor particulare CUNOATEREA(n ivelul elementar al clasificrii obiectivelor n taxonomia lui Bloom; exprim toate obiectivele de simpl achiziie a informaiilor de ctre elev, n special prin memorare)

Verbul potrivit a defini obiectivul operaional al activitii dv. va fi unul dintre cele de mai jos: 3 a a a a

Verbul se va legan obiectiv cu un compliment din categoria celog de mai jos:

4 Vocabular, terminologie, semnificaii, definiii, referine, elemente Fapte, informaii faptice (nume, date, evenimente, persoane, locuri, exemple, proprieti etc.)

1.11. Cunoaterea A identifica, distinge , terminologiei defini, aminti, recunoate 1.12.Cunoaterea faptelor particulare 1.20. Cunoaterea mijloacelor care permit utilizarea datelor particulare A aminti, a recunoate, dobndi, identifica

a a

1.21. Cunoaterea A aminti, identifica, conveniilor recunoate, dobndi

a a a

Forme, convenii, uzane, reguli, modaliti, simboluri, reprezentri, stiluri, etc.

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1.22. Cunoaterea tendinelor i secvenelor

A aminti, recunoate, dobndi, identifica 1.23. Cunoaterea A aminti, clasificrilor i recunoate, categoriilor dobndi, identifica 1.24. Cunoaterea A aminti, recunoate, metodelor dobndi, identifica 1.25. Cunoaterea A aminti, a recunoate, metodelor dobndi, identifica 1 2 1. 30 Cunoaterea reprezentrilor abstracte i a legilor 1.31. Cunoaterea principiilor i legilor 1.32. Cunoaterea teoriilor 2.00 COMPRENHENSI UNEA (al doilea nivel n taxonomia lui Bloom; este nivelul elementar al nelegerii care permit celui care nva s cunoasc ceea ce a studiat fr a stabili cu necesitate o legtur ntre acest material i un altul, a-i da 2.10. Transpunere 3 -

a a a a a a a a a

Aciuni, procese, micri, dezvoltri, tendine, secvene, cauze, relaii, fore, influene Arii, tipuri, caracteristici, clase, ansambluri, clasificri, categorii, diviziuni, ansambluri Criterii, baze, elemente.

a a

Metode, tehnici, abordri, procedee, tratamente.

4 Principii, legi, pri eseniale, generalizri, elemente fundamentale. Teorii, baze, intercaliti, structuri organizate, formulri Semnificaii, exemple, definiii, abstracii, cuvinte, fraze

A aminti, a recunoate, a dobndi, a identifica A aminti, a recunoate, a dobndi, a identifica. A traduce, a transforma, a exprima n cuvinte proprii, a ilustra, a pregti, a citi, a reprezenta, a schimba, a scrie, a redefini. A interpreta, a reorganiza, a diferenia, a distinge, a face, a stabili, a demonstra

2. 20. Interpretare

Pertinene, relaii, fapte eseniale, aspecte, puncte de vedere, caracterizri, concluzii, metode, teorii, abstracii

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seama de nsemntatea a ceea ce studiaz

2. 30. Extrapolare

A estima, a introduce, a conchide, a prevedea, a diferenia, a determina, a extinde, a interpela, a extrapola, a completa, a stabili A aplica, a generaliza, a stabili legturi, a culege, a dezvolta, a organiza, a utiliza, a se servi de, a transfera, a restructura, a clasifica 3 A distinge, a detesta, a identifica, a discrimina, a recunoate, a categorisi, a deduce A analiza, contrasta, a compara, a distinge, a deduce a

Consecine, implicaii, concluzii, factori, semnificaii, corelare, efecte, probabiliti

3.00. APLICARE(elevul nva s utilizeze la cazuri particulare i concrete reprezentrile abstracte) 1 4. 00. ANALIZA (obiectivelor din al 4-lea nivel al taxonomiei lui Bloom presupune a-l nva pe elev s separe pri constitutive ale unei comunicri n aa fel nct s lmureasc ierarhia relativ a raporturilor ideilor exprimate) 2 4.10. CUTAREA ELEMENTELOR

Principii, legi, concluzii, efecte, metode, teorii, abstracii, situaii, generalizri, procese, fenomene, procedee

4 Elemente, ipoteze, concluzii, supoziii, enunuri, de intenii, argumente, particulariti

4.20. CUTAREA RELAIILOR

Relaii, interrelaii, teme, evidene, erori, argumente, cauze, efecte, consistene, pri, idei, ci indirecte

5.00 SINTEZA (obiectivele prin care elevul este nvat s mbine elementele i

4.30. CUTAREA A analiza, PRINCIPIILOR DE a distinge, ORGANIZARE a detecta, a deduce 5.1. CREAREA A scrie, a povesti, a UNEI OPERE relata, a produce, a PERSONALE constitui, a crea, a transmite, a modifica, a documenta

Forme, metode, scopuri, puncte de vedere, tehnici, mijloace, indirecte, structuri, teme, aranjamente, organizri Structuri, modele, produse, proiecte, performane, lucrri, comunicri, fapte originale

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5.20. ELABORAREA UNUI PLAN DE ACIUNE

prile pentru a forma ansambluri, 5.30. DERIVAREA A produce, ntregi UNOR RELAII a deriva, a dezvolta, a combina, a ABSTRACTE organiza, a sintetiza, a clarifica, a deduce, a formula, a modifica 6.00 EVALUAREA 6.10. CRITICA A judeca, (obiectivele prin INTERN a argumenta, care se urmrete a valida, a evalua, formarea a decide capacitilor de a formula judeci de valoare) 1 2 3 6.20. CRITICA EXTERN A judeca, a argumenta, a considera, a compara, a standardiza, a evalua

A propune, a planifica, a produce, a proiecta, modifica, specifica

Planuri, obiective, specializri scheme, operaii, soluii, modaliti, mijloace a a

Fenomene, taxonomii, concepte, scheme, teorii, relaii, abstracii, generalizri, ipoteze, percepii, modaliti, descoperiri

Pertinene, lacune, sofisme, precizia, grade de precizie

4 Scopuri, mijloace, eficien, economicitate, utilitate, alternative, planuri de aciune, standarde, teorii, generalizri.

1. TAXONOMIA LUI KRATHWOHL3

Ct vreme n domeniul cognitiv se examineaz dac un elev poate ndeplini sau nu o sarcin, n domeniul afectiv trebuie s vedem dac elevul se comport cum se cuvine n momentul respectiv. Se pune ntrebarea: Este el n stare s fac un anumit lucru? iar n cellalt caz l face afectiv?. n timp ce n domeniul cognitiv se propun numeroase taxonomii, n domeniul afectiv s-a impus una singur pn astzi: taxonomia lui Krathwohl (1974). Care este esena acestei taxonomii? *

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n adaptarea si interpretarea taxonomiei obiectivelor aa cum apare ea la D. Krathwohl i la B. S. Bloom, Gilbert De Landsheere distinge cinci trepte, cinci etape care merg de la comportamentul cel mai pasiv la comportamentul cel mai activ. I. INDIVIDUL RSPUNDE LA UN STIMUL EXTERN 1. Este numai receptiv; 2. Recepteaz i reacioneaz; 3. Recepteaz i reacioneaz acceptnd sau refuznd. II. INDIVIDUL IA INIIATIVA 4. El ncearc spontan s neleag, s judece, s simt. Descoper n msur satisfctoare sensul valorilor pentru a adopta o filozofie anumit. 5. Acioneaz potrivit cu opiunile sale. Este stadiul adult din punct de vedere psihologic, aa cum l-a definit P. Osterrieth. * Iat clasele de comportamentei de triri descrise de Krathwohl:

1.0. RECEPTAREA: A-l incita pe elev s recepioneze sau s dea atenie unor stimuli; 1.1.CONTIINA: Elevul trebuie s fie contient, s-i dea seama de un fapt, de o situaie, de un fenomen sau o stare de lucruri. 1.2. VOINA: Individul accept un stimul dat i nu se eschiveaz. 1.3. ATENIA DIRIJAT: Diferenierea aspectelor unui stimul perceput clar ca foarte diferit de impresiile nvecinate. 2.0. RSPUNSUL: Elevul s fie suficient de atras de un subiect, un fenomen, pentru a ncerca s le descopere i s simt plcere apofundndu-le . 2.1. ASENTIMENTUL: Elevul d un rspuns, dar nu accept deplin necesitatea de a face acest lucru.

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2.2. VOINA DE A RSPUNDE: Elevul i afirm comportamentul din plin adeziune. 2.3. SATISFACIA DE A RSPUNDE: Rspunde emoional din plcere, de bucurie. 3.0. VALORIZAREA: Elevul manifest acest comportament cu destul coeren, n mprejurri corespunztoare, pentru c apreciaz c el are o valoare. 3.1. ACCEPTAREA UNEI VALORI: Atribuirea unor valori unui fenomen. 3.2 PREFERINA PENTRU O VALOARE: Individul caut, dorete o angajare destul de profund fa de valoare. 3.3. ANGAJAREA: Convingerea implic un grad nalt de certitudine fr umbre de ndoial, sinceritate, loialitate fa de un punct de vedere, un grup sau o cauz. 4.0. ORGANIZAREA: Stabilirea valorilor dominante i mai profunde. 4.1. CONCEPTUALIZAREA UNEI VALORI: Permite individului s vad cum se leag o valoare de cele pe care le posed deja sau cele pe care le va poseda. 4.2. ORGANIZAREA UNUI SISTEM DE VALORI: Elevul adun un ansamblu de valori, stabilete o ordine ntre ele. 5.0. CARACTERIZAREA PRINTR-O VALOARE A UNUI SISTEM DE VALORI : Fiecare valoare are un loc n ierarhia valorilor, fiind organizate ntr-un fel de sistem intrinsec coerent. 5.1. DISPOZIIE GENERALIZAT: Individul i revizuiete opiniile i i schimb comportamentul. 5.2. CARACTERIZAREA: Concepia despre univers, filosofia vieii, viziunea lumii, Weltanschaung; (concepie despre lume)

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1.1.3. Taxonomia lui Harrow


Taxonomia lui Harrow4 este astzi cea mai dezvoltat i mai riguroas. Ea ar trebui considerat drept corespunztoare, prin importan, taxonomiei lui Bloom (n domeniul cognitiv) i celei a lui Krathwohl (domeniul afectiv). Definit din punct de vedere operaional de ctre Harrow, termenul psihomotor include orice micare uman voluntar observabil care ine de domeniul nvrii. Principiul ierarhic adoptat de autor pare, la prima vedere, destul de vag: Un continuum care merge de la nivelul inferior al micrilor observabile la nivelul superior. n fapt, A. Harrow nu-i construiete edificiul dup un criteriu general (de exemplu: coordonarea), ci caut o ordine critic: achiziia nivelurilor inferioare este absolut necesar pentru a atinge nivelul imediat superior n ierarhia micrilor. Concentrm ntr-un tablou cele ase niveluri taxonomice stabilite de Harrow i artm cum se articuleaz ele ierarhic.

Niveluri 1.00 Micrile reflexe

Clase de comportament Baza tuturor micrilor.

Caracteristici i posibilitate de optimizare Nu se nva. Sunt reacii naturale la stimuli.

2.00 Micrile naturale sau fundamentale

Combinaii de micri reflexe. N.B. 1 i 2 nu constituie obiective pentru educaie, cel puin n cazurile normale.a

Combinaiile existente vor fi totui utilizate n micrile voluntare.

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3.00 Aptitudinile perceptive

Acesta este nivelul la care ncepe n mod normal nvarea colar.

Se dezvolt prin maturizare i nvare. ntr-adevr, experiena nvrii: - face ca percepiile s devin mai acute; - dezvolt aptitudinile fizice

4.00 Aptitudinile fizice 5.00 ndemnrile motorii La acest nivel exista un continuum de ndemnri. Depind: - de controlul micrilor fundamentale; - de eficacitatea percepiilor; - de nivelul dezvoltrii aptitudinilor 6.00 Comunicarea neverbal La acest nivel exist un continuum de expresivitate 6.1 Mimica spontan: nu constituie o perspectiv pentru obiectiveb 6.2 Interpretarea voluntar. fizice

Cnd subiectul dispune de un repertoriu de ndemnri motorii, el este pregtit pentru crearea micrilor estetice.

Etapa 6.2 reprezint apogeul ierarhiei: exprimarea prin dans, mimul* etc.

Exemplu: mersul. Totui, cnd subiectul este handicapat sau supus reeducrii, mersul poate deveni un obiect educativ.
b

Anumite mimici pot fi totui nvate voluntar; de asemenea, putem ajunge s dorim transformarea mimicilor instalate spontan.

PREZENTAREA ANALITIC

1.00 Micrile reflexe

Amintim c mimul este un gen de comedie n care actorul se exprim prin gesturi i mimic. Originile spectacolului pot fi gsite n antichitatea greco-roman. (Nota trad.)

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Rspunsuri la un stimul independent de voina contient a learner-ului. Funcionale la natere, micrile reflexe se dezvolt prin maturizare. 1.10 Reflexe segmentare (medulare).

Fac s intervin un segment spinal. 1.11 Reflex de flexiune. 1.12 Reflex miotatic*. 1.13 Reflex de extensiune. 1.14 Reflex de extensiune ncruciat. 1.20 Reflexe intersegmentare. Fac s intervin un segment spinal. 1.21 Reflex cooperativ. 1.22 Reflex antagonic. 1.23 Inducie succesiv. 1.24 Figur reflex. 1.30 Reflexe suprasegmentare. Cer participarea creierului. 1.31 Rigiditatea muchilor extensori. 1.32 Reacii plastice. 1.33 Reflexe posturale. 1.331 Reacii de sprijinire. 1.332 Reacii de deplasare. 1.333 Reflexe de atitudine tonic. 1.334 Reacii de redresare. 1.335 Reflexe de prehensiune. 1.336 Reacii de aezare n poziie de executare a salturilor. 2.00 Micrile fundamentale de baz. Scheme motorii nnscute.

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2.10 Micri locomotorii. 2.20 Micri specifice n cazul muncii care cere ndemnare (a duce, a lupta a arunca etc.).* 2.30 Micri de manipulare. 2.31 Prehensiune. 2.32 Dexteritate. 3.00 Aptitudinile perceptive. Ajut learner-ul s interpreteze stimuli i i permit deci s se adapteze la mediu. 3.10 Discriminare chinestezic. Subiectul este contient de corpul su i de modul n care se mic, de poziia sa n spaiu i de relaiile dintre corpul su i mediu. 3.11 Contiina corpului. Aptitudinea subiectului de a-i recunoate i controla corpul. 3.111 Bilateralitatea. Exemplu: a prinde o minge cu ambele mini. 3.112 Lateralitatea. Exemplu: a face mingea s salte de mai multe ori btnd-o cu o singur mn. 3.113 Dominanta stnga-dreapta. Exemple: a mnca, a scrie, a juca tenis. 3.114 Echilibrul. Exemplu: a juca otron. 3.12 Imaginea corporal. Sentimentele copilului fa de structura propriului corp . 3.13 Relaiile dintre corp i obiectele care-l nconjur n spaiu. Referin la conceptele de direcie ale subiectului, la contiina propriului corp i la o figur pe care el o creeaz n spaiu.

Reflex de ntindere muscular.(Nota trad.)

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3.20 Discriminarea vizual. 3.21 Acuitatea vizual. Aptitudinea subiectului de a recepta i de a diferenia diverse obiecte, evenimente i medii observate. Exemple: a distinge un cerc de un ptrat, a distinge un b de un d, a alege un obiect mic dintr-un grup de obiecte de mrime variabil. 3.22 A putea urmri cu ochii (tracking). Aptitudinea subiectului de a urmri simboluri sau obiecte prin micri oculare coordonate. Exemple: a urmri zborul unui avion sau traiectoria unei mingi de tenis de mas, a urmri micrile unei pendule. 3.23 Memoria vizual. Exemple: a desena din memorie simboluri geometrice, a scrie alfabetul, a silabisi un cuvnt, a reproduce micri observate n trecut, o secven de pai dintr-un dans clasic. 3.24 Diferenierea figur-fond. Exemple: a face s salte de mai multe ori o minge, a juca tenis de mas, a juca tenis. 3.25 Persistena perceptiv (consistancy). Aptitudinea subiectului de a fi constant n interpretarea sa cnd vede obiecte de acelai tip. Exemplu: dei au mrimi diferite, toate monedele sunt rotunde. 3.30 Discriminarea auditiv. Este legat mai mult de comportamentele cognitive. 3.31 Acuitatea auditiv. Aptitudinea subiectului de a recepta i diferenia sunete, de a descrie intensitatea i nlimea corespunztoare.

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Exemple: a diferenia sunetele emise de diferite instrumente, a identifica sunetele emise de animale domestice, a identifica, auzind un cuvnt, vocalele i consoanele care l compun. 3.32 Orientarea auditiv (tracking). Aptitudinea subiectului de a distinge direcia sunetului i de a urmri acest sunet. 3.33 Memoria auditiv. Aptitudinea de a recunoate i reproduce experiene postauditive. Exemple: a cnta din memorie o melodie la pian, a prezenta trei persoane care ne-au fost prezentate cu puin timp mai nainte, a repeta alfabetul. 3.40 Discriminarea tactil. Aptitudinea subiectului de a diferenia diverse esturi folosind numai pipitul. 3.50 Aptitudinile coordonate. Exemple: a prinde o minge, a face s salte o minge mare. 3.51 Coordonarea oculo-manual. Aptitudinea de a alege un obiect din mediul su ambiant, de a coordona o percepie vizual cu o micare de manipulare. Exemple: un desen, o copie. 3.52 Coordonarea ochi-picioare. Aptitudinea de a coordona o percepie vizual cu o micare a membrelor inferioare. 4.00 Caliti fizice. Caracteristicile funcionale de vigoare organic. 4.10 Rezistena. 4.11 Rezistena muscular.
4.12 Rezistena cardio-vascular.

4.20 Fora.

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4.30 Supleea. 4.40 Agilitatea. Aptitudinea de a se mica repede, ceea ce implic dexteritatea i rapiditatea micrii. Exemple: un violonist trebuie s aib dexteritate pentru a cnta un pizzicato; un copil mic trebuie s dovedeasc un anumit grad de agilitate pentru a evita o minge, portarul unei echipe de hochei pe ghea trebuie s aib un timp de reacie foarte scurt. 4.41 Schimbarea de direcie. Aptitudinea de a schimba direcia unei micri fr a ncheia complet 4.42 Opriri i porniri. Aptitudinea de a ncepe i de a termina o micare cu un minimum de ezitare. Este legat foarte strns de timpul de rspuns. 4.43 Timpul de reacie. Timpul dintre apariia unui stimul i apariia rspunsului. 4.44 Dexteritatea. Privete ndemnrile motorii fine care implic micri precise ale minii i degetelor. 5.00 Micrile de dexteritate (skilled movements). Implic dezvoltarea la un anumit grad de competen sau miestrie. 5.10 Skill adaptativ simplu. Micrile de baz (nivelul 2) sunt schimbate sau modificate pentru a se a sau circumstane noi. Exemple: a bate la maina de scris, a cnta la pian. 5.11 Nivel iniial. 5.12 Intermediar. 5.13 Avansat. 5.14 Foarte avansat. 5.20 Skill adaptativ compus. Implic mnuirea unui instrument sau a unei unelte. adapta la situaii activitatea.

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Exemple: toate skills-urile care intervin n jocurile cu racheta (tenis, badminton, tenis de mas), hocheiul i golful. 5.21 Nivel iniial. 5.22 Intermediar. 5.23 Avansat. 5.24 Foarte avansat. 5.30 Skill adaptativ complex. Aplicarea legilor fizice ale corpului uman n repaus sau n micare. Exemple: acrobaii la gimnastic, srituri la trambulin, dans. 5.31 Nivel iniial. 5.32 Intermediar. 5.33 Avansat. 5.34 Foarte avansat. 6.00 Comunicarea neverbal. 6.10 Micarea expresiv. 6.11 Poziia corpului i mersul. 6.12 Gesturile. 6.13 Expresia feei. 6.20 Micarea interpretativ. Mijloc de care dispune subiectul pentru a traduce printr-un sim obiectiv (figura pe care corpul su o execut n spaiu prin micare) evenimente subiective (sentimente sau emoii). 6.21 Micrile estetice. Toate skills-urile dintr-un sport n care subiectul ajunge n alt nivel de performan i obine graia i fluiditatea micrii. 6.22 Micare creatoare destinat s transmit un mesaj sau expresie. Dansul, mimul.

1.3.TEHNICI DE ANALIZ A CONINUTULUI9

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Am anticipat i analizat necesitatea de a nu porni n proiectarea leciei sau a unui sistem de lecii de la coninuturi, ci de la obiectivele ( rezultatele ateptate ) ale nstruirii. Ori de cte ori obiectivele activitii didactice sunt definite n termeni operaionali, cadrul didactic i elevii se afl n situaia de a cunoate cu precizie ce trebuie s tie sau ce trebuie sa tie s fac elevii. nc din 1972, Sidney trauss a ncercat s gseasc o legtur ntre modelul ierarhic al nvrii i un model consistent al dezvoltrii. El a reuit s pun n acord la data aceea ierarhia lui Gagne cu teoria stadial a dezvoltrii intelectuale, elaborate de ctre Jean Piaget. Este cunoscut educatorilor pricipiul didactic formulat de Comenius i susinut de Jean - Jacques Rousseau: respectarea particularitilor de vrst i individuale. Aceasta este o eviden clar. Ea este valabil n sine, dar nu poate fi urmat dac nu sunt cunoscute tiinific aceste particulariti. Integrarea propus de ctre Strauss (1972), reprezint o tentativ de fundamentare a cerinei pe care acest principiu o formuleaz. Ierarhiei lui Gagne i s-au gsit ns, o serie de limite importante. Acestea se refer la prea stricta delimitare a primelor dou trepte ale modelului (legturi S-R, asociaii verbale, discriminri) i mai ales la ultima treapt (rezolvarea de probleme). A strnit critici absena din modul lui Gagne a nvturii creative. R.M.Gagne i L.J.Briggs (1964) au ncercat s arate c prin rezolvarea de probleme se pot nelege i comportamente ale nvrii creative. Odat cu revoluia tiinific i explozia informaional s-a pomenit n faa unui obstacol mult mai grav. Este vorba de alegerea informaiilor eseniale pentru nvarea eficient.

1.3.1.Analiza coninutului instruirii


Analiza coninutului instruirii care putea fi ignorat n coala clasic a devenit astzi o stringen; ea poate fi realizat mult mai riguros n condiiile proiectrii activitii didactice pentru determinarea eficacitii generale a nvrii ( mastery learning ). Definirea operaional a obiectivelor activitii didactice permite alegerea raional a coninuturilor de nvare. Aceast sarcin prezint o serie de dificulti mai ales n cadrul sistemului de nvmnt organizat pe clase i lecii, unde nvarea colar se deruleaz ntr-un cadru spaio-temporal limitat, n care educatorul trebuie s adapteze o serie imens de cunotine. Au fost elaborate o serie de tehnici de analiz a coninutului care pot fi utilizate de ctre educatori n funcie de specificul disciplinelor pe care le predau, a resurselor psihopedagogice disponibile i a obiectivelor urmrite. Se propun trei asemenea tehnici : tehnica arborilor logici, tehnica grafurilor de cunotine i tehnica bncilor de coninuturi.

1.3.2.Arborii logici
Structura logic a unei materii de nvmnt poate fi reprezentat ca o reea de componente ce cresc progresiv la fiecare nivel, precum ramurile unui arbore. Acest model de organizare presupune o structur n arbore i permite o analiz n arbore. Cel mai cunoscut exemplu de analiz n arbore este cel propus de ctre Le Xuan ( 1965 ), Arborele de coninut. Este un exemplu tipic de analiz a coninutului bazat pe comportamente bine definite i pe ordonarea materiei n funcie de aceste comportamente. Analiza ncepe cu enunul unui obiectiv terminal al unui capitol din materia de nvmnt, apoi pe o coloan n stnga se

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noteaz acest enun : pe coloana din dreapta se scriu unitile de coninut n care poate fi descompus acest obiectiv, se noteaz fiecare unitate n subuniti, de asemenea numerotate ( 1.1., 1.2.). Dup terminarea acestei operaii se revine la coloana din stnga i se descompune ficare unitate de coninut cu cifre arabe : 1, 2, 3.

1.3.3.Sistemul mathetic i analiza sarcinilor


Un alt exemplu de analiz regresiv este aa-numitul sistem mathetic al lui Gilbert (1962). Conform acestei tehnici, fiecare unitate de analiz comport o legtur S-R proprie, unde S, reprezint situaiile de nvare i R rezultatele acestora. Dac presupunem un comportament terminal oarecare, atunci legturile sale vor fi : S0--- R1 ; S1--- R2 ; S2--- R3. Ordinea nvrii acestor legturi se va face de la S0 ctre R3, dar analiza coninutului acestei nvri se va face regresiv : se va ncepe cu legtura S2--- R3 apoi cu S1--- R2 i n fine S0--- R1. Se produce astfel o translare a logicii tiinific n logic a nvrii care respect i principiul simplificrii controlate (sau al naintrii de la simplu la complex, de la uor la greu.) Unii autori au regsit la sistemul mathetic o analogie cu ierarhia tipurilor a lui Gagne (1965). Pentru Gagne logica intern a materiei de nvmnt trebuie s urmeze logica intern a nvrii. Prin urmare, o analiz regresiv, cu ajutorul ierarhiei nvrii, a coninuturilor de nvmnt ar presupune urmtoarea ordine : rezolvarea de probleme, nvare de principii, nvare de concepte, discriminri multiple, asociaii verbale, nlnuiri motrice, legturi S-R, nvare de semnale. O alt tehnic analog cu analiza n arbore este cea propus de ctre Annett i Duncan (1967) : analiza sarcinilor. Modelul utilizat de ctre cei doi autori, se sprijin pe analogia reelei de sarcini de nvare cu circuitele electronice: n orice materie de nvmnt ar exista blocuri ale grupurilor de operaii cognitive i legturi corespunznd rezultatelor (produselor) acestor operaii. Cunoscnd un comportament terminal A, se pot calcula produsele (rezultatele) nvrii i regsi operaiile care fac posibile aceste produse. Pe aceast baz se pot formula sarcinile de nvare care conduc prin ndeplinire la comportamentul terminal dorit.

1.3.4. Grafuri i reele de cunotine


n principiu, orice materie de nvmnt comport dou elemente fundamentale: uniti de coninut i reele de conexiuni ntre aceste uniti. Regnier i Montmollin (1969) observaser c orice materie de nvmnt poate fi caracterizat. Fiecare unitate de coninut va putea fi definit n termeni de performan observabil i msurabil, cu ajutorul unei proceduri oarecare de operaionalizare a obiectivelor. Regsirea legturilor unei uniti de coninut este o relaie binar cu alte uniti. Orice unitate de coninut care trebuie studiat, este un mijloc de reacie: constituie Rspuns fa de o unitate de coninut achiziionat anterior i Stimul fa de o unitate de coninut ce va fi nvat ulterior. Orice ansamblu de nvare va putea fi reprezentat ca un graf de uniti de coninut.

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O alt tehnic de analiz a coninutului din perspectiva grafurilor, este analiza reelelor propus de ctre Wyant (1971). O reea este un ansamblu de noduri (coninuturi), legate ntre ele prin vectori. Conform teoriei grafurilor, orice materie de nvmnt va putea fi reprezentat ca, reele de arcuri orientale (sgei) reprezentnd relaiile ntre componentele unui program instrucional dat. Aceste sgei indic grafic caracteristicile generale ale vectorilor.

1.3.5. Bncile de coninuturi


Quere (1975) a propus organizarea ansamblului informaiilor dintr-un anumit domeniu, n vederea nvrii lor, sub forma unor aa numite bnci de coninuturi. O banc de coninuturi ar fi alctuit din cel puin trei elemente: un ansamblu A, reprezentnd un grup de coninuturi interdependente; un sistem de relaii n interiorul lui A, notat cu R; o aplicare a lui A, notat a, reprezentnd utilizarea operaional a lui A n raport cu alte subansambluri de informaii. Corelaia A,R,a, constituie un modul ce poate fi considerat ca unitate de baz n care va putea fi organizat o banc de coninuturi. Conform aprecierilor actuale, se consider c viitorul instruirii eficiente este legat n mare msur de elaborarea bncilor de coninuturi pentru una sau mai multe discipline de nvmnt, de construirea modulelor instrucionale ( DE LANDSHEERE, 1976; LAVALLEE, 1975; DONNAY i DE BAL, 1977). Bncile de coninuturi ar putea devenii un fel de rezervoare educaionale (naionale sau internaionale) care ar facilita n mod apreciabil, activitatea cadrelor didactice. Ar fi, probabil, cea mai bun utilizare pedagogic a calculatorului n educaie.

2. ALTE MODALITI DE PROIECTARE PEDAGOGIC


Aa cum am mai menionat, modelul de proiectare pedagogic prezentat n aceast carte aparine lui Ion Negre-Dobridor, care a colaborat muli ani cu prof.Ioan Jinga. Ar fi ns greit s se cread c aceasta este singura modalitate de proiectare pedagogic. Exist, cei drept, i multe nzbtii care s-au scris pe aceast tem de ctre autori insuficient avizai i iresponsabili n raport cu eigenele i dificultile aplicrii acestor "producii" n practic; dar exist i alte modaliti valoroase de proiectare pedagogic propuse de ctre autori romni. Spaiul tipografic alocat acestui capitol nu permite descrierea lor detaliat. Trimitem ns la lucrrile respective cu scurte caracterizri:

Modelul lui Lazr Vlsceanu. Este un model ingenios care are n vedere locul proiectrii n ansamblul activitii pedagogice:

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Timpul

Aciunile

Din pcate, acest model este ipotetic i nu a fost experimentat (sau cel puin rezultatele experimentelor nu au fost publicate pn n prezent). Modelul a fost descris n Cap.13 (p.225-250) din Curs de pedagogie (coordonatori Ioan Cerghit i L. Vlsceanu), Tipografia Univ. Bucureti; 1984.) Modelul lui Eugen Noveanu. Este un model care insist asupra nvrii formative fiind un produs tipic al pedagogiei prin obiective. Prezentarea sa a fost nsoit de proiecte pedagogice pentru predarea-nvarea matematicii (Dan Mihalea), fizicii (Andrei Ionescu Zanetti) i chimiei (Demetra Preoteasa). Modelul este descris n lucrarea Modele de instruire formativ la disciplinele fundamentale de nvmnt (E. D. P., Bucureti, 1983) care are ca autori pe toi cei numii mai sus, coordonai de Eugen P. Noveanu. Modelul lui Ioan Cerghit. Acest model are meritul de a fi ncercat s evite riscurile algoritmizrii forate pe care le implic didactica prin obiective. Profesorul Cerghit este adeptul a ceea ce se cheam management by men n educaie i pledeaz, cu argumente greu de contrazis, pentru o proiectare creativ. Modelul este descris in Perfecionarea leciei n coala modern (E.D. P., Bucureti, 1983) coordonat de autorul n discuie. Modelul lui I. C. Roman. Acest model pledeaz pentru nvarea n clas bazndu-se pe o practic structurat eclectic din teorii destul de diferite (Skinner, Galperin, Okon etc.). Se pare ns c

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demonstraiile experimentale organizate n coli ieene au condus spre rezultate bune. I. C. Roman a fost ns i criticat, unii autori acuzndu-l chiar c ar fi adeptul eliminrii studiului independent al elevilor. Modelul este descris n Lecii n spiritul metodelor active (E.D.P., Bucureti, 1980), lucrare realizat mpreun cu Pelaghia Popescu. Modelul lui Miron Ionescu. n lucrarea sa Lecia ntre proiect i realizare (Ed. Dacia, Cluj, 1982) se afl idei valoroase privind rolul comunicrii non-verbale n eficientizarea leciilor. Din nefericire, modelul lui Miron Ionescu este nsoit de comentarii uimitoare, referitoare la estetica produselor i designul industrial pe care le consider ca avnd legtur cu leciile frumoase. Dar proiectarea pedagogic nu are legturi cu calistica sau estetica ci cu rigoarea, coerena, eficiena i instruirea. Educatorul interesat poate ns ignora aceste scpri ale ilustrului psihopedagog clujean. Modelul lui Vasile Bunescu. Profesorul Vasile Bunescu a organizat i prezentat n Revista de pedagogie n anii 1982-1985 o serie de experimente de aplicare a modelului mastery learning al lui John B. Carrol cruia i-a adus corective menite s l fac aplicabil la sistemul de nvmnt bazat pe clase i lecii. Modelul lui I. T. Radu. Proiectarea pedagogic, n viziunea profesorului I. T. Radu nu trebuie s se bazeze pe o didactic prin obiective, ci pe o bizar pedagogie a coninuturilor. Dup I. T. Radu proiectarea ncepe cu consultarea programei analitice - fie bun, fie rea, dar aprobat de Ministerul Educaiei i se sfrete cu evaluarea coninuturilor nsuite de elevi. n ciuda acestui neajuns, profesorul I. T. Radu a adus contribuii fundamentale la teoria evalurii prin obiective pedagogice. Lucrarea sa Teorie i practic n evaluarea eficienei nvmntului (E.D.P., Bucureti, 1961) rezolv n chip magistral ntreaga problematic a proiectrii pedagogice prin obiective chiar dac, n chip surprinztor, autorul a pledat adesea pentru alternative de proiectare contrare acesteia.

3. STRUCTURI GRAFICE DE PROIECTE PEDAGOGICE

A. n capitolele anterioare am figurat structura grafic pe care o socotim cea mai potrivit pentru realizarea n scris a unui proiect pedagogic. Acestui proiect i se poate ataa i ceea ce am numit, dup o expresie a lui Katims (1977) scenariul didactic al activitii care este figurat n paragraful Cteva sugestii practice privind utilizarea eficient a timpului de nvare n clas. B. Sunt posibile ns i alte scheme grafice. O recomandm i pe cea propusa de catre Lazr Vlsceanu:

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Ealonarea in timp

Obiective operaional e

Uniti de coninut (sarcini de nvare)

Tipuri de standarde pentru evaluare

Observaii

T1 . . .Tn

O1 . . .On

S1 . . .Sn

SP1 . . .SPn

C. Evident, are puin importan forma grafic n care este redactat un proiect pedagogic. Totui, forma recomandat de noi permite unele avantaje. Exersnd vreme mai ndelungat proiecte precum exemplul care urmeaz, educatorii ajung la simplificri succesive. n ultima faz, educatorul ajunge s redacteze n scris numai lista de obiective operaionale, avnd capacitatea de a vedea activitile didactice prin prisma unor rezultate msurabile i abilitatea de a deriva uor celelalte componente ale drumului de la obiective la rezultate. Proiectul care urmeaz a fost redactat de o nvtoare de elit ,sub coordonarea mea, la nceputul procesului de iniiere a sa n tainele designului instrucional. A perseverat mai muli ani. Astzi, ilustra dscli reuete s i invee pe toi totul, proiectnd doar mintal activiti mastery learning.

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DOCUMENTARE
Documentarul Nr.1 MANAGEMENTUL CARIEREI 1.1. CE ESTE CARIERA
Career is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a person's "course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life)". It is usually considered to pertain to remunerative work (and sometimes also formal education). The etymology of the term comes from the Latin word carrera, which means race (as in "rat
race", see Careerism).

Historical changes By the late 20th century, a wide range of choices (especially in the range of potential professions) and more widespread education had allowed it to become possible to plan (or design) a career: in this respect the careers of the career counselor and of the career advisor have grown up. It is also not uncommon for adults in the late 20th/early 21st centuries to have dual or multiple careers, either sequentially or concurrently. Thus, professional identities have become hyphenated or hybridized to reflect this shift in work ethic. Economist Richard Florida notes this trend generally and more specifically among the "creative class". Supporting careers
Career Assessments are tests that come in a variety of forms and rely on both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Career Assessments can help individuals identify and better articulate their unique interests, values, and skills. Career counselors, executive coaches, career development centers, and outplacement companies often administer career assessments to help individuals focus their search on careers that closely match their unique personal profile. Career counseling advisors assess people's interests, personality, values and skills, and also help them explore career options and research graduate and professional schools. Career counseling provides one-on-one or group professional assistance in exploration and decision making tasks related to choosing a major/occupation, transitioning into the world of work or further professional training. The field is vast and includes career placement, career planning, learning strategies and student development.

For a pre-modernist notion of "career", compare cursus honorum.

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1.2. MANAGEMENTUL CARIEREI


Career Management is the combination of structured planning and the active management choice of one's own professional career. The outcome of successful career management should include personal fulfilment, work/life balance, goal achievement and financial assurity.

Introduction
The word career covers all types of employment ranging from semi-skilled through skilled, and semi professional to professional. The term careers has often been restricted to suggest an employment commitment to a single trade skill, profession or business firm for the entire working life of a person. In recent years, however, career now refers to changes or modifications in employment during the foreseeable future. There are many definitions by management scholars of the stages in the managerial process. The following classification system with minor variations is widely used: 1. Development of overall goals and objectives, 2. Development of a strategy (a general means to accomplish the selected goals/objectives), 3. Development of the specific means (policies, rules, procedures and activities) to implement the strategy, and 4. Systematic evaluation of the progress toward the achievement of the selected goals/objectives to modify the strategy, if necessary.

Goals or objectives development


The career management process begins with setting goals/objectives. A relatively specific goal/objective must be formulated. This task may be quite difficult when the individual lacks knowledge of career opportunities and/or is not fully aware of their talents and abilities. However, the entire career management process is based on the establishment of defined goals/objectives whether specific or general in nature. Utilizing career assessments may be a critical step in identifying opportunities and career paths that most resonate with someone. Career assessments can range from quick and informal like those on CareerBuilder or may be more indepth like those such as Myers-Briggs and CareerLeader supported assessments found on MyPath. Regardless of the ones you use, you will need to evaluate them. Most assessments found today for free (although good) do not offer an in-depth evaluation. The time horizon for the achievement of the selected goals or objectives - short term, medium term or long term - will have a major influence on their formulation. 1. Short term goals (one or two years) are usually specific and limited in scope. Short term goals are easier to formulate. Make sure they are achievable and relate to your longer term career goals.

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2. Intermediate goals (3 to 5 years) tend to be less specific and more open ended than short term goals. Both intermediate and long term goals are more difficult to formulate than short term goals because there are so many unknowns about the future. 3. Long term goals (more than 5 years), of course, are the most fluid of all. Lack of life experience and knowledge about potential opportunities and pitfalls make the formulation of long term goals/objectives very difficult. Long range goals/objectives, however, may be easily modified as additional information is received without a great loss of career efforts because of experience/knowledge transfer from one career to another. 4. Making career choices and decisions the traditional focus of careers interventions. The changed nature of work means that individuals may now have to revisit this process more frequently now and in the future, more than in the past. 5. Managing the organizational career concerns the career management tasks of individuals within the workplace, such as decision-making, life-stage transitions, dealing with stress etc. 6. Managing 'boundaryless' careers refers to skills needed by workers whose employment is beyond the boundaries of a single organisation, a workstyle common among, for example, artists and designers. 7. Taking control of one's personal development as employers take less responsibility, employees need to take control of their own development in order to maintain and enhance their employability. Other elements include:

Career change (Ibarra 2003) (Strenger 2008)

1.3. Career Planning


Career planning is a subset of career management. Career planning applies the concepts of Strategic planning and Marketing to taking charge of one's professional future.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT
In organizational development (or OD), the study of career development looks at:

how individuals manage their careers within and between organizations and, how organizations structure the career progress of their members, it can also be tied into succession planning within some organizations.

In personal development, career development is:

" ... the total constellation of psychological, sociological, educational, physical, economic, and chance factors that combine to influence the nature and significance of work in the total lifespan of any given individual." [1] The evolution or development of a career - informed by (1) Experience within a specific field of interest (2) Success at each stage of development - and (3), educational attainment.

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"... the lifelong psychological and behavioral processes as well as contextual influences shaping ones career over the life span. As such, career development involves the persons creation of a career pattern, decision-making style, integration of life roles, values expression, and life-role self concepts." [2]

Figures in career development


JESSE B. DAVIS[3] JOHN L. HOLLAND FRANK PARSONS EDGAR SCHEIN RINO SCHREUDER

JOHN L. HOLLAND
John L. Holland is an American psychologist who spent much of his career at Johns Hopkins University. He received his B.S. from the University of Omaha and Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. Holland is the creator of the RIASEC career development model often referred to as the Holland Codes.

Holland Codes
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Holland hexagon

The Holland Codes represents a set of personality types described in a theory of careers and vocational choice formulated by psychologist John L. Holland.[1] Holland's theory argued that "the choice of a vocation is an expression of personality" and that the six factor typology he articulated could be used to describe both persons and work environments.[1] His typology provides an interpretative structure for a number of different vocational interest surveys, including the two measures he developed: The Vocational Preference Inventory and the Self Directed Search. His model has been adopted by the U.S. Department of Labor for categorizing jobs relative to interests.[2] Holland's theory does not assume that a person is just one type or that there are "only six types of people in the world." [1] Instead, he assumed that any person could be described as having interests associated with each of the six types in a descending order of preference. This

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assumption allows the Holland Codes to be used to describe 720 (6!) different personality patterns. As the theory is applied in interest inventories and job classifications, it is usually only the two or three most dominant codes that are used for vocational guidance. In presenting his theory, Holland graphically represented the six types as arrayed on a hexagon.[1] This graphic representation serves to describe the empirically determined correlations between the types. The shorter the distance between their corners on the hexagon, the more closely they are related. Taken together, the Holland Codes are usually referred to by their first letters: RIASEC. The six personality and work environment types described by Holland are as follows:

Realistic - practical, physical, hands-on, tool-oriented Investigative - analytical, intellectual, scientific, explorative Artistic - creative, original, independent, chaotic Social - cooperative, supporting, helping, healing/nurturing Enterprising - competitive environments, leadership, persuading Conventional - detail-oriented, organizing, clerical

DOER (REALISTIC)
Working with one's hands, with tools, machines, and things; practical, mechanically inclined, and physical:
Archaeologist Architect Astronaut Baseball player Carpenter Chef Computer scientist Driver Engineer: Chemical, Civil, Electrical, Mechanical, etc. Farmer Firefighter Gardener/Horticulturist Information technologist Instructional technologist Laborer Martial arts specialist Mechanic/Automobiles Paramedic Pharmacist Physical therapist Pilot Police Officer Soldier

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Veterinarian

THINKER (INVESTIGATIVE)
Working with theory and information, analytical, intellectual, scientific:

Actuary Computer science Economist Engineer Finance Lawyer Mathematics Pharmacy Physician/Medical school Professor (all fields) Psychologist Psychiatrist Science Statistics Surgeon

CREATOR (ARTISTIC)
Non-conforming, original, independent, chaotic, creative:

Actor Writer/Poet Dancer Painter/Graphic designer Musician Cosmetology

HELPER (SOCIAL)
Cooperative environments, supporting, helping, healing/nurturing:

Therapist Audiologist Babysitter Caretaker Mental Health Counselor Education Instructional technology Martial arts Nurse Nutritionist Physician Professor Psychologist

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Receptionist Social Worker Teacher Theology Trainer (business) Speech-language pathologist

PERSUADER (ENTERPRISING)
Competitive environments, leading, persuading, selling, dominating, promoting, status:

Administration Academic administration Business/MBA Communications Insurance Investment Banker Journalism Law / Politics Marketing / Advertising Management Management Consultant Public Health Publishing Public relations Public policy Real Estate Retail Stockbroker Salesmen

ORGANIZER (CONVENTIONAL)
Precise, perfect attention to detail, orderly, organizing, status:

Accountant Actuary

Administration Banking/Investment bank Business/MBA


Clerk Copy Editing Instructional technology Lexicographer Librarian Payroll Proofreader Secretary Technical writer

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HOPKINS PROFESSOR MAKES CAREER CHOICES HIS JOB

Retired Johns Hopkins University professor John Holland enjoys his career of examining the occupational options of others; he recently finished revisions on the third edition of "Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments." The work, published by Psychological Assessment Resources, first made its debut in 1959 with another publisher. Since then, it has been updated several times. Holland, 77, retired from what is now the Sociology Department in 1980, but he has hardly stopped working. "This book is my sixth attempt to create a more satisfying theory of careers," he writes in the preface. "I never seem to get it quite right." Holland's theory states that all people fit into one or more personality types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional. (These are the basis for his RIASEC theory, which is widely used by career counseling professionals.) He applies the same six characteristics to work and home environments and says some outcomes can be determined by examining the combinations of personality types and environments. For example, professional choices and levels of achievement may be predicted, he says. PAR also publishes several varieties of evaluations titled Self-Directed Searches, including "The Occupations Finder," "You and Your Career" and "A Guide to Educational and Career Planning" that may accompany the book. Holland is convinced that students can be better prepared for professional lives if they evaluate their strengths and weaknesses. His Self-Directed Search forms, which have also been adapted for those with reading and learning difficulties, include statements such "I understand the 'Big Bang' theory of the universe" and "I can refinish furniture or woodwork." Participants then total the number of statements with which they agree and interpret the findings on their own. "The techniques are childlike they're so simple," Holland says. "Personality and interest inventories are kind of an interview about life histories." While some may balk at being pigeonholed into one of six areas, Holland says inevitably most people remain where they excel. "Certain changes are hard to make. The artistic types rarely seem to move. And the science types tend to stay there," he says. "Some engineers frequently become entrepreneurs who are using their background." Holland believes the simplicity of his tests and theories is what makes them effective. "Some scientists think that because this is so easy to understand, it can't amount to anything," he said. "In science there is often a sales mission, though people don't like to admit that. In fact, anybody can get this message if they want it."

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Holland's own makeup includes artistic, social and investigative components. "I've got a relatively flat profile, actually," he says. "That makes you more versatile, complex and quite a bit confused." A graduate of the University of Omaha who received his master's degree and Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Minnesota, Holland arrived at Hopkins in 1969. He served as a professor and director of the Center for Social Organization of Schools before his "quasi-retirement."

FRANK PARSONS
Frank Parsons (1854-1908) is known as the Father of Vocational Guidance. Although he was educated as an engineer at Cornell University, he wrote several books on social reform movements and articles related to women's suffrage, taxation, and education for all. Additionally, he taught history, math, and French in public schools, worked as a railroad engineer, and passed the state bar examination for lawyers in Massachusetts in 1881. His university occupations included teaching at Boston University School of Law and at Kansas State Agricultural College (See Kansas State University), and serving as dean of the extension division of Ruskin College in Trenton, Missouri. However, Parsons is best known for his interests in helping individuals make occupational and career choices (Zunker, 2002).

Accomplishments In 1901, Mrs. Quincy Agassiz Shaw, a philanthropist, established the Civic Service House in Boston as an effort to provide educational opportunities for immigrants and young persons seeking work. Later in 1905, Parsons became director of one of the Civic Service House programs called the Breadwinner's Institute (Zunker, 2002). Afterwards, Parsons organized the Bureau of Vocational Guidance. Nine months later, Parsons used the Bureau to train young men to be counselors and managers for YMCA's schools, colleges, and businesses. A few years later, the School Committee of Boston created the first counselor certification program, and eventually the program was adopted by Harvard University as the first college-based counselor education program (Schmidt 2003). Also, the superintendent of Boston schools designated 100 elementary and secondary teachers to become vocational counselors, this became known as the Boston Plan. Within a few years, school systems across the country followed suit. On May 1, 1908, Parsons presented a lecture that had tremendous impact on the career guidance movement, by presenting a report that described systematic guidance procedures used to counsel 80 men and women who used the bureau for help. Shortly later, he died on September 26, 1908, and his major work, Choosing a Vocation, was published in May 1909. Parsons developed a framework to help individuals decide on a career. This framework contained a three part formulation. 1. First, a clear understanding of yourself, aptitudes, abilities, interests, resources, limitations, and other qualities 2. Second, a knowledge of the requirements and conditions of success, advantages and disadvantages, compensations, opportunities, and prospects in different lines of work

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3. Third, true reasoning of the relations of these two groups of facts (Parsons, 1909, p. 5, as cited in Zunker, 2002) According to Parsons, ideal career choices are based on matching personal traits (aptitude, abilities, resources, personality) with job factors (wages, environment, etc) to produce the best conditions of vocational success. Parson's framework later became the basis of the contemporary trait/factor theory of career development.

EDGAR HENRY SCHEIN


Edgar Henry Schein (born 1928), a former professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management, has made a notable mark on the field of organizational development in many areas, including career development, group process consultation, and organizational culture. He is generally credited with inventing the term "corporate culture". (The Oxford English Dictionary traces the phrase "corporate culture" as far back as "1966 Acad. Managem. Jrnl. 9 362/2".)

Illustration of Schein's model of organizational culture Schein's model of organizational culture originated in the 1980s. Schein (2004) identifies three distinct levels in organizational cultures: 1. artifacts and behaviours 2. espoused values 3. assumptions The three levels refer to the layers of corporate culture.

Artifacts include any tangible or verbally identifiable elements in an organization. Architecture, furniture, dress code, office jokes, and history all exemplify organizational artifacts. Values are the organization's stated or desired cultural elements. This is most often a written or stated tone that the CEO or President hope to exude throughout the office

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environment. Examples of this would be employee professionalism, or a "family first" mantra.

Assumptions are the actual values that the culture represents, not necessarily correlated to the values. These assumptions are typically so well integrated in the office dynamic that they are hard to recognize from within.[1]

The model has undergone various modifications, such as the Raz update of Schein's organizational culture model (2006), and others. Coercive persuasion Schein has written on the issues surrounding coercive persuasion, comparing and contrasting brainwashing as a use for "goals that we deplore and goals that we accept."[2] Publications

Brainwashing and Totalitarianization in Modern Society (1959) Coercive Persuasion: A socio-psychological analysis of the "brainwashing" of American civilian prisoners by the Chinese Communists (1961), W. W. Norton (publishers) Organizational Psychology (1980) ISBN 0-13-641332-3 Organizational Culture and Leadership (1985) ISBN 1-55542-487-2 Process Consultation Revisited (1999) ISBN 0-201-34596-X

1.4. Programul KUDOS pentru alegerea carierei de c[tre tineri


Kudos is a program used mostly in schools for young people deciding on their career choices and what qualifications they may need to get reach careers. It is designed primarily for use in the United Kingdom, and is used by public and government-operated schools and school systems. It is aimed at students ages 1320 years. The Kudos software is available in both CD and online formats. It is one of a range of career resources produced by CASCAiD, a Loughborough University company. Young people answer a set of 50 questions, followed by a further 67 questions should the user wish to do so. The responses for each question could be one of five answers: dislike very much, dislike, does not matter, like and like very much. This will then give the young person a list of careers, that match their preferences from the questions. They can then click on these careers and it will enable them to look at the aspects of the career and the qualifications needed for it.

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Other areas Cascaid also produces the Careerscape program accessible from the link below. This is an information program that gives advice on careers, qualifications, subjects and lifestyle issues. Kudos and Careerscape are produced by cascaid.

1.5. JOB INTERVIEW


(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

A job interview is a process in which a potential employee is evaluated by an employer for prospective employment in their company, organization, or firm. During this process, the employer hopes to determine whether or not the applicant is suitable for the job. Role A job interview typically precedes the hiring decision, and is used to evaluate the candidate. The interview is usually preceded by the evaluation of submitted rsums from interested candidates, then selecting a small number of candidates for interviews. Potential job interview opportunities also include networking events and career fairs. The job interview is considered one of the most useful tools for evaluating potential employees.[1] It also demands significant resources from the employer, yet has been demonstrated to be notoriously unreliable in identifying the optimal person for the job.[1] An interview also allows the candidate to assess the corporate culture and demands of the job. Multiple rounds of job interviews may be used where there are many candidates or the job is particularly challenging or desirable. Earlier rounds may involve fewer staff from the employers and will typically be much shorter and less in-depth. A common initial interview form is the phone interview, a job interview conducted over the telephone. This is especially common when the candidates do not live near the employer and has the advantage of keeping costs low for both sides. Once all candidates have been interviewed, the employer typically selects the most desirable candidate and begins the negotiation of a job offer. Interview Constructs In light of its popularity, a stream of research has attempted to identify the constructs (ideas or concepts) that are measured during the interview to understand why interviews might help us pick the right people for the job. Several reviews of the research on interview constructs revealed that the interview captures a wide variety of applicant attributes.[2][3][4] These constructs can be classified into three categories: job-relevant interview content (constructs interview questions are designed to assess), interviewee performance (applicant behaviors unrelated to the applicant characteristics the interview questions are designed to assess but nevertheless influence interviewer evaluations of interviewee responses), and potentially job-irrelevant interviewer biases

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(personal and demographic characteristics of applicants that may influence interviewer evaluations of interviewee responses in an illegal, discriminatory way). Job-relevant interview content Interview questions are generally designed to tap applicant attributes that are specifically relevant to the job for which the person is applying. The job-relevant applicant attributes the questions purportedly assess are thought to be necessary for one to successfully perform on the job. The job-relevant constructs that have been assessed in the interview can be classified into three categories: general traits, experiential factors, and core job elements. The first category refers to relatively stable applicant traits. The second category refers to job knowledge that the applicant has acquired over time. The third category refers to the knowledge, skills, and abilities associated with the job. General Traits:

Mental ability: Applicants capacity to learn and process information[5] Personality: Conscientiousness, agreeableness, emotional stability, extroversion, openness to new experiences[6][7][8] Interest, goals, and values: Applicant motives, goals, and person-organization fit[9]

Experiential Factors:

Experience: Job-relevant knowledge derived from prior experience[10][11] Education: Job-relevant knowledge derived from prior education Training: Job-relevant knowledge derived from prior training

Core Job Elements:


Declarative knowledge: Applicants learned knowledge[12] Procedural skills and abilities: Applicants ability to complete the tasks required to do the job[13] Motivation: Applicants willingness to exert the effort required to do the job[14]

Interviewee Performance Interviewer evaluations of applicant responses also tend to be colored by how an applicant behaves in the interview. These behaviors may not be directly related to the constructs the interview questions were designed to assess, but can be related to aspects of the job for which they are applying. Applicants without realizing it may engage in a number of behaviors that influence ratings of their performance. The applicant may have acquired these behaviors during training or from previous interview experience. These interviewee performance constructs can also be classified into three categories: social effectiveness skills, interpersonal presentation, and personal/contextual factors. Social Effectiveness Skills:

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Impression management: Applicants attempt to make sure the interviewer forms a positive impression of them[15][16] Social skills: Applicants ability to adapt his/her behavior according to the demands of the situation to positively influence the interviewer[17] Self-monitoring: Applicants regulation of behaviors to control the image presented to the interviewer[18] Relational control: Applicants attempt to control the flow of the conversation[19]

Interpersonal Presentation:

Verbal expression: Pitch, rate, pauses[20] Nonverbal behavior: Gaze, smile, hand movement, body orientation[21]

Personal/Contextual Factors:

Interview training: Coaching, mock interviews with feedback[22] Interview experience: Number of prior interviews[23] Interview self-efficacy: Applicants perceived ability to do well in the interview[24] Interview motivation: Applicants motivation to succeed in an interview[25]

Job-irrelevant interviewer biases The following are personal and demographic characteristics that can potentially influence interviewer evaluations of interviewee responses. These factors are typically not relevant to whether the individual can do the job (that is, not related to job performance), thus, their influence on interview ratings should be minimized or excluded. In fact, there are laws in many countries that prohibit consideration of many of these protected classes of people when making selection decisions. Using structured interviews with multiple interviewers coupled with training may help reduce the effect of the following characteristics on interview ratings.[26] The list of job-irrelevant interviewer biases is presented below.

Attractiveness: Applicant physical attractiveness can influence interviewers evaluation of ones interview performance[27] Race: Whites tend to score higher than Blacks and Hispanics[28]; racial similarity between interviewer and applicant, on the other hand, has not been found to influence interview ratings[29][30] Gender: Females tend to receive slightly higher interview scores than their male counterparts[31]; gender similarity does not seem to influence interview ratings[32] Similarities in background and attitudes: Interviewers perceived interpersonal attraction was found to influence interview ratings[33] Culture: Applicants with an ethnic name and a foreign accent were viewed less favorably than applicants with just an ethnic name and no accent or an applicant with a traditional name with or without an accent[34]

The extent to which ratings of interviewee performance reflect certain constructs varies widely depending on the level of structure of the interview, the kind of questions asked, interviewer or applicant biases, applicant professional dress or nonverbal behavior, and a host of other factors. For example, some research suggests that applicants cognitive ability, education,

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training, and work experiences may be better captured in unstructured interviews, whereas applicants job knowledge, organizational fit, interpersonal skills, and applied knowledge may be better captured in a structured interview.[35] Further, interviews are typically designed to assess a number of constructs. Given the social nature of the interview, applicant responses to interview questions and interviewer evaluations of those responses are sometimes influenced by constructs beyond those the questions were intended to assess, making it extremely difficult to tease out the specific constructs measured during the interview.[36] Reducing the number of constructs the interview is intended to assess may help mitigate this issue. Moreover, of practical importance is whether the interview is a better measure of some constructs in comparison to paper and pencil tests of the same constructs. Indeed, certain constructs (mental ability and skills, experience) may be better measured with paper and pencil tests than during the interview, whereas personality-related constructs seem to be better measured during the interview in comparison to paper and pencil tests of the same personality constructs. [37] In sum, the following is recommended: Interviews should be developed to assess the job relevant constructs identified in the job analysis.[38][39] Process A typical job interview has a single candidate meeting with between one and three persons representing the employer; the potential supervisor of the employee is usually involved in the interview process. A larger interview panel will often have a specialized human resources worker. While the meeting can be over in as little as 15 minutes, job interviews usually last less than two hours. The bulk of the job interview will entail the interviewers asking the candidate questions about his or her job history, personality, work style and other factors relevant to the job. For instance, a common interview question is "What are your strengths and weaknesses?" The candidate will usually be given a chance to ask any questions at the end of the interview. These questions are strongly encouraged since they allow the interviewee to acquire more information about the job and the company, but they can also demonstrate the candidate's strong interest in them. Candidates for lower paid and lower skilled positions tend to have much simpler job interviews than do candidates for more senior positions. For instance, a lawyer's job interview will be much more demanding than that of a retail cashier. Most job interviews are formal; the larger the firm, the more formal and structured the interview will tend to be. Candidates generally dress slightly better than they would for work, with a suit (called an interview suit) being appropriate for a white-collar job interview. Additionally, some professions have specific types of job interviews; for performing artists, this is an audition in which the emphasis is placed on the performance ability of the candidate. In many companies, assessment days are increasingly being used, particularly for graduate positions, which may include analysis tasks, group activities, presentation exercises, and psychometric testing.

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In recent years it has become increasingly common for employers to request job applicants who are successfully shortlisted to deliver one or more presentations at their interview. The purpose of the presentation in this setting may be to either demonstrate candidates' skills and abilities in presenting, or to highlight their knowledge of a given subject likely to relate closely to the job role for which they have applied. It is common for the applicant to be notified of the request for them to deliver a presentation along with their invitation to attend the interview. Usually applicants are only provided with a title for the presentation and a time limit which the presentation should not exceed. A bad hiring decision nowadays can be immensely expensive for an organizationcost of the hire, training costs, severance pay, loss of productivity, impact on morale, cost of re-hiring, etc. (Gallup international places the cost of a bad hire as being 3.2 times the individual's salary). Studies indicate that 40% of new executives fail in their first 18 months in a new job.[40] This has led to organizations investing in onboarding for their new employees to reduce these failure rates. Process Model One way to think about the interview process is as three separate, albeit related, phases: (1) the preinterview phase which occurs before the interviewer and candidate meet, (2) the interview phase where the interview is conducted, and (3) the postinterview phase where the interviewer forms judgments of candidate qualifications and makes final decisions[41]. Although separate, these three phases are related. That is, impressions interviewers form early on may affect how they view the person in a later phase. For instance, consider the first time you met someone you had heard about (maybe from a mutual friend). If the mutual friend had mentioned where this new person is from, what they are like, or what they do in their spare time, this may influence how you act towards them compared to a stranger you had never heard about. If you heard the person was not friendly or nice, perhaps you may choose not to even talk to them. Such a similar situation can occur during the process of an interview. Following is a model depicting these phases, as well as a brief discussion of each stage. Preinterview Phase: The preinterview phase encompasses the information available to the interviewer beforehand (e.g., resumes, test scores, social networking site information) and the perceptions interviewers form about applicants from this information prior to the actual face-to-face interaction between the two individuals. In this phase, interviewers are likely to already have ideas about the characteristics that would make a person ideal or qualified for the position[42]. Interviewers also have information about the applicant usually in the form of a resume, test scores, or prior contacts with the applicant[41]. Interviewers then often integrate information that they have on an applicant with their ideas about the ideal employee to form a preinterview evaluation of the candidate. In this way, interviewers typically have an impression of you even before the actual face-to-face interview interaction. Nowadays with recent technological advancements, we must be aware that interviewers have an even larger amount of information available on some candidates. For example, interviewers can obtain information from search engines (e.g. Google, Bing, Yahoo), blogs, and even social networks (e.g. Linkedin, Facebook, Twitter). While some of this information may be job-related, some of it may not be. Despite the relevance of the information, any information interviewers obtain about the applicant before the interview is likely to influence their preinterview impression of the candidate. And, why is all this important? It is important

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because what interviewers think about you before they meet you, can have an effect on how they might treat you in the interview and what they remember about you[41][43]. Furthermore, researchers have found that what interviewers think about the applicant before the interview (preinterview phase) is related to how they evaluate the candidate after the interview, despite how the candidate may have performed during the interview[44]. Interview Phase: The interview phase entails the actual conduct of the interview, the interaction between the interviewer and the applicant. Initial interviewer impressions about the applicant before the interview may influence the amount of time an interviewer spends in the interview with the applicant, the interviewers behavior and questioning of the applicant[45], and the interviewers postinterview evaluations[44]. Preinterview impressions also can affect what the interviewer notices about the interviewee, recalls from the interview, and how an interviewer interprets what the applicant says and does in the interview[43]. As interviews are typically conducted face-toface, over the phone, or through video conferencing[46] (e.g. Skype), they are a social interaction between at least two individuals. Thus, the behavior of the interviewer during the interview likely leaks information to the interviewee. That is, you can sometimes tell during the interview whether the interviewer thinks positively or negatively about you[41]. Knowing this information can actually affect how the applicant behaves, resulting in a self-fulfilling prophecy effect[45][47]. For example, interviewees who feel the interviewer does not think they are qualified may be more anxious and feel they need to prove they are qualified. Such anxiety may hamper how well they actually perform and present themselves during the interview, fulfilling the original thoughts of the interviewer. Alternatively, interviewees who perceive an interviewer believes they are qualified for the job may feel more at ease and comfortable during the exchange, and consequently actually perform better in the interview. It should be noted again, that because of the dynamic nature of the interview, the interaction between the behaviors and thoughts of both parties is a continuous process whereby information is processed and informs subsequent behavior, thoughts, and evaluations. Postinterview Phase: After the interview is conducted, the interviewer must form an evaluation of the interviewees qualifications for the position. The interviewer most likely takes into consideration all the information, even from the preinterview phase, and integrates it to form a postinterview evaluation of the applicant. In the final stage of the interview process, the interviewer uses his/her evaluation of the candidate (i.e., in the form of interview ratings or judgment) to make a final decision. Sometimes other selection tools (e.g., work samples, cognitive ability tests, personality tests) are used in combination with the interview to make final hiring decisions; however, interviews remain the most commonly used selection device in North America[48]. For interviewees: Although the description of the interview process above focuses on the perspective of the interviewer, job applicants also gather information on the job and/or organization and form impressions prior to the interview[42]. The interview is a two-way exchange and applicants are also making decisions about whether the company is a good fit for them. Essentially, the process model illustrates that the interview is not an isolated interaction, but rather a complex process that begins with two parties forming judgments and gathering information, and ends with a final interviewer decision.

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Types of Questions History of Interview Questions In interviews that are considered structured interviews, there are typically two types of questions interviewers ask applicants: situational questions [49] and behavioral questions (also known as patterned behavioral description interviews)[50]. Both types of questions are based on critical incidents that are required to perform the job [51] but they differ in their focus (see below for descriptions). Critical incidents are relevant tasks that are required for the job and can be collected through interviews or surveys with current employees, managers, or subject matter experts [52] [53] One of the first critical incidents techniques ever used in the United States Army asked combat veterans to report specific incidents of effective or ineffective behavior of a leader. The question posed to veterans was Describe the officers actions. What did he do? Their responses were compiled to create a factual definition or critical requirements of what an effective combat leader is.[54] Previous meta-analyses have found mixed results for which type of question will best predict future job performance of an applicant. For example, some studies have shown that situational type questions have better predictability for job performance in interviews [55] [56] [57], while, other researchers have found that behavioral type questions are better at predicting future job performance of applicants.[58] In actual interview settings it is not likely that the sole use of just one type of interview question (situational or behavioral) is asked. A range of questions can add variety for both the interviewer and applicant.[59] In addition, the use of high-quality questions, whether behavioral or situational based, is essential to make sure that candidates provide meaningful responses that lead to insight into their capability to perform on the job.[60] Behavioral Questions Behavioral (experience-based or patterned behavioral) interviews are past-oriented in that they ask respondents to relate what they did in past jobs or life situations that are relevant to the particular job relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities required for success[61] [62] The idea is that past behavior is the best predictor of future performance in similar situations. By asking questions about how job applicants have handled situations in the past that are similar to those they will face on the job, employers can gauge how they might perform in future situations.[63] Behavioral Interview Question Examples:.

Describe a situation in which you were able to use persuasion to successfully convince someone to see things your way. Give me an example of a time when you set a goal and were able to meet or achieve it. Tell me about a time when you had to use your presentation skills to influence someone's opinion. Give me an example of a time when you had to conform to a policy with which you did not agree.

One way individuals can prepare for behavioral type questions is to practice the STAR method. The STAR method is a structured manner of responding to a behavioral-based interview

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question by discussing the specific situation, task, action, and result of the situation you are describing. Situation: Describe the situation that you were in or the task that you needed to accomplish. This should describe specifics rather than general descriptions of past behavior. Task: What goal were you working toward? Action: Describe the actions you took to address the situation with detail and focus on yourself. What specific steps did you take and what was your contribution? Result: Describe the outcome of your actions. What happened? How did the event end? What did you accomplish? What did you learn? Make sure your answer contains multiple positive results. Situational Interview Questions Situational interview questions[64] ask job applicants to imagine a set of circumstances and then indicate how they would respond in that situation; hence, the questions are future oriented. One advantage of situational questions is that all interviewees respond to the same hypothetical situation rather than describe experiences unique to them from their past. Another advantage is that situational questions allow respondents who have had no direct job experience relevant to a particular question to provide a hypothetical response. [65] Two core aspects of the SI are the development of situational dilemmas that employees encounter on the job, and a scoring guide to evaluate responses to each dilemma.[66] Situational Examples

You are managing a work group and notice that one of your employees has become angry and hostile in recent weeks, to the point of disrupting the entire group. What would you do? [67] You are in a meeting. Your manager blames you for not doing well on a task, in front of all your peers and managers from other divisions. You believe that your manager is wrong in his critique, and that he might have come to this conclusion hastily without knowing all the information. You feel you are being treated unfairly in front of your peers. You feel that your reputation may be affected by this critique. What would you do in this situation? [68]. A general request has been issued by the Dean for someone to serve on a new joint government/industry/university committee on business education. The objective of the committee is to design the budgeting allocation for the Faculty for the next fiscal year. It is well known that you have the necessary skill and expertise to improve the chances that the Faculty will receive budget increases for future operations. You have been told that it will require 2- 3 days per month of your time for the next 9 months. Your tenure review is one year away. Although you think you have a good publication record, you have no guarantee of tenure at this point. You are concerned because you have already fallen behind on an important research project that you are pursuing with a colleague at another university. What, if anything, would you do?[69] You are in charge of truck drivers in Toronto. Your colleague is in charge of truck drivers in Montreal. Both of you report to the same person. Your salary and bonus are affected

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100% by your costs. Your colleague is in desperate need of one of your trucks. If you say no, your costs will remain low and your group will probably win the Golden Flyer award for the quarter. If you say yes, the Montreal group will probably win this prestigious award because they will make a significant profit for the company. Your boss is preaching costs, costs, costs, as well as co-operation with one's peers. Your boss has no control over accounting who are the score keepers. Your boss is highly competitive; he or she rewards winners. You are just as competitive; you are a real winner! What would you do in this situation?[70] Other types of questions Other possible types of questions that may be asked in an interview include: background questions, job experience questions, and puzzle type questions. A brief explanation of each follows.

Background questions include a focus on work experience, education, and other qualifications. [71] For instance, an interviewer may ask What experience have you had with direct sales phone calls? Job experience questions may ask candidates to describe or demonstrate job knowledge. These are typically highly specific questions.[72] For example, one question may be What steps would you take to conduct a manager training session on safety? The puzzle interview was popularized by Microsoft in the 1990s, and is now used in other organizations. The most common types of questions either ask the applicant to solve puzzles or brainteasers (e.g., Why are manhole covers round?) or to solve unusual problems (e.g., How would you weigh an airplane without a scale?).[73] Illegal Questions

Current EEOC guidelines state the information obtained and requested through the preemployment process should be limited to those essential for determining if a person is qualified for the job; whereas, information regarding race, sex, national origin, age, and religion are irrelevant in such determinations (EEOC website, 2011). In general, any questions, which may indicate the applicant's race, sex, national origin, disability status, age, religion, color or ancestry, should be avoided. Despite the legal implications, interviewers have been found to request information from job applicants regarding their membership in a protected group. For example, a business magazine sampling of small business respondents indicated most of those employers would ask at least one of following five illegal interview questions: Have you ever filed a workers' compensation claim? Do you have any physical problems or injuries? How many days were you sick last year? Are you currently taking any medications? Have you ever been treated for drug abuse?[74] Other interviewees report being asked questions concerning their age, marital status, and language abilities[75] [76],and organizations report that they frequently ask questions about arrest record and convictions, age, and handicaps.[77] All of these questions could put the company and interviewer at legal risk. For more information about illegal questions please visit the EEOC.gov website. Case A case interview is an interview form used mostly by management consulting firms and investment banks in which the job applicant is given a question, situation, problem or challenge

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and asked to resolve the situation. The case problem is often a business situation or a business case that the interviewer has worked on in real life. Panel Another type of job interview found throughout the professional and academic ranks is the panel interview. In this type of interview the candidate is interviewed by a group of panelists representing the various stakeholders in the hiring process. Within this format there are several approaches to conducting the interview. Example formats include;

Presentation format - The candidate is given a generic topic and asked to make a presentation to the panel. Often used in academic or sales-related interviews. Role format - Each panelist is tasked with asking questions related to a specific role of the position. For example one panelist may ask technical questions, another may ask management questions, another may ask customer service related questions etc. Skeet shoot format - The candidate is given questions from a series of panelists in rapid succession to test his or her ability to handle stress filled situations.

The benefits of the panel approach to interviewing include: time savings over serial interviewing, more focused interviews as there is often less time spend building rapport with small talk, and "apples to apples" comparison because each stake holder/interviewer/panelist gets to hear the answers to the same questions.[78] Stress Stress interviews are still in common use. One type of stress interview is where the employer uses a succession of interviewers (one at a time or en masse) whose mission is to intimidate the candidate and keep him/her off-balance. The ostensible purpose of this interview: to find out how the candidate handles stress. Stress interviews might involve testing an applicant's behavior in a busy environment. Questions about handling work overload, dealing with multiple projects, and handling conflict are typical.[79] Another type of stress interview may involve only a single interviewer who behaves in an uninterested or hostile manner. For example, the interviewer may not make eye contact, may roll his eyes or sigh at the candidate's answers, interrupt, turn his back, take phone calls during the interview, or ask questions in a demeaning or challenging style. The goal is to assess how the interviewee handles pressure or to purposely evoke emotional responses. This technique was also used in research protocols studying stress and type A (coronary-prone) behavior because it would evoke hostility and even changes in blood pressure and heart rate in study subjects. The key to success for the candidate is to de-personalize the process. The interviewer is acting a role, deliberately and calculatedly trying to "rattle the cage". Once the candidate realizes that there is nothing personal behind the interviewer's approach, it is easier to handle the questions with aplomb. Example stress interview questions:

Sticky situation: "If you caught a colleague cheating on his expenses, what would you do?" Putting you on the spot: "How do you feel this interview is going?"

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Popping the balloon: (deep sigh) "Well, if that's the best answer you can give ... " (shakes head) "Okay, what about this one ...?" Oddball question: "What would you change about the design of the hockey stick?" Doubting your veracity: "I don't feel like we're getting to the heart of the matter here. Start again - tell me what really makes you tick."

Candidates may also be asked to deliver a presentation as part of the selection process. The "Platform Test" method involves having the candidate make a presentation to both the selection panel and other candidates for the same job. This is obviously highly stressful and is therefore useful as a predictor of how the candidate will perform under similar circumstances on the job. Selection processes in academic, training, airline, legal and teaching circles frequently involve presentations of this sort. Technical
This kind of interview focuses on problem solving and creativity. The questions aim at your problem-solving skills and likely show your ability and creativity. Sometimes these interviews will be on a computer module with multiple-choice questions.

Telephone Telephone interviews take place if a recruiter wishes to reduce the number of prospective candidates before deciding on a shortlist for face-to-face interviews. They also take place if a job applicant is a significant distance away from the premises of the hiring company, such as abroad or in another state or province. Interviewee Strategies and Behaviors Nonverbal Behaviors It may not only be what you say in an interview that matters, but also how you say it (e.g., how fast you speak) and how you behave during the interview (e.g., hand gestures, eye contact). In other words, although applicants responses to interview questions influence interview ratings,[80] their nonverbal behaviors may also affect interviewer judgments.[81] Nonverbal behaviors can be divided into two main categories: vocal cues (e.g., articulation, pitch, fluency, frequency of pauses, speed, etc.) and visual cues (e.g., smiling, eye contact, body orientation and lean, hand movement, posture, etc.).[82] Oftentimes physical attractiveness is included as part of nonverbal behavior as well.[83] There is some debate about how large a role nonverbal behaviors may play in the interview. Some researchers maintain that nonverbal behaviors affect interview ratings a great deal,[84] while others have found that they have a relatively small impact on interview outcomes, especially when considered with applicant qualifications presented in rsums.[85] The relationship between nonverbal behavior and interview outcomes is also stronger in structured interviews than unstructured,[86] and stronger when interviewees answers are of high quality.[87] Applicants nonverbal behaviors may influence interview ratings through the inferences interviewers make about the applicant based on their behavior. For instance, applicants who engage in positive nonverbal behaviors such as smiling and leaning forward are perceived as more likable, trustworthy, credible,[88] warmer, successful, qualified, motivated, competent,[89] and

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socially skilled.[90] These applicants are also predicted to be better accepted and more satisfied with the organization if hired.[91] Applicants verbal responses and their nonverbal behavior may convey some of the same information about the applicant.[92] However, despite any shared information between content and nonverbal behavior, it is clear that nonverbal behaviors do predict interview ratings to an extent beyond the content of what was said, and thus it is essential that applicants and interviewers alike are aware of their impact. You may want to be careful of what you may be communicating through the nonverbal behaviors you display. Physical Attractiveness To hire the best applicants for the job, interviewers form judgments, sometimes using applicants physical attractiveness. That is, physical attractiveness is usually not necessarily related to how well one can do the job, yet has been found to influence interviewer evaluations and judgments about how suitable an applicant is for the job. Once individuals are categorized as attractive or unattractive, interviewers may have expectations about physically attractive and physically unattractive individuals and then judge applicants based on how well they fit those expectations.[93] As a result, it typically turns out that interviewers will judge attractive individuals more favorably on job-related factors than they judge unattractive individuals. People generally agree on who is and who is not attractive and attractive individuals are judged and treated more positively than unattractive individuals.[94] For example, people who think another is physically attractive tend to have positive initial impressions of that person (even before formally meeting them), perceive the person to be smart, socially competent, and have good social skills and general mental health.[95] Within the business domain, physically attractive individuals have been shown to have an advantage over unattractive individuals in numerous ways, that include, but are not limited to, perceived job qualifications, hiring recommendations, predicted job success, and compensation levels.[96] As noted by several researchers, attractiveness may not be the most influential determinant of personnel decisions, but may be a deciding factor when applicants possess similar levels of qualifications.[97] In addition, attractiveness does not provide an advantage if the applicants in the pool are of high quality, but it does provide an advantage in increased hiring rates and more positive job-related outcomes for attractive individuals when applicant quality is low and average.[98] Just as physical attractiveness is a visual cue, vocal attractiveness is an auditory cue and can lead to differing interviewer evaluations in the interview as well. Vocal attractiveness, defined as an appealing mix of speech rate, loudness, pitch, and variability, has been found to be favorably related to interview ratings and job performance.[99][100] In addition, the personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness predict performance more strongly for people with more attractive voices compared to those with less attractive voices.[101] As important as it is to understand how physical attractiveness can influence the judgments, behaviors, and final decisions of interviewers, it is equally important to find ways to decrease potential bias in the job interview. Conducting an interview with elements of structure is a one possible way to decrease bias.[102]

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Coaching An abundance of information is available to instruct interviewees on strategies for improving their performance in a job interview. Information used by interviewees comes from a variety of sources ranging from popular how-to books to formal coaching programs, sometimes even provided by the hiring organization. Within the more formal coaching programs, there are two general types of coaching. One type of coaching is designed to teach interviewees how to perform better in the interview by focusing on how to behave and present oneself. This type of coaching is focused on improving aspects of the interview that are not necessarily related to the specific elements of performing the job tasks. This type of coaching could include how to dress, how to display nonverbal behaviors (head nods, smiling, eye contact), verbal cues (how fast to speak, speech volume, articulation, pitch), and impression management tactics. Another type of coaching is designed to focus interviewees on the content specifically relevant to describing ones qualifications for the job, in order to help improve their answers to interview questions. This coaching, therefore, focuses on improving the interviewees understanding of the skills, abilities, and traits the interviewer is attempting to assess, and responding with relevant experience that demonstrates these skills.[103] For example, this type of coaching might teach an interviewee to use the STAR approach for answering behavioral interview questions. An example coaching program might include several sections focusing on various aspects of the interview. It could include a section designed to introduce interviewees to the interview process, and explain how this process works (e.g., administration of interview, interview day logistics, different types of interviews, advantages of structured interviews). It could also include a section designed to provide feedback to help the interviewee to improve their performance in the interview, as well as a section involving practice answering example interview questions. An additional section providing general interview tips about how to behave and present oneself could also be included. [104] It is useful to consider coaching in the context of the competing goals of the interviewer and interviewee. The interviewees goal is typically to perform well (i.e. obtain high interview ratings), in order to get hired. On the other hand, the interviewers goal is to obtain job-relevant information, in order to determine whether the applicant has the skills, abilities, and traits believed by the organization to be indicators of successful job performance.[105] Research has shown that how well an applicant does in the interview can be enhanced with coaching.[106][107][108][109] The effectiveness of coaching is due, in part, to increasing the interviewees knowledge, which in turn results in better interview performance. Interviewee knowledge refers to knowledge about the interview, such as the types of questions that will be asked, and the content that the interviewer is attempting to assess.[110] Research has also shown that coaching can increase the likelihood that interviewers using a structured interview will accurately choose those individuals who will ultimately be most successful on the job (i.e., increase reliability and validity of the structured interview).[111] Additionally, research has shown that interviewees tend to have positive reactions to coaching, which is often an underlying goal of an interview.[112] Based on research thus far, the effects of coaching tend to be positive for both interviewees and interviewers. Faking Interviewers should be aware that applicants can intentionally distort their responses or fake during the interview and such applicant faking has the potential to influence interview outcomes if present. Two concepts that relate to faking include social desirability (the tendency for people to

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present themselves in a favorable light [113]), and impression management (conscious or unconscious attempts to influence ones image during interactions [114]). Faking in the employment interview, then, can be defined as deceptive impression management or the conscious distortion of answers to the interview questions in order to obtain a better score on the interview and/or otherwise create favorable perceptions [115]. Thus, faking in the employment interview is intentional, deceptive, and aimed at improving perceptions of performance. Faking in the employment interview can be broken down into four elements [116].

The first involves the interviewee portraying him or herself as an ideal job candidate by exaggerating true skills, tailoring answers to better fit the job, and/or creating the impression that personal beliefs, values, and attitudes are similar to those of the organization. The second aspect of faking is inventing or completely fabricating ones image by piecing distinct work experiences together to create better answers, inventing untrue experiences or skills, and portraying others experiences or accomplishments as ones own. Thirdly, faking might also be aimed at protecting the applicants image. This can be accomplished through omitting certain negative experiences, concealing negatively perceived aspects of the applicants background, and by separating oneself from negative experiences. The fourth and final component of faking involves ingratiating oneself to the interviewer by conforming personal opinions to align with those of the organization, as well as insincerely praising or complimenting the interviewer or organization.

Of all of the various faking behaviors listed, ingratiation tactics were found to be the most prevalent in the employment interview, while flat out making up answers or claiming others experiences as ones own is the least common [117]. However, fabricating true skills appears to be at least somewhat prevalent in employment interviews. One study found that over 80% of participants lied about job-related skills in the interview [118], presumably to compensate for a lack of job-required skills/traits and further their chances for employment. Most importantly, faking behaviors have been shown to affect outcomes of employment interviews. For example, the probability of getting another interview or job offer increases when interviewees make up answers [119]. Different interview characteristics also seem to impact the likelihood of faking. Faking behavior is less prevalent, for instance, in past behavioral interviews than in situational interviews, although follow-up questions increased faking behaviors in both types of interviews. Therefore, if practitioners are interested in decreasing faking behaviors among job candidates in employment interview settings, they should utilize structured, past behavioral interviews and avoid the use of probes or follow-up questions [120].

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Validity and predictive power There is extant data[121] which puts into question the value of job interviews as a tool for selecting employees. Where the aim of a job interview is ostensibly to choose a candidate who will perform well in the job role, other methods of selection provide greater predictive power and often lower costs. Furthermore, given the unstructured approach of most interviews they often have almost no useful predictive power of employee success. While unstructured interviews are commonly used, structured interviews have yielded much better results and are considered a best practice [122]. Interview structure is defined as the reduction in procedural variance across applicants, which can translate into the degree of discretion that an interviewer is allowed in conducting the interview [123]. Structure in an interview can be compared to a typical paper and pencil test: we would not think it was fair if every test taker was given different questions and a different number of questions on an exam, or if their answers were each graded differently. Yet this is exactly what occurs in an unstructured interview; thus, a structured interview attempts to standardize this popular selection tool. While there is debate surrounding what is meant specifically by a structured interview [124], there are typically two broad categories of standardization: 1) content structure, and 2) evaluation structure [125]. Content structure includes elements that refer to the actual content of the interview:

Base questions on attributes that are representative of the job, as indicated by a job analysis Ask the same questions of all interviewees Limit prompting, or follow up questions, that interviewers may ask Ask better questions, such as behavioral description questions Have a longer interview Control ancillary information available to the interviewees, such as resumes Dont allow questions from applicants during interview

Evaluation structure includes aspects that refer to the actual rating of the interviewee:

Rate each answer rather than making an overall evaluation at the end of the interview Use anchored rating scales (for an example, see BARS ) Have the interviewer take detailed notes Have more than one interviewer view each applicant (i.e. have panel interviews) Have the same interviewers rate each applicant Dont allow any discussion about the applicants between interviewers Train the interviewers Use statistical procedures to create an overall interview score

It is important to note that structure should be thought of as a continuum; that is, the degree of structure present in an interview can vary along these various elements listed above [126]. In terms of reliability, meta-analytic results provided evidence that interviews can have acceptable levels of interrater reliability, or consistent ratings across interviewers interrater reliability (i.e. .75 or above), when a structured panel interview is used [127]. In terms of criterionrelated validity, or how well the interview predicts later job performance criterion validity, metaanalytic results have shown that when compared to unstructured interviews, structured interviews

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have higher validities, with values ranging from .20-.57 (on a scale from 0 to 1), with validity coefficients increasing with higher degrees of structure [128] [129] [130]. That is, as the degree of structure in an interview increases, the more likely interviewers can successfully predict how well the person will do on the job, especially when compared to unstructured interviews. In fact, one structured interview that included a) a predetermined set of questions that interviewers were able to choose from, and b) interviewer scoring of applicant answers after each individual question using previously created benchmark answers, showed validity levels comparable to cognitive ability tests (traditionally one of the best predictors of job performance) for entry level jobs [131]. Honesty and integrity are attributes that can be very hard to determine using a formal job interview process: the competitive environment of the job interview may in fact promote dishonesty. Some experts on job interviews express a degree of cynicism towards the process.[who?] Legal Issues In many countries laws are put into place to prevent organizations from engaging in discriminatory practices against protected classes when selecting individuals for jobs.[132] In the United States, it is unlawful for private employers with 15 or more employees along with state and local government employers to discriminate against applicants based on the following: race, color, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or over), disability, or genetic information (note: additional classes may be protected depending on state or local law). More specifically, an employer cannot legally fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privilege of employment or to limit, segregate, or classify his employees or applicants for employment in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee.[133][134]

The Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1991 (Title VII) were passed into law to prevent the discrimination of individuals due to race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act was added as an amendment and protects women if they are pregnant or have a pregnancy-related condition.[135] The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 prohibits discriminatory practice directed against individuals who are 40 years of age and older. Although some states (e.g. New York) do have laws preventing the discrimination of individuals younger than 40, no federal law exists.[136] The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 protects qualified individuals who currently have or in the past have had a physical or mental disability (current users of illegal drugs are not covered under this Act). A person may be disabled if he or she has a disability that substantially limits a major life activity, has a history of a disability, is regarded by others as being disabled, or has a physical or mental impairment that is not transitory (lasting or expected to last six months or less) and minor. In order to be covered under this Act, the individual must be qualified for the job. A qualified individual is an individual with a disability who, with or without reasonable accommodation, can perform the essential functions of the employment position that such individual holds or desires.[137] Unless the disability poses an undue hardship, reasonable accommodations must be made by the organization. In general, an accommodation is any change in the work environment or in

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the way things are customarily done that enables an individual with a disability to enjoy equal employment opportunities.[138] Examples of reasonable accommodations are changing the workspace of an individual in a wheelchair to make it more wheelchair accessible, modifying work schedules, and/or modifying equipment.[139] Employees are responsible for asking for accommodations to be made by their employer.[135]

The most recent law to be passed is Title II of the [[Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act] of 2008. In essence, this law prohibits the discrimination of employees or applicants due to an individuals genetic information and family medical history information.

In rare circumstances, it is lawful for employers to base hiring decisions on protected class information if it is considered a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification, that is, if it is a qualification reasonably necessary to the normal operation of the particular business. For example, a movie studio may base a hiring decision on age if the actor they are hiring will play a youthful character in a film.[140] Given these laws, organizations are limited in the types of questions they legally are allowed to ask applicants in a job interview. Asking these questions may cause discrimination against protected classes, unless the information is considered a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification. For example, in the majority of situations it is illegal to ask the following questions in an interview as a condition of employment:

What is your date of birth?[141] Have you ever been arrested for a crime?[142] Do you have any future plans for marriage and children?[143] What are your spiritual beliefs?[144] How many days were you sick last year? Have you ever been treated for mental health problems?[145] What prescription drugs are you currently taking?[146]

Applicants with Disabilities Applicants with disabilities may be concerned with the effect that their disability has on both interview and employment outcomes. Research has concentrated on four key issues: how interviewers rate applicants with disabilities, the reactions of applicants with disabilities to the interview, the effects of disclosing a disability during the interview, and the perceptions different kinds of applicant disabilities may have on interviewer ratings. The job interview is a tool used to measure constructs or overall characteristics that are relevant for the job. Oftentimes, applicants will receive a score based on their performance during the interview. Research has found different findings based on interviewers perceptions of the disability. For example, some research has found a leniency effect (i.e., applicants with disabilities receive higher ratings than equally qualified non-disabled applicants) in ratings of applicants with disabilities [147] [148] Other research, however, has found there is a disconnect between the interview score and the hiring recommendation for applicants with disabilities. That is, even though applicants with disabilities may have received a high interview score, they are still not recommended for employment [149] [150]. The difference between ratings and hiring could be detrimental to a company because they may be missing an opportunity to hire a qualified applicant.

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A second issue in interview research deals with the applicants with disabilities reactions to the interview and applicant perceptions of the interviewers. Applicants with disabilities and ablebodied applicants report similar feelings of anxiety towards an interview.[151] Applicants with disabilities often report that interviewers react nervously and insecurely, which leads such applicants to experience anxiety and tension themselves. The interview is felt to be the part of the selection process where covert discrimination against applicants with disabilities can occur.[151] Many applicants with disabilities feel they cannot disclose (i.e., inform potential employer of disability) or discuss their disability because they want to demonstrate their abilities. If the disability is visible, then disclosure will inevitably occur when the applicant meets the interviewer, so the applicant can decide if they want to discuss their disability. If an applicant has a non-visible disability, however, then that applicant has more of a choice in disclosing and discussing. In addition, applicants who were aware that the recruiting employer already had employed people with disabilities felt they had a more positive interview experience.[151] Applicants should consider if they are comfortable with talking about and answering questions about their disability before deciding how to approach the interview. Research has also demonstrated that different types of disabilities have different effects on interview outcomes. Disabilities with a negative stigma and that are perceived as resulting from the actions of the person (e.g., HIV-Positive, substance abuse) result in lower interview scores than disabilities for which the causes are perceived to be out of the individuals control (e.g., physical birth defect)[152]. A physical disability often results in higher interviewer ratings than psychological (e.g., mental illness) or sensory conditions (e.g., Tourette Syndrome).[153][148] In addition, there are differences between the effects of disclosing disabilities that are visible (e.g., wheelchair bound) and non-visible (e.g., Epilepsy) during the interview. When applicants had a non-visible disability and disclosed their disability early in the interview they were not rated more negatively than applicants who did not disclose. In fact, they were liked more than the applicants who did not disclose their disability and were presumed not disabled.[154] Interviewers tend to be impressed by the honesty of the disclosure.[153] Strong caution needs to be taken with applying results from studies about specific disabilities, as these results may not apply to other types of disabilities. Not all disabilities are the same and more research is needed to find whether these results are relevant for other types of disabilities. Some practical implications for job interviews for applicants with disabilities include research findings that show there are no differences in interviewer responses to a brief, shorter discussion or a detailed, longer discussion about the disability during the interview[153]. Applicants, however, should note that when a non-visible disability is disclosed near the end of the interview, applicants were rated more negatively than early disclosing and non-disclosing applicants. Therefore it is possible that interviewers feel individuals who delay disclosure may do so out of shame or embarrassment. In addition, if the disability is disclosed after being hired, employers may feel deceived by the new hire and reactions could be less positive than would have been in the interview[155]. If applicants want to disclose their disability during the interview, research shows that a disclosure and/or discussion earlier in the interview approach may afford them some positive interview effects[156]. The positive effects, however, are preceded by the interviewers perception of the applicants psychological well-being. That is, when the interviewer perceives the applicant is psychologically well and/or comfortable with his or her disability, there can be positive interviewer effects. In contrast, if the interviewer perceives the applicant as uncomfortable or anxious discussing the disability, this may either fail to garner positive effect or result in more negative interview ratings for the candidate. Caution must again be taken when

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applying these research findings to other types of disabilities not investigated in the studies discussed above. There are many factors that can influence the interview of an applicant with a disability, such as whether the disability is physical or psychological, visible or non-visible, or whether the applicant is perceived as responsible for the disability or not. Therefore applicants should make their own conclusions about how to proceed in the interview after comparing their situations with those examined in the research discussed here. Other Applicant Discrimination: Weight and Pregnancy Employers are using social networking sites like Facebook and LinkedIn to obtain additional information about job applicants [157][158][159]. While these sites may be useful to verify resume information, profiles with pictures also may reveal much more information about the applicant, including issues pertaining to applicant weight and pregnancy [160]. Job applicants who are underweight (to the point of emaciation), overweight or obese may face discrimination in the interview [161] [162]. The negative treatment of overweight and obese individuals may stem from the beliefs that weight is controllable and those who fail to control their weight are lazy, unmotivated, and lack self-discipline [163]. Alternatively, underweight individuals may be negatively treated partly due to their lack of physical attractiveness [162]. These characteristics, lazy, unmotivated, lacks self-discipline, physically unattractive are not ideal for a future employee [164]. Underweight, overweight and obese applicants are not protected from discrimination by any current United States laws [161]. However, some individuals who are morbidly obese and whose obesity is due to a physiological disorder may be protected against discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act [165]. In short, men and women should be aware that their weight, whether underweight, overweight or obese, could hinder their chances of getting hired. Pregnant job applicants are a group that may face discrimination because of their disability. Discrimination against pregnant applicants is illegal under the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, which views pregnancy as a temporary disability and requires employers to treat pregnant applicants the same as all other applicants [166]. Yet, discrimination against pregnant applicants continues both in the United States and internationally [166][167]. Research shows that pregnant applicants compared to non-pregnant applicants are less likely to be recommended for hire [168][169]. Interviewers appear concerned that pregnant applicants are more likely than non-pregnant applicants to miss work and even quit [169]. Organizations who wish to reduce potential discrimination against pregnant applicants should consider implementing structured interviews, although some theoretical work suggests interviewers may still show biases even in these types of interviews [168][170].
References 1. ^ a b State.ne.us 2. ^ Huffcutt, A. I. (2011). An empirical review of the employment interview construct literature. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 19(1), 62-81. 3. ^ Huffcutt, A. I., Conway, J. M., Roth, P. L., & Stone, N. J. (2001). Identification and meta-analytic assessment of psychological constructs measured in employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychcology, 86, 897-913.

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4. ^ Salgado, J. F., & Moscoso, S. (2002). Comprehensive meta-analysis of the construct validity of the employment interview. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11, 299-324. 5. ^ Huffcutt, A. I., Conway, J. M., Roth, P. L., & Stone, N. J. (2001). Identification and meta-analytic assessment of psychological constructs measured in employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychcology, 86, 897-913. 6. ^ Huffcutt, A. I. (2011). An empirical review of the employment interview construct literature. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 19(1), 62-81. 7. ^ Huffcutt, A. I., Conway, J. M., Roth, P. L., & Stone, N. J. (2001). Identification and meta-analytic assessment of psychological constructs measured in employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychcology, 86, 897-913. 8. ^ Salgado, J. F., & Moscoso, S. (2002). Comprehensive meta-analysis of the construct validity of the employment interview. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11, 299-324. 9. ^ Huffcutt, A. I., Conway, J. M., Roth, P. L., & Stone, N. J. (2001). Identification and meta-analytic assessment of psychological constructs measured in employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychcology, 86, 897-913. 10. ^ Huffcutt, A. I., Conway, J. M., Roth, P. L., & Stone, N. J. (2001). Identification and meta-analytic assessment of psychological constructs measured in employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychcology, 86, 897-913. 11. ^ Salgado, J. F., & Moscoso, S. (2002). Comprehensive meta-analysis of the construct validity of the employment interview. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11, 299-324. 12. ^ Salgado, J. F., & Moscoso, S. (2002). Comprehensive meta-analysis of the construct validity of the employment interview. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11, 299-324. 13. eGroot, T., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1999). Why visual and vocal interview cues can affect interviewers' judgments and predict job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 986993. 14. ^ Burnett, J. R., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1998). Relations between different sources of information in the structured interview. Personnel Psychology, 51, 963-983. 15. ^ Maurer, T. J., Solamon, J. M., & Lippstreu, M. (2008). How does coaching interviewees affect the validity of a structured interview? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 355-371. 16.^ Levashina, J., & Campion, M. A. (2007). Measuring faking in the employment interview: Development and validation of an interview faking behavior scale. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1638-1656. NOTA : Se renun la celelalte referine i trimiteri bibliografice din lips de spaiu

Documentarul Nr. 2. COMPETENELE CADRULUI DIDACTIC


2.1. Key competences for lifelong learning
Key competences in the shape of knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to each context are fundamental for each individual in a knowledge-based society. They provide added value for the

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labour market, social cohesion and active citizenship by offering flexibility and adaptability, satisfaction and motivation. Because they should be acquired by everyone, this recommendation proposes a reference tool for European Union (EU) countries to ensure that these key competences are fully integrated into their strategies and infrastructures, particularly in the context of lifelong learning. ACT Recommendation 2006/962/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning [Official Journal L 394 of 30.12.2006]. SUMMARY Key competences for lifelong learning are a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to the context. They are particularly necessary for personal fulfilment and development, social inclusion, active citizenship and employment. Key competences are essential in a knowledge society and guarantee more flexibility in the labour force, allowing it to adapt more quickly to constant changes in an increasingly interconnected world. They are also a major factor in innovation, productivity and competitiveness, and they contribute to the motivation and satisfaction of workers and the quality of work. Key competences should be acquired by:

young people at the end of their compulsory education and training, equipping them for adult life, particularly for working life, whilst forming a basis for further learning; adults throughout their lives, through a process of developing and updating skills.

The acquisition of key competences fits in with the principles of equality and access for all. This reference framework also applies in particular to disadvantaged groups whose educational potential requires support. Examples of such groups include people with low basic skills, early school leavers, the long-term unemployed, people with disabilities, migrants, etc. Eight key competences This framework defines eight key competences and describes the essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to each of these. These key competences are:

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communication in the mother tongue, which is the ability to express and interpret concepts, thoughts, feelings, facts and opinions in both oral and written form (listening, speaking, reading and writing) and to interact linguistically in an appropriate and creative way in a full range of societal and cultural contexts; communication in foreign languages, which involves, in addition to the main skill dimensions of communication in the mother tongue, mediation and intercultural understanding. The level of proficiency depends on several factors and the capacity for listening, speaking, reading and writing; mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology. Mathematical competence is the ability to develop and apply mathematical thinking in order to solve a range of problems in everyday situations, with the emphasis being placed on process, activity and knowledge. Basic competences in science and technology refer to the mastery, use and application of knowledge and methodologies that explain the natural world. These involve an understanding of the changes caused by human activity and the responsibility of each individual as a citizen; digital competence involves the confident and critical use of information society technology (IST) and thus basic skills in information and communication technology (ICT); learning to learn is related to learning, the ability to pursue and organise one's own learning, either individually or in groups, in accordance with one's own needs, and awareness of methods and opportunities; social and civic competences. Social competence refers to personal, interpersonal and intercultural competence and all forms of behaviour that equip individuals to participate in an effective and constructive way in social and working life. It is linked to personal and social well-being. An understanding of codes of conduct and customs in the different environments in which individuals operate is essential. Civic competence, and particularly knowledge of social and political concepts and structures (democracy, justice, equality, citizenship and civil rights), equips individuals to engage in active and democratic participation; sense of initiative and entrepreneurship is the ability to turn ideas into action. It involves creativity, innovation and risk-taking, as well as the ability to plan and manage projects in order to achieve objectives. The individual is aware of the context of his/her work and is able to seize opportunities that arise. It is the foundation for acquiring more specific skills and knowledge needed by those establishing or contributing to social or commercial activity. This should include awareness of ethical values and promote good governance;

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cultural awareness and expression, which involves appreciation of the importance of the creative expression of ideas, experiences and emotions in a range of media (music, performing arts, literature and the visual arts).

These key competences are all interdependent, and the emphasis in each case is on critical thinking, creativity, initiative, problem solving, risk assessment, decision taking and constructive management of feelings. A European reference framework for European Union (EU) countries and the Commission These key competences provide a reference framework to support national and European efforts to achieve the objectives they define. This framework is mainly intended for policy makers, education and training providers, employers and learners. It is a reference tool for EU countries and their education and training policies. EU countries should try to ensure: that initial education and training offer all young people the means to develop the key competences to a level that equips them for adult and working life, thus also providing a basis for future learning; that appropriate provision is made for young people who are disadvantaged in their training so that they can fulfil their educational potential; that adults can develop and update key competences throughout their lives, particularly priority target groups such as persons who need to update their competences; that appropriate infrastructure is in place for continuing education and training of adults, that there are measures to ensure access to education and training and the labour market and that there is support for learners depending on their specific needs and competences; the coherence of adult education and training provision through close links between the policies concerned.

It forms the basis for action at Community level, particularly within the Education and Training 2010 work programme and, more generally, within the Community education and training programmes. In this respect, the Commission should make a special effort to:

help EU countries to develop their education and training systems, apply the reference framework so as to facilitate peer learning and the exchange of good practices and follow up developments and report on progress through the progress reports on the Education and Training 2010 work programme;

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use the reference framework for the implementation of the Community education and training programmes whilst ensuring that these programmes promote the acquisition of key competences; use the reference framework to implement related Community policies (employment, youth, cultural and social policies) and to strengthen links with social partners and other organisations active in those fields; assess, by December 2010, the impact of the reference framework within the context of the Education and Training 2010 work programme as well as the experience gained and the implications for the future.

Background The transversal nature of key competences makes them essential. They provide added value for employment, social cohesion or young people (European Youth Pact), which explains the importance of lifelong learning in terms of adapting to change and integration. The reference criteria, which make it possible to judge improvements in European performances, featured in a 2005 report with contrasting results. In response to the concerns expressed at the Lisbon European Council on 23 and 24 March 2000, which were repeated in the revised Lisbon strategy in 2005, the key competences form part of the objectives of the Education and Training 2010 work programme, the Commission communication of 2001 on making a European area of lifelong learning a reality and the subsequent Council resolution adopted in 2002. These last two put forward specific proposals on making key competences a priority for all age groups. For its part, the 2004 joint interim report on the progress of the Education and Training 2010 work programme made the case for drawing up common European references and principles. Last updated: 03.03.2011

2.2.Teacher Education Competencies


(North Carolina University,Davidson College, USA, Departament of Education site , 2005

1.0 Content Knowledge

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1.1 Liberal Arts. Teachers have broad knowledge of the liberal arts. 1.1.1 Have background in basic subject areas: the arts, humanities, mathematics, and sciences, and have a broad understanding of the major cultures, religions, geography, political systems, philosophies, and economic systems by which people organize their lives. 1.1.2 Know and appreciate the great creative works of world cultures.

1.2 Subject-area Content. Teachers know the content appropriate to their teaching specialty and the relevant applications of this content. 1.2.1 Know their subjects considerably beyond the content they are expected to teach, and know how professionals in their field think and analyze the world. 1.2.2 Have a strong background in the subjects related to their specialty area. 1.2.3 Understand major concepts, assumptions, debates, processes of inquiry, and ways of knowing that are central to the discipline they teach. 1.2.4 Know how to apply information from their discipline to real-world situations.

1.3 Curriculum Theory. Teachers understand the ways in which their teaching area connects to the broad curriculum. 1.3.1 Know the links between the grade or subject they teach and what comes before and after their course or grade. 1.3.2 Can relate disciplinary knowledge to other subject areas.

1.4 Developmental Theory. Teachers know the ways in which learning takes place, and they know the appropriate levels of intellectual, physical, social, and emotional development of the students they teach. 1.4.1 Understand how learning occurs-how students construct knowledge, acquire skills, and develop habits of mind. 1.4.2 Understand that students' physical, social, emotional, moral and cognitive development influence learning. 1.4.3 Are aware of expected developmental progressions and ranges of individual variation within each domain (physical, social, emotional, moral and cognitive), can identify levels of readiness in learning, and understand how development in any one domain may affect performance in others. 1.4.4 Understand how social groups function and influence people, and how people influence groups.

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1.4.5 Recognize factors and situations that are likely to promote or diminish intrinsic motivation.

1.5 Diverse Cultural Environments. Teachers recognize the impact of cultural, economic, political, and social environments upon their discipline. 1.5.1 Know the history of their discipline. 1.5.2 Know the contributions that diverse cultural groups have made to their discipline.

1.6 Subject-Specific Technology. Teachers know the specific uses of technology in their discipline. 1.6.1 Understand how technological advances affect their discipline. 1.6.2 Know where to find technological resources specific to their discipline. 2.0 Pedagogical Skills 2.1 Effective Classroom Management. Teachers practice effective classroom management. 2.1.1 Exercise leadership by taking personal responsibility for the progress of all students. 2.1.2 Organize and motivate students to act in ways that meet the needs of both the individual student and the class as a whole. 2.1.3 Maximize efficiency, maintain discipline and morale, promote teamwork, plan, communicate, focus on results, evaluate progress, and make constant adjustments. 2.1.4 Work to minimize disruptions in student learning and take advantage of unexpected events to teach students. 2.1.5 Are skilled at facilitating consensus and mediating conflict. 2.1.6 Use a range of strategies to promote positive relationships, cooperation, and purposeful learning in the classroom. 2.1.7 Engage students in individual and cooperative learning activities that help them develop the motivation to achieve. 2.1.8 Organize, allocate, and manage the resources of time, space, activities, and attention to provide active and equitable engagement of students in productive tasks. 2.1.9 Help the group to develop shared values and expectations for student interactions, academic discussions, and individual and group responsibility that create a positive classroom climate of openness, mutual respect, support, and

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inquiry.

2.2 Effective Teaching Practices. Teachers use a variety of methods to teach students, including cooperative learning techniques, to promote content knowledge, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills. 2.2.1 Teach students how to live and work together productively and in a positive manner. 2.2.2 Effectively use multiple representations and explanations of disciplinary concepts that capture key ideas and link them to students' prior understandings. 2.2.3 Represent and use differing viewpoints, theories, "ways of knowing" and methods of inquiry in the teaching of subject matter concepts. 2.2.4 Integrate interdisciplinary learning experiences that allow students to integrate knowledge, skills, and methods of inquiry from several subject areas. 2.2.5 Use multiple teaching and learning strategies to engage students in active learning opportunities that promote the development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance capabilities and that help students assume responsibility for identifying and using learning resources. 2.2.6 Constantly monitor and adjust strategies in response to learner feedback. 2.2.7 Engage students in individual and cooperative learning activities that help them develop the motivation to achieve.2.2.8 Model effective communication strategies in conveying ideas and information and in asking questions.

2.3 Effective Assessment. Teachers use a variety of methods to assess what students have learned. 2.3.1 Use formal tests, responses to quizzes, evaluation of class assignments, student performances and projects, and standardized achievement tests to understand what students know. 2.3.2 Evaluate informal measures of student understanding, such as the questions asked in class and the level of student enthusiasm. 2.3.3 Use assessment strategies to involve learners in self-assessment activities, to help them become aware of their strengths and needs, and to encourage them to set personal goals for learning. 2.3.4 Modify teaching strategies and behavior in relation to student success, modifying plans and instructional approaches accordingly. 2.3.5 Maintain useful records of student work and performance and communicate student progress knowledgeably and responsibly, based on appropriate indicators, to students, parents, and other colleagues.

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2.4 Curriculum Alignment. Teachers align their instruction with the required curriculum. 2.4.1 Develop and apply strategies to make the North Carolina Standard Course of Study, local curriculum framework, and content standards developed by professional organizations in their specialty area significant to the students they teach. 2.4.2 Meet the requirements of the entire curriculum, while recognizing and focusing on those concepts in the curriculum which are fundamental to student understanding.

2.5 Diversified Instruction. Teachers plan instruction that is appropriate for a diverse student population, including students with special needs. 2.5.1 Develop short- and long-range plans for instruction, which reflect understanding of how students learn, and allow for students who learn at a faster or slower pace than others to be successful and engaged in learning. 2.5.2 Understand that plans are general guidelines and must be constantly monitored and modified to enhance the learning that is occurring in the classroom. 2.5.3 Make inclusion of special needs students in the regular classroom a positive experience for each student in the class and collaborate with the range of support specialists to help them meet the needs of all students. 2.5.4 Identify and design instruction appropriate to students' stages of development, learning styles, strengths, and needs.2.5.5 Bring multiple perspectives to the discussion of subject matter, including attention to students' personal, family, and community experiences and cultural norms. 2.5.6 Know how to take contextual considerations (instructional materials, individual student interests, needs and aptitudes, and community resources) into curriculum goals and students' experiences. 2.5.7 Know when and how to adjust plans based on student responses and other contingencies.

2.6 Technology Skills. Teachers have strong and current technology skills. 2.6.1 Know when and how to use current educational technology. 2.6.2 Understand the most appropriate type and level of technology to use to maximize student learning. 3.0 Professional Dispositions

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3.1 Belief That All Students Can Learn. Teachers believe that all students can learn. 3.1.1 Instill a love of learning and self-confidence based on achievement. 3.1.2 Treat students as individuals. 3.1.3 Enjoy spending time in the company of children and young adults learn all they can about each of their students; maintain the dignity of each student; express pride in their students' accomplishments. 3.1.4 Believe that all children can learn at high levels and persist in helping all children achieve success.

3.2 Respect for Diversity. Teachers know and respect the influence of race, ethnicity, gender, religion and other aspects of culture on a child's development and personality. 3.2.1 Demonstrate the belief that diversity in the classroom, in the school, and in society is a strength and show this commitment by daily conduct. 3.2.2 Do not allow subtle or overt intolerance to bigotry in classrooms or schools, and actively select materials and develop lessons that counteract stereotypes. 3.2.3 Strive to understand how an individual child's culture and background influence his or her school performance. 3.2.4 In schools and communities where population diversity is limited, find ways to acquaint children with a wide variety of people who make up our society and world.

3.3 Professional Development and Ethics. Teachers meet high ethical standards of practice and engage in professional development activities, including development in the area of technology. 3.3.1 Keep the needs of students at the center of professional thoughts and actions. 3.3.2 Live up to universal ethical principles of honesty, truthfulness, integrity, fair treatment, and respect for others. 3.3.3 Maintain a clear distinction between personal values and professional ethics. 3.3.4 Advocate for teacher professionalism, for school conditions that encourage teaching and learning, and for decision-making structures that take advantage of the expertise of teachers. 3.3.5 Recognize that life-long learning is an integral part of the profession. 3.3.6 Recognize the professional responsibility for engaging in and supporting appropriate professional practices for self and colleagues. 3.4 Reflective Practice. Teachers are reflective about their practice. 3.4.1 Think systematically about what happens in the classroom and school, why it

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happens, and what can be done to improve student achievement. 3.4.2 Study educational literature and interpret research and apply it to classroom and school. 3.4.3 Value critical thinking and self-directed learning as habits of mind.

3.5 Community & School Collaboration. Teachers work collaboratively with colleagues, families, and the community to support the learning environment. 3.5.1 Reach out beyond the school to promote trust and understanding, to build partnerships with all segments of the school community, and to overcome obstacles that stand in the way of effective family and community involvement in the education of children. 3.5.2 Are informed about policy issues and initiate or assist in implementing initiatives to improve the education of children. 3.5.3 Are respected members of the community who play key roles in helping improve communication and collaboration between the members of the community and educators in the school and school system. 3.5.4 Realize that everything that happens in the community, between individual students, with families, or with colleagues has an impact in the classroom, and work to minimize disruptions in student learning and take advantage of unexpected events to teach students. 3.5.5 Value and learn from the expertise of other educators.

2.3.Proiectul european DICE

DICE (Drama Improves Lisbon Key Competences in Education) was an international EU-supported project. In addition to other educational aims, this two-year project was a crosscultural research study investigating the effects of educational theatre and drama on five of the eight Lisbon Key Competences. The research was conducted by twelve partners (leader: Hungary, partners: Czech Republic, Netherlands, Norway, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Sweden and United Kingdom). All members are highly regarded nationally and internationally and represent a wide variety of formal and non-formal sectors of education. Educational theatre and drama practitioners have believed in the efficacy of their work for a long time, but until now it has rarely been measured with scientific tools. In the DICE project, several dozen educational theatre and drama practitioners from twelve countries, with the widest theoretical and professional background, have allied forces with academics (psychologists and

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sociologists), to measure the impact of educational theatre and drama. The objectives of the project were:

To demonstrate with cross-cultural quantitative and qualitative research that educational theatre and drama is a powerful tool to improve the Lisbon Key Competences. The research was conducted with almost five thousand young people aged 13-16 years. To publish a Policy Paper based on the research, and disseminate it among educational and cultural stakeholders at the European, national, and local levels worldwide. To create an Education Resource - a publication for schools, educators and arts practitioners about the different practices of educational theatre and drama. To disseminate this pack at the European, national, and local levels worldwide. To compare theatre and drama activities in education in different countries and help the transfer of know-how between experts. To hold conferences in the partner countries in order to disseminate the results of the project, as well as a conference in Brussels to disseminate the first main results to key EU leaders in the relevant areas of arts, culture, education and youth.

Our hypothesis was that educational theatre and drama has an impact on five of the eight Lisbon Key Competences. We examined the following five out of the eight Key Competences: 1.Communication in the mother tongue 2. Learning to learn 3.Interpersonal, intercultural and social competences, civic competence 4. Entrepreneurship 5. Cultural expression

Furthermore, we believe that there is a competence not mentioned among the Key Competences, which is the universal competence of what it is to be human. We have called this competence All this and more, and included it in the discussion of the research results. These six are life-long learning skills and competences necessary for the personal development of young people, their future employment, and active European citizenship. The key outcomes of the project are the Education Resource and the Policy Paper, and hopefully also a long series of publications of the detailed research results in future years, beyond the scope of the project. The innovative aspect of the project is that this is the first research to demonstrate connections between theatre and drama activities in education and the Lisbon Key Competences, with the added value that the research results will be widely shared with the relevant communities and stakeholders. As many of the competences have rarely or never been examined before in crosscultural studies, we also had to invent and develop new measurement tools that might be useful in

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the future for other educational areas. Besides some newly developed questionnaires for children, teachers, theatre and drama practitioners and external assessors, we devised a toolkit for the independent objective observation of educational theatre and drama classes. All materials used were identical in all twelve countries, and therefore are applicable in any culture. The ethos underpinning the DICE project has been developed by the practice of the research project itself. It reflects our own learning, the spirit of our collaboration and the ongoing process we are engaged in through educational theatre and drama. We do not claim to be an absolute authority on the theory and practice of educational drama and theatre. We are a group of artist educators and arts education pedagogues who came together because we hold some fundamental values in common that underpin the work that we do. Principal among them is a commitment to nurture and develop the young; as drama educators and practitioners we work with young people and train others to do so. We proceed from the premise that children and young people are not undeveloped adults but human beings who have rights, should be treated justly and given equality of opportunity. DICE is not only a two-year-long project, but rather a journey and an enterprise that has just started with this research. In the past two years several hundred people have been working with us, from peer volunteers to members of National Academies of Science. For some of us, this project has been one of the most challenging, if not the most challenging, task of our professional career, something from which we could learn significantly.
142455-LLP-1-2008-1-HU-COMENIUS-CMP "This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflect

2.4.Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students


Developed by the American Federation of Teachers National Council on Measurement in Education National Education Association, 1990

The professional education associations began working in 1987 to develop standards for teacher competence in student assessment out of concern that the potential educational benefits of student assessments be fully realized. The Committee[1] appointed to this project completed its work in 1990 following reviews of earlier drafts by members of the measurement, teaching, and teacher preparation and certification communities. Parallel committees of affected associations are encouraged to develop similar statements of qualifications for school administrators, counselors,

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testing directors, supervisors, and other educators in the near future. These statements are intended to guide the preservice and inservice preparation of educators, the accreditation of preparation programs, and the future certification of all educators. A standard is defined here as a principle generally accepted by the professional associations responsible for this document. Assessment is defined as the process of obtaining information that is used to make educational decisions about students, to give feedback to the student about his or her progress, strengths, and weaknesses, to judge instructional effectiveness and curricular adequacy, and to inform policy. The various assessment techniques include, but are not limited to, formal and informal observation, qualitative analysis of pupil performance and products, paperand-pencil tests, oral questioning, and analysis of student records. The assessment competencies included here are the knowledge and skills critical to a teacher's role as educator. It is understood that there are many competencies beyond assessment competencies which teachers must possess. By establishing standards for teacher competence in student assessment, the associations subscribe to the view that student assessment is an essential part of teaching and that good teaching cannot exist without good student assessment. Training to develop the competencies covered in the standards should be an integral part of preservice preparation. Further, such assessment training should be widely available to practicing teachers through staff development programs at the district and building levels. The standards are intended for use as: a guide for teacher educators as they design and approve programs for teacher preparation a self-assessment guide for teachers in identifying their needs for professional development in student assessment a guide for workshop instructors as they design professional development experiences for in-service teachers an impetus for educational measurement specialists and teacher trainers to conceptualize student assessment and teacher training in student assessment more broadly than has been the case in the past.

The standards should be incorporated into future teacher training and certification programs. Teachers who have not had the preparation these standards imply should have the opportunity and support to develop these competencies before the standards enter into the evaluation of these teachers. The Approach Used To Develop The Standards The members of the associations that supported this work are professional educators involved in teaching, teacher education, and student assessment. Members of these associations are concerned about the inadequacy with which teachers are prepared for assessing the educational progress of

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their students, and thus sought to address this concern effectively. A committee named by the associations first met in September 1987 and affirmed its commitment to defining standards for teacher preparation in student assessment. The committee then undertook a review of the research literature to identify needs in student assessment, current levels of teacher training in student assessment, areas of teacher activities requiring competence in using assessments, and current levels of teacher competence in student assessment. The members of the committee used their collective experience and expertise to formulate and then revise statements of important assessment competencies. Drafts of these competencies went through several revisions by the Committee before the standards were released for public review. Comments by reviewers from each of the associations were then used to prepare a final statement. The Scope of a Teacher's Professional Role and Responsibilities for Student Assessment There are seven standards in this document. In recognizing the critical need to revitalize classroom assessment, some standards focus on classroom-based competencies. Because of teachers' growing roles in education and policy decisions beyond the classroom, other standards address assessment competencies underlying teacher participation in decisions related to assessment at the school, district, state, and national levels. The scope of a teacher's professional role and responsibilities for student assessment may be described in terms of the following activities. These activities imply that teachers need competence in student assessment and sufficient time and resources to complete them in a professional manner.

Activities Occurring Prior to Instruction o (a) Understanding students' cultural backgrounds, interests, skills, and abilities as they apply across a range of learning domains and/or subject areas; o (b) understanding students' motivations and their interests in specific class content; o (c) clarifying and articulating the performance outcomes expected of pupils; and o (d) planning instruction for individuals or groups of students. Activities Occurring During Instruction o (a) Monitoring pupil progress toward instructional goals; o (b) identifying gains and difficulties pupils are experiencing in learning and performing; o (c) adjusting instruction; o (d) giving contingent, specific, and credible praise and feedback; o (e) motivating students to learn; and o (f) judging the extent of pupil attainment of instructional outcomes. Activities Occurring After The Appropriate Instructional Segment (e.g. lesson, class, semester, grade) o (a) Describing the extent to which each pupil has attained both short- and long-term instructional goals; o (b) communicating strengths and weaknesses based on assessment results to students, and parents or guardians;

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(c) recording and reporting assessment results for school-level analysis, evaluation, and decision-making; o (d) analyzing assessment information gathered before and during instruction to understand each students' progress to date and to inform future instructional planning; o (e) evaluating the effectiveness of instruction; and o (f) evaluating the effectiveness of the curriculum and materials in use. Activities Associated With a Teacher's Involvement in School Building and School District Decision-Making o (a) Serving on a school or district committee examining the school's and district's strengths and weaknesses in the development of its students; o (b) working on the development or selection of assessment methods for school building or school district use; o (c) evaluating school district curriculum; and o (d) other related activities. Activities Associated With a Teacher's Involvement in a Wider Community of Educators o (a) Serving on a state committee asked to develop learning goals and associated assessment methods; o (b) participating in reviews of the appropriateness of district, state, or national student goals and associated assessment methods; and o (c) interpreting the results of state and national student assessment programs.
o

Each standard that follows is an expectation for assessment knowledge or skill that a teacher should possess in order to perform well in the five areas just described. As a set, the standards call on teachers to demonstrate skill at selecting, developing, applying, using, communicating, and evaluating student assessment information and student assessment practices. A brief rationale and illustrative behaviors follow each standard. The standards represent a conceptual framework or scaffolding from which specific skills can be derived. Work to make these standards operational will be needed even after they have been published. It is also expected that experience in the application of these standards should lead to their improvement and further development. Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students

1. Teachers should be skilled in choosing assessment methods appropriate for instructional decisions. Skills in choosing appropriate, useful, administratively convenient, technically adequate, and fair assessment methods are prerequisite to good use of information to support instructional decisions. Teachers need to be well-acquainted with the kinds of information provided by a broad range of

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assessment alternatives and their strengths and weaknesses. In particular, they should be familiar with criteria for evaluating and selecting assessment methods in light of instructional plans. Teachers who meet this standard will have the conceptual and application skills that follow. They will be able to use the concepts of assessment error and validity when developing or selecting their approaches to classroom assessment of students. They will understand how valid assessment data can support instructional activities such as providing appropriate feedback to students, diagnosing group and individual learning needs, planning for individualized educational programs, motivating students, and evaluating instructional procedures. They will understand how invalid information can affect instructional decisions about students. They will also be able to use and evaluate assessment options available to them, considering among other things, the cultural, social, economic, and language backgrounds of students. They will be aware that different assessment approaches can be incompatible with certain instructional goals and may impact quite differently on their teaching. Teachers will know, for each assessment approach they use, its appropriateness for making decisions about their pupils. Moreover, teachers will know of where to find information about and/or reviews of various assessment methods. Assessment options are diverse and include textand curriculum-embedded questions and tests, standardized criterion-referenced and normreferenced tests, oral questioning, spontaneous and structured performance assessments, portfolios, exhibitions, demonstrations, rating scales, writing samples, paper-and-pencil tests, seatwork and homework, peer- and self-assessments, student records, observations, questionnaires, interviews, projects, products, and others' opinions. 2. Teachers should be skilled in developing assessment methods appropriate for instructional decisions. While teachers often use published or other external assessment tools, the bulk of the assessment information they use for decision-making comes from approaches they create and implement. Indeed, the assessment demands of the classroom go well beyond readily available instruments. Teachers who meet this standard will have the conceptual and application skills that follow. Teachers will be skilled in planning the collection of information that facilitates the decisions they will make. They will know and follow appropriate principles for developing and using assessment methods in their teaching, avoiding common pitfalls in student assessment. Such techniques may include several of the options listed at the end of the first standard. The teacher will select the techniques which are appropriate to the intent of the teacher's instruction. Teachers meeting this standard will also be skilled in using student data to analyze the quality of each assessment technique they use. Since most teachers do not have access to assessment specialists, they must be prepared to do these analyses themselves.

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3. The teacher should be skilled in administering, scoring and interpreting the results of both externally-produced and teacher-produced assessment methods. It is not enough that teachers are able to select and develop good assessment methods; they must also be able to apply them properly. Teachers should be skilled in administering, scoring, and interpreting results from diverse assessment methods. Teachers who meet this standard will have the conceptual and application skills that follow. They will be skilled in interpreting informal and formal teacher-produced assessment results, including pupils' performances in class and on homework assignments. Teachers will be able to use guides for scoring essay questions and projects, stencils for scoring response-choice questions, and scales for rating performance assessments. They will be able to use these in ways that produce consistent results. Teachers will be able to administer standardized achievement tests and be able to interpret the commonly reported scores: percentile ranks, percentile band scores, standard scores, and grade equivalents. They will have a conceptual understanding of the summary indexes commonly reported with assessment results: measures of central tendency, dispersion, relationships, reliability, and errors of measurement. Teachers will be able to apply these concepts of score and summary indices in ways that enhance their use of the assessments that they develop. They will be able to analyze assessment results to identify pupils' strengths and errors. If they get inconsistent results, they will seek other explanations for the discrepancy or other data to attempt to resolve the uncertainty before arriving at a decision. They will be able to use assessment methods in ways that encourage students' educational development and that do not inappropriately increase students' anxiety levels. 4. Teachers should be skilled in using assessment results when making decisions about individual students, planning teaching, developing curriculum, and school improvement. Assessment results are used to make educational decisions at several levels: in the classroom about students, in the community about a school and a school district, and in society, generally, about the purposes and outcomes of the educational enterprise. Teachers play a vital role when participating in decision-making at each of these levels and must be able to use assessment results effectively. Teachers who meet this standard will have the conceptual and application skills that follow. They will be able to use accumulated assessment information to organize a sound instructional plan for facilitating students' educational development. When using assessment results to plan and/or evaluate instruction and curriculum, teachers will interpret the results correctly and avoid common misinterpretations, such as basing decisions on scores that lack curriculum validity. They will be informed about the results of local, regional, state, and national assessments and about their appropriate use for pupil, classroom, school, district, state, and national educational improvement.

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5. Teachers should be skilled in developing valid pupil grading procedures which use pupil assessments. Grading students is an important part of professional practice for teachers. Grading is defined as indicating both a student's level of performance and a teacher's valuing of that performance. The principles for using assessments to obtain valid grades are known and teachers should employ them. Teachers who meet this standard will have the conceptual and application skills that follow. They will be able to devise, implement, and explain a procedure for developing grades composed of marks from various assignments, projects, inclass activities, quizzes, tests, and/or other assessments that they may use. Teachers will understand and be able to articulate why the grades they assign are rational, justified, and fair, acknowledging that such grades reflect their preferences and judgments. Teachers will be able to recognize and to avoid faulty grading procedures such as using grades as punishment. They will be able to evaluate and to modify their grading procedures in order to improve the validity of the interpretations made from them about students' attainments. 6. Teachers should be skilled in communicating assessment results to students, parents, other lay audiences, and other educators. Teachers must routinely report assessment results to students and to parents or guardians. In addition, they are frequently asked to report or to discuss assessment results with other educators and with diverse lay audiences. If the results are not communicated effectively, they may be misused or not used. To communicate effectively with others on matters of student assessment, teachers must be able to use assessment terminology appropriately and must be able to articulate the meaning, limitations, and implications of assessment results. Furthermore, teachers will sometimes be in a position that will require them to defend their own assessment procedures and their interpretations of them. At other times, teachers may need to help the public to interpret assessment results appropriately. Teachers who meet this standard will have the conceptual and application skills that follow. Teachers will understand and be able to give appropriate explanations of how the interpretation of student assessments must be moderated by the student's socio-economic, cultural, language, and other background factors. Teachers will be able to explain that assessment results do not imply that such background factors limit a student's ultimate educational development. They will be able to communicate to students and to their parents or guardians how they may assess the student's educational progress. Teachers will understand and be able to explain the importance of taking measurement errors into account when using assessments to make decisions about individual students. Teachers will be able to explain the limitations of different informal and formal assessment methods. They will be able to explain printed reports of the results of pupil assessments at the classroom, school district, state, and national levels.

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7. Teachers should be skilled in recognizing unethical, illegal, and otherwise inappropriate assessment methods and uses of assessment information. Fairness, the rights of all concerned, and professional ethical behavior must undergird all student assessment activities, from the initial planning for and gathering of information to the interpretation, use, and communication of the results. Teachers must be well-versed in their own ethical and legal responsibilities in assessment. In addition, they should also attempt to have the inappropriate assessment practices of others discontinued whenever they are encountered. Teachers should also participate with the wider educational community in defining the limits of appropriate professional behavior in assessment. Teachers who meet this standard will have the conceptual and application skills that follow. They will know those laws and case decisions which affect their classroom, school district, and state assessment practices. Teachers will be aware that various assessment procedures can be misused or overused resulting in harmful consequences such as embarrassing students, violating a student's right to confidentiality, and inappropriately using students' standardized achievement test scores to measure teaching effectiveness.

[1] The Committee that developed this statement was appointed by the collaborating professional associations: James R. Sanders (Western Michigan University) chaired the Committee and represented NCME along with John R. Hills (Florida State University) and Anthony J. Nitko (University of Pittsburgh). Jack C. Merwin (University of Minnesota) represented the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Carolyn Trice represented the American Federation of Teachers, and Marcella Dianda and Jeffrey Schneider represented the National Education Association.

2.5. Teaching Grammar


2003, 2004 The National Capital Language Resource Center, Washington, DC

Goals and Techniques for Teaching Grammar The goal of grammar instruction is to enable students to carry out their communication purposes. This goal has three implications:

Students need overt instruction that connects grammar points with larger communication contexts. Students do not need to master every aspect of each grammar point, only those that are relevant to the immediate communication task. Error correction is not always the instructor's first responsibility.

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Overt Grammar Instruction Adult students appreciate and benefit from direct instruction that allows them to apply critical thinking skills to language learning. Instructors can take advantage of this by providing explanations that give students a descriptive understanding (declarative knowledge) of each point of grammar.

Teach the grammar point in the target language or the students' first language or both. The goal is to facilitate understanding. Limit the time you devote to grammar explanations to 10 minutes, especially for lower level students whose ability to sustain attention can be limited. Present grammar points in written and oral ways to address the needs of students with different learning styles.

An important part of grammar instruction is providing examples. Teachers need to plan their examples carefully around two basic principles:

Be sure the examples are accurate and appropriate. They must present the language appropriately, be culturally appropriate for the setting in which they are used, and be to the point of the lesson. Use the examples as teaching tools. Focus examples on a particular theme or topic so that students have more contact with specific information and vocabulary. Relevance of Grammar Instruction

In the communicative competence model, the purpose of learning grammar is to learn the language of which the grammar is a part. Instructors therefore teach grammar forms and structures in relation to meaning and use for the specific communication tasks that students need to complete. Compare the traditional model and the communicative competence model for teaching the English past tense: Traditional: grammar for grammar's sake

Teach the regular -ed form with its two pronunciation variants Teach the doubling rule for verbs that end in d (for example, wed-wedded) Hand out a list of irregular verbs that students must memorize Do pattern practice drills for -ed Do substitution drills for irregular verbs

Communicative competence: grammar for communication's sake


Distribute two short narratives about recent experiences or events, each one to half of the class Teach the regular -ed form, using verbs that occur in the texts as examples. Teach the pronunciation and doubling rules if those forms occur in the texts. Teach the irregular verbs that occur in the texts. Students read the narratives, ask questions about points they don't understand.

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Students work in pairs in which one member has read Story A and the other Story B. Students interview one another; using the information from the interview, they then write up or orally repeat the story they have not read. Error Correction

At all proficiency levels, learners produce language that is not exactly the language used by native speakers. Some of the differences are grammatical, while others involve vocabulary selection and mistakes in the selection of language appropriate for different contexts. In responding to student communication, teachers need to be careful not to focus on error correction to the detriment of communication and confidence building. Teachers need to let students know when they are making errors so that they can work on improving. Teachers also need to build students' confidence in their ability to use the language by focusing on the content of their communication rather than the grammatical form. Teachers can use error correction to support language acquisition, and avoid using it in ways that undermine students' desire to communicate in the language, by taking cues from context.

When students are doing structured output activities that focus on development of new language skills, use error correction to guide them.

Example: Student (in class): I buy a new car yesterday. Teacher: You bought a new car yesterday. Remember, the past tense of buy is bought.

When students are engaged in communicative activities, correct errors only if they interfere with comprehensibility. Respond using correct forms, but without stressing them. Example:
Student (greeting teacher) : I buy a new car yesterday! Teacher: You bought a new car? That's exciting! What kind?

Documentarul Nr. 3 DIFERENIEREA I INDIVIDUALIZAREA INSTRUIRII


3.1. O sintez a cercetrilor
Individualized Approaches to Instruction Similar to programmed learning and teaching machines individualized instruction began in the early 1900s, and was revived in the 1960s. The Keller Plan, Individually Prescribed

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Instruction, Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs, and Individually Guided Education are all examples of individualized instruction in the U.S. (Saettler, 1990). Keller Plan (1963) Developed by F.S. Keller, a colleague of Skinner, the Keller plan was used for university college classes. Main features of Keller Plan individually paced. mastery learning. lectures and demonstrations motivational rather than critical information. use of proctors which permitted testing, immediate scoring, tutoring, personalsocial aspect of educational process.

(Saettler, 1990) A review of evaluative research on the Keller plan establishes the following points:

1) The Keller plan is an attractive teaching method to most students. In every published report, students rate the Keller plan much more favorably than teaching by lecture. 2) Self-pacing and interaction with tutors seem to be the features of the Keller courses most favored by students. 3) Several investigators report higher-than-average withdrawal rates for their Keller sections. The conditions that influence withdrawal and procrastination in Keller courses have been studied, and it seems possible to control procrastination and withdrawal through course design. 4) Content learning (as measured by final examinations) is adequate in Keller courses. In the published studies, final examination performance in Keller sections always equals, and usually exceeds, performance in lecture sessions. 5) Students almost invariably report that they learn more in PSI than in lecture courses, and also nearly always report putting more time and effort into the Keller courses.

Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) (1964) Developed by Learning Research and Development Center of the University of Pitsburgh. Lasted into the 1970s when it lost funding and its use dwindled Main features of IPI: prepared units. behavioral objectives.

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planned instructional sequences. used for reading, math and science. included pretest and posttest for each unit. materials continually evaluated and upgraded to meet behavioral objectives.

(Saettler, 1990) Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN) (1967) Headed by Jon C. Flanagan, PLAN was developed under sponsorship of American Institutes for Research (AIR), Westinghouse Learning Corporation and fourteen U.S. School districts. Abandoned in late 1970s because of upgrading costs Main features of PLAN schools selected items from about 6,000 behavioral objectives. each instructional module took about two weeks instruction and were made up of approximately. five objectives. mastery learning. remedial le arning plus retesting. (Saettler, 1990)

3.2. Studii semnificative


Individualized Instruction
(Education

Encyclopedia - StateUniversity.com Education Encyclopedia )

The improvement of instruction has been a goal of educators as far back as the teachings of the Greek philosopher Socrates. Although there are a wide variety of approaches, in most cases instruction can be characterized by the following tasks: setting objectives, teaching content based on these objectives, and evaluating performance. This formula is indeed the most common; however, there have been many advocates of alternative approaches. Among the alternative approaches there is a focus on a more individualized approach to instruction, where the traits of the individual learner are given more consideration. Each approach to individualizing instruction is different, but they all seek to manipulate the three following fundamental variables:

Pace: the amount of time given to a student to learn the content Method: the way that the instruction is structured and managed Content: the material to be learned

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Pace There are two basic extremes when the pace of instruction is considered. The first is when someone other than student, usually a teacher or instructor, controls the amount of time spent learning the material. In this case specific due dates are defined before instruction begins. This is currently the predominant model in most educational systems. The opposite extreme would be if the learner had exclusive control over the pace of instruction, without a time limit. Between these two extremes are situations where control of the pace of instruction is shared or negotiated, not necessarily equally, by the teacher and learner. Method As theories of learning and instruction develop and mature, more and more consideration is given to the way in which learning occurs. In an attempt to account for the way that students learn, instructors may apply a combination of theories and principles in preparing instruction. This can influence whether instruction is designed for one homogenous group, or is flexible, in anticipation of individual differences among learners. In the majority of cases, instruction is designed for the average learner, and is customized ad-hoc by the teacher or instructor as needed once instruction begins. This type of instruction, although it does give some consideration to individual differences among learners during instruction, does not fall into the typically accepted definition of individualized instruction. For instruction to be considered individualized, the instruction is usually designed to account for specific learner characteristics. This could include alternative instructional methods for students with different backgrounds and learning styles. To help clarify this point, the instructional method used can be considered in terms of extremes. In the first extreme, one instructional method is used for everyone. Terms like inclusion and mainstreaming have been used to describe this first case. In the second extreme, a specific instructional method is used for each individual. Between these extremes lie situations where students are arranged into groups according to the their characteristics. These groups can vary in size, and the instructional method is tailored to each group. Content Perhaps the least frequently modified component is the actual learning content. However, it is possible to vary the content taught to different learners or groups of learners. Both "tracking" and "enrichment" are examples of customizing instructional content. A renewed movement toward learner-centered principles in education has given this component more consideration in the 1990s. It has become possible to find examples of instructional settings in which students define their own content, and pursue learning based on their own interests. In most cases, however, this opportunity is limited to high-achieving students. In terms of extremes, content can be uniform for everyone, or unique to each individual. Between these extremes lie cases where the content can be varied, but only within a predefined range. The range of activities available to the learner is an indicator of how individualized the content is in an instructional setting. Examples of Individualized Instruction There are many examples of instructional approaches that have modified some or all of these three components. In all of these examples, the goal was to improve the instructional experience for the

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individual learner. Some of the most historically notable approaches are discussed below. Within each example both the benefits and criticisms of each approach are discussed. Personalized System of Instruction. Introduced in 1964 by Fred Keller, the Personalized System of Instruction, or the Keller Plan, is perhaps one of the first comprehensive systems of individualized instruction. Keller based his system on ten accepted educational principles (McGaw, p. 4):

Active responding Positive conditions and consequences Specification of objectives Organization of material Mastery before advancement Evaluation/objectives congruence Frequent evaluation Immediate feedback Self-pacing Personalization

None of these ten principles should be considered unique, as they all can be easily found in other more traditional educational settings. Rather, it is the components of the Keller planbased on these ten principlesthat makes the Keller Plan somewhat different: self-pacing; unit mastery; student tutors; optional motivational lectures; and learning from written material. It is the first component, self-pacing, that is the most obvious attempt at individualizing the instruction. From the second component, unit mastery, it can be seen that the content does not vary, as the unit content is fixed. To illustrate the static nature of the content, Mike Naumes describes the basic design of a course using Keller's personalized system of instruction: breaking the material of the course into several units. dividing the material intounits one to two weeks long. [and] aseach unit of material is covered, specific learning objectives are given to the students. These state exactly what a student must know to pass a unit quiz. (p. 2) The last three components indicate that the method of instruction does vary slightly from individual to individual. Although all students learn from written material and student tutors, the motivational lectures are optional. Making these lectures optional does constitute some flexibility in terms of instructional method, albeit extremely limited. Fundamentally, it is the self-pacing that more or less stands alone as the individualized component of this instructional system. Proponents of the Keller Plan cite many benefits, including better retention and increased motivation for further learning. At the same time, there are others with criticisms of the Keller Plan such as the following: limited instructional methods, high dropout rates, and decreased human interaction. The debate over the effectiveness of Keller's Personalized System of Instruction, with its advantages and disadvantages, raises fundamental questions about the nature of self-contained, self-paced learning. There are indeed opportunities for designing instruction that lend themselves to the Personalized System of Instruction approach. This would apply especially to cases where enrollment is high, course material is standardized and stable, and faculty resources are scarce. On the other hand, when there is not a shortage of faculty, or the class size is not large, the course

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would be better taught with more conventional methods, yet still based on sound educational principles. Where the line is drawn on the continuum between these two extremes is a matter of opinion, and should be based on the context in which the instruction is to take place. It would be inappropriate to claim that one of the extremes is completely right, and the other wrong, given the vast number of studies and evaluations that support either side. Audio-Tutorial. Audio-Tutorial is a method of individualized instruction developed by Samuel N. Postlethwait in 1961 at Purdue University. His goal was to find an improved method of teaching botany to a larger number of college students and to effectively assist the students who possessed only limited backgrounds in the subject. The development of an Audio-Tutorial program requires a significant amount of planning and time by the instructor. Although there is some room for modification for each specific program, the general principles remain the same. Students have access to a taped presentation of a specifically designed program that directs their activities one at a time. The basic principles of Audio-Tutorial are "(1) repetition; (2) concentration; (3) association; (4) unit steps; (5) use of the communication vehicle appropriate to the objective;(6) use of multiplicity of approaches; and (7) use of an integrated experience approach" (Couch, p. 6). The major benefits of Audio-Tutorial are that "students can adopt the study pace to their ability to assimilate the information. Exposure to difficult subjects is repeated as often as necessary for any particular student" (Postlethwait, Novak, and Murray, p. 5). In addition to taking more time if they wish, students can also accelerate the pace of their learning. Other benefits are that students feel more responsible for their learning, and more students can be accommodated in less laboratory space and with less staff. Some of the major criticisms that are common to Audio-Tutorial courses were illustrated by Robert K. Snortland upon evaluating a course in graphics design. The primary criticism concerns the claim of responsibility. It seems that some students respond to the responsibility placed upon them, while others do not. There was a problem with the initial dropout rate, which seemed to be explained by the lack of willingness of some students to take on the amount of responsibility that was required in order to complete the course. Snortland advised that "since many freshmen students are not ready for additional self-discipline required of them in the A-T format, the choice of either a structured approach or an individualized approach should always remain open" (p. 8). Many other criticisms of Audio-Tutorial courses are concerned with teacher control. The instructor dictates all of the material including the learning and feedback procedures. The criticism is that this is a severe form of teacher control Like the Keller Plan, Audio-Tutorial allows the individual student to determine his or her own pace, and the content is fixed. Unlike the Keller Plan, however, there are more instructional delivery methods available when designing the course. Yet the locus of control remains with the instructor in the Audio-Tutorial as well. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI). Most proponents of individualized instruction saw the computer as a way to further improve the design and delivery of individualized instructionnow in an electronic environment. With the advent of the computer came the potential to deliver individualized instruction in a more powerful

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way. This potential was anticipated long before the proliferation of the home computer. John E. Coulson wrote in 1970: "A modern computer has characteristics that closely parallel those needed in any educational system that wishes to provide highly individualized instruction"(p. 4). He also noted the specific benefits that the computer could offer (p. 5): "It has a very large memory capacity that can be used to store instructional content material orto generate such material." "The computer can perform complex analyses of student responses." "The computer can make decisions based on the assessments of student performance, matching resources to individual student needs."

Although there were many anticipated benefits to using the computer to deliver instruction, in practice, CAI has been heavily criticized for its hidden side-effects. These are nicely articulated by Henry F. Olds: Learning is in control of some unknown source that determines almost all aspects of the interactive process. To learn one must suspend all normal forms of interaction and engage only in those called for by the program. Learning is an isolated activity to be carried on primarily in a oneto-one interaction with the computer. Normal inter-human dialogue is to be suspended while learning with the computer. Learning involves understanding (psyching out) how the program expects one to behave and adapting one's behavior accordingly. One must suspend idiosyncratic behavior. Learning (even in highly sophisticated, branching programs) is a linear, step-by-step process. In learning from the computer, one must suspend creative insights, intuitions, cognitive leaps, and other nonlinear mental phenomena. (p. 9) Olds even offered some solutions to these problems, indicating that "time on-line needs to be mixed with plenty of opportunities for human interaction" and that computer should allow people to "jump around within the program structure" (p. 9). CAI became the forerunner in individualized instruction during the 1980s and early 1990s, as the home computer became more powerful and less expensive. The changes that the computer environment helped to make were predominantly a change in the delivery mechanism of individualized instruction, rather than a fundamental change in purpose or method. In a sense, the computer, especially the home computer, offered a convenience that other delivery mechanisms lacked. This convenience was accelerated with the proliferation of the Internet in late 1990s. Starting as an extension of computer-based instruction, online education became increasingly popular and eventually began to supplant CAI as the predominant form of individualized instruction. Distance education. A surge in the number of nontraditional students attending college in the 1990s, combined with the technological potential of the Internet, has caused a renewed effort to deliver instruction in a nontraditional fashion. Accessibility and conveniencenot researchare the primary driving forces in this movement toward instruction in the form on online education. When reviewing more than 200 articles on online instruction over the 1990s, James DiPerna and Robert Volpe found that only one article directly addressed the impact of the technology on learning. Partnerships between

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businesses and institutions of higher learning have arisen to address the increased need for continuing education. Whether it is more effective or less effective than traditional education seems less a concern. In many cases, the audience addressed is nontraditional, and they have limited access to traditional education. Additionally, many students who could otherwise attend brick-and-mortar institutions are choosing online education for the convenience. In other words, what was established initially due to necessity has now expanded as students choose this route because of its convenience. The rate of expansion of online education has accelerated to a point where the general feeling among institutions of higher learning is of willing participation. In terms of pace, method, and content, there is a large variety of competing approaches to distance education, and no dominant model has emerged. Like previous iterations of individualized instruction, it is usually the pace of instruction that most often varies. The content is still fixed in most cases, as is the method (predominantly via the Internet). Final Issues Individualized instruction comes in many forms, all of which seek to improve instruction in some way. As can be seen in the examples above, alternative instructional approaches most often vary the pace and method of instruction, but not the content itself. The content is usually consistent with traditional instruction, although it may be segmented differently. Other benefits are also significant, but not as consistent among approaches. Each approach has its own set of prescriptions, and each has been heavily criticizedyet that is to be expected. Even now, individualized instruction in its various forms is still a relatively recent innovation, and will remain under scrutiny until several criticisms are accounted for. Perhaps the most profound criticism comes in the article "Individualization: The Hidden Agenda," by Ronald T. Hyman. He was concerned with the latent functions of individualization generally. In the push for individualization, the most common approach is to divide the subject matter up into segments and teach it at a self-taught level, but Hyman warns that "Segmented Junk Is Still Junk" (p. 414). There is no concern for what really is the problem, and that is the subject matter itself. He claims that individualized instruction typically does not alter the subject matter based on the needs of the student. Without doing this, there is a compromise of individualized instruction. In summary, individualized instruction has the potential to improve instruction by varying the pace of instruction, the instructional method, and the content. Most approaches allow for selfpacing, yet variation in method and content is rare, and when it does occur, is usually very limited. As of the early twenty-first century, there are no indications that this trend will change in the immediate future, although as the research base in this area increases, major improvements are certain to come.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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COUCH, RICHARD W. 1983. "Individualized Instruction: A Review of Audio-Tutorial Instruction, Guided Design, the Personalized System of Instruction, and Individualized Lectures Classes." Paper written for partial fulfillment of doctor of philosophy degree, University of Kansas. ERIC Document ED 252178. DIPERNA, JAMES C., and VOLPE, ROBERT J. 2000. Evaluating Web-Based Instruction in Psychology. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. HYMAN, RONALD T. 1973. "Individualization: The Hidden Agenda." Elementary School Journal 73:412423. KELLER, FRED S. 1968. "Good-Bye Teacher. " Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1:7889. KELLER, FRED S. 1982. Pedagogue's Progress. Lawrence, KS: T.R.I. MCGAW, DICKINSON. 1975. "Personalized Systems of Instruction." Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco. NAUMES, MIKE. 1977. "The Keller Plan: A Method for Putting the Responsibility of Learning Upon the Student." Perspectives 1977:17. OLDS, HENRY F. 1985. "The Microcomputer and the Hidden Curriculum." Computers in Schools 2 (1):314. POSTLETHWAIT, SAMUEL N.; NOVAK, JOSEPH D.; and MURRAY, HALLARD THOMAS. 1972. The Audio-Tutorial Approach to Learning. Minneapolis, MN: Burgess. SNORTLAND, ROBERT K. 1982. "An Individualized Teaching Approach: Audio-Tutorial." College Teaching Monograph. ERIC Document ED 226656. Bismarck: University of North Dakota.

3.3. Un exemplu foarte sugestiv An Introduction to Individualized Instruction


By Master Sergeant Frederick K. Snyder
(Document created: 4 September 03 Air University Review, September-October

1975)

Failure to provide for individual differences among students is perhaps the greatest single source of inefficiency in education.1 With the advent of new communication technology in the 1960s, the long-desired goal of individualized instruction, which provides for the differences among students, is capable of being reached.2 A 1972 study by the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory of 38 existing individualized instruction programs found not only a 25 to 44 percent reduction in training time but also a significant improvement in graduate performance. 3 These are motivations to change to individualized instruction.

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As with most changes, one of the first things that needs to be changed is attitude. The most important attitude is that of the instructors who will do the work involved and then present the new training methods to the students. The attitude of the instructors supervisors also matters because each instructor responds to what he feels his supervisor really wants. A major permanent change in Air Force training procedures requires an attitude change at the very top of the Air Force. At this level the Air Force has responded to the leadership of its managers. Presidents Kennedy and Johnson asked and received from Congress support for educational technology research. In 1965, Secretary of Defense McNamara asked the services to recommend ways to improve military training. For the Air Force, Air Training Command (ATC) experimented with and evaluated individualized instruction.4 In 1970 the Air Force Chief of Staff established this policy for all commands: new training will be organized according to the Instructional System Development (ISD) method and existing training will he selectively converted to the ISD concept.5 AFM 50-2, Instructional System Development, implements this policy. ATC conducts several courses on ISD. The intent of this article is to explore the major facets of individualized instruction. To explore individualized instruction, it helps to have before us a picture of current conventional training procedures. With knowledge of todays training behavior, we can interpose new learning theory, and training quality can be improved. A typical class is a group of students, individually different in their abilities and interests, who sit listening to an instructor lecture about a subject. The students take whatever notes they desire. If the instructor uses the chalkboard or other teaching aids, he uses them rather sparingly. When he directs attention to a displayed item, his hand stays there only a short time. The students are relying mostly on their sense of hearing to take in new information. When a student realizes he missed a key point, he asks for a repeat explanation. The whole class stops its progress while one student gets his needed facts. This routine is interrupted only infrequently with a test to measure student progress formally. Little effort is made to reteach identified weak areas; there is no time for that in a conventional class. The result is that only a few students get high grades, most students have gaps in their understanding of the subject with less than desirable retention, and some students fail. My analysis of this picture puts importance on these factors: (1) differences in student abilities, (2) sparse use of training aids, (3) great reliance on one sensehearing, (4) a students need for repeat explanations, (5) a students needs holding the class back, (6) infrequent testing, (7) little reteaching, (8) less than desirable results. Redefining student aptitude Aptitude tests are often considered to be measurements of prior achievements. Aptitude test scores are used to predict which students should succeed or fail in training. Students with low aptitude scores are usually denied certain training, and the Air Force loses when needed jobs go unfulfilled for lack of qualified people. A students aptitude score for a particular subject predicts the level to which he could learn the subject in a given period of time. The fixed part of the definition of student aptitude is in a given period of time; the variable part is the level of learning. The definition can be restated to read: student aptitude is the time required to learn a subject to a given level. 7 Fixing the level of achievement and letting time vary implies that practically every student can succeed when given enough time.

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The time needed, which is predicted by the students learning rate (aptitude), is determined by: (1) the quality of his instruction, (2) the quality of his instructional materials, and (3) his ability to understand the instructions and materials.8 When time is allowed to vary and the quality of instruction is improved, then a majority of students, up to 95 percent, can achieve the required level of performance. 9 Three key actions make up individualized instruction: (1) clearly state what each student is expected to learn and to what level, (2) help each student when and where he has learning difficulties, (3) give each student sufficient time to learn. 10 Proficiency in applying modern instructional technology to implement these actions requires increased instructor training equivalent to at least a college course of three semester hours.11 Therefore this article is limited to an overview of individualized instruction. Glasers instructional model with feedback system12

An individualized instructional model The cycle of individualized instruction may be illustrated by the accompanying instructional model. In block I the objectives are clearly stated. In block II each students entering behavior (current ability) is determined by diagnostic testing. If he has met any of the objectives stated in block I, the training for these objectives is eliminated from his schedule. Objectives minus entering behavior equal the training requirements for the individual student. Training for this reduced set of objectives is prescribed in block III, where the student interacts with the instructional system in ways that help him reach his objectives. In block IV the student is involved in frequent performance testing, the results of which feed back to block I objectives, showing what objectives have been mastered and what objectives remain for further learning. Individualized instruction is a continuous cycle of diagnosis, prescription, and evaluation until the student has mastered all stated objectives. Instructional system development Before this instructional model can be employed, much preliminary work must he done. Clearly stated objectives must be written; diagnostic tests must be formulated; instructional procedures that help the individual student must be developed; and performance evaluations must be prepared. The work involved is more than one instructor should be expected to handle. It may take as much as 250 hours to produce a 15-minute lesson. 13 This expenditure of effort has produced a more proficient group of graduates in less time compared to conventional training systems. There are eight steps for developing an instructional system: 14 (1) Write a set of Task Analyses (2) Write a set of Objectives based on the Task Analyses

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(3) Write tests that fully measure each Objective (4) Decide what available instructional media will best help the students reach the objectives (5) Use the Task Analyses to develop the information it contains into the format required by the chosen media (6) Edit for obvious shortcomings (7) Validate this developed instructional system by trying it on a small group of students; make necessary improvements (8) Implement this individualized instructional program for all students and continue to improve as necessary. 15 These steps require diligent and skillful preparation by the instructor staff. The traditional role of the teacher has been to find ways to explain subjects to his students. With individualized instruction, the instructor will find this role an even greater challenge. Task analysis The instructional system development process indicates that a training system must he more precisely organized. This precision starts with the task analysis. The task analysis, a detailed outline of behavior that comprises a task,16 is prepared in a two-column format for easy visual reference (refer to Appendix A). The task analysis states the behaviors, skills, and knowledges in a logical sequence that makes up the task. Each left column entry becomes a teaching step with a teaching step appraisal, which is student activity that constitutes the feedback mechanism. Right column entries are the skills and knowledges that must be learned in order to perform the student activity. The student masters each teaching step by learning the accompanying skills and knowledges and by performing the teaching step appraisal. With mastery of the teaching steps, the student is prepared for the overall objective of the task. This task objective is called a criterion objective with its associated criterion test. When each task is broken down into such detail, appropriate objectives (criterion and teaching step appraisals) can be written without any objective being overlooked. Tests to measure objective achievement can be written with the same confidence that nothing important is left out. Finally, the detailed task analysis serves as the outline for those instructors who select and prepare appropriate instructional media, again insuring that nothing is omitted. Behavioral objectives Behavioral objectives clearly state what each student is expected to learn and to what level. Schools have long had objectives, but they have been too general and vague to provide the direction thought necessary. 17 Objectives must he stated specifically and in such a way that a students attainment of each objective is measurable.

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A measurable objective consists of a statement of performance, condition, and standards.18 Lets examine a simple objective: The student will be able to read. This objective states a performance, but it is too general and vague. If the student is 16 and can read the word cat, he has met the stated objective. Clearly we must add some standard of acceptable performance. A better objective is: the student will read 250 words per minute with 80 percent comprehension. This objective fails when more than one instructor is responsible for different students achieving the objective. Compare three students: one is tested for achievement using a college chemistry text, a second is measured with a chapter of John Steinbecks The Grapes of Wrath, while the third student is given a copy of a third grade reader. The degree of difference has been expanded to show that some condition must be stated. In any instructional system where there are many students and instructors, there will be honest misinterpretations of what goals must he reached and how to train to reach the goals. Explicitly stated objectives will minimize these honest errors that cause either student failures or a waste of time. If we decide that the student must learn to read at a common adult level, we could so state our objective: the student will read a chapter of Steinbecks The Grapes of Wrath at 250 words per minute with 80 percent comprehension. This is a behavioral objective because it states a specific performance with certain conditions to a measurable standard. An individualized instructional system rests on a set of clearly defined objectives. Should the student be made aware of his objectives before he begins his training? Definitely, yes. Concrete objectives not only control the thrust of the instructional system but also direct each students activity. When a student has clear objectives before him, he can more easily focus his energy on achieving these goals. Learning should be the business of acquiring skills and knowledges that are necessary for later use. This is especially true when the training has a direct job relation and when costs are involved. Performance testing To help students when and where they have learning difficulties, we must have some way to identify their needs. We can identify each students needs by examining his performance with a test. This diagnostic test differs from the usual connotation of tests (formal grading) because the purpose is solely to identify the students needs. 19 Once these needs are known, both the student and the instructor realize what the student must learn to achieve the objectives. When the student can succeed on the diagnostic test, there is no need for training in that subject. The test, of course, must be written in such a way as to measure completely the established explicit objective. A criterion objective and its performance test state and measure the students acceptable achievement of a task. The task analysis breaks down each criterion objective into smaller units called teaching steps. Tests are developed for each teaching step. These teaching step appraisals and criterion tests are perhaps the single most important component in individualized instruction. 20 From the instructors point of view, the tests measure student progress and identify student problems. From the students view, these tests are activity through which he is able to increase and internalize his learning by doing something with the training just received. 21 Opportunities to use new skills and knowledge immediately tend to increase retention. Performance testing confirms student progress or points to the need for correction.

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For example, both Mel and Jim must reach the same criterion objective which has three teaching steps. Jim masters steps one and two but has difficulty with step three. He needs some kind of assistance to overcome his difficulty. Mel, who had problems on steps one and two, receives the help he needs and finds step three within his ability because he mastered the first steps. Mel may be ready for the criterion test in thirty minutes while it takes Jim an hour. The important point is that both Mel and Jim have mastered the criterion objective by overcoming their individual learning difficulties. The teaching step appraisals have been used to find these problems and allow for individual correction. Neither Jim nor Mel has slowed the other down while overcoming his particular problems. The most effective way discovered so far to find each individuals strengths and weaknesses is through the use of performance tests. 22 Instructional systems that use behavioral objectives and performance tests to diagnose progress and allow for immediate correction of problems are said to be efficient and effective. The instructional system is effective because each student can actually perform to explicit objectives, and it is efficient because each student has received only that training necessary for him to achieve the objectives. Each student is neither undertrained nor overtrained. Undertraining is avoided because each student must reach all objectives. Overtraining is avoided because training in an area stops once the criterion objective is met. Instructional media Explicit behavioral objectives focus the entire training effort. Frequent diagnostic testing shows when and where students are experiencing learning difficulties. But how does one instructor have time to help each student and give each student sufficient time to learn? The answer is through the use of instructional multimedia. Media are the means of communication. In conventional training, the instructor and the textbook are the predominant media. In individualized instruction, the information to be learned is presented by a much wider variety of media. While slides and tape recordings appear most often, media actually refers to anything that presents information to the student (see Appendix B). The use of multimedia affords the instructor time to help each student whenever that student experiences a problem. To make intelligent decisions concerning the use of media, instructors must have sufficient knowledge of existing media and the principles of media utilization. Instructional media are expensive; the cost must be measured against media effectiveness in teaching. Cost-effective media should be chosen objectively rather than on the basis of personal preference. Supervisors of training systems should have their instructors complete one or more courses in media and audiovisual instruction.23 Without such training, most instructors have only personal bias on which to recommend the purchase of expensive hardware. Without such training, instructors who develop the software will do so without sufficient knowledge of the techniques for effective production. During the past ten years, media technology and techniques have been expanded so rapidly that few instructors are aware of the impact on their efforts to train their students. Having the media and accepting their value is one thing; knowing how to use them effectively is something that requires additional instructor training. Some of the advantages of using instructional media for the teacher include the following:

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(a) Using instructional media to present the teaching segment of the teachinglearning activity (TLA) frees the instructor from lecturing on the same subject class after class. Instructors can suffer from boredom, too, and it is understandable that there are days when the instructor just does not put forth his best effort. Once the media have been developed into top-quality tools the instructor can be confident that all the material is well presented every time. (b) With the various teaching media, the teacher is no longer the sole source of information in the class. 24 The teacher has time for communicating with each student in ways that establish rapport and a spirit of cooperation. There is little time to do this in conventional training because the teacher is occupied presenting the lesson. Increased cooperation and communication between the teacher and the individual student can create a learning environment in which the student feels he is important and has a stake in the system. When the student sees himself as really belonging, his ability to learn is improved. 25 (c) Besides motivating the student, the instructor works with each individual, searching for student understanding. Students who can explain what they are learning actually learn that subject better. In conventional training, not every student has the chance to explain what he is getting out of his learning. If the student can explain his new knowledge, he has confidence in it; if the student finds he is confused, he realizes he needs to recycle his learning effort to get a better grasp of the subject. (d) The instructor should determine the students reaction to instructional media. There will he media presentations that, from the students point of view, are difficult to understand. Perhaps the student can suggest what he feels is a better way to present the material. If the instructor remains aloof from the student, his chances of finding out what to improve will be reduced. For the student, use of instructional media has certain advantages, also: (a) The student acquires instruction through the multiple sensory approach. In conventional systems, the student depends greatly on his sense of hearing to absorb lecture materials. How many of us feel we learn our best through the use of one sense onlyhearing? With instructional media, the student is receiving information through several of his senses at the same time or at closely timed intervals. The training is more intense, and the student is more involved. Better and faster learning occurs when a combination of senses is employed. The greater the number of senses taking data in, the higher the learning retention is likely to be.26 (b) While the instructional media intensify student involvement, the need for repeat explanations still remains. The student simply resets the media to the appropriate place, and he has the explanation as many times as he needs without slowing the progress of the rest of the class. A good instructional system will have alternate presentations available for students who develop a mental block with certain media.

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Within one decade the role of the media has changed from that of a supplement to a primary source of instruction.27 The major burden for presenting the material in class is delegated to a system of instructional media. The student interacts with this selected variety of media with the personal guidance and help from the instructor that he could not get in conventional classes. Expected results Individualized instruction, based on the principles described in this article, has been used worldwide at all levels of education and in a variety of subjects. There are some problems in interpreting the results of the past seven years of experience; however, it seems reasonable to state the following: (a) Two to three times as many students using individualized instruction have achieved A and B grades as compared to students studying the same subjects in conventional ways. The number of failures with individualized instruction also has been reduced. 28 (b) Although time is a flexible factor, the total time in training has been reduced. Reductions of 25 to 44 percent have been reported in military, industrial, and academic training programs. 29 This time savings translates into a financial savings that compensates for the initial investment in expensive media and increased instructor training. (c) Students really enjoy individualized instruction because they no longer are passive participants. Their active involvement in doing things with newly acquired skills and knowledge during the learning process has caused them to express greater interest and more positive attitudes toward their training. Success and enjoyment of learning instill confidence in their ability to learn, which can carry over to other endeavors.30 If these student benefits are important to the reader, he has a good portion of the attitude necessary to be a part of an individualized instructional system. Individualized instruction is student-centered and not teacher-centered as in conventional systems. It is student-centered because it focuses all activity on the needs of each student in his efforts to achieve predetermined specific objectives. It responds to individual student abilities in three ways: (1) multiple sensory approach to teaching; (2) increased student activity, which helps him internalize his training; and (3) sufficient time to overcome his weaknesses. Although the emphasis is on the student, the teachers role has not become outmoded. Rather, the teacher finds his role even more demanding. Individual learning activity must be prescribed for each student according to his recent progress and remaining goals. The teacher becomes more professional and assumes the role of learning guide and consultant. The teaching staff is responsible for the creative development and effective use of the instructional media. The individual teacher manages the learning process of diagnosis, prescription, and evaluation. The individual students training is intensified by the multisensory approach, and his activity is intensified by responding to frequent teaching step appraisals and criterion tests. The student is

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doing more than he did in conventional systems. Experience is the best teacher, and student activity is the experience by which he learns. Individualized instruction is attained through the Instructional System Development process. Using Websters New Word Dictionary, we describe the process: To cause to become better (develop) the orderly way (system) of giving the facts of the matter (instruction). More simply stated, It is a better way to teach. Citrus Heights, California Notes 1. B. F. Skinner, The Technology of Teaching (Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1968), p. 242.
2. James H. Block, Mastery Learning, Theory and Practice (San Francisco: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971), p. 4. The Winnetka Plan (1922) by Carleton Washburne and another approach by Henry C. Morrison (1926) at the University of Chicagos Laboratory School fell into disuse primarily because of lack of technology to sustain a successful strategy. 3. Hq MAC/DOTO, Introduction to Individualized Training, USAF ISDQ-4-003 (1974), an audiovisual production. 4. Air University Review (September-October 1968) featured the Air Training Command: Providing for the Future. In that issue, Lt. Col. Vernon J. Elslagers Toward Individualized Instruction (p. 10) and John P. Murphys Behaviorally Oriented Instruction in ATC (p 21) describe ATCs pioneering work in ISD. Now, seven years later, the major principles of ISD are intact web only a few changes in terminology. i.e., Instructional System Development has replaced the term Systems Approach to Training (SAT). Since 1970, ISD has been spreading throughout the major air commands. 5. L. F. Miller, Major General, Hq USAF letter, subject: USAF Policy on the Systems Approach to Training (SAT), dated 13 November 1970. 6. John B. Carroll, Problem of Measurement Related to the Concept of learning for Mastery, Educational Horizons, 48, No. 3 (1970), pp. 71-80. 7. John B. Carroll, A Model of School Learning, Teachers College Record, 64 (May 1963), pp. 723-33. 8. James H. Block, Teachers, Teaching, and Mastery Learning, Todays Education, (NovemberDecember 1913), pp. 30-36 (hereafter cited as Teachers). 9. Ibid. 10. Ibid. 11. One Air Force course equal to at least three semester hours is ATC Course 3AZR75100, Instructional System Materials Development. Two college texts are Brown, Lewis, and Harcleroad, AV Instruction, Technology, Media and Methods (San Francisco: McGraw-Hill, 1973) and Wittich and Schuller, Instructional Technology, Its Nature and Use (San Francisco: Harper and Row. 1973).

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12. Richard Hersh and Stuart Cohen, Beyond Behavioral Objectives: Individualizing Learning, Elementary School Journal, November 1972, p. 102. 13. Hq MAC/DOTO, USAF ISD-Q-4-003. 14. USAF ATC Course 3AZR75100, Instructional System Materials Development (1973), p. 402. 15. AFM 50-2, Instructional System Development, (December 1970), pp. 5-21. 16. USAF ATC Course 3AZR75100. 17.S herman Frey, Behavioral Objectives: Attitudes of Teachers, The Clearing House, 48 (April 1974). 18. Robert F. Mager, Preparing Instructional Objectives, (Palo Alto, CA: Fearon, 1962). 19. AFM 50-2, p. 1-1. 20. Block, Teachers, pp. 31-33. 21. USAF ATC Course 3AZR75100, p. 202. 22. Wittich and Schuller, p. xiv. 23. AFM 50-2, p. 63. See also note 11. 24. Ibid., 6-3. 25. Block, Teachers, p. 36. 26. Rita and Kenneth Dunn, Practical Approaches to Individualizing Instruction (West Nyack. N.Y.: Parker, 1972), p. 99. 27. Ibid., p. 62. 28. Block, Teachers. p. 34. 29. Hq MAC/DOTO, USAF-ISD-Q-4-003. 30. Block, Teachers, p. 34.

APPENDIX A A Sample Task Analysis


Performance: Conditions: Standards: Teaching Steps Obtain, validate and plot a time difference reading from the EC-121 LORAN C System AN/ARN-92(v)-2, Local Area Navigation Charts and Log, pencil, dividers, and Weems plotter The plot must be within 3NM of actual EC-121 position. Skills and Knowledges

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1. Identify the purpose, theory of operation and location of components and controls of the LORAN C. Notes: 1. PCS statement controls the Criterion Objective and Test. La Purpose of the LORAN C 2. Each Teaching Step will have a Teaching Step Appraisal. 1) Micro-miniature receiver indicator 3. A Teaching Step is measurable student 2) Converts an analog system to a digital system. activity. 3) Inserts time difference into a memory mode, 4. Right column entries are skills, holds it there, and continues to update it with more knowledges and supporting teaching points current time difference data. for each Teaching Step. 5. Students do not see or use the Task 1b. Theory of Operation Analysis. The instructor who selects the media and writes the subject explanation 1) Operates on the principle of Group Repetition uses the Task Analysis as his outline. Rate (GRR), or a burst of eight pulses. 2. Obtain, validate and plot a time 2) Five basic rates are used. difference reading for the LORAN C. a) The distance of the Master and Slaves determines the rate. b) The rates are:

Source: Format from USAF ATC Course 3AZR75100 (July 1973), p. 159. Data: USAF ADC Course ADC12100T, Navigator. APPENDIX B Instructional Media Individualized instruction was not possible until technological advances made possible a wide variety of media. Too often when we think of media, only two or three examples come to mind, and we tend to think that that is all there is to media. We also forget the many experiences and learning options that should be considered when individualizing instruction. The lists in this appendix may convince the reader of the magnitude of choices and combinations confronting the teaching staff as they select and develop their instructional system. The quality of training can suffer, and certainly time, money, and effort can be wasted when media are overlooked, or the wrong media are purchased, or the instructors lack knowledge in how to blend the media into the students learning activity.

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I recommend that instructors pursue their personal training in the field of audiovisual Instruction. Training supervisors should consider taking steps to have their instructors attend audiovisual courses at organizational expense. This financial investment will pay off in the development of an efficient and effective training program. Experiences leading to learning Thinking Discussing, conferring, speaking, reporting Reading (words, pictures, symbols) Writing, editing Listening Graphing, charting, mapping Demonstrating, showing Experimenting, researching Problem solving Collecting Observing, watching Traveling Exchanging Recording Interviewing Outlining, taking notes Constructing, creating Drawing, painting, lettering Photographing Displaying, exhibiting Videotaping Dramatizing Singing, dancing Imagining, visualizing Organizing, summarizing Computing Judging, evaluating Working Individualized learning options Read textbooks Read nonfiction books Read pamphlets View transparencies Listen to records View filmstrips Study periodicals Watch instructional television programs Work on self-instructional kits Give oral reports Study charts Study maps Take self-administered tests Interview resource personnel Participate in small group discussions Use the amplified telephone Study reference books Refer to fiction books Listen to tape recordings Study pictures Study programmed instructional materials Study models or objectives View 35mm slides View microscopic slides Write reports Produce learning materials View graphs View films Participate in student teaching conferences Conduct experiments Play educational games Facilities for learning Lecture halls Classrooms Divisible Undivided Independent study areas Discussion rooms Laboratories Shops Theaters Studios Libraries Resource centers Electronic learning centers Playing fields Community resources Home study centers Equipment for learning Record players, tape recorders, radios Slide and filmstrip projectors and viewers Overhead projectors Motion picture projectors and viewers Television receivers Videotape recorders, players, viewers Teaching machines Computer terminals and print image producers Electronic laboratories: Audio/ video/access and interaction devices Telephones with or without other media accessories Microimage systemsmicrofilm, microcard, microfiche Copying equipment and duplicators Cameras, still and motion Media for learning Textbooks Supplementary hooks Reference books, encyclopedias Magazines, newspapers Documents, clippings Duplicated materials Programmed materials Motion picture films Television programs Radio programs Recordings (tape and disc) Flat pictures Drawings and paintings Slides and transparencies Filmstrips Microfilms, microcards Stereographs Maps, globes Graphs, charts, diagrams Posters Cartoons Puppets Models, mockups Collections, specimens Flannel-board materials Magnetic-board materials Chalkboard materials Construction materials Drawing materials Display materials Multimedia materials

Source: AV Instructional Technology Media and Methods, Chapter I.

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Contributor Master Sergeant Frederick K. Snyder is an Instructor Radar Supervisor, 552d Airborne Early Warning and Control Group (ADC), McClellan AFB, California, where he applies Instructional System Development (ISD) principles to training EC-121 radar operators. He has more than 3800 hours in the EC-121, including 130 combat missions in Southeast Asia, and tours at ground radar sites in Iceland and the Philippines. Sergeant Snyder is a distinguished graduate of ADCs NCO Academy.

B. DIFERENIEREA INSTRUIRII 3.4. O sintez a cercetrilor Differentiated instruction


(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Differentiated instruction (sometimes referred to as differentiated learning) involves providing students with different avenues to acquiring content; to processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and to developing teaching materials so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability.[1] Differentiated instruction, according to Carol Ann Tomlinson (as cited by Ellis, Gable, Greg, & Rock, 2008, p. 32), is the process of ensuring that what a student learns, how he/she learns it, and how the student demonstrates what he/she has learned is a match for that students readiness level, interests, and preferred mode of learning. Differentiation stems from beliefs about differences among learners, how they learn, learning preferences and individual interests (Anderson, 2007). "Research indicates that many of the emotional or social difficulties gifted students experience disappear when their educational climates are adapted to their level and pace of learning."[2] Differentiation in education can also include how a student shows that they have mastery of a concept. This could be through a research paper, role play, podcast, diagram, poster, etc. The key is finding how your students learn and displays their learning that meets their specific needs.

About
In differentiated instruction students are placed at the center of teaching and learning[1]. Kathy Bigo defines differentiation as "the right of each pupil to be taught in a way specifically tailored to their individual learning needs."[3] Because each learner comes to school with a different set of learning needs, examples of which include differing educational, personal, and communal contexts[4] and varying degrees of academic skill development,[5] differentiated instruction advocates that the educator proactively plans a variety of instruction methods so as to best facilitate effective learning experiences which are suited to the various learning needs within the classroom.[1] In its pursuit of this foundational goal, differentiated instructional methods attempt to qualitatively, as opposed to quantitatively, match learners' abilities with appropriate material; include a blend of whole-class, group, and individual instruction; use numerous approaches to facilitating input, processing, and output; and constantly adapt to learners' needs based upon the teacher's constant assessment of all students.[1]

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Often referred to as an educational philosophy, differentiated instruction is viewed as a proactive approach to instruction and an idea that has as many faces as practitioners. The model of differentiated instruction requires teachers to tailor their instruction and adjust the curriculum to students needs rather than expecting students to modify themselves to fit the curriculum. Teachers who are committed to this approach believe that who they teach shapes how they teach because who the students are shapes how they learn. Differentiated instruction requires the teacher to have "sufficient appropriate knowledge of the pupils, PLUS the ability to plan and deliver suitable lessons effectively, so as to help all pupils individually to maximise their learning, whatever their individual situation".[6] Differentiation is not teaching at a slow pace so that everyone can keep up, allowing pupils and groups work through tasks at their own pace, or expecting some students to do better than others and calling it 'differentiation by outcome'.[7] Bigio also cautions that differentiation is not 'Humiliating the slow learners by drawing attention to their limitations".[8] The perfect model of differentiated instruction rests upon an active, student centered, meaning-making approach to teaching and learning. The theoretical and philosophical influences embedded in differentiated instruction support the three key elements of differentiated instruction itself: readiness, interest, and learning profile (Allan & Tomlinson, 2000). Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, proved that individuals learn best in accordance with their readiness to do so (Allan & Tomlinson, 2008). This theoretical influence provides a concrete foundation for differentiated instruction. The readiness of the individual should match what a student learns, how they learn it and how the student demonstrates what they learned when using differentiated instruction. The philosophical idea that interest based options seize on intrinsic motivation, supports the second key element of differentiated instruction, student interest. According to Jerome Bruner (as cited by Allan & Tomlinson, 2000), when interest is tapped, learning is more likely to be rewarding and the student becomes a more autonomous learner. An American psychologist, Howard Gardner, developed the theory of multiple intelligences. His theory states that people have different intelligences and learn in many different ways. Gardners theory suggests that schools should offer individual-centered education, having curriculum tailored to a childs intelligence preference (Allan & Tomlinson, 2000). Essentially, Gardner supports the third key element of differentiated instruction, which accounts for different student learning profiles. Differentiated instruction integrates constructivist learning theories, learning styles, and brain development with research on influencing factors of learner readiness, interest and intelligence preferences toward students motivation, engagement, and academic growth within schools (Anderson, 2007). According to educational psychologist Kathie Nunley, differentiated instruction became an essential part of US educator's repertoire as the make-up of the general classroom moved from homogeneous groupings of students prior to the 1970s to the ever increasing variety of learners seen in the heterogeneous classroom make-up in the last 40 years[9] (Nunley, 2006). By using differentiated instruction, educators can meet all individual student needs and help every student meet and exceed established standards (Levy, 2008). According to Tomlinson (as cited by Rebora, 2008), the perceived need for differentiated instruction lies in the fact that

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students vary in so many ways and student populations are becoming more academically diverse. Chances are pretty good that the trend of diverse student populations will continue throughout our lifetimes.

Pre-assessment
For some teachers, the first and most important step in differentiated instruction is determining what students already know so as not to cover material students have mastered, or use methods that would be ineffective for students. A preassessment can be a quiz, game, discussion, or other activity that asks students to answer some of the questions that would be used to evaluate their performance at the end of an upcoming unit or lesson. It may also be in the form of a learning inventory, such as a Multiple Intelligences inventory (still regarded with skepticism by many researchers),[10] so the teacher will be able to determine how students within the class prefer to learn. Some models of differentiation do not require a pre-assessment, but rather have students selfassess daily through oral defense, such as in Layered Curriculum. ([11] Nunley, 2004, 2006) The goals of differentiated instruction are to develop challenging and engaging tasks for each learner (from low-end learner to high-end learner). Instructional activities are flexible and based and evaluated on content, process and product. This instructional approach and choice of content are driven by the data from students assessment results and from the outcomes of other screening tools. Meaningful pre- and post-assessment leads to successful differentiation by producing the results that communicate the students needs.

Content
The content of lessons may be differentiated based on what students already know. The most basic content of a lesson should cover the standards of learning set by the district or state. Some students in a class may be completely unfamiliar with the concepts in a lesson, some students may have partial mastery of the content - or display mistaken ideas about the content, and some students may show mastery of the content before the lesson begins. The teacher may differentiate the content by designing activities for groups of students that cover different areas of Bloom's Taxonomy. For example, students who are unfamiliar with the concepts may be required to complete tasks on the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Students with partial mastery may be asked to complete tasks in the application, analysis and evaluation areas, and students who have high levels of mastery may be asked to complete tasks in evaluation and synthesis. When a teacher differentiates content they may adapt what they want the students to learn or how the students will gain access to the knowledge, understanding and skills (Anderson, 2007). Educators are not varying student objectives or lowering performance standards for students. They use different texts, novels or short stories at a reading level appropriate for each individual student. Teachers can use flexible groups and have students assigned to alike groups listening to books on tape or specific internet sources. Students could have a choice to work in pairs, groups or individually, but all students are working towards the same standards and objectives.

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Process
The process of how the material in a lesson is learned may be differentiated for students based on their learning styles, taking into account what standards of performance are required for the age level. This stage of differentiation allows students to learn based either on what method is easiest for them to acquire knowledge, or what may challenge them most: some students may prefer to read about a topic (or may require practice in reading), and others may prefer to listen (or require practice in listening), or acquire knowledge by manipulating objects associated with the content. Information may be presented in multiple ways by the teacher, and may be based on any available methods or materials. Many teachers use areas of Multiple Intelligences to provide learning opportunities. Commonalities in the assessment results lead to grouping practices that are planned designed to meet the students needs. "How" a teacher plans to deliver the instruction is based on assessment results that show the needs, learning styles, interests, and levels of prior knowledge. The grouping practices must be flexible, as groups will change with regard to the need that will be addressed. Regardless of whether the differentiation of instruction is based upon student readiness, interests, or needs, the dynamic flow of grouping and regrouping is one of the foundations of differentiated instruction. It is important for a differentiated classroom to allow some students to work alone, if this is their best modality for a particular task. (Nunley, 2004) Differentiating by process refers to how a student comes to understand and assimilate facts, concepts and skills (Anderson, 2007). After teaching a lesson, a teacher might break students into small ability groups based on their readiness. The teacher would then give each group a series of questions, based on each group's appropriate level of readiness-skills, related to the objectives of the lesson. Another way to group the students could be based on the students learning styles. The main idea behind this is that students are at different levels and learn in different ways, so a teacher cant teach them all the same way. Another model of differentiation, Layered Curriculum, simply offers student a choice of assignments but requires demonstration of learning in order to pass of the assignment. This eliminates the need for pre-assessment and is useful for teachers with large class loads, such as in high school. (Nunley, 2004).

Product
The product is essentially what the student produces at the end of the lesson to demonstrate the mastery of the content: tests, evaluations, projects, reports, or other activities. Based on students' skill levels and educational standards, teachers may assign students to complete activities that demonstrate mastery of an educational concept (writing a report), or in a method the student prefers (composing an original song about the content, or building a 3-dimensional object that explains mastery of concepts in the lesson or unit). The product is an integral component of the differentiated model, as the preparation of the assessments will primarily determine both the what and how instruction will be delivered.

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When an educator differentiates by product or performance, they are affording students various ways of demonstrating what they have learned from the lesson or unit (Anderson, 2007; Nunley, 2006). It is done by using menu unit sheets, choice boards or open-ended lists of final product options. It is meant to allow students to show what they learned based on their learning preferences, interests and strengths. Examples of differentiated structures include Layered Curriculum, tiered instruction, tic-tactoe extension menus, Curry/Samara models, RAFT writing activities, and similar designs. (see external links below) In differentiated instruction, teachers respond to students readiness, instructional needs, interests and learning preferences and provide opportunities for students to work in varied instructional formats. A classroom that utilizes differentiated instruction is a learner-responsive, teacher-facilitated classroom where all students have the opportunity to meet curriculum foundation objectives. Lessons may be on inquiry based, problem based and project based instruction. References
^ a b c d Tomlinson, Carol (2001). How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Differentiated Instructions provides access for all students to the general education curriculum. The method of assessment may look different for each child, however the skill / concepts taught will be the same. Classrooms (2 ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. ISBN 0871205122. ^ Neihart, Maureen ed., with Reis, Sally; Robinson, Nancy; and Moon, Sidney, (2002). The Social and Emotional Development of Gifted Children: What Do We Know? National Association of Gifted Children (Prufrock Press, Inc.). p. 286 ^ Kathy Bigio 'Differentiation 3-7', 2010 ^ Taylor, Lorraine; Catharine Whittaker (2003). Bridging Multiple Worlds: Case Studies of Diverse Educational Communities. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 0321086694. ^ Levine, Mel (2002). A Mind at a Time. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0743202228. ^ Kathy Bigio 'Differentiation 3-7' 2010 ^ Kathy Bigio, 'Differentiation 3-7' 2010 ^ Kathy Bigio, 'Differentiation 3-7', 2010 ^ Nunley, K. 2006. Differentiating the High School Classroom, Corwin Press. pg 8 ^ Morgan, H. (1996). An analysis of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence. Roeper Review 18, 263-270. ^ Nunley, K. (2006). Differentiating the High School Classroom. Corwin Press

Further reading
Allan, S. D., & Tomlinson, C. A. (2000). Leadership for differentiating schools and classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Anderson, K. M. (2007). Tips for teaching: Differentiating instruction to include all students. Preventing School Failure, 51(3), 49-54. Ellis, E., Gable, R. A., Gregg, M., Rock, M. L. (2008). REACH: A framework for differentiating classroom instruction. Preventing School Failure, 52(2), 31-47 Levy, H. M. (2008). Meeting the needs of all students through differentiated instruction: Helping every child reach and exceed standards. The Clearing House, 81(4), 161-164. Rebora, A. (2008). Making a difference. Teacher Magazine, 2(1), 26, 28-31.

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Nunley, K. (2004). Layered Curriculum. 2nd ed. Brains.org: Amherst, NH Nunley, K. (2006). Differentiating the High School Classroom: Solution Strategies for 18 Common Obstacles. Corwin Press: Thousand Oaks, CA.

3.5. Studii semnificative

Studiile Reading Rockets


(Reading Rockets is a national multimedia project offering information and resources on how young kids learn to
read, why so many struggle, and how caring adults can help. The Reading Rockets project is comprised of PBS television programs, available on videotape and DVD; online services, including the websites ReadingRockets.org and ColorinColorado.org; and professional development opportunities. Reading Rockets is an educational initiative of WETA, the flagship public television and radio station in the nation's capital, and is funded by a major grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs.)

Differentiated Instruction and Implications for UDL Implementation


By Tracey Hall, Nicole Strangman, and Anne Meyer
Note: Updated on 11/2/2009; 1/14/2011

Introduction Not all students are alike. Based on this knowledge, differentiated instruction applies an approach to teaching and learning that gives students multiple options for taking in information and making sense of ideas. Differentiated instruction is a teaching theory based on the premise that instructional approaches should vary and be adapted in relation to individual and diverse students in classrooms (Tomlinson, 2001). The model of differentiated instruction requires teachers to be flexible in their approach to teaching and adjust the curriculum and presentation of information to learners rather than expecting students to modify themselves for the curriculum. Many teachers and teacher educators have recently identified differentiated instruction as a method of helping more students in diverse classroom settings experience success. This report examines information on the theory and research behind differentiated instruction and the intersection with Universal Design for Learning (UDL), a curriculum designed approach to increase flexibility in teaching and decrease the barriers that frequently limit student access to materials and learning in classrooms (Rose & Meyer, 2002). We begin with an introduction to differentiated instruction by defining the construct, then identifying components and features; additionally, we provide a sampling of applications. Next, we introduce UDL and the linkages with differentiated instruction both in theory and with specific lesson examples. The report concludes with a listing of web resources for further information and explicit examples. This report on differentiated instruction and UDL begins with an introduction to differentiated instruction in which we provide the definition, a sampling of considerations and

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curriculum applications, and research evidence for effectiveness. The second part of the paper, the discussion moves to UDL applications of differentiated instruction. UDL is a theoretical approach that is based on research from the neurosciences and effective teaching practices. This portion develops an understanding of UDL and proceeds to identify the theoretical and teacher practice levels. Our document concludes with general guidelines for the implementation of UDL and a list of web resources that provide further information about differentiated instruction. The literature review in this paper is also available as a stand alone document, with annotated references. Look for it on the Effective Classrooms Practices page of the National Center for Accessing the General Curriculum's web site http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_diffinstruc.html. Definition To differentiate instruction is to recognize students' varying background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences in learning and interests; and to react responsively. Differentiated instruction is a process to teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class. The intent of differentiating instruction is to maximize each student's growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is and assisting in the learning process.

Figure 1. Learning Cycle and Decision Factors Used in Planning and Implementing Differentiated Instruction Image description: This graphic organizer is entitled "Learning Cycle and Decision Factors Used in Planning and Implementing Differentiated Instruction" and is made up of a series of seven labeled boxes connected by arrows. Two boxes, one on top of the other, are joined together at the center of the graphic organizer within a blue background. The box at the top is labeled "Content: what teacher plans to teach." The box at the bottom is labeled "Process: How teacher: Plans instruction; Whole class; Groups/Pairs; Individually."

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To the left of these two boxes are two smaller boxes, also one on top of the other. The box at the top is labeled "Curriculum: State and Local Standards and Benchmarks." The box at the bottom is labeled "Student: Readiness/Ability; Interests/Talents; Learning profile; Prior knowledge." A black line connects these two boxes to each other and a black arrow points from the center of this line to the two boxes in the center of the graphic organizer. A small box at the bottom left is labeled "Pre-Assessment" and a black arrow points from it to the box labeled "Student." To the right of the two center boxes with the blue background is a box labeled "Assessment of content: Product." A black, double-sided arrow points to it and to the two center boxes. On the far right, a box labeled "Summative evaluation" is connected to the box labeled "Product" with a black line. Black arrows point from the bottom of the boxes labeled "Product" and "Summative evaluation" to the bottom of the graphic organizer. A horizontal black line goes across the bottom of the graphic organizer. Two arrows point from it to the two center boxes and to the two boxes on the left. Identifying Components/Features According to the authors of differentiated instruction, several key elements guide differentiation in the education environment. Tomlinson (2001) identifies three elements of the curriculum that can be differentiated: Content, Process, and Products (Figure 1). These are described in the following three sections, which are followed by several additional guidelines for forming an understanding of and developing ideas around differentiated instruction. Content Several elements and materials are used to support instructional content. These include acts, concepts, generalizations or principles, attitudes, and skills. The variation seen in a differentiated classroom is most frequently in the manner in which students gain access to important learning. Access to the content is seen as key. Align tasks and objectives to learning goals. Designers of differentiated instruction view the alignment of tasks with instructional goals and objectives as essential. Goals are most frequently assessed by many state-level, high-stakes tests and frequently administered standardized measures. Objectives are frequently written in incremental steps resulting in a continuum of skills-building tasks. An objectives-driven menu makes it easier to find the next instructional step for learners entering at varying levels. Instruction is concept-focused and principle-driven. The instructional concepts should be broad-based, not focused on minute details or unlimited facts. Teachers must focus on the concepts, principles and skills that students should learn. The content of instruction should address the same concepts with all students, but the degree of complexity should be adjusted to suit diverse learners. Process 2. Flexible grouping is consistently used. Strategies for flexible grouping are essential. Learners are expected to interact and work together as they develop knowledge of new content. Teachers may conduct whole-class introductory discussions of content big ideas followed by small group or paired work. Student groups may be coached from within or by the teacher to complete assigned tasks. Grouping of students is not fixed. As one of the foundations of differentiated

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instruction, grouping and regrouping must be a dynamic process, changing with the content, project, and on-going evaluations. 3. Classroom management benefits students and teachers. To effectively operate a classroom using differentiated instruction, teachers must carefully select organization and instructional delivery strategies. In her text, How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms (Chapter 7), Carol Tomlinson (2001), identifies 17 key strategies for teachers to successfully meet the challenge of designing and managing differentiated instruction. Products Initial and on-going assessment of student readiness and growth are essential. Meaningful pre-assessment naturally leads to functional and successful differentiation. Incorporating pre and on-going assessment informs teachers so that they can better provide a menu of approaches, choices, and scaffolds for the varying needs, interests and abilities that exist in classrooms of diverse students. Assessments may be formal or informal, including interviews, surveys, performance assessments, and more formal evaluation procedures. Students are active and responsible explorers. Teachers respect that each task put before the learner will be interesting, engaging, and accessible to essential understanding and skills. Each child should feel challenged most of the time. Vary expectations and requirements for student responses. Items to which students respond may be differentiated so that different students can demonstrate or express their knowledge and understanding in different ways. A well-designed student product allows varied means of expression and alternative procedures and offers varying degrees of difficulty, types of evaluation, and scoring. Additional Guidelines That Make Differentiation Possible for Teachers to Attain Clarify key concepts and generalizations. Ensure that all learners gain powerful understandings that can serve as the foundation for future learning. Teachers are encouraged to identify essential concepts and instructional foci to ensure that all learners comprehend. Use assessment as a teaching tool to extend rather than merely measure instruction. Assessment should occur before, during, and following the instructional episode, and it should be used to help pose questions regarding student needs and optimal learning. Emphasize critical and creative thinking as a goal in lesson design. The tasks, activities, and procedures for students should require that they understand and apply meaning. Instruction may require supports, additional motivation, varied tasks, materials, or equipment for different students in the classroom. Engaging all learners is essential. Teachers are encouraged to strive for the development of lessons that are engaging and motivating for a diverse class of students. Vary tasks within instruction as well as across students. In other words, an entire session for students should not consist of all drill and practice, or any single structure or activity. Provide a balance between teacher-assigned and student-selected tasks. A balanced working structure is optimal in a differentiated classroom. Based on pre-assessment information, the balance will vary from class-to-class as well as lesson-to-lesson. Teachers should ensure that students have choices in their learning. Evidence of Effectiveness as a Classroom Practice

Differentiation is recognized to be a compilation of many theories and practices. Based on this review of the literature of differentiated instruction, the "package" itself is lacking empirical

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validation. There is an acknowledged and decided gap in the literature in this area and future research is warranted. According to the proponents of differentiation, the principles and guidelines are rooted in years of educational theory and research. For example, differentiated instruction adopts the concept of "readiness." That is, the difficulty of skills taught should be slightly in advance of the child's current level of mastery. This is grounded in the work of Lev Vygotsky (1978), and the zone of proximal development (ZPD), the range at which learning takes place. The classroom research by Fisher et al., (1980), strongly supports the ZPD concept. The researchers found that in classrooms where individuals were performing at a level of about 80% accuracy, students learned more and felt better about themselves and the subject area under study (Fisher, 1980 in Tomlinson, 2000). Other practices noted as central to differentiation have been validated in the effective teaching research conduced from the mid 1980's to the present. These practices include effective management procedures, grouping students for instruction, and engaging learners (Ellis and Worthington, 1994). While no empirical validation of differentiated instruction as a package was found for this review, there are a generous number of testimonials and classroom examples that authors of several publications and web sites provide. Tomlinson reports individual cases of settings in which the full model of differentiation was very promising and teachers using differentiation have written about improvements in their classrooms. (See the links to learn more about differentiated instruction). Applications to General Education Classroom Settings The design and development of differentiated instruction as a model began in the general education classroom. The initial application came to practice for students considered gifted but whom perhaps were not sufficiently challenged by the content provided in the general classroom setting. As classrooms have become more diverse, differentiated instruction has been applied at all levels for students of all abilities. Many authors of publications about differentiated instruction, strongly recommend that teachers adapt the practices slowly, perhaps one content area at a time. Additionally, these experts agree that teachers should share the creative load by working together to develop ideas and menus of options for students. A number of web sites have been created in that include lessons to illustrate what teachers have created for instruction using the model of differentiated instruction. Several web sites are listed in a later section of this report. Differentiated instruction is an instructional process that has excellent potential to positively impact learning by offering teachers a means to provide instruction to a range of students in today's classroom situations. The next section of this report introduces the reader to the theory and research behind Universal Design for Learning (UDL). We then investigate the links and connections between UDL and differentiated instruction. Additionally, we identify methods and materials that may be implemented to support the implementation of differentiated instruction in concert with the principles of UDL. Finally, a set of guidelines for UDL implementation are

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provided including a listing of web resources to provide further information on the concepts presented in this report. An Introduction to Universal Design for Learning Applications Universal Design for Learning is a theoretical framework developed by CAST to guide the development of curricula that are flexible and supportive of all students (Dolan & Hall, 2001; Meyer & Rose, 1998; Pisha & Coyne, 2001; Rose, 2001; Rose & Dolan, 2000; Rose & Meyer, 2000a, 2000b, 2002; Rose, Sethuraman, & Meo, 2000). The concept of UDL was inspired by the universal design movement in architecture. This movement calls for the design of structures that anticipate the needs of individuals with disabilities and accommodate these needs from the outset. Universally designed structures are indeed more usable by individuals with disabilities, but in addition they offer unforeseen benefits for all users. Curb cuts, for example, serve their intended use of facilitating the travel of those in wheelchairs, but they are also beneficial to people pushing strollers, young children, and even the average walker. And so, the process of designing for individuals with disabilities has led to improved usability for everyone. Similarly, but uniquely, UDL calls for the design of curricula with the needs of all students in mind, so that methods, materials, and assessment are usable by all. Traditional curricula present a host of barriers that limit students' access to information and learning. Of these, printed text is particularly notorious. In a traditional curriculum, a student without a well-developed ability to see, decode, attend to, or comprehend printed text is compelled to adapt to its ubiquity as best as he or she can. In contrast, a UDL curriculum is designed to be innately flexible, enriched with multiple media so that alternatives can be accessed whenever appropriate. A UDL curriculum takes on the burden of adaptation so that the student doesn't have to, minimizing barriers and maximizing access to both information and learning. The UDL framework guides the development of adaptable curricula by means of 3 principles (Figure 2). These 3 principles parallel 3 fundamentally important learning components and 3 distinct learning networks in the brain: recognition, strategy, and affect (Rose & Meyer, 2002). The common recommendation of these 3 principles is to select goals, methods, assessment and materials in a way that will minimize barriers and maximize flexibility. In this manner, the UDL framework structures the development of curricula that fully support every student's access, participation, and progress in all 3 essential facets of learning. Principles of the Universal Design for Learning Framework Principle 1: To support recognition learning, provide multiple, flexible methods of presentation Principle 2: To support strategic learning, provide multiple, flexible methods of expression and apprenticeship. Principle 3: To support affective learning, provide multiple, flexible options for engagement.

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Figure 2. The three UDL principles call for flexibility in relation to three essential facets of learning, each one orchestrated by a distinct set of networks in the brain. Critical to successfully implementing UDL theory is the use of digital materials. Digital materials, unlike the conventional pedagogical mainstays, speech, printed text, and printed images, have an inherent flexibility. They can be modified in a host of ways, depending on the needs of the student. This flexibility makes it feasible to customize learning materials and methods to each individual. For teachers wondering how to customize the curriculum, CAST has devised three sets of broad teaching methods that support each of the 3 UDL principles (Figure 3, Rose & Meyer, 2002). These teaching methods draw on knowledge of the qualities of digital media and how recognition, strategic, and affective networks operate. For example, the first Teaching Method to support recognition learning is to provide multiple examples. This teaching method takes advantage of the fact that recognition networks can extract the defining features of a pattern and differentiate it from similar patterns simply by viewing multiple examples. Although presentation of multiple examples might be challenging in a classroom limited to printed text and hard copy images, digital materials enable the assembly, storage, and maintenance of a large collection of examples in the form of digital text, images, sound, or videoall in the modest space of a classroom. This is one example of how digital materials and UDL Teaching Methods can facilitate the successful implementation of UDL. The UDL Teaching Methods will anchor the upcoming discussion where we will highlight the ways in which computer simulations align with each of the 3 UDL principles. Within the context of these teaching methods, we'll show how computer simulations can support individualized instruction of recognition, strategic, and affective learning. Network-Appropriate Teaching Methods To support diverse recognition networks: Provide multiple examples Highlight critical features Provide multiple media and formats Support background context To support diverse strategic networks: Provide flexible models of skilled performance Provide opportunities to practice with supports Provide ongoing, relevant feedback Offer flexible opportunities for demonstrating skill To support diverse affective networks:

Offer choices of context and tools Offer adjustable levels of challenge Offer choices of learning context Offer choices of rewards

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Figure 3. To help teachers support learners' diverse recognition, strategic, and affective networks, CAST has developed three sets of UDL teaching methods. These teaching methods can be used to make the curriculum more flexible and broadly supportive. Top Differentiated Instruction and the Three Universal Design for Learning Principles Differentiated instruction is well received as a classroom practice that may be well suited to the three principles of UDL. The following section looks at the three network appropriate teaching methods, recognition, strategic and affective, in order to address the ways in which differentiated instruction coordinates with UDL theory. Certain instructional techniques have been found to be very effective in supporting different skills as students learn. Differentiated instruction is designed to keep the learner in mind when specifying the instructional episode. Recognition learning. The first UDL principle focuses on pattern recognition and the importance of providing multiple, flexible methods of presentation when teaching patternsno single teaching methodology for pattern recognition will be satisfactory for every learner. The theory of differentiated instruction incorporates some guidelines that can help teachers to support critical elements of recognition learning in a flexible way and promote every student's success. Each of the three key elements of differentiated instruction, content, process, and product, supports an important UDL Teaching Method for individualized instruction of pattern recognition. The content guidelines for differentiated instruction support the first UDL Teaching Method for recognition networks, provide multiple examples, in that they encourage the use of several elements and materials to support instructional content. A teacher following this guideline might help students in a social studies class to understand the location of a state in the union by showing them a wall map or a globe, projecting a state map, or describing the location in words. Also, while preserving the essential content, a teacher could vary the difficulty of the material by presenting smaller or larger, simpler or more complex maps. For students with physical or cognitive disabilities, such a diversity of examples may be vital in order for them to access the pattern being taught. Other students may benefit from the same multiple examples by obtaining a perspective that they otherwise might not. In this way, a range of examples can help to ensure that each student's recognition networks are able to identify the fundamental elements identifying a pattern. This same use of varied content examples supports a second recommended practice in UDL methodology, provide multiple media and formats. A wide range of tools for presenting instructional content are available digitally, thus teachers may manipulate size, color contrasts, and other features to develop examples in multiple media and formats. These can be saved for future use and flexibly accessed by different students, depending on their needs and preferences. The content guidelines of differentiated instruction also recommend that content elements of instruction be kept concept-focused and principle-driven. This practice is consistent with a third UDL Teaching Method for recognition, highlight critical features. By avoiding any focus on extensive facts or seductive details and reiterating the broad concepts, a goal of differentiated instruction, teachers are highlighting essential components, better supporting recognition.

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The fourth UDL Teaching Method for recognition is to support background knowledge, and in this respect, the assessment step of the differentiated instruction learning cycle is instrumental. By evaluating student knowledge about a construct before designing instruction teachers can better support students' knowledge base, scaffolding instruction in a very important way. Strategic learning. People find for themselves the most desirable method of learning strategies; therefore, teaching methodologies need to be varied. This kind of flexibility is key for teachers to help meet the needs of their diverse students, and this is reflected in the 4 UDL Teaching Methods. Differentiated instruction can support these teaching methods in valuable ways. Differentiated instruction recognizes the need for students to receive flexible models of skilled performance, one of the four UDL Teaching Methods for strategic learning. As noted above, teachers implementing differentiated instruction are encouraged to demonstrate information and skills multiple times and at varying levels. As a result, learners enter the instructional episode with different approaches, knowledge, and strategies for learning. When students are engaged in initial learning on novel tasks or skills, supported practice should be used to ensure success and eventual independence. Supported practice enables students to split up a complex skill into manageable components and fully master these components. Differentiated instruction promotes thi teaching method by encouraging students to be active and responsible learners, and by asking teachers to respect individual differences and scaffold students as they move from initial learning to practiced, less supported skills mastery. In order to successfully demonstrate the skills that they have learned, students need flexible opportunities for demonstrating skill. Differentiated instruction directly supports this UDL Teaching Method by reminding teachers to vary requirements and expectations for learning and expressing knowledge, including the degree of difficulty and the means of evaluation or scoring. Affective learning. Differentiated instruction and UDL Teaching Methods bear another important point of convergence: recognition of the importance of engaging learners in instructional tasks. Supporting affective learning through flexible instruction is the third principle of UDL and an objective that differentiated instruction supports very effectively. Differentiated instruction theory reinforces the importance of effective classroom management and reminds teachers of meeting the challenges of effective organizational and instructional practices. Engagement is a vital component of effective classroom management, organization, and instruction. Therefore teachers are encouraged to offer choices of tools, adjust the level of difficulty of the material, and provide varying levels of scaffolding to gain and maintain learner attention during the instructional episode. These practices bear much in common with UDL Teaching Methods for affective learning: offer choices of content and tools, provide adjustable levels of challenge, and offer a choice of learning context. By providing varying levels of scaffolding when differentiating instruction, students have access to varied learning contexts as well as choices about their learning environment.

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Examples of UDL and Differentiated Instruction The focus of the previous sections was to describe ways in which differentiated instruction supports the three principles of UDL and aligns with UDL teaching practices. Here, we present actual lesson plans employing differentiated instruction. The first is a product of a school that is working with CAST, and the second is from work outside of CAST. Each exemplifies applications of UDL in differentiated instruction. In the example from CAST, we highlight the ways that differentiated instruction is used to implement UDL teaching methods. In the second, we identified UDL features implemented in a well designed differentiated instruction lesson in mathematics and recommend ways in which UDL could be applied to make an even more accessible, more flexible lesson. CAST gathering evidence: The Life Cycle of Plants from the Planning for All Learners (PAL) toolkit. This lesson is a two-day instructional plan that is a part of a larger unit designed by a first grade teacher for a diverse class of students. Before teaching the lessons presented on this web site, the teacher introduced students to science concepts around the growth of seeds through oral presentation and in-class experiments. This lesson enabled the teacher to discuss, display and increase student understanding of the science content and concepts. The lesson plan addresses McRel, Massachusetts State and local District standards in Science and English Language Arts, by teaching students the necessary environmental variables about growth in plants, and the tools, skills and strategies required to do so. Student choice and access flexibility in the lesson exemplify applications of UDL. Table 1 contains a listing of UDL features made possible by elements of differentiated instruction employed in this lesson.
TABLE 1 UDL Features of the CAST PAL Toolkit Model Gathering Evidence: Life Cycle of Plants UDL Teaching Method Supportive Differentiated Instruction Feature(s) In preparation for this lesson, the teacher created multiple examples of finding and identifying seeds. Additionally, the teacher provided several examples of finding appropriate texts to complete the assignment. Students have multiple examples of texts from which to find information about the life cycle of seeds. As another example, fast growing seeds were planted in the classroom, giving students the opportunity to observe the seed life cycle. Teacher provides critical information for the lesson through oral presentation and highlights critical features in written form, then monitors students to check their focus on important features of the lesson. Additionally, by having texts available in digital format, the teacher or students may literally highlight critical

Provide multiple examples.

Highlight critical features.

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features of the text in preparation of lesson assignments. The teacher located several (45) resources, in this case books of different reading difficulty, containing the same science constructs on seed life cycles. The books were then made available digitally as well as in audio format for flexible accessibility. Thus, materials were available in a variety of media and formats. Several levels of preparation were designed to support background context: 5. Before this assignment the teacher and students found seeds in a variety of vegetables and fruits. In this way, the concept of seeds was brought out of the abstract; students had experiences seeing and finding seeds from a range of plants. 6. Careful instruction was organized to teach students the concept of finding a book that is "just right," helping students to find a book that is challenging, yet not too difficult. This, helped keep students work and learn in their "zone of proximal development" when obtaining background information for the lesson. Students had the option to work in selected pairs as they search for answers to the science questions. During guided practice and independent practice portions of each lesson, the teacher provides supports by checking and prompting.

Provide multiple media and formats.

Support background context.

Provide opportunities to practice with support. Offer flexible opportunities for demonstrating skill.

The design of this lesson allows students varied approaches throughout the lesson. Students may select their best or preferred type of working situation and means for responding. The teacher organized the lesson at multiple points for choice of tools:

Offer choices of content and tools.

choice of resource materials, choice of access (text, digital, audio), and choice of response style. The teacher offers multiple texts, representing a range of difficulty levels, and different means to access these texts. This helps to ensure that researching the answers to science questions is appropriately challenging for each student. For example, if decoding were challenging, the student could use a simpler text and/or access the information via audio or digital read-aloud. Throughout the lesson the teacher has organized several choices that help diversify the available learning contexts:

Offer adjustable levels of challenge.

Offer choices of learning contexts.

students can select from a variety of methods to respond to the science

questions (written, scribed, recorded), students can opt to work independently or with a partner during the assignment completion portion of the lesson, and students can select the "right book" based on difficulty and/or interest.

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Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development differentiating instruction web site Differentiated Instruction Lesson Example, grade 6 mathematics. This web site hosted by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) contains a number of lessons that illustrate different teachers' examples of how to use the principles of differentiated instruction. We have selected a mathematics lesson for 6th grade focusing on the concept of patterns. This instructional approach to teaching mathematics patterns has several exciting UDL features (see Table 2). Through the use of clearly stated goals and the implementation of flexible working groups with varying levels of challenge, this lesson helps to break down instructional barriers. We have identified additional ways to reduce barriers in this lesson even further by employing the principles of UDL teaching methods and differentiated instruction. We provide Table 3 with recommendations of employing teaching methods of UDL to support this lesson. Please note that we are not making generalized recommendations for making this lesson more UDL, but instead are focusing on ways that differentiated instruction, specifically, can help achieve this goal. TABLE 2 UDL Elements in a Differentiated Instruction Mathematics Lesson
UDL Teaching Method Provide multiple examples. Differentiated Instruction Features The teacher provides multiple examples through the story of The King's Chessboard and other math problems. The teacher highlights critical features of the mathematics in the story by stopping and calculating the amount of rice accumulating and using a t-table to do so. The teacher reads the story aloud and students have the story to read. The numbers are represented in the story and on the t -table. Teachers analyze or pretest students for key preskills and background knowledge. In cooperative groups, students may receive feedback from the teacher and from peers. Students are assigned to one of three groups tiered by difficulty; all students are working on the same task but with varying supports. Varied supports in the working groups alter the level of independence and difficulty in solving the task.

Highlight critical features.

Provide multiple media and formats. Support background context. Provide ongoing, relevant feedback. Offer choices of content and tools. Offer adjustable levels of challenge.

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TABLE 3 UDL Strategies to Further Minimize Lesson Barriers in a Differentiated Instruction Lesson Plan for Mathematics Barrier Deducting/constructing numeric functions. UDL Strategy Provide different demonstrations or models of how to use the tools employed in the lesson. Scaffold how to use the t-table and visualize the chessboard. Provide alternative formats for students to express their interpretation of the story and the mathematical implications. For example, speaking, creating a diagram, numerical representations. Consider background knowledge for students entering this mathematical problem. What range of supports could be made available to provide the informational knowledge so that students can focus on the problem solving component?

Students write an exit card to explain the mathematical story.

The Locker Problem.

Recommendations for Implementation at the Classroom Level Although UDL applications of differentiated instruction already exist, they are admittedly hard to come by. Even with such models available, teachers face challenges in implementing them: the challenges of shifting away from traditional views of intelligence and traditional reliance on print media, the challenge of acquiring and mastering new technology, and the challenge of garnering support from the school system. The following sections offer recommendations that can help teachers overcome each one of these challenges. Learn about Universal Design for Learning. The first and most basic step toward successfully implementing UDL is self-education. Although UDL has been more than a decade in the making, it is an approach that challenges many traditional educational perspectives and practices. Before teachers can implement UDL effectively, they may need to learn a different way of looking at their students and the materials that they use in the classroom. CAST has been working to disseminate UDL widely, and, consistent with the framework itself, have developed multiple avenues (direct and indirect, self-driven and trainertaught, through text, speech, and interactive activities) through which individuals can learn about UDL and develop the skills necessary to put it into practice. Visit the CAST web site. The CAST web site devotes a large section to Universal Design for Learning. Here visitors will find an articulation of UDL, discussions of its core concepts, descriptions of UDL research projects, a listing of tools and resources that support UDL, and ideas and examples for implementing UDL.

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Read CAST publications. CAST has a range of publications highlighting UDL and UDL practice, including Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age (Rose & Meyer, 2002). The companion web site to the book provides an evolving set of resources and classroom examples, including interactive activities and an online community where visitors can ask questions and engage in discussion about UDL. Enroll in an institute. Professional development institutes by CAST teach professionals about the challenges of improving access to and progress participation in the general education curriculum and how to make the curriculum accessible for all learners. Talk to others. The Teaching Every Student section of the CAST web site includes an online community where teachers can communicate, collaborate and obtain support from other educators who are exploring and teaching with UDL. Find more information and to engage in discussion about universal design and increasing access for students with disabilities at the web site for the Access Center (www.k8accesscenter.org) a national technical assistance center that is funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs to make elementary and middle school curriculum more accessible to students with disabilities.

Inventory and build technology support. Technology, in particular digital media, makes UDL implementation practical and achievable in a diverse classroom. Digital materials make it possible for the same material to be flexibly presented and accessedeven adapted on a student-to-student basis. Although we recommend that teachers try to build a library of digital materials, it is important to point out that UDL implementation can proceed successfully across a range of technology availability. The amount of technology available to teachers varies extensively limited by district and school resources, both monetary and otherwise. Fortunately, a fairly simple step such as digitizing print materials can greatly ease UDL implementation. The 1996 United States copyright additions (Chapter 1 of Title 17 Section 121 of the United States Code), the Chafee Amendment, gives authorized entities the freedom to digitize otherwise proprietary materials for individuals that have disabilities that impede access to the printed version. An authorized entity is a nonprofit organization or governmental agency that has a primary mission to provide specialized services relating to training, education, or adaptive reading or information access needs of blind or other persons with disabilities. This provision makes special education teachers eligible to digitize printed text materials, a step that can help to diversify the presentation of materials for students with disabilities. Another inexpensive but instrumental option for supplying a classroom with digital materials is the World Wide Weba tremendous source of free digital material and much of this material is in a multimedia format, which can greatly improve access to students. Having more digital media unquestionably enables teachers to implement UDL in a more extensive way. Teachers who have greater financial resources and district support can supplement their materials with innovative products such as multimedia composition tools (e.g., HyperStudio5, Kid Pix Deluxe 3X, PowerPoint), graphic organizer software (e.g., Inspiration, Kidspiration), textto-speech and text-to-image programs (e.g., Universal Reader, Read&Write GOLD, Kurzweil 3000, JAWS, Intellitalk II), CD-ROM storybooks (e.g., Reader Rabbit's Reading Development Library), and learning software (e.g., funbrain.com, Edmark's various learning games).

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Whether teachers are able to invest in the purchase of a lot of technology or not, UDL can proceed effectively. But taking inventory is an important step toward setting a realistic course of action. By inventorying the resources they have available to them, teachers can determine the level of UDL implementation appropriate to their classroom. For example, survey your classroom and your school media center for a clear idea of computer and projection systems and other technology hardware available to teachers and students. Check into scheduling issues around shared equipment. Additionally, test out web accessibility your school computer lab(s) and media center(s) as appropriate. If the web is a tool you may use and ask students to access, how available is it? Ask for or take an inventory of your school or district software, find out what's available and if there are available licenses for computers in your classroom. Effectively working with and managing technology can be a challenging process, so it is important as well to assess the available technology support. This may come in the form of a school or district help desk, computer teacher, computer resource specialist, technology integration teacher, etc., or one's own technology training. Find out what policies your school or district may have regarding the tools you may adopt for use in your planning and teaching. Installation of software and hardware on computers may be time consuming, plan for issues of timing in your implementation and installation of software and hardware. When you are ready to teach a lesson using some technologies new to you or your students, consider notifying your technology support person, to be at hand to help problem solve any unforeseen challenges with implementation.

Image description: This graphic organizer is made up of two circles with two arrows each placed at different points and an outer circular line of arrows with text placed at different points along the line of arrows. In the center are two circles with two arrows each, one inside the other. The smaller, inner circle touches the right side of the larger, outer circle. On the right, a curved line of arrows goes around the outside of the circles from the top of the graphic around to the left side. Text at the top of the graphic reads "Set goals: Establish context. Align to standards." From there, the line goes around to the right side of the graphic. An arrow in the middle of the line points to text on the right that reads "Analyze Status: Identify methods, materials, and assessment. Identify barriers." From there, the line goes around toward the bottom of the graphic. An arrow in the middle of the line points to text on the bottom right that reads "Apply UDL: Identify UDL materials and methods. Write UDL plan. Collect and organize materials." From there, the line goes

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around to the bottom left of the graphic. An arrow in the middle of the line points to text on the bottom left that reads "Teach UDL Lesson: Teach lesson. Evaluate success. Revise lesson/unit." The line continues around to the left side of the graphic, ending in an arrow pointing up. Curriculum planning and delivery. Another important step in implementation of UDL in instruction is curriculum planning and delivery. To begin, we recommend that teachers have a basic understanding of UDL and a commitment to make the curriculum and learning accessible for all learners. While keeping in mind the three principles of UDL, based on the three networks recognition, strategic and affective, we have found the following process useful in designing lessons. The process includes four steps, based upon the principles and concepts of UDL, proven professional development strategies, and effective teaching practices; (a) Set Goals, (b) Analyze Status, (c) Apply UDL, and (d) Teach the UDL Lesson. In the Set Goals stage of curriculum planning, we recommend that teachers establish the context for instruction. Context is usually driven or based on state standards, followed by the design of goals for the instructional episode. We recommend that all teachers closely evaluate these to assure alignment and assure that the means for attaining the goals are separated from the goals and standards. Next, when designing a UDL lesson, teachers should Analyze the Current Status of the instructional episode. What are the current methodologies, assessments, and materials used to teach the lesson? Analyze these teaching procedures in relation to potential barriers of learners in the classroom. Do all students have access to the materials? Are students able to express themselves with the current methods and materials? There are a number of resources and tools available from CAST to analyze lessons in the Planning for All Learners Toolkit located on the TES web site. The third recommended step of the planning process is to Apply UDL to the Lesson/Unit. This includes the goals, methods, assessments and materials used to implement the lesson. Create the UDL lesson plan, grounded in the learning goals, classroom profile, methods and assessment, and materials and tools. Then, collect and organize materials that support the UDL lesson. In the final step, Teach the UDL Lesson/Unit, minimize barriers and realize the strengths and challenges each student brings to learning, rely on effective teaching practices, and apply challenges appropriate for each learner. In this way, instructors can engage more students and help all students progress. When teaching and evaluating students work, also evaluate and revise the lesson/unit to assure student access and success. You may obtain additional information about designing UDL methods, assessments, and materials, in Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age, Chapter 4. Secure administrative support. School districts and administrations can be powerful sources of supportfinancial and otherwise. Administrative commitment to UDL can strengthen a teacher's sense of mission and self-satisfaction and lead to important funding. A case in point is the town of Gloucester, Massachusetts. The principal for the school system is so convinced of the importance of digitized

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materials that he has set a mandate that teachers use only those textbooks that have a digitized version. Teachers will use a text-to-speech reader to further improve the accessibility of the text. Clearly, this kind of change would have happened much more slowly in the absence of such tremendous administrator-level support. Administrator support can also help to facilitate funding, which although not a prerequisite for UDL, can create important opportunities. Funding might enable the purchase of equipment, professional development, and the launching of new UDL teaching projects. Districts vary widely concerning the types and level of funding that they offer teachers, but teachers who can convince their administrators of the value of UDL may be able to secure district-level grants, professional development awards, and sabbaticals. For example, in a North Shore Massachusetts school district, the Technology Program Manager and Special Education Director teamed with two teachers using UDL were awarded a state-level technology grant to implement UDL. This is just one example of how support at the administrative level can facilitate the acquisition of materials that support UDL efforts in the classroom. Parent education and involvement. Parents are another valuable resource for teachers building a UDL curriculum. There are at least two important ways that parents can be a resource: as advocates and as volunteers. By educating parents about the UDL activities going on in the classroom, teachers can develop a support system of informed individuals who can assist with and advocate for UDL instruction. Teachers should think about ways to inform parents about classroom activities. Notes sent home, parent night presentations, and IEP meetings are all excellent opportunities to engage in this kind of communication. Once parents are educated about UDL they may wish to become involved themselves. There are many ways that parents can do this, including volunteering in the classroom and lending support at home. A few possibilities are helping to prepare materials, monitoring kids during UDL lessons, helping with technology, donating equipment, and supporting homework assignments. Conclusion Differentiated instruction, although somewhat still developing in educational settings, has received significant recognition. When combined with the practices and principles of UDL, differentiated instruction can provide teachers with both theory and practice to appropriately challenge the broad scope of students in classrooms today. Although educators are continually challenged by the ever-changing classroom profile of students, resources, and reforms, practices continue to evolve and the relevant research base should grow. And along with them grows the promise of differentiated instruction and UDL in educational practices. Links to Learn More About Differentiated Instruction
Guild, P. B., and Garger, S. (1998). What Is Differentiated Instruction? Marching to Different Drummers, 2nd Ed. (ASCD, p.2)

http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/198186.aspx

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Initially published in 1985, Marching to Different Drummers was one of the first sources to pull together information on what was a newly-flourishing topic in education. Part I defines style and looks at the history of style research; Part II describes applications of style in seven areas; Part III identifies common questions and discusses implementation and staff development. The Access Center

http://www.k8accesscenter.org/
This web site belongs to the Access Center, a national technical assistance center, funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs. The purpose of the K12 Access Center is to make elementary and middle school curricula more accessible to students with disabilities. The web site hosts chats and discussions and offers publications and presentations on topics related to accessing the general education curriculum, including Universal Design for Learning. Tomlinson, C. A., (1995). Differentiating instruction for advanced learners in the mixed-ability middle school classroom. ERIC Digest ED443572. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED443572 To meet the needs of diverse student populations, many teachers differentiate instruction. This digest describes differentiated instruction, discusses the reasons for differentiated instruction, what makes it successful, and suggests how teachers may begin implementation. Tomlinson, C. A., (1995). Differentiating instruction for advanced learners in the mixed-ability middle school classroom. ERIC Digest E536.

http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED443572
The ability to differentiate instruction for middle school aged learners is a challenge. Responding to the diverse students needs found in inclusive, mixed-ability classrooms is particularly difficult. This digest provides an overview of some key principles for differentiating instruction, with an emphasis on the learning needs of academically advanced students. Tomlinson, C. A., & Allan, S. D., (2000). Leadership for differentiating schools and classrooms. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/100216.aspx
This web site contains two chapters from Tomlinson's recent publication: Leadership for differentiating schools and classrooms, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. This book is designed for those in leadership positions to learn about differentiated instruction. Web Article: Mapping a route toward differentiated instruction.

http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept99/vol57/num01/Mapping-a-RouteToward-Differentiated-Instruction.aspx
Carol Ann Tomlinson, an Associate Professor of Educational Leadership, Foundations and Policy at the Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA provides an article entitled: Mapping a route toward differentiated instruction. Educational Leadership, 57(1).

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Willis, S. & Mann, L., (2000). Differentiating instruction: Finding manageable ways to meet individual needs (Excerpt). Curriculum Update.

http://www.ascd.org/publications/curriculum-update/winter2000/Differentiating-Instruction.aspx
Based on the concept that "one size does not fit all" the authors describe the teaching philosophy of differentiated instruction. More teachers are determined to reach all learners, to challenge students who may be identified as gifted as well as students who lag behind grade level. This article excerpt describes the essential components of differentiated instruction beginning with three aspects of curriculum: content, process, and products. The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) Web Site

http://www.ascd.org/research-a-topic/differentiated-instruction-resources.aspx
A site by ASCD (2000) which discusses differentiated instruction. Page links to other pages with examples from a high school and elementary school, key characteristics of a differentiated classroom, benefits, related readings, discussion, and related links to explore. Preparing Teachers for Differentiated Instruction

http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept00/vol58/num01/-PreparingTeachers-for-Differentiated-Instruction.aspx
This web site, provided by Educational Leadership, links the reader to a brief summary of an article by Holloway. The author has provided a bulleted summary regarding the principles and theories that drive differentiated instruction. Holloway, J. H., (2000). Preparing Teachers for Differentiated Instruction. Educational Leadership, 58(1).

http://web.uvic.ca/~jdurkin/edd401/Differentiated.html
This site is from an education course by Dr. John Durkin. It includes a diagram with suggestions for approaches to differentiated instruction. It also includes a listing of what differentiated instruction is and is not, rules of thumb on how to instruct, and management strategies. Web Site: for Teachers, Administrators, and Higher Education

www.teach-nology.com/litined/dif_instruction/
This web site is designed for educators and uses technology to inform teachers about current practices, literature, the law in education, as well as professional development. Additionally, links to articles including research on educational practices including links to information on differentiated instruction are included. CAST. Teaching Every Student.(n.d). Retrieved September 15, 2003, from

http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/ Top
References CAST. UDL Toolkits: Planning for All Learners (PAL). (n.d.). Retrieved August 19, 2003, from

http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/toolkits/tk_introduction.cfm?tk_id=21

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Dolan, R. P., & Hall, T. E., (2001). Universal Design for Learning: Implications for large-scale assessment. IDA Perspectives, 27(4), 22-25. Ellis, E. S. and Worthington, L. A., (1994). Research synthesis on effective teaching principles and the design of quality tools for educators. University of Oregon: Technical Report No. 5 National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators. Meyer, A., & Rose, D. H., (1998). Learning to read in the computer age. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books. Oaksford, L. & Jones, L., (2001). Differentiated instruction abstract. Tallahassee, FL: Leon County Schools. Pettig, K. L., (2000). On the road to differentiated. Education Leadership, 8, 1, 14-18. Pisha, B., & Coyne, P., (2001). Smart from the start: the promise of Universal Design for Learning. Remedial and Special Education, 22(4), 197-203. Reis. S. M., Kaplan, S. N, Tomlinson, C. A., Westbert, K. L, Callahan, C. M., & Cooper, C. R., (1998). How the brain learns, A response: Equal does not mean identical. Educational Leadership, 56, 3. Rose, D. (2001). Universal Design for Learning: Deriving guiding principles from networks that learn. Journal of Special Education Technology, 16(2), 66-67. Rose, D., & Dolan, R. P., (2000). Universal Design for Learning: Associate Editor's Column. Journal of Special Education Technology, 15(4), 47-51. Rose, D., & Meyer, A., (2000a). Universal design for individual differences. Educational Leadership, 58(3), 39-43. Rose, D., & Meyer, A., (2000b). Universal Design for Learning: Associate Editor Column. Journal of Special Education Technology, 15(1), 67-70. Rose, D., & Meyer, A., (2002). Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Universal Design for Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Rose, D., Sethuraman, S., & Meo, G., (2000). Universal Design for Learning. Journal of Special Education Technology, 15(2), 26-60. Sizer, T. R., (2001). No two are quite alike: Personalized learning. Educational Leadership 57(1). Tomlinson, C. A., (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. (2nd Ed.) Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Tomlinson, C. A., & Allan, S. D., (2000). Leadership for differentiating schools and classrooms. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. This content was developed pursuant to cooperative agreement #H324H990004 under CFDA 84.324H between CAST and the Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education. However, the opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the U.S. Department of Education or the Office of Special Education Programs and no endorsement by that office should be inferred. Citation Cite this paper as follows: Hall, T., Strangman, N., & Meyer, A. (2003). Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved [insert date] from http://aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/differentiated...

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Differentiated Instruction for Writing


By: The Access Center (2004)

Differentiated instruction, also called differentiation, is a process through which teachers enhance learning by matching student characteristics to instruction and assessment. Writing instruction can be differentiated to allow students varying amounts of time to complete assignments, to give students different writing product options, and to teach skills related to the writing process. What is differentiated instruction? Differentiated instruction, also called differentiation, is a process through which teachers enhance learning by matching student characteristics to instruction and assessment. Differentiated instruction allows all students to access the same classroom curriculum by providing entry points, learning tasks, and outcomes that are tailored to students' needs (Hall, Strangman, & Meyer, 2003). Differentiated instruction is not a single strategy, but rather an approach to instruction that incorporates a variety of strategies. Teachers can differentiate content, process, and/or product for students (Tomlinson, 1999). Differentiation of content refers to a change in the material being learned by a student. For example, if the classroom objective is for all students to subtract using renaming, some of the students may learn to subtract two-digit numbers, while others may learn to subtract larger numbers in the context of word problems. Differentiation of process refers to the way in which a student accesses material. One student may explore a learning center, while another student collects information from the web. Differentiation of product refers to the way in which a student shows what he or she has learned. For example, to demonstrate understanding of a geometric concept, one student may solve a problem set, while another builds a model. When teachers differentiate, they do so in response to a student's readiness, interest, and/or learning profile. Readiness refers to the skill level and background knowledge of the child. Interest refers to topics that the student may want to explore or that will motivate the student. This can include interests relevant to the content area as well as outside interests of the student. Finally, a student's learning profile includes learning style (i.e., a visual, auditory, tactile, or kinesthetic learner), grouping preferences (i.e., individual, small group, or large group), and environmental preferences (i.e., lots of space or a quiet area to work). A teacher may differentiate based on any one of these factors or any combination of factors (Tomlinson, 1999). How is it implemented? Implementation looks different for each student and each assignment. Before beginning instruction, teachers should do three things:
Use diagnostic assessments to determine student readiness. These assessments can be

formal or informal. Teachers can give pre-tests, question students about their background

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knowledge, or use KWL charts (charts that ask students to identify what they already Know, what they Want to know, and what they have Learned about a topic). Determine student interest. This can be done by using interest inventories and/or including students in the planning process. Teachers can ask students to tell them what specific interests they have in a particular topic, and then teachers can try to incorporate these interests into their lessons. Identify student learning styles and environmental preferences. Learning styles can be measured using learning style inventories. Teachers can also get information about student learning styles by asking students how they learn best and by observing student activities. Identifying environmental preferences includes determining whether students work best in large or small groups and what environmental factors might contribute to or inhibit student learning. For example, a student might need to be free from distraction or have extra lighting while he or she works. Teachers incorporate different instructional strategies based on the assessed needs of their students. Throughout a unit of study, teachers should assess students on a regular basis. This assessment can be formal, but is often informal and can include taking anecdotal notes on student progress, examining students' work, and asking the student questions about his or her understanding of the topic. The results of the assessment could then be used to drive further instruction. What does it look like for writing? Writing instruction can be differentiated to allow students varying amounts of time to complete assignments, to give students different writing product options, and to teach skills related to the writing process. The chart below offers a variety of strategies that can be used.
Strategy Focus of Differentiation Definition Example

Tiered Readiness assignments

Tiered assignments are designed to instruct students on essential skills that are provided at different levels of complexity, abstractness, and open-endedness. The curricular content and objective(s) are the same, but the process and/or product are varied according to the student's level of readiness. Compacting is the process of adjusting instruction to account for prior student mastery of learning objectives. Compacting involves a three-step process: (1) assess the student to determine his/her level of knowledge on the material to be studied and determine what he/she still needs to master; (2) create plans for what the student needs to know, and excuse the student from studying what he/she already knows; and (3) create plans for freed-up time to be

Students with moderate writing skills are asked to write a four-paragraph persuasive essay in which they provide a thesis statement and use their own ideas to support it. Students with more advanced skills are asked to research the topic in more depth and use substantive arguments from their research to support their thesis.

Compacting Readiness

Rather than receiving additional direct instruction on writing a five-sentence paragraph, a student who already has that skill is asked to apply it to a variety of topics and is given instruction on writing a five-paragraph essay.

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spent in enriched or accelerated study. Interest Centers or Interest Groups Readiness Interest Interest centers (usually used with younger students) and interest groups (usually used with older students) are set up so that learning experiences are directed toward a specific learner interest. Allowing students to choose a topic can be motivating to them. Interest Centers - Centers can focus on specific writing skills, such as steps in the writing process, and provide examples and activities that center on a theme of interest, such as sports or movies. Interest Groups When writing persuasive essays, students can work in pairs on topics of interest. The teacher may assign groups based on readiness for direct instruction on the writing process, and allow students to choose their own groups and methods for acquiring background information on a writing topic (i.e., watching a video or reading an article).

Flexible Grouping*

Readiness Students work as part of many different Interest groups depending on the task and/or Learning Profile content. Sometimes students are placed in groups based on readiness, other times they are placed based on interest and/or learning profile. Groups can either be assigned by the teacher or chosen by the students. Students can be assigned purposefully to a group or assigned randomly. This strategy allows students to work with a wide variety of peers and keeps them from being labeled as advanced or struggling. Readiness Learning contracts begin with an agreement Learning Profile between the teacher and the student. The teacher specifies the necessary skills expected to be learned by the student and the required components of the assignment, while the student identifies methods for completing the tasks. This strategy (1) allows students to work at an appropriate pace; (2) can target learning styles; and (3) helps students work independently, learn planning skills, and eliminate unnecessary skill practice. Readiness Choice boards are organizers that contain a Interest variety of activities. Students can choose Learning Profile one or several activities to complete as they learn a skill or develop a product. Choice boards can be organized so that students are required to choose options that focus on several different skills.

Learning Contracts

A student indicates an interest in writing a newspaper article. The student, with support from the teacher, specifies the process by which he or she will research newspaper writing and decides how to present the final product. For example, the article could be published in the school newspaper or shared during a writer's workshop.

Choice Boards

Students in an elementary school class are given a choice board that contains a list of possible poetry writing activities based on the following learning styles: visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile. Examples of activities include, cutting out magazine letters to create poems, using a word processor, or dictating a poem into a tape recorder and transcribing it. Students must complete two activities from the board and must choose these activities from two different learning styles.

* More information about grouping strategies can be found in Strategies to Improve Access to the General Education Curriculum on The Access Center website.

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Resources

Differentiated Instruction (CAST)

This site contains an article by Tracy Hall at the National Center for Accessing the General Curriculum. The article discusses differentiation as it applies to the general education classroom.

Strategies for Differentiating

The Enhancing Learning with Technology site provides explanations for various differentiation strategies. References
Hall, T., Strangman, N., & Meyer, A. (2003). Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation. National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved July 9, 2004 from: http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/udl/diffinstruction.asp Tomlinson , C.A. (1999). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms.Alexandria , VA : ASCD. Access Center. (2004). Differentiated Instruction for Writing. Washington D.C.: Author.

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Documentarul Nr 4.

DESIGN INSTRUCIONAL
4.1.Definitions of Instructional Design
(Adapted from "Training and Instructional Design",

Applied Research Laboratory, Penn State University)

Instructional Design as a Process: Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities. Instructional Design as a Discipline: Instructional Design is that branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies. Instructional Design as a Science: Instructional design is the science of creating detailed specifications for the development, implementation, evaluation, and maintenance of situations that facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter at all levels of complexity. Instructional Design as Reality: Instructional design can start at any point in the design process. Often a glimmer of an idea is developed to give the core of an instruction situation. By the time the entire process is done the designer looks back and she or he checks to see that all parts of the "science" have been taken into account. Then the entire process is written up as if it occurred in a systematic fashion. Instructional System: An instructional system is an arrangement of resources and procedures to promote learning. Instructional design is the systematic process of developing instructional systems and instructional development is the process of implementing the system or plan. Instructional Technology: Instructional technology is the systemic and systematic application of strategies and techniques derived from behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist theories to the solution of instructional problems. Instructional technology is the systematic application of theory and other organized knowledge to the task of instructional design and development. Instructional Technology = Instructional Design + Instructional Development Instructional Development: The process of implementing the design plans.

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(from Wikipedia: )

Instructional Design (also called Instructional Systems Design (ISD)) is the practice of maximizing the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences. The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. Ideally the process is informed by pedagogically (process of teaching) and andragogically (adult learning) tested theories of learning and may take place in student-only, teacher-led or community-based settings. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. There are many instructional design models but many are based on the ADDIE model with the five phases: 1) analysis, 2) design, 3) development, 4) implementation, and 5) evaluation. As a field, instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology. History Much of the foundation of the field of instructional design was laid in World War II, when the U.S. military faced the need to rapidly train large numbers of people to perform complex technical tasks, from field-stripping a carbine to navigating across the ocean to building a bomber see "Training Within Industry (TWI)". Drawing on the research and theories of B.F. Skinner on operant conditioning, training programs focused on observable behaviors. Tasks were broken down into subtasks, and each subtask treated as a separate learning goal. Training was designed to reward correct performance and remediate incorrect performance. Mastery was assumed to be possible for every learner, given enough repetition and feedback. After the war, the success of the wartime training model was replicated in business and industrial training, and to a lesser extent in the primary and secondary classroom. The approach is still common in the U.S. military.[1] In 1956, a committee led by Benjamin Bloom published an influential taxonomy of what he termed the three domains of learning: Cognitive (what one knows or thinks), Psychomotor (what one does, physically) and Affective (what one feels, or what attitudes one has). These taxonomies still influence the design of instruction.[2] During the latter half of the 20th century, learning theories began to be influenced by the growth of digital computers. In the 1970s, many instructional design theorists began to adopt an information-processingbased approach to the design of instruction. David Merrill for instance developed Component Display Theory (CDT), which concentrates on the means of presenting instructional materials (presentation techniques).[3] Later in the 1980s and throughout the 1990s cognitive load theory began to find empirical support for a variety of presentation techniques.[4] Cognitive load theory and the design of instruction Cognitive load theory developed out of several empirical studies of learners, as they interacted with instructional materials.[5] Sweller and his associates began to measure the effects

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of working memory load, and found that the format of instructional materials has a direct effect on the performance of the learners using those materials.[6][7][8] While the media debates of the 1990s focused on the influences of media on learning, cognitive load effects were being documented in several journals. Rather than attempting to substantiate the use of media, these cognitive load learning effects provided an empirical basis for the use of instructional strategies. Mayer asked the instructional design community to reassess the media debate, to refocus their attention on what was most important: learning.[9] By the mid- to late-1990s, Sweller and his associates had discovered several learning effects related to cognitive load and the design of instruction (e.g. the split attention effect, redundancy effect, and the worked-example effect). Later, other researchers like Richard Mayer began to attribute learning effects to cognitive load.[9] Mayer and his associates soon developed a Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning.[10][11][12] In the past decade, cognitive load theory has begun to be internationally accepted[13] and begun to revolutionize how practitioners of instructional design view instruction. Recently, human performance experts have even taken notice of cognitive load theory, and have begun to promote this theory base as the science of instruction, with instructional designers as the practitioners of this field.[14] Finally Clark, Nguyen and Sweller[15] published a textbook describing how Instructional Designers can promote efficient learning using evidence-based guidelines of cognitive load theory. Instructional Designers use various instructional strategies to reduce cognitive load. For example, they think that the onscreen text should not be more than 150 words or the text should be presented in small meaningful chunks.[citation needed] The designers also use auditory and visual methods to communicate information to the learner. Learning design The concept of learning design arrived in the literature of technology for education in the late nineties and early 2000s [16] with the idea that "designers and instructors need to choose for themselves the best mixture of behaviourist and constructivist learning experiences for their online courses" [17]. But the concept of learning design is probably as old as the concept of teaching. Learning design might be defined as "the description of the teaching-learning process that takes place in a unit of learning (eg, a course, a lesson or any other designed learning event)" [18]. As summarized by Britain[19], learning design may be associated with:

The concept of learning design The implementation of the concept made by learning design specifications like PALO, IMS Learning Design[20], LDL, SLD 2.0, etc... The technical realisations around the implementation of the concept like TELOS, RELOAD LD-Author, etc...

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Instructional design models ADDIE process Perhaps the most common model used for creating instructional materials is the ADDIE Process. This acronym stands for the 5 phases contained in the model:
c) Analyze analyze learner characteristics, task to be learned, etc.

Identify Instructional Goals, Conduct Instructional Analysis, Analye Learners and Contexts
Design develop learning objectives, choose an instructional approach

Write Performance Objectives, Develop Assessment Instruments, Develop Instructional Strategy


8. Develop create instructional or training materials

Design and selection of materials appropriate for learning activity, Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation
Implement deliver or distribute the instructional materials Evaluate make sure the materials achieved the desired goals

Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation Most of the current instructional design models are variations of the ADDIE process.[21] Dick,W.O,.Carey, L.,&Carey, J.O.(2004)And FYI, Susan Schminke fails as an instructor! Systematic Design of Instruction.Boston,MA:Allyn&Bacon. Rapid prototyping A sometimes utilized adaptation to the ADDIE model is in a practice known as rapid prototyping. Proponents suggest that through an iterative process the verification of the design documents saves time and money by catching problems while they are still easy to fix. This approach is not novel to the design of instruction, but appears in many design-related domains including software design, architecture, transportation planning, product development, message design, user experience design, etc.[21][22][23] In fact, some proponents of design prototyping assert that a sophisticated understanding of a problem is incomplete without creating and evaluating some type of prototype, regardless of the analysis rigor that may have been applied up front.[24] In other words, up-front analysis is rarely sufficient to allow one to confidently select an instructional model. For this reason many traditional methods of instructional design are beginning to be seen as incomplete, naive, and even counter-productive.[25] However, some consider rapid prototyping to be a somewhat simplistic type of model. As this argument goes, at the heart of Instructional Design is the analysis phase. After you thoroughly conduct the analysisyou can then choose a model based on your findings. That is the area where

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most people get snaggedthey simply do not do a thorough-enough analysis. (Part of Article By Chris Bressi on LinkedIn) Dick and Carey Another well-known instructional design model is The Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model.[26] The model was originally published in 1978 by Walter Dick and Lou Carey in their book entitled The Systematic Design of Instruction.

Dick and Carey made a significant contribution to the instructional design field by championing a systems view of instruction as opposed to viewing instruction as a sum of isolated parts. The model addresses instruction as an entire system, focusing on the interrelationship between context, content, learning and instruction. According to Dick and Carey, "Components such as the instructor, learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning and performance environments interact with each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning outcomes".[26] The components of the Systems Approach Model, also known as the Dick and Carey Model, are as follows: Identify Instructional Goal(s): goal statment describes a skill, knowledge or attitude(SKA) that a learner will be expected to acquire Conduct Instructional Analysis: Identify what a learner must recall and identify what learner must be able to do to perform particular task Analyze Learners and Contexts: General characteristic of the target audience, Characteristic directly related to the skill to be taught, Analysis of Performance Setting, Analysis of Learning Setting Write Performance Objectives: Objectives consists of a description of the behavior, the condition and criteria. The component of an objective that describes the criteria that will be used to judge the learner's performance.

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Develop Assessment Instruments: Purpose of entry behavior testing, purpose of pretesting, purpose of pottesting, purpose of practive items/practive problems Develop Instructional Strategy: Preinstructional activities, content presentation, Learner participation, assessment Develop and Select Instructional Materials Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation of Instruction: Designer try to identify areas of the instructional materials that are in need to improvement. Revise Instruction: To identify poor test items and to identify poor instruction Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation With this model, components are executed iteratively and in parallel rather than linearly.[26] http://www.slideshare.net/akteacher/dick-cary-instructional-design-model Instructional Development Learning System (IDLS) Another instructional design model is the Instructional Development Learning System (IDLS).[27] The model was originally published in 1970 by Peter J. Esseff, PhD and Mary Sullivan Esseff, PhD in their book entitled IDLSPro Trainer 1: How to Design, Develop, and Validate Instructional Materials.[28] Peter (1968) & Mary (1972) Esseff both received their doctorates in Educational Technology from the Catholic University of America under the mentorship of Dr. Gabriel Ofiesh, a Founding Father of the Military Model mentioned above. Esseff and Esseff contributed synthesized existing theories to develop their approach to systematic design, "Instructional Development Learning System" (IDLS). The components of the IDLS Model are: Design a Task Analysis Develop Criterion Tests and Performance Measures Develop Interactive Instructional Materials Validate the Interactive Instructional Materials Other models Some other useful models of instructional design include: the Smith/Ragan Model, the Morrison/Ross/Kemp Model and the OAR model, as well as, Wiggins theory of backward design. Learning theories also play an important role in the design of instructional materials. Theories such as behaviorism, constructivism, social learning and cognitivism help shape and define the outcome of instructional materials. Influential researchers and theorists Alphabetic by last name

Bloom, Benjamin Taxonomies of the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains 1955

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Bonk, Curtis Blended learning 2000s Bransford, John D. How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice 1999 Bruner, Jerome Constructivism Carr-Chellman, Alison Instructional Design for Teachers ID4T -2010 Carey, L. "The Systematic Design of Instruction" Clark, Richard Clark-Kosma "Media vs Methods debate", "Guidance" debate. Clark, Ruth Efficiency in Learning: Evidence-Based Guidelines to Manage Cognitive Load / Guided Instruction / Cognitive Load Theory Dick, W. "The Systematic Design of Instruction" Gagn, Robert M. Nine Events of Instruction (Gagn and Merrill Video Seminar) Heinich, Robert Instructional Media and the new technologies of instruction 3rd ed. Educational Technology 1989 Jonassen, David problem-solving strategies 1990s Langdon, Danny G - The Instructional Designs Library: 40 Instructional Designs, Educational Tech. Publications Mager, Robert F. ABCD model for instructional objectives 1962 Merrill, M. David - Component Display Theory / Knowledge Objects Papert, Seymour Constructionism, LOGO 1970s Piaget, Jean Cognitive development 1960s Piskurich, George Rapid Instructional Design 2006 Simonson, Michael Instructional Systems and Design via Distance Education 1980s Schank, Roger Constructivist simulations 1990s Sweller, John - Cognitive load, Worked-example effect, Split-attention effect Reigeluth, Charles Elaboration Theory, "Green Books" I, II, and III - 1999-2010 Skinner, B.F. Radical Behaviorism, Programed Instruction Vygotsky, Lev Learning as a social activity 1930s Wiley, David Learning Objects, Open Learning 2000s

References
1. ^ MIL-HDBK-29612/2A Instructional Systems Development/Systems Approach to Training and Education 2. ^ Bloom's Taxonomy 3. ^ TIP: Theories 4. ^ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. - Educational Psychologist - 38(1):1 - Citation 5. ^ Sweller, J. (1988). "Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning". Cognitive Science 12 (1): 257285. doi:10.1016/0364-0213(88)90023-7. 6. ^ Chandler, P. & Sweller, J. (1991). "Cognitive Load Theory and the Format of Instruction". Cognition and Instruction 8 (4): 293332. doi:10.1207/s1532690xci0804_2. 7. ^ Sweller, J., & Cooper, G.A. (1985). "The use of worked examples as a substitute for problem solving in learning algebra". Cognition and Instruction 2 (1): 5989. doi:10.1207/s1532690xci0201_3. 8. ^ Cooper, G., & Sweller, J. (1987). "Effects of schema acquisition and rule automation on mathematical problem-solving transfer". Journal of Educational Psychology 79 (4): 347362. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.79.4.347. 9. ^ a b Mayer, R.E. (1997). "Multimedia Learning: Are We Asking the Right Questions?". Educational Psychologist 32 (41): 119. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep3201_1. 10.^ Mayer, R.E. (2001). Multimedia Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521-78239-2. 11.^ Mayer, R.E., Bove, W. Bryman, A. Mars, R. & Tapangco, L. (1996). "When Less Is More: Meaningful Learning From Visual and Verbal Summaries of Science Textbook Lessons". Journal of Educational Psychology 88 (1): 6473. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.88.1.64.

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12.^ Mayer, R.E., Steinhoff, K., Bower, G. and Mars, R. (1995). "A generative theory of textbook design: Using annotated illustrations to foster meaningful learning of science text". Educational Technology Research and Development 43 (1): 3141. doi:10.1007/BF02300480. 13.^ Paas, F., Renkl, A. & Sweller, J. (2004). "Cognitive Load Theory: Instructional Implications of the Interaction between Information Structures and Cognitive Architecture". Instructional Science 32: 18. doi:10.1023/B:TRUC.0000021806.17516.d0. 14.^ Clark, R.C., Mayer, R.E. (2002). e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. ISBN 0-7879-6051-9. 15.^ Clark, R.C., Nguyen, F., and Sweller, J. (2006). Efficiency in Learning: Evidence-Based Guidelines to Manage Cognitive Load. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. ISBN 0-7879-7728-4. 16.^ Conole G., and Fill K., A learning design toolkit to create pedagogically effective learning activities. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2005 (08). 17.^ Carr-Chellman A. and Duchastel P., The ideal online course, British Journal of Educational Technology, 31(3), 229-241, July 2000. 18.^ Koper R., Current Research in Learning Design, Educational Technology & Society, 9 (1), 13-22, 2006. 19.^ Britain S., A Review of Learning Design: Concept, Specifications and Tools A report for the JISC E-learning Pedagogy Programme, May 2004. 20.^ IMS Learning Design webpage 21.^ a b Piskurich, G.M. (2006). Rapid Instructional Design: Learning ID fast and right. 22.^ Saettler, P. (1990). The evolution of American educational technology. 23.^ Stolovitch, H.D., & Keeps, E. (1999). Handbook of human performance technology. 24.^ Kelley, T., & Littman, J. (2005). The ten faces of innovation: IDEO's strategies for beating the devil's advocate & driving creativity throughout your organization. New York: Doubleday. 25.^ Hokanson, B., & Miller, C. (2009). Role-based design: A contemporary framework for innovation and creativity in instructional design. Educational Technology, 49(2), 2128. 26.^ a b c Dick, Walter, Lou Carey, and James O. Carey (2005) [1978]. The Systematic Design of Instruction (6th ed.). Allyn & Bacon. pp. 112. ISBN 0205412742. http://books.google.com/? id=sYQCAAAACAAJ&dq=the+systematic+design+of+instruction. 27.^ Esseff, Peter J. and Esseff, Mary Sullivan (1998) [1970]. Instructional Development Learning System (IDLS) (8th ed.). ESF Press. pp. 112. ISBN 1582830371. http://esfprotrainer.com/Materials.html. 28.^ [1]

4.2. O istorie a designului instrucional


A Brief History of Instructional Design
By Douglas Leigh

As a formal discipline, Instructional Systems Design has been a long time in the making. The early contributions of thinkers such as Aristotle, Socrates and Plato regarding the cognitive basis of learning and memory was later expanded by the 13th century philosopher St. Thomas Aquinas who discussed the perception of teachings in terms of free will. Four hundred years later, John

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Locke advanced Aristotle's notion of human's initial state of mental blankness by proposing that almost all reason and knowledge must be gained from experience. Then, at the turn of the 20th century John Dewey presented several tenets of the philosophy of education which promoted the idea that learning occurs best when married with doing, rather than rote regurgitation of facts. As the 1920's approached, a behaviorist approach to educational psychology became increasingly predominant. Thorndike's theory of connectionism represents the original stimulus-response (S-R) model of behavioral psychology, and was expanded on some twenty years later by Hull in his exposition of drive reduction a motivational model of behavior which emphasizes learner's wants, attention, and activities. With the Industrial Revolution came an increased attention to productivity, and educational behaviorists during the 1920's such as Sidney Pressey applied mechanized technology to increase the efficiency of the learning process. Though their initial incarnation did not see much use after the Depression, many of the lessons learned research into these teaching machines regarding the delivery of standardized instruction contributed to the instructional media research & development movement of World War II. The advent of the Second World War presented a tremendous instructional dilemma: the rapid training of hundreds of thousands of military personnel. Ralph Tyler's work a decade before WWII indicated that objectives were most useful to instructional developers if written in terms of desired learner behaviors. Armed with this knowledge and the experience of creating standardize methods of instructional delivery using teaching machines, military researchers developed a bevy of training films and other mediated materials for instructional purposes. In part, the United States' heavy investment in training and R&D was credited with the country's victory in the war. With the economic boom that followed, federal dollars followed researcher's desire to better flesh out the underpinnings of learning, cognition, and instruction. The 1950's are characterized by a shift away from the uninformed application of instructional technology to the formulation of theoretical models of learning. The publication of B. F. Skinner's The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching in 1954 canonized the basic behaviorist principles of S-R, feedback, and reinforcement. As the key element of his theory of operant conditioning, the reinforcement of desired learner responses was also incorporated into Skinner's implementations of programmed instruction. Considered by many the progenitor of contemporary instructional design, programmed instruction emphasizes the formulation of behavioral objectives, breaking instructional content into small units and rewarding correct responses early and often. Another substantial instructional theorist of the 1950's was Benjamin Bloom. His 1956 taxonomy of intellectual behaviors provided instructors a means by which to decide how to impart instructional content to learners most effectively. Advocating a mastery approach to learning, Bloom endorsed instructional techniques that varied both instruction and time according to learner requirements. While this approach provided instructional developers a means by which to match subject matter and instructional methods, Bloom's taxonomy was not in and of itself capable of satisfying the desire of large organizations to relate resources and processes to the performances of individuals. To achieve this researchers in the military's Air Research and Development Command borrowed from Ludwig von Bertalanffy's General Systems Theory of biological interactions to integrate the operations of a wide range of departments, such as training, intelligence, and staffing. Combined with the Bloom's Taxonomy, the systems approach to instructional and organizational development allowed planners and policy-makers to match the content and delivery of instruction in a fashion which considered both super- and sub-systems (the organization as a whole, as well as

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groups and individuals within the organization). These advances of Skinner, Bloom and von Bertalanffy were usually employed to develop instruction in what was only assumed to be an effective an efficient manner. The formalization of a standardized design process still had yet to be devised. Again it was a crisis that spurred the next evolution of instructional technology a shift away from an emphasis in the development of instructional programs to one which focused on the design of entire curriculum. Again the crisis was a war, but this time the war was a political one. In 1957 the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite and began the "space race". America was taken by surprise and the government was forced to reevaluate the education system and its shortcomings. Science and math programs were the first to be targeted, and the government employed experts in these fields to bring the content up to date. In 1962 Robert Glaser synthesized the work of previous researchers and introduced the concept of "instructional design", submitting a model which links learner analysis to the design and development of instruction. Interestingly, Glaser's contribution to the current field of instructional systems is not so much in the advancement of his model, but in work concerning Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI), an approach whereby the results of a learner's placement test are used to plan learner-specific instruction. At the same time Glaser was developing his theories of instructional design and IPI, Robert Mager published his treatise on the construction of performance objectives. Mager suggested that an objective should describe in measurable terms who an objective targets, the behavior they will have exhibited, the conditions or limitations under which they must carry out this behavior, and the criteria against which their behavior will be gauged. As early as 1962 when he published "Military Training and Principles of Learning" Robert Gagn demonstrated a concern for the different levels of learning. His differentiation of psychomotor skills, verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, and attitudes provides a companion to Bloom's six cognitive domains of learning. Later, Gagn extended his thinking to include nine instructional events that detail the conditions necessary for learning to occur. These events have long since been used for the basis for the design of instruction and the selection of appropriate media. The mediation of instruction entered the computer age in the 1960's when Patrick Suppes conducted his initial investigations into computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at Stanford University. Developed through a systematic analysis of curriculum, Suppes' CAI provided learner feedback, branching, and response tracking aspects were later incorporated into the PLATO system in the 1970's and continue guide the development of today's instructional software. By the late 1960's America was again in crisis. Not only was the country involved in another war, but the nation's schools were unable to elicit the achievement from learners it anticipated. Grant Venn argued that since only 19% of first graders complete a bachelor or arts degree, that the current educational system is only serving the advantaged minority of schoolchildren. To counter this trend Robert Morgan proposed to conduct an experiment with an "organic curriculum" which would to incorporate into the educational system the best instructional practices identified through research. Accepted in 1967 the proposal by the US Office of Education, the project was dubbed "Educational Systems for the 1970's", or ES'70. Morgan engaged an array of experts in the field of

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learning, cognition, and instructional design to contribute to the project and carried out multiple experiments in a variety of settings. Of these was Leslie Briggs, who had demonstrated that an instructionally designed course could yield up to 2:1 increase over conventionally designed courses in terms of achievement, reduction in variance, and reduction of time-to-completion this effect was four times that of the control group which received no training. In 1970, Morgan partnered with the Florida Research and Development Advisory Board to conduct a nation-wide educational reform project in South Korea. Faced with the task of increasing the achievement of learners while at the same time reducing the cost of schooling from $41.27 per student per year Morgan applied some of the same techniques as had been piloted in the ES'70 project and achieved striking results: an increase in student achievement, a more efficient organization of instructors and course content, an increased teacher to student ratio, a reduction in salary cost, and a reduction in yearly per student cost by $9.80. Around this time Roger Kaufman developed a problem-solving framework for educational strategic planning which provided practitioners a means by which to demonstrate value-added not only for the learner, but the school system and society as a whole. This framework provided the basis for the Organizational Elements Model (OEM), a needs assessment model which specifies results to be achieved at societal, organizational, and individual performance levels. By rigorously defining needs as gaps in results Kaufman emphasized that performance improvement interventions can not demonstrate return-on-investment unless those interventions were derived from the requirements of these three primary clients and beneficiaries of organizational action. This approach to needs assessment and strategic planning has since been used across the world as the foundation for planning, evaluation, and continuous improvement in military, business, and educational settings. A variety of models for instructional system design proliferated the late 1970's and early 80's: Gagn and Briggs, Branson, Dick and Carey, and Atkins, to name a few. One possible reason for this phenomenon deals with the establishment of formal education and training departments within both public and private organizations. Faced with the computerized technologies of the times, these organizations require a means by which to quickly develop appropriate methods by which to educate internal employees in the new business practices ushered into existence by the Information Age. Another explanation is that businesses, especially consulting organizations, are becoming increasingly required to demonstrate value-added not only to their organization, but to the clients they serve. The evaluation and continuous improvement components of contemporary models of ISD make far strides from the early develop-and-implement models of the middle of the century in this aspect. In the 1990's a dual focus on technology and performance improvement has developed. For example, in his 1988 essay "Why the Schools Can't Improve: The Upper Limit Hypothesis" Robert Branson offers an argument for systemic school reform, suggesting that schools are operating at near peak efficiency and must be redesigned from the top down using technological interventions. Later in that year Branson was contracted by the Florida Department of Education (DOE) to analyze it's various programs and plan a system-wide technology-based educational reform initiative for Florida called Schoolyear 2000. Over the next several years Branson's team developed and piloted multiple computerized instructional technologies, as well as models of the interaction between the internal operations of the school system and the experiences and knowledge of students, parents, and teachers.

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Developments in performance improvement outside ISD during the 1990's such as Quality Management (QM), Organizational Engineering, and Change Management have required that instructional designers look outside their profession to demonstrate the utility of their practice. Introduced earlier by Deming, QM has swept public and private organizations alike in the 90's. Whereas initially thought of in terms of "quality control" or "zero defects", quality practices have evolved into tools for organizational continuous improvement. Similarly, instructional designers in the 90's often work alongside authorities in the field of organizational engineering. Characterized by a concern for an organization's culture and interaction between groups, organizational engineering seeks to improve organizations through the identification of relationships between an organization's vision, mission, goals, methods and personnel. Similarly, change management has become a business in and of itself, with leaders such as Darly Conner and Joel Barker pioneering methods for and models of organizational change. The advent of new media, such as the Internet and hypermedia, has brought about not only technological innovations, but also coupled these with new ways of approaching learning and instruction. As opposed to the behavioralist perspective that emphasizes learning objectives, the constructivist approach holds that learners construct their understanding of reality from interpretations of their experiences. Theorists such as Thomas Duffy and Seymour Papert suggest that constructivism provides a model whereby socio-cultural and cognitive issues regarding the design of learning environments can be supported by computer tools. This philosophy has been applied to such computerized technologies as online help systems and programming language LOGO. In the future, instructional designers are likely to choose one of two paths: specialist or generalist. In the prior path, designers will focus on one aspect of learning or instruction and act as consultants or subject matter experts, whether internal or external to the organization. The other approach is one more aligned with managerial activities. Since the field is becoming too broad for most designers to work with authority in all matters, this option allows practitioners to oversee the development of instructional projects, rather than narrow their efforts exclusively on assessment, analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation or continuous improvement. References
Boling, E. (1996). Instructional Technology Foundations I: Historical Timelines Project Page [Online]. Available: http://education.indiana.edu/~istcore/r511/datelist.html [1998, June 7]. Kearsley, G. (1994). Learning & Instruction: The TIP Database [Online]. Available: http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/educ/tip/1.htm [1998, June 7]. Reiser, R. A. (1987). Instructional Technology: A History. In R. M. Gagn (ed.), Instructional Technology: Foundations (pp. 11 - 40). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Shrock, S. A. (No date). A Brief History of Instructional Development [Online].Available: http://uttcmed.utb.edu/6320/chapters/summary_ch2.html [1998, June 7].

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4.3. Gagnes Conditions of Learning Theory


A) Description Although Gagnes theoretical framework covers many aspects of learning, "the focus of the theory is on intellectual skills" (Kearsley, 1994a). Gagnes theory is very prescriptive. In its original formulation, special attention was given to military training (Gagne 1962, as cited in Kearsley, 1994a). In this theory, five major types of learning levels are identified:

verbal information intellectual skills cognitive strategies motor skills attitudes

The importance behind the above system of classification is that each learning level requires "different internal and external conditions" (Kearsley 1994a) i.e., each learning level requires different types of instruction. Kearsley provides the following example: for cognitive strategies to be learned, there must be a chance to practice developing new solutions to problems; to learn attitudes, the learner must be exposed to a credible role model or persuasive arguments. Gagne also contends that learning tasks for intellectual skills can be organized in a hierarchy according to complexity: stimulus recognition response generation procedure following use of terminology discriminations concept formation rule application problem solving

The primary significance of this hierarchy is to provide direction for instructors so that they can "identify prerequisites that should be completed to facilitate learning at each level" (Kearsley 1994a). This learning hierarchy also provides a basis for sequencing instruction. Gagne outlines the following nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes (as cited in Kearsley 1994a):

gaining attention (reception) informing learners of the objective (expectancy) stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval) presenting the stimulus (selective perception)

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providing learning guidance (semantic encoding) eliciting performance (responding) providing feedback (reinforcement) assessing performance (retrieval) enhancing retention and transfer (generalization)

B) Practical Application Gagnes nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes can serve as the basis for designing instruction and selecting appropriate media (Gagne, Briggs & Wager, 1992, as cited in Kearsley 1994a). In applying these instructional events, Kearsley (1994a) suggests keeping the following principles in mind:

Learning hierarchies define a sequence of instruction. Learning hierarchies define what intellectual skills are to be learned. Different instruction is required for different learning outcomes.

EXAMPLE The following example applies Gagne's nine instructional events:


Instructional Objective: Recognize an equilateral triangle (example from Kearsley 1994a). Methodology:

Gain attention - show a variety of computer generated triangles Identify objective - pose question: "What is an equilateral triangle?" Recall prior learning - review definitions of triangles Present stimulus - give definition of equilateral triangle Guide learning - show example of how to create equilateral Elicit performance - ask students to create 5 different examples Provide feedback - check all examples as correct/incorrect Assess performance - provide scores and remediation Enhance retention/transfer - show pictures of objects and ask students to identify equilateral triangles. C) Related Theories, Pedagogical Practices and Practical Web-Design Strategies

Provide a variety of learning activities. Instructional designers should anticipate and accommodate alternate learning styles by "systematically varying teaching and assessment methods to reach every student" (Sternberg 1994, as cited in Ross-Gordon 1998, 227). They should also provide alternate offline materials and activities, as well as, present "alternate points of view and interpretations" (Fahy 1999, 237) so that the learner is free to "[criss-cross] the intellectual landscape of the content domain by looking at it from multiple perspectives or through multiple themes" (Jonassen et al., 1997, 122). Use Blooms "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives for the Cognitive Domain" to increase retention. Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives for the Cognitive

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Domain (1956, as cited in Fahy 1999, 42-43) is similar to Gagnes hierarchy of intellectual skills. Bloom outlines the following cognitive activities organized from least to greater complexity: - knowledge - comprehension - application - analysis - synthesis - evaluation (making judgements) In the following example, Blooms taxonomy is used to illustrate different objectives related to learning objectives for studying nails (Fahy 1999, 43): Knowledge Know enough about nails to be able to explain what they are and what they are used for. Be able to recognize a nail as a fastening device from a nonfastening devices. Comprehension Be able to identify a nail and distinguish it from other fastening devices. Application Be able to use a nail to fasten something competently, and actually do so. Analysis Be able to determine what kind of nail and nailing technique would be required for most effective use of the device for a specific purpose. Synthesis Be able to compare nails to other fastening devices, and to compare various types of nails and nailing techniques for their specific qualities and characteristics in specific situations. Evaluation Be able to assess examples of the use of nails for fastening, and different nailing techniques, and to pass judgement as to which were more effective, more artistic, more secure, more skillful, more workman like, etc.

4.4. Carrolls Minimalist Theory


A) Description The Minimalist theory of J.M. Carroll focuses on the instructional design of training materials for computer users and has been "extensively applied to the design of computer documentation" (e.g., Nowaczyk & James, 1993, van der Meij, & Carroll, 1995, as cited in Kearsley 1994d). It is based upon studies of people learning a wide range of computer applications including word processors and databases.

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As Kearsley (1994d) explains, this theory suggests that:


All

learning activities should be meaningful and self-contained. should exploit the learner's prior experience and knowledge. Learners should be given realistic projects as quickly as possible. Instruction should permit self-directed reasoning and improvising. Training materials and activities should provide for error recognition and use errors as learning opportunities. There should be a close linkage between training and the actual system because "new users are always learning computer methods in the context of specific preexisting goals and expectations" (Carroll 1990, as cited in Kearsley 1994d).
Activities

The critical idea behind Carroll's Minimalist theory is that course designers must "minimize the extent to which instructional materials obstruct learning and focus the design on activities that support learner-directed activity and accomplishment" (Kearsley 1994d). B) Practical Application In applying Carrolls Minimalist theory, Kearsley (1994d) recommends the following:

Allow learners to start immediately on meaningful tasks. Minimize the amount of reading and other passive forms of training by allowing users to fill in the gaps themselves Include error recognition and recovery activities in the instruction Make all learning activities self-contained and independent of sequence.

EXAMPLE 1 The following is an example of a guided exploration approach to learning how to use a word processor (Carroll 1990, chapter 5, as cited in Kearsley 1994d). Applying the principles of Carroll's Minimalist theory, a 94-page training manual is replaced by 25 cards. Each card is self contained and includes a meaningful task and error recognition information. The cards do not provide complete step-by-step specifications but only key ideas or hints about what to do. Kearsley reports that "in an experiment that compared the use of the cards versus the manual, users learned the task in about half the time with the cards." EXAMPLE 2 The following example illustrates the redesign of a Web page using Carrolls Minimalist theory and other related web design strategies:

Problem: Below is a screen shot of The WINDeX Search Engine located at http://windex.daci.net. This site allows software developers to submit shareware and freeware to be stored in their database. This page however has four serious design flaws: (a) the banners occupy too much valuable space at the top of the screen; (b) "The Windex Index" image banner runs a lake ripple Java applet which is highly distracting; (c) the lake ripple Java applet significantly increases the time it takes to download the page; (d) the

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white text on a blue background is difficult to read, especially considering that the site uses four colors for text: red, blue, white and black Solution: (a) Carroll advises that learners should be allowed to start right away on meaningful tasks. Jones and Farquhar (1997) advise that in web-design, important information should be kept on the top of the page. Considering this advice, to improve this web page, the banners should be designed to occupy less space and the user input forms should be moved up higher so users don't have to scroll as much. (b) (c) (d) Carroll advises that web-design should minimize the extent to which instructional materials obstruct learning. Gillani & Relan (1997) advise that frames should be kept simple and be consistent in design of text, graphics and sound to limit cognitive overload. Similarly, Guay (1995, as cited in Fahy 1999) advises that Web pages should reduce clutter and download in 30 seconds or less with a 14.4 modem. Considering this advice, to improve the design of this web page, the Java applet should be removed as it greatly increases the time to download the entire page without adding to its usability. Furthermore, the ripple effect distracts from the content of the site and is just plain "annoying." Content that is not essential, such as the "redesign notice" should also be removed or shrunk in size. Furthermore, the range of text colors should be reduced and a more suitable background chosen to improve readability. C) Related Theories, Pedagogical Practices and Practical Web-Design Strategies

Keep important information at the top of the page. When learners come to a page, they immediately scan for interesting and important information. Good web-design demands that you give your learners the information they want right away and in a hurry. Large graphics at the top of a page may be aesthetically pleasing, but take up too much of the immediate viewable space to be considered instructionally useful (Jones and Farquhar 1997). Keep frames simple and be consistent in design of text, graphics and sound to limit cognitive overload. Guay advises that "cognitive bandwidth should be minimized to ensure users easily and accurately grasp the message" (as cited in Fahy 1999, 191). He also recommends that graphics and other enhancements should "never obscure the central message of the page" (p. 191). Jones and Farquhar (1997) advise that background to a display should not compete with or obscure the text. Simiarly Gillani & Relan 1997, 236 maintain that "simplicity and consistency eliminates cognitive overload." Thus, multimedia components should be used "to reinforce rather than distract from learning." Keep pages short so learners dont have to scroll. Research on the Web suggests that "users do not like to scroll" (Nielsen 1996, as cited in Jones & Farquhar 1997, 243). Guay (1995, as cited in Fahy 1999, 191) agrees with this and advises that "each page should fit on the screen without scrolling." West (1998, as cited in Fahy 1999, 192) similarly advises that "the requirement for the user to scroll down in Web-based documents should be kept to a minimum, as many users will not scroll more than 3 times before abandoning a site." West also estimates that readers give only between 7 and 15 seconds to assess the probable usefulness of a site before leaving it. It should be noted that "the problem with making pages short is that people may choose to print out certain pieces of information, or download the entire contents of a group of pages. This [problem can be solved] by combining all of the pages into a single document that is labeled as such" (Jones and

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Farquar, 1997, 243). A print button can be provided so that users can eaisly print longer material for off-screen reading.

Keep pages uncluttered by extracting unnecessary elements. Broadbents theory of single-channel processing states that "humans are capable of processing information through only one channel at a time and that it is not possible to process two channels simultaneously"(Hsia 1968, as cited in Szabo 1998, 32). If this were to happen, audio and visual stimuli would arrive at the central nervous system simultaneously, causing the information to jam, and lead to poorer retention of material (Broadbent 1958, as cited in Szabo 1998, 32). Guay (1995 as cited in Fahy 1999, 192) recommends that "each page should be uncluttered, readable, and balanced." Pages should download in 30 seconds or less with 14.4 modem. Guay advises that "physical bandwidth should be minimized to ensure acceptable access and response times" (1995 as cited in Fahy 1999, 191). Special consideration should be given to logos, banners, .pdf files, audio, and video to make sure that these files do not slow down the site too much. Guay also suggests that tagging graphics (in HTML) with vertical and horizontal size can speed download. Commercial graphics tools such as Adobe ImageReady 2.0 can also reduce graphics size by among other things reducing the color pallet. Screen excess information. Good design, as Carroll recommends, must reduce excess information and allow learners to fill in the gaps. In support of this, Dede (1996, 13) maintains that the curriculum is "overcrowded with low-level information" and as a result, "teachers [must] frantically race through required material, helping students memorize factual data to be regurgitated on mandated, standardized tests." Dede also advises that "the core skill for todays workplace is not foraging for date, but filtering a plethora of incoming information." He adds that as we increasingly are required to dive into a sea of information we must master the ability to immerse ourselves in data "to harvest patterns of knowledge just as fish extract oxygen from water via their gills" (p. 6). Structure materials as topical modules. This "simplifies selective reuse of course materials" (Butler 1997, 422). Strive for quality not quantity. Rockley (1997, as cited in Fahy 1999, 196-197) gives the following advice for the planning and management of Web-based resources:
Design small.

Make what you have effective, then add to it. Dont attempt to do everything at once. Keep effects simple. Assure effects ADD to the message/content. Map out the whole site. Both for development and maintenance. Plan for growth. Anticipate and direct it. Get feedback from users. And pay attention to it. Test any outside links regularly. Dont link to sites which do not appear to be will maintained or stable. Give only one person edit privileges. Only one person should have site maintenance responsibilities. Dont post any part of a site while it is still under construction. Everything on your site should work now. Instead of "under construction, put up announcements of the expected availability of "coming" or "new" features.

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4.5. Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains


The Three Types of Learning
There is more than one type of learning. A committee of colleges, led by Benjamin Bloom (1956), identified three domains of educational activities:

Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge) Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude) Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)

Since the work was produced by higher education, the words tend to be a little bigger than we normally use. Domains can be thought of as categories. Trainers often refer to these three categories as KSA (Knowledge, Skills, and Attitude). This taxonomy of learning behaviors can be thought of as the goals of the learning process. That is, after a learning episode, the learner should have acquired new skills, knowledge, and/or attitudes. The committee also produced an elaborate compilation for the cognitive and affective domains, but none for the psychomotor domain. Their explanation for this oversight was that they have little experience in teaching manual skills within the college level (I guess they never thought to check with their sports or drama departments). This compilation divides the three domains into subdivisions, starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. The divisions outlined are not absolutes and there are other systems or hierarchies that have been devised in the educational and training world. However, Bloom's taxonomy is easily understood and is probably the most widely applied one in use today.

Cognitive Domain
The cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956) involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. There are six major categories, which are listed in order below, starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. That is, the first ones must normally be mastered before the next ones can take place.

Category Knowledge: Recall data or information.

Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from

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memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules. Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states. Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. Explain in one's own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet. Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates. Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee's vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test. Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses. Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training. Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates. Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. Revises and process to improve the outcome. Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes. Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and

Comprehension: Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words.

Application: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place.

Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and inferences.

Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure.

Evaluation: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.

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justify a new budget. Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports.

Affective Domain The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia, 1973) includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. The five major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex:

Category

Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Listen to others with respect. Listen for and remember the name of newly introduced people. Key Words: asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates, names, points to, selects, sits, erects, replies, uses. Examples: Participates in class discussions. Gives a presentation. Questions new ideals, concepts, models, etc. in order to fully understand them. Know the safety rules and practices them. Key Words: answers, assists, aids, complies, conforms, discusses, greets, helps, labels, performs, practices, presents, reads, recites, reports, selects, tells, writes. Examples: Demonstrates belief in the democratic process. Is sensitive towards individual and cultural differences (value diversity). Shows the ability to solve problems. Proposes a plan to social improvement and follows through with commitment. Informs management on matters that one feels strongly about. Key Words: completes, demonstrates, differentiates, explains, follows, forms, initiates, invites, joins, justifies, proposes, reads, reports, selects, shares, studies, works.

Receiving Phenomena: Awareness, willingness to hear, selected attention.

Responding to Phenomena: Active participation on the part of the learners. Attends and reacts to a particular phenomenon. Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding, willingness to respond, or satisfaction in responding (motivation).

Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values, while clues to these values are expressed in the learner's overt behavior and are often identifiable.

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Organization: Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them, and creating an unique value system. The emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values.

Examples: Recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsible behavior. Accepts responsibility for one's behavior. Explains the role of systematic planning in solving problems. Accepts professional ethical standards. Creates a life plan in harmony with abilities, interests, and beliefs. Prioritizes time effectively to meet the needs of the organization, family, and self. Key Words: adheres, alters, arranges, combines, compares, completes, defends, explains, formulates, generalizes, identifies, integrates, modifies, orders, organizes, prepares, relates, synthesizes. Examples: Shows self-reliance when working independently. Cooperates in group activities (displays teamwork). Uses an objective approach in problem solving. Displays a professional commitment to ethical practice on a daily basis. Revises judgments and changes behavior in light of new evidence. Values people for what they are, not how they look. Key Words: acts, discriminates, displays, influences, listens, modifies, performs, practices, proposes, qualifies, questions, revises, serves, solves, verifies.

Internalizing values (characterization): Has a value system that controls their behavior. The behavior is pervasive, consistent, predictable, and most importantly, characteristic of the learner. Instructional objectives are concerned with the student's general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional).

Psychomotor Domain The psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972) includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution. The seven major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex:

Category Perception: The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity. This ranges from sensory stimulation, through cue selection, to translation.

Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Detects non-verbal communication cues. Estimate where a ball will land after it is thrown and then moving to the correct location to catch the ball. Adjusts heat of stove to correct temperature by smell and taste of food. Adjusts the height of the forks on a forklift by comparing where

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the forks are in relation to the pallet. Key Words: chooses, describes, detects, differentiates, distinguishes, identifies, isolates, relates, selects. Examples: Knows and acts upon a sequence of steps in a manufacturing process. Recognize one's abilities and limitations. Shows desire to learn a new process (motivation). NOTE: This subdivision of Psychomotor is closely related with the Responding to phenomena subdivision of the Affective domain. Key Words: begins, displays, explains, moves, proceeds, reacts, shows, states, volunteers. Examples: Performs a mathematical equation as demonstrated. Follows instructions to build a model. Responds hand-signals of instructor while learning to operate a forklift. Key Words: copies, traces, follows, react, reproduce, responds Mechanism: This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. Examples: Use a personal computer. Repair a leaking faucet. Drive a car. Key Words: assembles, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches. Examples: Maneuvers a car into a tight parallel parking spot. Operates a computer quickly and accurately. Displays competence while playing the piano. Key Words: assembles, builds, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches. NOTE: The Key Words are the same as Mechanism, but will have adverbs or adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker, better, more accurate, etc.

Set: Readiness to act. It includes mental, physical, and emotional sets. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person's response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets).

Guided Response: The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing.

Complex Overt Response: The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes performing without hesitation, and automatic performance. For example, players are often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce.

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Adaptation: Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements.

Examples: Responds effectively to unexpected experiences. Modifies instruction to meet the needs of the learners. Perform a task with a machine that it was not originally intended to do (machine is not damaged and there is no danger in performing the new task). Key Words: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, reorganizes, revises, varies. Examples: Constructs a new theory. Develops a new and comprehensive training programming. Creates a new gymnastic routine. Key Words: arranges, builds, combines, composes, constructs, creates, designs, initiate, makes, originates.

Origination: Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills.

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Blooms CognitiveDomain

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4.6. Instructional Design & Learning Theory

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Brenda Mergel Educational Communications and Technology University of Saskatchewan May, 1998

Introduction: To students of instructional design the introduction and subsequent "sorting out" of the various learning theories and associated instructional design strategies can be somewhat confusing. It was out of this feeling of cognitive dissonance that this site was born. Why does it seem so difficult to differentiate between three basic theories of learning? Why do the names of theorists appear connected to more than one theory? Why do the terms and strategies of each theory overlap? The need for answers to these questions sparked my investigation into the available literature on learning theories and their implications for instructional design. I found many articles and internet sites that dealt with learning theory and ID, in fact, it was difficult to know when and where to draw the line. When I stopped finding new information, and the articles were reaffirming what I had already read, I began to write. The writing process was a learning experience for me and now that I have finished, I want to start over and make it even better, because I know more now than I did when I began. Every time I reread an article, there were ideas and lists that I would wish to add to my writing. Perhaps in further development of this site I will change and refine my presentation. Reading about the development of learning theories and their connection to instructional design evoked, for me, many parallels with the development of other theories in sciences. I have included some of those thoughts as asides within the main body of text. Besides behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism one could discuss such topics as connoisseurship, semiotics, and contextualism, but I decided that a clear understanding of the basic learning theories would be best. The main sections of this site are as follows:
What are Theories and Models? The Basics of the Learning Theories 1. The Basics of Behaviorism 2. The Basics of Cognitivism 3. The Basics of Constructivism The History of Learning Theories in Instructional Design 1. Behaviorism and Instructional Design 2. Cognitivism and Instructional Design 3. Constructivism and Instructional Design Comparing The Development of Learning Theories to the Development of the Atomic Theory

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Learning Theories and the Practice of Instructional Design Learning Theories - Some Strengths and Weaknesses Is There One Best Learning Theory for Instructional Design? Conclusion References and Bibliography

What are Theories and Models?


What is a theory? 1. A theory provides a general explanation for observations made over time. 2. A theory explains and predicts behavior. 3. A theory can never be established beyond all doubt. 4. A theory may be modified. 5. Theories seldom have to be thrown out completely if thoroughly tested but sometimes a theory may be widely accepted for a long time and later disproved. (Dorin, Demmin & Gabel, 1990) What is a model? 1. A model is a mental picture that helps us understand something we cannot see or experience directly. (Dorin, Demmin & Gabel, 1990)

Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Constructivism - The Basics


Behaviorism: Based on observable changes in behavior. Behaviorism focuses on a new behavioral

pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic.


Cognitivism: Based on the thought process behind the behavior. Changes in behavior are observed,

and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the learner's mind.


Constructivism: Based on the premise that we all construct our own perspective of the world,

through individual experiences and schema. Constructivism focuses on preparing the learner to problem solve in ambiguous situations. (Schuman, 1996)

The Basics of Behaviorism


Behaviorism, as a learning theory, can be traced back to Aristotle, whose essay "Memory" focused on associations being made between events such as lightning and thunder. Other philosophers that

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followed Aristotle's thoughts are Hobbs (1650), Hume (1740), Brown (1820), Bain (1855) and Ebbinghause (1885) (Black, 1995). The theory of behaviorism concentrates on the study of overt behaviors that can be observed and measured (Good & Brophy, 1990). It views the mind as a "black box" in the sense that response to stimulus can be observed quantitatively, totally ignoring the possibility of thought processes occurring in the mind. Some key players in the development of the behaviorist theory were Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike and Skinner.

Thorndike (1874 - 1949) Edward Thorndike did research in animal behavior before becoming interested in human psychology. He set out to apply "the methods of exact science" to educational problems by emphasizing "accurate quantitative treatment of information". "Anything that exists, exists in a certain quantity and can be measured" (Johcich, as cited in Rizo, 1991). His theory, Connectionism, stated that learning was the formation of a connection between stimulus and response. The "law of effect" stated that when a connection between a stimulus and response is positively rewarded it will be strengthened and when it is negatively rewarded it will be weakened. Thorndike later revised this "law" when he found that negative reward, (punishment) did not necessarily weaken bonds, and that some seemingly pleasurable consequences do not necessarily motivate performance. The "law of exercise" held that the more an S-R (stimulus response) bond is practiced the stronger it will become. As with the law of effect, the law of exercise also had to be updated when Thorndike found that practice without feedback does not necessarily enhance performance. The "law of readiness" : because of the structure of the nervous system, certain conduction units, in a given situation, are more predisposed to conduct than others. Thorndike's laws were based on the stimulus-response hypothesis. He believed that a neural bond would be established between the stimulus and response when the response was positive. Learning takes place when the bonds are formed into patterns of behavior (Saettler, 1990). Watson (1878 - 1958) John B. Watson was the first American psychologist to use Pavlov's ideas. Like Thorndike, he was originally involved in animal research, but later became involved in the study of human behavior. Watson believed that humans are born with a few reflexes and the emotional reactions of love and rage. All other behavior is established through stimulus-response associations through conditioning. Watson's Experiment

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Watson demonstrated classical conditioning in an experiment involving a young child (Albert) and a white rat. Originally, Albert was unafraid of the rat; but Watson created a sudden loud noise whenever Albert touched the rat. Because Albert was frightened by the loud noise, he soon became conditioned to fear and avoid the rat. The fear was generalized to other small animals. Watson then "extinguished" the fear by presenting the rat without the loud noise. Some accounts of the study suggest that the conditioned fear was more powerful and permanent than it really was. (Harris, 1979; Samelson, 1980, in Brophy, 1990) Certainly Watson's research methods would be questioned today; however, his work did demonstrate the role of conditioning in the development of emotional responses to certain stimuli. This may explain certain fears, phobias and prejudices that people develop. (Watson is credited with coining the term "behaviorism") Skinner (1904 - 1990) Like Pavlov, Watson and Thorndike, Skinner believed in the stimulus-response pattern of conditioned behavior. His theory dealt with changes in observable behavior, ignoring the possibility of any processes occurring in the mind. Skinner's 1948 book, Walden Two , is about a utopian society based on operant conditioning. He also wrote,Science and Human Behavior, (1953) in which he pointed out how the principles of operant conditioning function in social institutions such as government, law, religion, economics and education (Dembo, 1994). Skinner's work differs from that of his predecessors (classical conditioning), in that he studied operant behavior (voluntary behaviors used in operating on the environment).

Difference between Classical and Operant Conditioning

Skinner's Operant Conditioning Mechanisms

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Positive Reinforcement or reward: Responses that are rewarded are likely to be repeated. (Good grades reinforce careful study.) Negative Reinforcement: Responses that allow escape from painful or undesirable situations are likely to be repeated. (Being excused from writing a final because of good term work.) Extinction or Non-Reinforcement : Responses that are not reinforced are not likely to be repeated. (Ignoring student misbehavior should extinguish that behavior.) Punishment: Responses that bring painful or undesirable consequences will be suppressed, but may reappear if reinforcement contingencies change. (Penalizing late students by withdrawing privileges should stop their lateness.) (Good & Brophy, 1990) Skinner and Behavioral Shaping If placed in a cage an animal may take a very long time to figure out that pressing a lever will produce food. To accomplish such behavior successive approximations of the behavior are rewarded until the animal learns the association between the lever and the food reward. To begin shaping, the animal may be rewarded for simply turning in the direction of the lever, then for moving toward the lever, for brushing against the lever, and finally for pawing the lever. Behavioral chaining occurs when a succession of steps need to be learned. The animal would master each step in sequence until the entire sequence is learned. Reinforcement Schedules Once the desired behavioral response is accomplished, reinforcement does not have to be 100%; in fact it can be maintained more successfully through what Skinner referred to as partial reinforcement schedules. Partial reinforcement schedules include interval schedules and ratio schedules. Fixed Interval Schedules: the target response is reinforced after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reinforcement. Variable Interval Schedules: similar to fixed interval schedules, but the amount of time that must pass between reinforcement varies. Fixed Ratio Schedules: a fixed number of correct responses must occur before reinforcement may recur. Variable Ratio Schedules: the number of correct repetitions of the correct response for reinforcement varies.

Variable interval and especially, variable ratio schedules produce steadier and more persistent rates of response because the learners cannot predict when the reinforcement will come although they know that they will eventually succeed.

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The Basics of Cognitivism As early as the 1920's people began to find limitations in the behaviorist approach to understanding learning. Edward Tolman found that rats used in an experiment appeared to have a mental map of the maze he was using. When he closed off a certain portion of the maze, the rats did not bother to try a certain path because they "knew" that it led to the blocked path. Visually, the rats could not see that the path would result in failure, yet they chose to take a longer route that they knew would be successful (Operant Conditioning [On-line]). Behaviorists were unable to explain certain social behaviors. For example, children do not imitate all behavior that has been reinforced. Furthermore, they may model new behavior days or weeks after their first initial observation without having been reinforced for the behavior. Because of these observations, Bandura and Walters departed from the traditional operant conditioning explanation that the child must perform and receive reinforcement before being able to learn. They stated in their 1963 book, Social Learning and Personality Development, that an individual could model behavior by observing the behavior of another person. This theory lead to Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (Dembo, 1994). What is Cognitivism? "Cognitive theorists recognize that much learning involves associations established through contiguity and repetition. They also acknowledge the importance of reinforcement, although they stress its role in providing feedback about the correctness of responses over its role as a motivator. However, even while accepting such behavioristic concepts, cognitive theorists view learning as involving the acquisition or reorganization of the cognitive structures through which humans process and store information." (Good and Brophy, 1990, pp. 187). As with behaviorism, cognitive psychology can be traced back to the ancient Greeks, Plato and Aristotle. The cognitive revolution became evident in American psychology during the 1950's (Saettler, 1990). One of the major players in the development of cognitivism is Jean Piaget, who developed the major aspects of his theory as early as the 1920's. Piaget's ideas did not impact North America until the 1960's after Miller and Bruner founded the Harvard Center for Cognitive studies. Key Concepts of Cognitive Theory Schema - An internal knowledge structure. New information is compared to existing cognitive structures called "schema". Schema may be combined, extended or altered to accommodate new information. Three-Stage Information Processing Model - input first enters a sensory register, then is processed in short-term memory, and then is transferred to long-term memory for storage and retrieval. Sensory Register - receives input from senses which lasts from less than a second to four seconds and then disappears through decay or replacement. Much of the information never reaches short term memory but all information is monitored at some level and acted upon if necessary. Short-Term Memory (STM) - sensory input that is important or interesting is transferred from the sensory register to the STM. Memory can be retained here for up to 20 seconds or more if rehearsed repeatedly. Short-term memory can hold up to 7 plus or minus 2 items. STM capacity can be increased if material is chunked into meaningful parts.

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Long-Term Memory and Storage (LTM) - stores information from STM for long term use. Longterm memory has unlimited capacity. Some materials are "forced" into LTM by rote memorization and over learning. Deeper levels of processing such as generating linkages between old and new information are much better for successful retention of material. Meaningful Effects - Meaningful information is easier to learn and remember. (Cofer, 1971, in Good and Brophy, 1990) If a learner links relatively meaningless information with prior schema it will be easier to retain. (Wittrock, Marks, & Doctorow, 1975, in Good and Brophy, 1990) Serial Position Effects - It is easier to remember items from the beginning or end of a list rather than those in the middle of the list, unless that item is distinctly different. Practice Effects - Practicing or rehearsing improves retention especially when it is distributed practice. By distributing practices the learner associates the material with many different contexts rather than the one context afforded by mass practice. Transfer Effects- The effects of prior learning on learning new tasks or material. Interference Effects - Occurs when prior learning interferes with the learning of new material. Organization Effects - When a learner categorizes input such as a grocery list, it is easier to remember. Levels of Processing Effects - Words may be processed at a low-level sensory analysis of their physical characteristics to high-level semantic analysis of their meaning. (Craik and Lockhart, 1972, in Good and Brophy, 1990) The more deeply a word is process the easier it will be to remember. State Dependent Effects - If learning takes place within a certain context it will be easier to remember within that context rather than in a new context. Mnemonic Effects - Mnemonics are strategies used by learners to organize relatively meaningless input into more meaningful images or semantic contexts. For example, the notes of a musical scale can be remembered by the rhyme: Every Good Boy Deserves Fruit. Schema Effects - If information does not fit a person's schema it may be more difficult for them to remember and what they remember or how they conceive of it may also be affected by their prior schema. Advance Organizers - Ausebels advance organizers prepare the learner for the material they are about to learn. They are not simply outlines of the material, but are material that will enable the student to make sense out of the lesson.

The Basics of Constructivism Bartlett (1932) pioneered what became the constructivist approach (Good & Brophy, 1990). Constructivists believe that "learners construct their own reality or at least interpret it based upon their perceptions of experiences, so an individual's knowledge is a function of one's prior experiences, mental structures, and beliefs that are used to interpret objects and events." "What someone knows is grounded in perception of the physical and social experiences which are comprehended by the mind." (Jonasson, 1991). If each person has their own view about reality, then how can we as a society communicate and/or coexist? Jonassen, addressing this issue in his article Thinking Technology: Toward a Constructivist Design Model, makes the following comments:

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"Perhaps the most common misconception of constructivism is the inference that we each therefore construct a unique reality, that reality is only in the mind of the knower, which will doubtlessly lead to intellectual anarchy." "A reasonable response to that criticism is the Gibsonian perspective that contends that there exists a physical world that is subject to physical laws that we all know in pretty much the same way because those physical laws are perceivable by humans in pretty much the same way." "Constructivists also believe that much of reality is shared through a process of social negotiation..."

If one searches through the many philosophical and psychological theories of the past, the threads of constructivism may be found in the writing of such people as Bruner, Ulrick, Neiser, Goodman, Kant, Kuhn, Dewey and Habermas. The most profound influence was Jean Piaget's work which was interpreted and extended by von Glasserfield (Smorgansbord, 1997). Realistic vs. Radical Construction Realistic constructivism - cognition is the process by which learners eventually construct mental structures that correspond to or match external structures located in the environment. Radical constructivism - cognition serves to organize the learners experiential world rather than to discover ontological reality (Cobb, 1996, in Smorgansbord, 1997). The Assumptions of Constructivism - Merrill knowledge is constructed from experience learning is a personal interpretation of the world learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience conceptual growth comes from the negotiation of meaning, the sharing of multiple perspectives and the changing of our internal representations through collaborative learning learning should be situated in realistic settings; testing should be integrated with the task and not a separate activity (Merrill, 1991, in Smorgansbord, 1997)

It Boggles the Mind!


If you are reading about learning theories, you may notice that it is difficult to pin down what theory a certain theorist belongs to. This can confuse you, since, just as you think you have it cased, a name you originally thought was in the behavioral category shows up in a constructivism article. This problem is often the result of theorists and their ideas evolving over time and changes they make to their original ideas. Davidson includes the following example in an article she

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wrote: "Considered by most to be representative of [a] behaviourist learning paradigm, Gagne's theory of learning and events of instruction have evolved progressively to approach a more cognitive theory. His discussion of relating present information and past knowledge (event #3) and the inclusion of learning transfer (event#9) are indicative of this shift toward constructivism." (Davidson, 1998) Okay? Okay. :-)

Comparing The Development of Learning Theories to the Development of the Atomic Theory Atomic Theory Since the beginning of history, people have theorized about the nature of matter. The ancient Greeks thought that matter was composed of fire, water, earth and air. Another view, the continuous theory, was that matter could be infinitely subdivided into smaller and smaller pieces without change. The Greek philosophers, Democritis and Lucippus, came up with the idea that matter made up of particles so small that they cannot be divided into anything smaller. They called their particles "atomos", which is the Greek word for "indivisible". It wasn't until the 18th century that anyone could prove one theory was better than another. John Dalton in 1803, with his law of multiple proportions, proposed a theory of matter based on the existence of atoms. The rest is history: 1803 Dalton's Atomic Theory. 1870 Crookes finds the first evidence of electrons. 1890's J.J. Thompson realized cathode rays are negative particles (electrons). 1909 Rutherford discovered alpha particles and said that atoms consist of small positively charged particles surrounded by mostly empty space where electrons moved around. 1913 Niels Bohr develops a new model of the atom with electron energy levels or orbits. 1930's and 1940's The atom had a positive nucleus with an electron charge cloud. This theory was referred to as the orbital model and the quantum-mechanical model. (Dorin, Demmin & Gabel, 1990)

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Learning Theory Given that we will most likely never "see" an atom, we will never "see" learning either. Therefore our learning models are mental pictures that enable us to understand that which we will never see. Does the development of learning theory follow a similar pattern as the atomic theory? It seems that learning theories, like the study of matter can be traced back to the ancient Greeks. In the 18th century, with the onset of scientific inquiry, people began in ernest to study and develop models of learning. The behaviorist learning theory centered around that which was observable, not considering that there was anything occurring inside the mind. Behaviorism can be compared to Dalton's atom, which was simply a particle. Using overt behavior as a starting point, people began to realize that there is something happening inside the organism that should be considered, since it seemed to affect the overt behavior. Similarly, in physical science, people such as Crookes, Thompson, Rutherford and Bohr realized that there was something occurring within the atom causing its behavior. Thus the cognitive model of learning was born. Soon, however, theorists realized that the "atom" is not stable, it is not so "cut and dried". Enter the constructivist learning theory which tells us that each organism is constantly in flux, and although the old models work to a certain degree, other factors most also be considered. Could the constructivist approach be considered to be the quantum theory of learning? The quantum theory builds upon the previous atomic theories. Constructivism builds upon behaviorism and cognitivism in the sense that it accepts multiple perspectives and maintains that learning is a personal interpretation of the world. I believe that behavioral strategies can be part of a constructivist learning situation, if that learner choses and finds that type of learning suitable to their experiences and learning style. Cognitive approaches have a place in constructivism also, since constructivism recognises the concept of schema and building upon prior knowledge and experience. Perhaps the greatest difference is that of evaluation. In behaviorism and cognitivism, evaluation is based on meeting specific objectives, whereas in constructivism, evaluation is much more subjective. Of course, what if I, as a learner, negotiate my evaluation and wish to include objective evaluation? Then isn't behavioral and cognitive strategy a part of constructivism?

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Perhaps the learning theory used depends upon the learning situation, just as the atomic theory used, depends upon the learning situation. The bohr atom is often used to introduce the concept of protons, neutrons and electrons to grade school students. Perhaps behaviorism is suitable to certain basic learning situations, whereas "quantum" constructivism is better suited to advanced learning situations.

A Biological Analogy to Learning Theory Classification


The classification of learning theories is somewhat analogous to the classification system designed by biologists to sort out living organisms. Like any attempt to define categories, to establish criteria, the world does not fit the scheme in all cases. Originally there was a plant kingdom and an animal kingdom, but eventually organisms that contained cholophyll and were mobile needed to be classified. The protist kingdom was established. The exact criteria for protists are still not established, but it is a classification that gives us a place for all of the organisms that don't fit neatly into either the plant or animal kingdoms. To extend the analogy, biologists continued to modify the classification system as know knowledge and insights into existing knowledge were discovered. The advent of new technology such as the electron microscope enabled the addition of the monera kingdom. Recently, the distinctive features of fungi have brought about a proposal for a fifth kingdom, fungi. This development and adjustment of the taxonomy remins one of behaviourism, cognitivism, constructivism, postmodernism, contextualism, semiotics...

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The History of Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Constructivism in Instructional Design


Behaviorism and Instructional Design [This section on behaviorism is largely a synopsis of information from Paul Saettler's book, The History of American Educational Technology, (1990)]. In Paul Saettler's book The History of American Educational Technology, he states that behaviorism did not have an impact on educational technology until the 1960s, which was the time that behaviorism actually began to decrease in popularity in American psychology. Saettler identified six areas that demonstrate the impact of behaviorism on Educational Technology in America: the behavioral objectives movement; the teaching machine phase; the programmed instruction movement; individualized instructional approaches, computer-assisted learning and the systems approach to instruction. Behavioral Objectives Movement: A behavioral objective states learning objectives in "specified, quantifiable, terminal behaviors" (Saettler, pp. 288, 1990). Behavioral objectives can be summed up using the mnemonic device ABCD (Schwier, 1998). Example: After having completed the unit the student will be able to answer correctly 90% of the questions on the posttest.
A - Audience - the student B - Behavior - answer correctly C - Condition - after having completed D - Degree - 90% correct

the unit, on a post test

To develop behavioral objectives a learning task must be broken down through analysis into specific measurable tasks. The learning success may be measured by tests developed to measure each objective. The advent of behavioral objectives can be traced back to the Elder Sophists of ancient Greece, Cicero, Herbart and Spencer, but Franklin Bobbitt developed the modern concept of behavioral objectives in the early 1900s (Saettler, 1990). Taxonomic Analysis of Learning Behaviors

Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning - In 1956 Bloom and his colleagues began development of a taxonomy in the cognitive, attitudinal (affective) and psychomotor domains. Many people are familiar with Bloom's Cognitive taxonomy: o knowledge o comprehension o application

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o o o

analysis synthesis evaluation Gagne's Taxonomy of Learning - Robert Gagne developed his taxonomy of learning in 1972. Gagne's taxonomy was comprised of five categories:

o o o o o

verbal information intellectual skill cognitive strategy attitude motor skill

Mastery Learning Mastery learning was originally developed by Morrison in the 1930s. His formula for mastery was "Pretest, teach, test the result, adapt procedure, teach and test again to the point of actual learning." (Morrison, 1931, in Saettler, 1990). Mastery learning assumes that all students can master the materials presented in the lesson. Bloom further developed Morrison's plan, but mastery learning is more effective for the lower levels of learning on Bloom's taxonomy, and not appropriate for higher level learning (Saettler, 1990). Military and Industrial Approach For military and industrial training, "behavioral objectives were written descriptions of specific, terminal behaviors that were manifested in terms of observable, measurable behavior." (Saettler, 1990) Robert Mager wrote Preparing Instructional Objectives, in 1962 which prompted interest and use of behavioral objectives among educators. Gagne and Briggs who also had backgrounds in military and industrial psychology developed a set of instructions for writing objectives that is based on Mager's work. Gagne's and Brigg's Model Action Object Situation Tools and Constraints Capability to be Learned By the late 1960's most teachers were writing and using behavioral objectives. There were, of course, people who questioned the breaking down of subject material into small parts, believing that it would lead away from an understanding of the "whole" (Saettler, 1990). Accountability Movement A movement known as scientific management of industry arose in the early 1900s in response to political and economic factors of that time. Franklin Bobbitt proposed utilization of this system in education stressing that the standards and direction of education should stem from the consumer -

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society. Bobbitt's ideas exemplified the idea of accountability, competency-based education and performance-based education, which because of similar economic and political factors, experienced a revival in America during the late 1960s and 1970s (Saettler, 1990). Teaching Machines and Programmed Instruction Movement Although the elder Sophists, Comenius, Herbart and Montessori used the concept of programmed instruction in their repertoire, B.F. Skinner is the most current and probably best known advocate of teaching machines and programmed learning. Contributors to this movement include the following:

Pressey - introduced a multiple-choice machine at the 1925 American Psychological Association meeting. Peterson - a former student of Pressey's who developed "chemosheets" in which the learner checked their answers with a chemical-dipped swab. W.W.II - devises called "phase checks", constructed in the 1940s and 1950s, taught and tested such skills and dissassembly-assembly of equipment. Crowder - designed a branched style of programming for the US Air force in the 1950s to train troubleshooters to find malfunctions in electronic equipment. Skinner - based on operant conditioning Skinner's teaching machine required the learner to complete or answer a question and then receive feedback on the correctness of the response. Skinner demonstrated his machine in 1954. (Saettler, 1990)

Early Use of Programmed Instruction After experimental use of programmed instruction in the 1920s and 1930s, B. F. Skinner and J.G. Holland first used programmed instruction in behavioral psychology courses at Harvard in the late 1950s. Use of programmed instruction appeared in elementary and secondary schools around the same time. Much of the programmed instruction in American schools was used with individuals or small groups of students and was more often used in junior high schools than senior or elementary schools (Saettler, 1990). Early use of programmed instruction tended to concentrate on the development of hardware rather than course content. Concerned developers moved away from hardware development to programs based on analysis of learning and instruction based on learning theory. Despite these changes, programmed learning died out in the later part of the 1960s because it did not appear to live up to its original claims (Saettler, 1990). Individualized Approaches to Instruction Similar to programmed learning and teaching machines individualized instruction began in the early 1900s, and was revived in the 1960s. The Keller Plan, Individually Prescribed Instruction, Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs, and Individually Guided Education are all examples of individualized instruction in the U.S. (Saettler, 1990). Keller Plan (1963)

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7. 8. 8.1. 8.2. 8.3. 8.4.

Developed by F.S. Keller, a colleague of Skinner, the Keller plan was used for university college classes. Main features of Keller Plan individually paced. mastery learning. lectures and demonstrations motivational rather than critical information. use of proctors which permitted testing, immediate scoring, tutoring, personal-social aspect of educational process. (Saettler, 1990)

Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) (1964) 4. 5. 6. Developed by Learning Research and Development Center of the University of Pitsburgh. Lasted into the 1970s when it lost funding and its use dwindled Main features of IPI: 6.1. prepared units. 6.2. behavioral objectives. 6.3. planned instructional sequences. 6.4. used for reading, math and science. 6.5. included pretest and posttest for each unit. 6.6. materials continually evaluated and upgraded to meet behavioral objectives. (Saettler, 1990) Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN) (1967) d) Headed by Jon C. Flanagan, PLAN was developed under sponsorship of American Institutes for Research (AIR), Westinghouse Learning Corporation and fourteen U.S. School districts. e) Abandoned in late 1970s because of upgrading costs f) Main features of PLAN 1. schools selected items from about 6,000 behavioral objectives. 2. each instructional module took about two weeks instruction and were made up of approximately. five objectives. 3. mastery learning. 4. remedial learning plus retesting. (Saettler, 1990) Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Computer-assisted instruction was first used in education and training during the 1950s. Early work was done by IBM and such people as Gordon Pask, and O.M. Moore, but CAI grew rapidly in the 1960s when federal funding for research and development in education and industrial laboratories was implemented. The U.S. government wanted to determine the possible effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction, so they developed two competing companies, (Control Data Corporation and Mitre Corporation) who came up with the PLATO and TICCIT

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projects. Despite money and research, by the mid seventies it was apparent that CAI was not going to be the success that people had believed. Some of the reasons are: CAI had been oversold and could not deliver. lack of support from certain sectors. technical problems in implementation. lack of quality software. high cost.

Computer-assisted instruction was very much drill-and-practice - controlled by the program developer rather than the learner. Little branching of instruction was implemented although TICCIT did allow the learner to determine the sequence of instruction or to skip certain topics. (Saettler, 1990) Systems Approach to Instruction The systems approach developed out of the 1950s and 1960s focus on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia presentations and the use of the computer in instruction. Most systems approaches are similar to computer flow charts with steps that the designer moves through during the development of instruction. Rooted in the military and business world, the systems approach involved setting goals and objectives, analyzing resources, devising a plan of action and continuous evaluation/modification of the program. (Saettler, 1990)

Cognitivism and Instructional Design Although cognitive psychology emerged in the late 1950s and began to take over as the dominant theory of learning, it wasn't until the late 1970s that cognitive science began to have its influence on instructional design. Cognitive science began a shift from behavioristic practices which emphasised external behavior, to a concern with the internal mental processes of the mind and how

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they could be utilized in promoting effective learning. The design models that had been developed in the behaviorist tradition were not simply tossed out, but instead the "task analysis" and "learner analysis" parts of the models were embellished. The new models addressed component processes of learning such as knowledge coding and representation, information storage and retrieval as well as the incorporation and integration of new knowledge with previous information (Saettler, 1990). Because Cognitivism and Behaviorism are both governed by an objective view of the nature of knowledge and what it means to know something, the transition from behavioral instructional design principles to those of a cognitive style was not entirely difficult. The goal of instruction remained the communication or transfer of knowledge to learners in the most efficient, effective manner possible (Bednar et al., in Anglin, 1995). For example, the breaking down of a task into small steps works for a behaviorist who is trying to find the most efficient and fail proof method of shaping a learner's behavior. The cognitive scientist would analyze a task, break it down into smaller steps or chunks and use that information to develop instruction that moves from simple to complex building on prior schema. The influence of cognitive science in instructional design is evidenced by the use of advance organizers, mnemonic devices, metaphors, chunking into meaningful parts and the careful organization of instructional materials from simple to complex. Cognitivism and Computer-Based Instruction Computers process information in a similar fashion to how cognitive scientists believe humans process information: receive, store and retrieve. This analogy makes the possibility of programming a computer to "think" like a person conceivable, i.e.. artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence involve the computer working to supply appropriate responses to student input from the computer's data base. A trouble-shooting programs is one example of these programs. Below is a list of some programs and their intended use:

SCHOLAR - teaches facts about South American geography in a Socratic method PUFF - diagnoses medical patients for possible pulmonary disorders MYCIN - diagnoses blood infections and prescribes possible treatment DENDRAL - enables a chemist to make an accurate guess about the molecular structure of an unknown compound META-DENDRAL - makes up its own molecular fragmentation rules in an attempt to explain sets of basic data GUIDION - a derivative of the MYCIN program that gave a student information about a case and compared their diagnosis with what MYCIN would suggest SOPIE - helps engineers troubleshoot electronic equipment problems BUGGY - allows teachers to diagnose causes for student mathematical errors LOGO - designed to help children learn to program a computer Davis' math programs for the PLATO system - to encourage mathematical development through discovery (Saettler, 1990)

Constructivism and Instructional Design

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The shift of instructional design from behaviorism to cognitivism was not as dramatic as the move into constructivism appears to be, since behaviorism and cognitivism are both objective in nature. Behaviorism and cognitivism both support the practice of analyzing a task and breaking it down into manageable chunks, establishing objectives, and measuring performance based on those objectives. Constructivism, on the other hand, promotes a more open-ended learning experience where the methods and results of learning are not easily measured and may not be the same for each learner. While behaviorism and constructivism are very different theoretical perspectives, cognitivism shares some similarities with constructivism. An example of their compatibility is the fact that they share the analogy of comparing the processes of the mind to that of a computer. Consider the following statement by Perkins: "...information processing models have spawned the computer model of the mind as an information processor. Constructivism has added that this information processor must be seen as not just shuffling data, but wielding it flexibly during learning -- making hypotheses, testing tentative interpretations, and so on." (Perkins, 1991, p.21 in Schwier, 1998 ). Other examples of the link between cognitive theory and constructivism are:

schema theory (Spiro, et al, 1991, in Schwier, 1998) connectionism (Bereiter, 1991, in Schwier, 1998) hypermedia (Tolhurst, 1992, in Schwier, 1998) multimedia (Dede, 1992, in Schwier, 1998)

Despite these similarities between cognitivism and constructivism, the objective side of cognitivism supported the use of models to be used in the systems approach of instructional design. Constructivism is not compatible with the present systems approach to instructional design, as Jonassen points out : "The conundrum that constructivism poses for instructional designers, however, is that if each individual is responsible for knowledge construction, how can we as designers determine and insure a common set of outcomes for leaning, as we have been taught to do?" (Jonasson, [On-line]) In the same article, Jonassen (Jonasson, [On-line]) lists the following implications of constructivism for instructional design: "...purposeful knowledge construction may be facilitated by learning environments which: Provide multiple representations of reality - avoid oversimplification of instruction by by representing the natural complexity of the world Present authentic tasks - contextualize Provide real-world, case-based learning environments, rather than pre-determined instructional sequences Foster reflective practice

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Enable context- and content-dependent knowledge construction Support collaborative construction of knowledge through social negotiation, not competition among learners for recognition "Although we believe that constructivism is not a prescriptive theory of instruction, it should be possible to provide more explicit guidelines on how to design learning environments that foster constructivist learning" Jonassen points out that the difference between constructivist and objectivist, (behavioral and cognitive), instructional design is that objective design has a predetermined outcome and intervenes in the learning process to map a pre-determined concept of reality into the learner's mind, while constructivism maintains that because learning outcomes are not always predictable, instruction should foster, not control, learning. With this in mind, Jonassen looks at the commonalties among constructivist approaches to learning to suggest a "model" for designing constructivist learning environments. "...a constructivist design process should be concerned with designing environments which support the construction of knowledge, which ..." Is Based on Internal Negotiation o a process of articulating mental models, using those models to explain, predict, and infer, and reflecting on their utility (Piaget's accommodation, Norman and Rumelhart's tuning and restructuring.) Is Based on Social Negotiation o a process of sharing a reality with others using the same or similar processes to those used in internal negotiation Is Facilitated by Exploration of Real World Environments and Intervention of New Environments o processes that are regulated by each individual's intentions, needs, and/or expectations Results in Mental Models and provides Meaningful, Authentic Contexts for Learning and Using the Constructed Knowledge o should be supported by case-based problems which have been derived from and situated in the real world with all of its uncertainty and complexity and based on authentic realife practice Requires an Understanding of its Own Thinking Process and Problem Solving Methods o problems in one context are different from problems in other contexts Modeled for Learners by Skilled Performers but Not Necessarily Expert Performers Requires Collaboration Among Learners and With the Teacher o the teacher is more of a coach or mentor than a purveyor of knowledge Provides an Intellectual Toolkit to Facilitate an Internal Negotiation Necessary for Building Mental Models (Jonasson, [On-line])

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The technological advances of the 1980s and 1990s have enabled designers to move toward a more constructivist approach to design of instruction. One of the most useful tools for the constructivist designer is hypertext and hypermedia because it allows for a branched design rather than a linear format of instruction. Hyperlinks allow for learner control which is crucial to constructivist learning; however, there is some concerns over the novice learner becoming "lost" in a sea of hypermedia. To address this concern, Jonassen and McAlleese (Jonnassen & McAlleese, [Online]) note that each phase of knowledge acquisition requires different types of learning and that initial knowledge acquisition is perhaps best served by classical instruction with predetermined learning outcomes, sequenced instructional interaction and criterion-referenced evaluation while the more advanced second phase of knowledge acquisition is more suited to a constructivist environment. If a novice learner is unable to establish an "anchor" in a hypermedia environment they may wander aimlessly through hypermedia becoming completely disoriented. Reigeluth and Chung suggest a prescriptive system which advocates increased learner control. In this method, students have some background knowledge and have been given some instruction in developing their own metacognitive strategies and have some way to return along the path they have taken, should they become "lost". (Davidson, 1998) Most literature on constructivist design suggests that learners should not simply be let loose in a hypermedia or hypertext environment, but that a mix of old and new (objective and constructive) instruction/learning design be implemented. Davidson's (1998) article, suggesting a criteria for hypermedia learning based on an "exploration of relevant learning theories", is an example of this method. Having noted the eclectic nature of instructional design, it is only fair to point out that not all theorists advocate a "mix and match" strategy for instructional design. Bednar, Cunningham, Duffy and Perry wrote an article that challenges the eclectic nature if instructional systems design by pointing out that "...abstracting concepts and strategies from the theoretical position that spawned then strips them of their meaning." They question objectivist epistemology completely and have adopted what they consider a constructivist approach to instructional design. In the article they compare the traditional approaches of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation to that of a constructivist approach. (Bednar, Cunningham, Duffy & Perry, 1995) Learning Theories and the Practice of Instructional Design What is the difference between the learning theories in terms of the practice of instructional design? Is one approach more easily achieved than another? To address this, one may consider that cognitive theory is the dominant theory in instructional design and many of the instructional strategies advocated and utilized by behaviorists are also used by cognitivists, but for different reasons. For example, behaviorists assess learners to determine a starting point for instruction, while cognitivists look at the learner to determine their predisposition to learning (Ertmer & Newby, 1993). With this in mind, the practice of instructional design can be viewed from a behaviorist/cognitivist approach as opposed to a constructivist approach. When designing from a behaviorist/cognitivist stance, the designer analyzes the situation and sets a goal. Individual tasks are broken down and learning objectives are developed. Evaluation consists of determining whether the criteria for the objectives has been met. In this approach the designer

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decides what is important for the learner to know and attempts to transfer that knowledge to the learner. The learning package is somewhat of a closed system, since although it may allow for some branching and remediation, the learner is still confined to the designer's "world". To design from a constructivist approach requires that the designer produces a product that is much more facilitative in nature than prescriptive. The content is not prespecified, direction is determined by the learner and assessment is much more subjective because it does not depend on specific quantitative criteria, but rather the process and self-evaluation of the learner. The standard pencil-and-paper tests of mastery learning are not used in constructive design; instead, evaluation is based on notes, early drafts, final products and journals. (Assessment [On-line]) Because of the divergent, subjective nature of constructive learning, it is easier for a designer to work from the systems, and thus the objective approach to instructional design. That is not to say that classical instructional design techniques are better than constructive design, but it is easier, less time consuming and most likely less expensive to design within a "closed system" rather than an "open" one. Perhaps there is some truth in the statement that "Constructivism is a 'learning theory', more than a 'teaching approach'." (Wilkinson, 1995) Learning Theories - Some Strengths and Weaknesses What are the perceived strengths and weaknesses of using certain theoretical approaches to instructional design? Behaviorism Weakness -the learner may find themselves in a situation where the stimulus for the correct response does not occur, therefore the learner cannot respond. - A worker who has been conditioned to respond to a certain cue at work stops production when an anomaly occurs because they do not understand the system. Strength - the learner is focused on a clear goal and can respond automatically to the cues of that goal. - W.W.II pilots were conditioned to react to silhouettes of enemy planes, a response which one would hope became automatic. Cognitivism Weakness - the learner learns a way to accomplish a task, but it may not be the best way, or suited to the learner or the situation. For example, logging onto the internet on one computer may not be the same as logging in on another computer. Strength - the goal is to train learners to do a task the same way to enable consistency. - Logging onto and off of a workplace computer is the same for all employees; it may be important do an exact routine to avoid problems. Constructivism Weakness - in a situation where conformity is essential divergent thinking and action may cause problems. Imagine the fun Revenue Canada would have if every person decided to report their

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taxes in their own way - although, there probably are some very "constructive" approaches used within the system we have. Strength - because the learner is able to interpret multiple realities, the learner is better able to deal with real life situations. If a learner can problem solve, they may better apply their existing knowledge to a novel situation. (Schuman, 1996)

Is There One Best Learning Theory for Instructional Design?


Why bother with Theory at all? A solid foundation in learning theory is an essential element in the preparation of ISD professionals because it permeates all dimensions of ISD (Shiffman, 1995). Depending on the learners and situation, different learning theories may apply. The instructional designer must understand the strengths and weaknesses of each learning theory to optimize their use in appropriate instructional design strategy. Recipes contained in ID theories may have value for novice designers (Wilson, 1997), who lack the experience and expertise of veteran designers. Theories are useful because they open our eyes to other possibilities and ways of seeing the world. Whether we realize it or not, the best design decisions are most certainly based on our knowledge of learning theories. An Eclectic Approach to Theory in Instructional Design The function of ID is more of an application of theory, rather than a theory itself. Trying to tie Instructional Design to one particular theory is like school vs. the real world. What we learn in a school environment does not always match what is out there in the real world, just as the prescriptions of theory do not always apply in practice, (the real world). From a pragmatic point of view, instructional designers find what works and use it. What Works and How Can We Use It? Behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism - what works where and how do we knit everything together to at least give ourselves some focus in our approach to instructional design? First of all we do not need to abandon the systems approach but we must modify it to accommodate constructivist values. We must allow circumstances surrounding the learning situation to help us decide which approach to learning is most appropriate. It is necessary to realize that some learning problems require highly prescriptive solutions, whereas others are more suited to learner control of the environment. (Schwier, 1995) Jonnassen in Manifesto for a Constructive Approach to Technology in Higher Education ([Online]) identified the following types of learning and matched them with what he believes to be appropriate learning theory approaches.

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1. Introductory Learning - learners have very little directly transferable prior knowledge about a skill or content area. They are at the initial stages of schema assembly and integration. At this stage classical instructional design is most suitable because it is predetermined, constrained, sequential and criterion-referenced. The learner can develop some anchors for further exploration. 2. Advanced Knowledge Acquisition - follows introductory knowledge and precedes expert knowledge. At this point constructivist approaches may be introduced. 3. Expertise is the final stage of knowledge acquisition. In this stage the learner is able to make intelligent decisions within the learning environment. A constructivist approach would work well in this case. Having pointed out the different levels of learning, Jonassen stresses that it is still important to consider the context before recommending any specific methodology. Reigeluth's Elaboration Theory which organizes instruction in increasing order of complexity and moves from prerequisite learning to learner control may work in the eclectic approach to instructional design, since the learner can be introduced to the main concepts of a course and then move on to more of a self directed study that is meaningful to them and their particular context. After having compared and contrasted behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism, Ertmer and Newby (1993) feel that the instructional approach used for novice learners may not be efficiently stimulating for a learner who is familiar with the content. They do not advocate one single learning theory, but stress that instructional strategy and content addressed depend on the level of the learners. Similar to Jonassen, they match learning theories with the content to be learned: ... a behavioral approach can effectively facilitate mastery of the content of a profession (knowing what); cognitive strategies are useful in teaching problem -solving tactics where defined facts and rules are applied in unfamiliar situations (knowing how); and constructivist strategies are especially suited to dealing with ill-defined problems through reflection-in-action. (Ertmer P. & Newby, T., 1993) Behavioral ... tasks requiring a low degree of processing (e.g., basic paired associations, discriminations, rote memorization) seem to be facilitated by strategies most frequently associated with a behavioral outlook (e.g., stimulus-response, contiguity of feedback/reinforcement). Cognitive Tasks requiring an increased level of processing (e.g., classifications, rule or procedural executions) are primarily associated with strategies having a stronger cognitive emphasis (e.g., schematic organization, analogical reasoning, algorithmic problem solving). Constructive Tasks demanding high levels of processing (e.g., heuristic problem solving, personal selection and monitoring of cognitive strategies) are frequently

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est learned with strategies advanced by the constructivist perspective (e.g., situated learning, cognitive apprenticeships, social negotiation. (Ertmer P. & Newby, T., 1993) Ertmer and Newby (1993) believe that the strategies promoted by different learning theories overlap (the same strategy for a different reason) and that learning theory strategies are concentrated along different points of a continuum depending of the focus of the learning theory the level of cognitive processing required.

Ertmer and Newby's suggestion that theoretical strategies can complement the learner's level of task knowledge, allows the designer to make the best use of all available practical applications of the different learning theories. With this approach the designer is able to draw from a large number of strategies to meet a variety of learning situations. Conclusion Upon completion of this site on learning theories and instructional design, I have not only accomplished my objective, but gained insight and appreciation for the different learning theories and their possible application to instructional design. It was interesting for me to find that I am not alone in my perspective regarding learning theories and instructional design. There is a place for each theory within the practice of instructional design, depending upon the situation and environment. I especially favor the idea of using an objective approach to provide the learner with an "anchor" before they set sail on the open seas of knowledge. A basic understanding of the material in question provides the learner with a guiding compass for further travel.

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Another consideration is the distinction between "training" and "education". In today's competitive business world, the instructional designer may be required to establish and meet the objectives of that business. On the other hand, in a school setting, the designer may be challenged to provide material that fosters an individual to find divergent approaches to problem solving. Whichever situation the instructional designer finds themselves in, they will require a thorough understanding of learning theories to enable them to provide the appropriate learning environment. Finally, though Instructional Design may have a behaviorist tradition, new insights to the learning process continue to replace, change and alter the process. Advancements in technology make branched constructivist approaches to learning possible. Whether designing for training or education, the instructional designer's toolbox contains an ever changing and increasing number of theoretical applications and physical possibilities. With intelligent application of learning theory strategies and technology, the modern designer will find solutions to the learning requirements of the 21st century.

4.7. Mastery Learning


(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Mastery Learning is an instructional method that presumes all children can learn if they are provided with the appropriate learning conditions. Specifically, mastery learning is a method whereby students are not advanced to a subsequent learning objective until they demonstrate proficiency with the current one. Mastery learning curricula generally consist of discrete topics which all students begin together. Students who do not satisfactorily complete a topic are given additional instruction until they succeed. Students who master the topic early engage in enrichment activities until the entire class can progress together. Mastery learning includes many elements of successful tutoring and the independent functionality seen in high-end students. In a mastery learning environment, the teacher directs a variety of group-based instructional techniques, with frequent and specific feedback by using diagnostic, formative tests, as well as regularly correcting mistakes students make along their learning path. Teachers evaluate students with criterion-referenced tests rather than norm-referenced tests. Mastery learning has nothing to do with content, merely on the process of mastering it, and is based on Benjamin Bloom's Mastery for Learning model, with refinements made by Block. Mastery learning may be implemented as teacher-paced group instruction, one-to-one tutoring, or self-paced learning with programmed materials. It may involve direct teacher instruction, cooperation with classmates, or independent learning. It requires well-defined learning objectives organized into smaller, sequentially organized units. Individualized instruction has some elements in common with mastery learning, although it dispenses with group activities in favor of allowing more able or more motivated students to progress ahead of others and maximizing teacher interaction with those students who need the most assistance.

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Most experiments that compared mastery learning to conventional instruction have shown that mastery learning is more effective. In one meta-analysis (Kulik, Kulik & Bangert-Drowns, 1990), the mean effect size (Cohen's d) of 103 studies was 0.52 standard deviation units, which is considered a moderately large effect size.

The concept of mastery learning can be attributed to the behaviorism principles of operant conditioning. According to operant conditioning theory, learning occurs when an association is formed between a stimulus and response (Skinner, 1984). In line with the behavior theory, mastery learning focuses on overt behaviors that can be observed and measured (Baum, 2005). The material that will be taught to mastery is broken down into small discrete lessons that follow a logical progression. In order to demonstrate mastery over each lesson, students must be able to overtly show evidence of understanding of the material before moving to the next lesson (Anderson, 2000).In general, mastery learning programs have been shown to lead to higher achievement in all students as compared to more traditional forms of teaching (Anderson, 2000; Gusky & Gates, 1986). Despite the empirical evidence, many mastery programs in schools have been replaced by more traditional forms of instruction due to the level of commitment required by

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the teacher and the difficulty in managing the classroom when each student is following an individual course of learning (Anderson, 2000; Grittner, 1975). References
Anderson, J. R. (2000). Learning and memory: An integrated approach (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Baum, W. M. (2005). Understanding Behaviorism: Behavior, Culture and Evolution. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Block, Schools, Society and Mastery Learning. ISBN 978-0030884078 Kulik, C., Kulik, J., & Bangert-Drowns, R. (1990). Effectiveness of mastery learning programs: A metaanalysis. Review of Educational Research, 60(2), 265-306. Grittner, F. M. (1975). Individualized instruction: An historical perspective. The Modern Language Journal, 323 333. Gusky, T. R., & Gates, S. (1986). Synthesis of research on the effects of mastery learning in elementary and secondary classrooms. Educational Leadership, 43, 73-80.

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