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PUMPS CRITICAL ENTITIES OF A UNIT

BY : VINAY KUMAR SHARMA

PREFACE
This report is on Pumps and deals with various hardware specifications and the process involved in the selection of a pump for a specific work

purpose in hydrocarbon industries. Pumps are critical entities of any industry and are crucially linked to the layout development. Fluids, as per their property, have a tendency to flow from higher potential to lower potential. But when it is required to bring fluids to a higher altitude from lower or transfer of fluid, pumps have their very indispensible role. Pumps are devices that impart kinetic energy to fluids to bring them to higher altitudes.

Hopeful of appreciation by pioneers of the industry, every possible detail to the best of knowledge has been incorporated. Anything and everything including constructive criticism and suggestions that adds value to it is highly welcome.

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CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 1.2 1.3 Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pump classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection of Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 6

2. CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

Working Principal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Important Parameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 System Curve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Constructional features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 21

Criterion in Pump Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Criterion for selection of Motor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Sundyne Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Double Suction Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Axial Flow Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

2.10 Barrel Pump or Can Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 2.11 Pump classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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3. POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8
Types of Positive Displacement Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Difference between Centrifugal & Positive Displacement Pump Advantage of Positive Displacement Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . Pump Characteristic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . When to Use PD Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plunger Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reciprocating Diaphragm type of Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotary types Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55
55 55 56 56 57 58 59 60

4. PROCUREMENT/ ORDERING SYSTEM IN GAIL


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7
Categorization of MR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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71

Summary of ordering systems of Pumps unit in GAIL PATA. . . 71 Evaluation Criterion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluation of Prices in case of Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem faced & Lesson learnt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Areas of Improvement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Important Documents for Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 72 73 74 74

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CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION: CLASSIFICATION AND SELECTION OF PUMPS

1.1 PUMPS
A pump is a hydraulic machine which receives a flow of liquid at a certain inlet pressure, raises this pressure to a higher value and discharges the liquid through the outlet. The purpose of a pump is to add energy to a fluid, resulting in an increase in a fluid pressure, not necessarily an increase of fluid speed across the Pump.

1.2 Pumps Classification


Pumps may be classified on the basis of applications they serve, the materials from which they are constructed, the liquids they handle and their orientation in space. A more basic system of classification could be the principle by which energy added to the fluid.
PUMPS

Dynamic(Centrifugal)

Positive Displacement

Medium to large flows Low to medium pressures Viscosity < 200 Cst

Low to medium flows Pressure no limitation

Horizontal

Vertical

Rotary

Reciprocating

Single / Two Stage

Sump Pump

Screw

Metering

Multistage

Turbine Type
Barrel Pump

Gear
Liquid Ring
Progressive Cavity

Piston / Plunger

Sundyne pump

1.2.1 Dynamic-in which energy is continuously added to increase the fluid velocities
within the machines to values in excess of that occurring at the discharge such that
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subsequent velocity reduction within or beyond the pump produces a pressure increase.

1.2.2 Positive displacement- in which energy is periodically added by application of


force to one or more movable boundaries of any desired number of enclosed, fluid containing volumes, resulting in a direct increase in pressure up to the value required to move the fluid through valves and ports in to the discharge line. Displacement pumps are essentially divided in to reciprocating and rotary types, depending upon the nature of the pressure producing members.

1.3 Selection of Pumps


Selection of right type of pump for different fluid and operating conditions can be daunting because of the large number of options to fit various operating conditions. Before proceeding to the actual pump selection, it is necessary to have the complete knowledge of the location and the basic job to be performed. The proper pump selection requires a careful study of the hydraulic system also.
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1.3.1 Major Parameter for Selection of Pumps The following points are to be considered at the time of pump selection i) Fluid Characteristics: A detailed study of the fluid characteristics is usually the most important factor for the proper selection of pumps. i.e. Chemical identity of the fluid pumped such as pH, dissolved oxygen, corrosive or abrasive nature, Concentration, suspended solids and temperature, etc. Absolute Viscosity: It plays an important role while selecting the pump. It causes the liquid to resist flow, the higher the viscosity, the greater the head loss due to friction in the pipeline and in the pump casing as well as in the whole system. The suction head and the available Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) both decreases with an increase in liquid viscosity for the same pumping rate. At the same time, discharge and total head both increases with an increase in liquid viscosity for the same pumping rate. In other words, the power requirement also increases with liquid viscosity. iii) Specific Gravity: It affects the pump life along with performance of the pump. Temperature: The operating temperature at the pump is an important factor affecting overall performance of the pump. While considering temperature, the combined ambient and liquid temperature along with the temperature rise due to evaluation of heat from the resistance in the system shall be taken into consideration. As per general experience, pumps can perform efficiently with trouble-free operation over an approximate temperature of up to 80C. Space available for pump: It helps in selecting the pump, i.e., horizontal or vertical. It also influences the model and size of the pump.

ii)

iv)

v)

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vi)

Self Priming Requirement: A pump where suction nozzle elevation is above the source, there self priming capacity may be necessary. Positive Displacement pump such as a piston pump or a rotary screw or gear pump are used which are able to self-prime.

vii) Variable Head/Flow requirement: Centrifugal pumps and Axial Flow pumps are most suitable pumps for variable head / flow requirement. For high flow and high head combinations, a multi-stage centrifugal pump can be used. Various designs of this type of pump are available for wide range of condition. (High temperature, cryogenic, water, hydrocarbon, and so on). viii) Low Flow with Precise Flow Adjustment Ability: For low-flow applications where accurate flow metering is necessary, a proportioning pump is appropriate. This type of pump can also be provided with variable flow capability. Certain types of gear, plunger, and diaphragm pumps can also be used in combination with a variable speed drive for flow rate regulation.

ix)

Low Available Net Positive Suction Head: If the available net position suction head (NPSHA) is low, specially designed centrifugal pumps can be considered, like Sundyne Pump. Depending upon how low the NPSHA is, either horizontal end suction with a suction inducer or a horizontal double suction arrangement may be applied. A vertical turbine pump may also be used, either immersed in the process fluid (possibly in a tank or vessel) or in a specially designed vessel (known as a suction can) that can be installed below grade to increase the NPSHA.

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CHAPTER-2 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP


A centrifugal pump is one of the simplest pieces of devices whose purpose is to convert energy of an electric motor or engine into velocity or kinetic energy and then into pressure of a fluid that is being pumped. The energy changes occur into two main parts of the pump, the impeller and the volute. The impeller is the rotating part that converts driver energy into the kinetic energy. The volute is the stationary part that converts the kinetic energy into pressure. Centrifugal pumps are entirely dynamic in action, that is to say they depend upon rotational speed to generate a head which is manifest as a difference of pressure between inlet and outlet branches. The quantity of liquid pumped and the power involved depends upon the system of liquid contained, static pressures and pipeline etc. to which pump is attached. Centrifugal pumps are used for large discharge through smaller heads.

2.1 Working Principle


2.1.1 Centrifugal Force

Liquid enters the pump suction and then the eye of the impeller. When the impeller rotates, it spins the liquid sitting in the cavities between the vanes outward and imparts centrifugal acceleration. As the liquid leaves the eye of the impeller a low pressure area is created at the eye allowing more liquid to enter the pump inlet. 2.1.2. Conversion of Kinetic Energy to Pressure Energy The key idea is that the energy created by the centrifugal force is kinetic energy. The amount of energy given to the liquid is proportional to the velocity at the edge or vane tip of the impeller. The faster the impeller revolves or the bigger the impeller is, then the higher will be the velocity of the liquid at the vane tip and the greater the energy imparted to the liquid. This kinetic energy of a liquid coming out of an impeller is harnessed by creating a resistance to the flow. The first resistance is created by the pump volute (casing) that catches the liquid and slows it down. In the discharge nozzle, the liquid further decelerates and its velocity is converted to pressure according to Bernoullis principle.

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2.2 Important Parameter of Centrifugal Pump 2.2.1


Capacity (min/nor/rated):

Capacity means the flow rate with which liquid is moved or pushed by the pump to the desired point in the process. It is commonly measured in either gallons per minute (gpm) or cubic meters per hour (m3/hr). The capacity usually changes with the changes in operation of the process. For example, a boiler feed pump is an application that needs a constant pressure with varying capacities to meet a changing steam demand. The capacity depends on a number of factors like: Process liquid characteristics i.e. density, viscosity Size of the pump and its inlet and outlet sections Impeller size Impeller rotational speed RPM Size and shape of cavities between the vanes Pump suction and discharge temperature and pressure conditions For a pump with a particular impeller running at a certain speed in a liquid, the only items on the list above that can change the amount flowing through the pump are the pressures at the pump inlet and outlet. The effect on the flow through a pump by changing the outlet pressures is graphed on a pump curve. Minimum Capacity: Although a constant speed Centrifugal pump will operate over a wide range of capacity but at low flow it will encounter following troubles: i) Abrasive wear: Liquids containing a large amount of abrasive particles, such as sand or ash must flow continuously through the pump. If flow decreases, the particles can circulate inside the pump passages and quickly erode the impeller, casing and even wear ring and shaft. Each pump has a value of minimum continuous flow which is a characteristic of that Thermal: Inescapable energy conversion loss in the pump warms the liquid. Hydraulic: When the flow decreases far enough, the impeller encounters the suction or discharge recirculation or both. Mechanical: Both constant and fluctuating load in the radial and axial directions increases as pump capacity fall. Bearing damage, shaft and impeller breakage can occur. Its value can be obtained from the characteristic curves provided in the vendors catalogue. The pump should
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ii)

iii)
iv)

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be selected so that the minimum flow during the service does not fall below minimum continuous flow.

2.2.2

Pressure

Pressure is usually measured in gauge that registers the difference between the pressure in vessel and current atmospheric pressure. Therefore the gauge does not indicate the true total gas pressure. To obtain the true pressure or pressure above zero, it is necessary to add the current atmospheric or barometric pressure, expressed in proper units. This sum is the absolute pressure.

2.2.3

Pump Head

Head/ static head is the distance between two horizontal levels in a liquid. It is also the measure of the pressure exerted by a column or body of liquid because of the weight of the liquid. The term pump head represents the net work performed on the liquid by the pump. It is composed of four parts. The static head (Hs), or elevation; the pressure head (Hp) or the pressures to be overcome; the friction head (Hf) and velocity head (Hf), which are frictions and other resistances in the piping system. Significance of using the head term instead of the pressure term
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The pressure at any point in a liquid can be thought of as being caused by a vertical column of the liquid due to its weight. The height of this column is called the static head and is expressed in terms of feet of liquid. The same head term is used to measure the kinetic energy created by the pump. In other words, head is a measurement of the height of a liquid column that the pump could create from the kinetic energy imparted to the liquid. Imagine a pipe shooting a jet of water straight up into the air, the height the water goes up would be the head. The head is not equivalent to pressure. Head is a term that has units of a length or feet and pressure has units of force per unit area or pound per square inch. The main reason for using head instead of pressure to measure a centrifugal pumps energy is that the pressure from a pump will change if the specific gravity (weight) of the liquid changes, but the head will not change. Since any given centrifugal pump can move a lot of different fluids, with different specific gravities, it is simpler to discuss the pump's head and forget about the pressure. So a centrifugal pumps performance on any Newtonian fluid, whether it's heavy (sulfuric acid) or light (gasoline) is described by using the term head. The pump performance curves are mostly described in terms of head. A given pump with a given impeller diameter and speed will raise a liquid to a certain height regardless of the weight of the liquid. i)

Pressure head:- Pressure can be converted to head with following formula:H = Pressure/Density = P/g

ii)

Velocity Head: - It is the head required to impart velocity to liquid. It is


equivalent to the vertical distance through which the liquid would have to fall to acquire the same velocity.

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Velocity head = V2 / 2g iii)

Friction Head: - It is the force or pressure required to overcome friction and


is obtained at the expense of the static pressure head. Unlike velocity head, friction head cannot be recovered or reconverted to static pressure head. Thermal energy is usually wasted, therefore resulting in a head loss from the system. Hf= f(L/D)(V2/2Zg) Where f is friction factor, L is length of pipe, and D is dia. of pipe Total dynamic head = Hs + Hp + Hv + Hf

Suction lift: Suction lift exists when the source of supply is below the center line of the pump. Suction head: Suction head exists when the source of supply is above the centerline of the pump.

2.2.4

Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)

NPSH is what the pump needs, the minimum requirement to perform its duties. NPSH takes into consideration the suction piping and connections, the elevation and absolute pressure of the fluid in the suction piping, the velocity of the fluid and the temperature. Some of these factors add energy to the fluid as it moves into the pump, and others subtract energy from the fluid. There must be sufficient energy in the fluid for the impeller to convert this energy into pressure and flow. If the energy is inadequate we say that the pump suffers inadequate NPSH. The Hydraulic Institute Standards defines NPSH as the total suction head in meters absolute, determined at the suction nozzle and corrected to datum, less the vapor pressure of the liquid in meters absolute. Simply stated, it is an analysis of energy conditions on the suction of a pump to determine if the liquid will vaporize at the lowest pressure point in the pump. The pressure, which a liquid exerts on its surroundings, is dependent upon its temperature. This pressure, called vapor pressure, is a unique characteristic of every fluid and increases. When the vapor pressure within the fluid reaches the pressure of the surrounding medium, the fluid begins to vaporize or boil. The temperature at which this vaporization occurs will decrease as the pressure of the surrounding medium decreases. A liquid increases greatly in volume when it vaporizes. One cubic foot of water at room temperature becomes 1700 cu. Ft. of vapor at the same temperature.
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It is obvious from the above that if we are to pump a fluid effectively, we must keep it in the liquid form. NPSH is simply a measure of the amount of suction head to prevent this vaporization at the lowest pressure point in the pump. Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) is a statement of the minimum suction conditions required to prevent cavitations in a pump. i)

NPSHA (Available):- NPSHA is a total available suction pressure - over


the vapor pressure - (expressed in feet/ meter of head). In other words, it is Net Suction Head - vapor pressure (expressed as head). This is the energy in the fluid at the suction connection of the pump over and above the liquids vapor pressure. It is a characteristic of the system and we say that the NPSHA should be greater than the NPSHR (NPSHA > NPSHR).

ii)

NPSHR (Required):-It is the energy in the liquid required to overcome the


friction losses from the suction nozzle to the eye of the impeller without causing vaporization. It is a characteristic of the pump and is indicated on the pump's curve. It varies by design, size, and the operating conditions. It is determined by a lift test, producing a negative pressure in inches of mercury and converted into feet of required NPSH.
Ps H friction

NPSH (A-R) NPSH A

NPSH R P vap H vap

How to increase NPSHA? a) INCREASE P SOURCE: -Increase Vessel/Reactor Pressure -Install Booster Pump Upstream Of Main Pump
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b)

INCREASE delta H: -Increase Vessel Level -Increase Minimum Liquid Level -Lower Pump Installation Level

DECREASE SUCTION LOSSES: -Increase Suction Pipe Size -Reduce Suction Pipe Length -Minimize No. Of Bends -Use Low delta P Valves/Strainers in Suction d). REDUCE VAPOUR PRESSURE: -Lower Liquid Temp. -Minimize Heat Pick-up in Suction Line How to decrease NPSHR? a) Select pump at lower speeds b) Use double suction impellers c) Modify pump geometry d) Use inducer

c)

2.2.5

Cavitations

It is the formation and subsequent collapse of vapor filled cavities (such as bubbles, vapor filled pockets etc) in a liquid due to dynamic action. Inadequate NPSHA establishes favorable conditions for cavitation in the pump. If the pressure in the eye of the impeller falls below the vapor pressure of the fluid, then bubble formation begins. As bubbles flow from low pressure to higher, they implode against metal surfaces with high energy. These micro-hammer-like impacts erode the material, creating cavities thus cavitation.

2.2.6

Vapor pressure

The vapor pressure of a liquid is the absolute pressure at which the liquid vaporizes or converts into a gas at a specific temperature. The vapor pressure of a liquid increases with its temperature. For this reason the temperature should be specified for a declared vapor pressure. Thomas cavitation factor:- The thoma cavitation factor is used to indicate the onset of cavitation. It is defined as: = (Ha Hs Hv)/ Hmano = NPSH / Hmano Ha = atmospheric pressure expressed in meters Hv = vapor pressure in meters.
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Hs = Total suction head. Hmano = Manometric Head = Head imparted by the impeller to Liquid loss of head in the pump. How does vapor pressure effect pump performance? When cavitation occurs in a pump, its efficiency is reduced. It can also cause sudden surges in flow and pressure at the discharge nozzle. The calculation of the NPSHR (the pumps minimum required energy) and the NPSHA (the systems available energy), is based on an understanding of the liquids absolute vapor pressure. The effects of cavitation are noise and vibration. If the pump operates under cavitating conditions for enough time, the following can occur: Pitting marks on the impeller blades and on the internal volute casing wall of the pump. Premature bearing failure. Shaft breakage and other fatigue failures in the pump. Premature mechanical seal failure. These problems can be caused by: A reduction of pressure at the suction nozzle. An increase of the temperature of the pumped liquid. An increase in the velocity or flow of the fluid. Separation and reduction of the flow due to a change in the viscosity of the liquid. Undesirable flow conditions caused by obstructions or sharp elbows in the suction piping. The pump is inadequate for the system.

2.2.7

Brake Horse Power (BHP)

The work performed by a pump is a function of the total head and the weight of the liquid pumped in a given time period. Pump input or brake horsepower (BHP) is the actual horsepower delivered to the pump shaft. Pump output or hydraulic or water horsepower (WHP) is the liquid horsepower delivered by the pump.

2.2.8

Efficiency

The ratio of power output of the pump to the power input to the pump is called efficiency of the pump. = WKW/ 366.9 BKW
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2.2.9

Best Efficiency Point (BEP)

Best Efficiency Point (BEP) is the capacity at maximum impeller diameter at which the efficiency is highest. All points to the right or left of BEP have a lower efficiency.

Significance of BEP
BEP as a measure of optimum energy conversion When sizing and selecting centrifugal pumps for a given application the pump efficiency at design should be taken into consideration. The efficiency of centrifugal pumps is stated as a percentage and represents a unit of measure describing the change of centrifugal force (expressed as the velocity of the fluid) into pressure energy. The B.E.P. (best efficiency point) is the area on the curve where the change of velocity energy into pressure energy at a given gallon per minute is optimum; in essence, the point where the pump is most efficient. BEP as a measure of mechanically stable operation The impeller is subject to non-symmetrical forces when operating to the right or left of the BEP. These forces manifest themselves in many mechanically unstable conditions like vibration, excessive hydraulic thrust, temperature rise, and erosion and separation cavitation. Thus the operation of a centrifugal pump should not be outside the furthest left or right efficiency curves published by the manufacturer. Performance in these areas induces premature bearing and mechanical seal failures due to shaft deflection, and an increase in temperature of the process fluid in the pump casing causing seizure of close tolerance parts and cavitation. BEP as an important parameter in calculations BEP is an important parameter in that many parametric calculations such as specific speed, suction specific speed, hydrodynamic size, viscosity correction, head rise to shutoff, etc. are based on capacity at BEP. Many users prefer that pumps operate within 80% to 110% of BEP for optimum performance.

2.2.10

Pump specific speed

Pump specific speed is a dimensionless quantity which is similar for geometrically similar pumps and is defined as

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Ns = NQ1/2/ H3/4 Specific speed is calculated at best efficiency point (BEP) with the maximum impeller diameter. Specific speed as a measure of the shape or class of the impellers The specific speed determines the general shape or class of the impellers. As the specific speed increases, the ratio of the impeller outlet diameter, D2, to the inlet or eye diameter, D1, decreases. This ratio becomes 1.0 for a true axial flow impeller. Radial flow impellers develop head principally through centrifugal force. Radial impellers are generally low flow high head designs. Pumps of higher specific speeds develop head partly by centrifugal force and partly by axial force. A higher specific speed indicates a pump design with head generation more by axial forces and less by centrifugal forces. An axial flow or propeller pump with a specific speed of 10,000 or greater generates its head exclusively through axial forces. Axial flow impellers are high flow low head designs. Specific speed identifies the approximate acceptable ratio of the impeller eye diameter (D1) to the impeller maximum diameter (D2) in designing a good impeller. Ns: 500 to 5000; D1/D2 > 1.5 - radial flow pump Ns: 5000 to 10000; D1/D2 < 1.5 - mixed flow pump Ns: 10000 to 15000; D1/D2 = 1 - axial flow pump Specific speed is also used in designing a new pump by size- factoring a smaller pump of the same specific speed. The performance and construction of the smaller pump are used to predict the performance and model the construction of the new pump.

Pump Suction Specific Speed:Pump suction specific speed provides an assessment of pumps susceptibility to internal recirculation. It is mathematically defined as:S = NQ1/2/ NPSHR3/4 Suction specific speed is also calculated at BEP with maximum impeller diameter. Also (Thomas cavitation factor) = (Ns/ S)3/4

2.2.11

Priming of a centrifugal pump

The operation of filling the suction pipe, casing of the pump and a portion of the delivery pipe completely from outside source with the liquid to be raised, before starting the pump, to remove any air gas or vapor from the parts of the pump is called priming of centrifugal pump. If the pump is not primed before starting, air pockets inside the

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impeller may give rise to vortices and cause discontinuity of flow. Further dry running of the pump may result in rubbing and seizing of the wear rings and cause severe damage.

2.3 System Curves


Ordinarily a centrifugal pump is worked under its maximum efficiency conditions. However the pump is run at conditions different from the design condition, it performs differently. Therefore to predict the behavior of the pump under varying conditions of speeds, heads, discharges or powers tests are usually conducted. The results obtained from these tests are plotted in form of characteristic curves. These curves generate useful information about the performance of a pump in its installation. The following four types of characteristic curves are usually prepared for centrifugal pumps: 1. Main characteristic curves 2. Operating characteristic curves 3. Constant efficiency or Muschel curves 4. Constant head or constant discharge curves

2.3.1

Main characteristic curves

The main characteristic curve is obtained as follows: The pump is run at a constant speed and the discharge is varied over the desired range. Measurements are taken for manometric head and shaft power for each discharge. Calculations are made for pump efficiency. The curves are plotted between Q and Hmano; Q and P; and Q and for that speed. The same procedure is repeated by running the pump at another speed. The family of curves is obtained as shown in the fig.1

Fig. 1

2.3.2 Operating characteristic curves

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When a centrifugal pump operates at the design speed the maximum efficiency occurs. Evidently from optimum performance, the pump needs to be operated at the design speed and the discharge is varied, as in the case of main characteristic curves. The operating characteristics are shown in the fig.2 below. The design discharge and head are obtained from the corresponding curve where the efficiency is maximum.

Fig.2

2.3.3. Constant efficiency or Muschel curve:


The constant efficiency curve also called as iso- efficiency curve, depicts the performance of a pump over its entire range of operation. The curves are obtained from main characteristic curves as follows: For a given efficiency, the values of discharge are obtained from fig.1. these points are projected on the head v/s discharge curve of fig1. Similarly for other values of efficiency and speed, the points are obtained and projected. The points corresponding to one efficiency are joined. The constant efficiency curve helps to locate the regions where the pump would operate with maximum efficiency.

2.3.4. Constant head and constant discharge curves


The performance a variable speed pump for which the speed constantly varies can be determined by these curves. When the pump has a variable speed, the plots between Q and N, and Hmano and N may be obtained.

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2.4 CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES

General Components of Centrifugal Pumps A centrifugal pump has two main components: I. A rotating component comprised of an impeller and a shaft II. A stationary component comprised of a casing, casing cover, and bearings. Various parts of a centrifugal pump are briefly described below:

2.4.1

Impellers:

Impellers are the components of pump which impart dynamic energy to the fluid, which gets converted to pressure energy. This may be classified on the basis of

(a)Mechanical design of impellers


According to this impellers may be classified as:

(i)

Completely open

It consists of vanes attached to a central hub for mounting on the shaft without any form of sidewall or shroud. The disadvantage of the impeller is its structural weakness and its
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more sensitiveness to wear. Due to more wear the efficiency deteriorates rapidly. One advantage of open impeller is that they are better suited for handling stringy materials. Also they are better suited for handling liquids containing suspended matter as the possibility of clogging is not there. They are used in small inexpensive pumps.

Fig: Open impeller

Fig: Semi- open impeller

(ii)

Semi open

It incorporates a single shroud usually at the back of the impeller. This shroud may or may not have pump out vanes which are vanes located at the back of impeller shroud. This function is to reduce the pressure at the back hub of the impeller and prevent foreign matter from lodging in the back of the impeller and interfering with proper operation of the pump and stuffing box (iii)

Closed

It is almost universally used in pumps handling clear liquids, incorporates shrouds or enclosing side walls that totally enclose impeller water ways from suction eye to the periphery. Although this design prevents the liquid slippage that occurs between an open or semi-open impeller and its side plates a running joint must be provided between the impeller and casing to separate the discharge and suction chambers of the pump. This running joint is usually formed by a relatively short cylindrical surface on the impeller shroud that rotates within slightly larger cylindrical surface.

Fig: Closed impeller (single suction) (b)Based on suction type

Fig: Closed impeller (double suction)

Single and double suction impellers:


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In single suction impellers the liquid enters the suction eye on one side only. A double suction impeller is in effect two single suction impellers arranged back to back in a single casing, the liquid enters simultaneously from both sides, while the two casing suction passage ways are connected to a common suction passage and a single suction nozzle. For the general service axially split casing design, a double suction impeller is favoured because it is theoretically in axial hydraulic balance and because the greater suction area of a double suction impeller permits the pump to operate with less absolute head or its better NPSH characteristics.

2.4.1 i) Axial thrust


Axial thrust in single stage pump Axial hydraulic thrust on an impeller is the sum of the unbalanced forces acting in an axial direction. The ordinary single suction impeller with the shaft passing through the impeller eye is subjected to axial thrust because a portion of the front wall is exposed to suction pressure and thus relatively more backwall surface is exposed to discharge pressure. If the discharge chamber pressure was uniform over the entire impeller surface, the axial force acting toward the suction would be equal to the product of the net pressure generated by the impeller and the unbalanced annular area. Generally speaking, axial thrust toward the impeller suction is about 20 to 30% less than the product of the pressure and the unbalanced area. Theoretically, a double-suction impeller is in hydraulic axial balance, with the pressure on one side equal to and counterbalancing the pressure on the other. In practice, this balance may not be achieved for the following reasons: 1. The suction passages to the two suction eyes may not provide equal or uniform flows to the two sides. 2. Unequal leakage through the two leakage joints can upset the balance. 3. External conditions, such as an elbow located too close to the pump suction nozzle, may cause unequal flow to the two suction eyes. Combined, these factors can create axial unbalance. To compensate for this, all centrifugal pumps, even those with double suction impellers, incorporate thrust bearings . 2.4.1 ii) Axial thrust in multistage pumps

Most multistage pumps are built with single suction impellers in order to simplify the design of inter stage connections. Two arrangements are possible for the single suction impellers: 1. Several single suction impellers mounted on one shaft, each having its suction inlet facing in the same direction and its stage following one another in ascending order of pressure. The axial thrust is then balanced by following hydraulic balancing devices; a. Balancing drums
A Brief Introduction of Pumps:Page 23

b. Balancing disks c. Combination balancing disk and drum 2. An even number of single suction impeller may be used, one half facing in one direction and the other half facing in opposite direction. With this arrangement, axial thrust on the first half is compensated by the thrust in the opposite direction on the other half. This mounting of single suction impellers back to back is called opposed impellers.

Impeller Axial Thrust Diagram

Rotor Assembly Axial Thrust With Balancing Disc & Drum

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2.4.2

Shaft and Shaft Sleeves

i) Shaft The basic function of a centrifugal pump shaft is to transmit the torque encountered in starting and during operation while supporting the impeller and other rotating parts. It must do this job with a deflection less than the minimum clearance between rotating and stationary parts. Loads involved- (1) Torque (2) Weight of the parts (3) Both radial and axial hydraulic forces In designing a shaft, the maximum allowable deflection, the span or overhang and the location of the loads all have to be considered, as does the critical speed of the resulting design. Critical speed: Any object made of elastic material has a natural period of vibration. When a pump rotor or shaft rotates at any speed corresponding to its natural frequency, minor unbalances will be magnified. These speeds are called the critical speeds. Rigid and Flexible shaft: A rigid shaft means one with an operating speed lower than its first critical speed. A flexible shaft means one with an operating speed higher than its first critical speed. It is possible to operate centrifugal pump shaft above their critical speed for the following two reasons1) Very little time is required to attain full speed from rest. 2) The pumped liquid in the stuffing box packing and the internal leakage joints act as a restraining force on the vibration.

ii)

Shaft sleeves:

Pump shaft are usually protected from erosion, corrosion and wear at stuffing boxes, leakage joints, internal bearings and in the waterways by renewable sleeves. The most common shaft sleeve function is that of protecting the shaft from wear at a stuffing box.

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Fig: Shaft and Shaft sleeve

Material for stuffing box sleeve: Stuffing box shaft sleeves are surrounded in the stuffing box packing , the sleeve must be smooth so that it can turn without generation too much friction and heat. Thus the sleeve materials must be capable of taking very fine finish, preferably a polish; therefore cast iron is not suitable for shaft sleeve. Hard bronze is suitable for pumps handling clear water. Hardened chrome or other stainless steels for pumps subjected to grit. Etc;

2.4.4

Bearings

The function of bearings in centrifugal pump is to keep the shaft in correct alignment with the stationary parts under the action of radial and transverse loads. Bearing that give radial positioning to the rotor are known as line bearings and those locate the rotor axially are called thrust bearings. In most application the thrust bearings serve actually both as thrust and radial bearings. In horizontal pump with bearings on each end, the bearings are usually designated by their location as inboard and outboard. Inboard bearings are located between the casing and the coupling. Pumps with overhang impeller have both bearings on the same side of casing so that the bearing nearest the impeller is called inboard and the one farthest away outboard. In a pump provided with bearings at both ends, the thrust bearing is usually placed at outboard end and the line bearing at the outboard end.

2.4.5

Wear rings

Wear rings are used on close clearance areas of casings and impellers where they form leakage joints between suction and discharge pressure. They act as replaceable wear surfaces and are respectively called impeller and casing wear rings. In case of open impellers, they are provided only on casing and are called wear plates. Since wear rings are close clearance parts, they have galling/seizing tendencies. Therefore minimum wear ring clearances are insisted upon even though this may mean lower efficiencies.

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Fig: Wear rings

2.4.6

Casing

The casing is an airtight chamber surrounding the pump impeller. It is the part that contains the pump components and is used for converting the velocity energy to pressure energy. It contains suction and discharge arrangements, supporting for bearings and facilitates to house the rotor assembly. The essential purposes of the casings are: I. To guide the water to and from the impeller, and II. To partially convert the kinetic energy into pressure energy.

a)

Solid and split casings

Solid casing implies a design in which the discharge waterways leading to the discharge nozzle are all contained in one casing, or fabricated piece. The casing must have one side open so that the impeller may be introduced into it. A split casing is made of two or more parts fastened together. Axially split casing is a casing divided by a plane through the shaft centerline or axis. Since both the suction and discharge nozzles are usually in the same half of the casing, the other half may be removed for inspection of the interior without disturbing the bearing or the piping. Radial split casing is a casing split in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation or shaft centerline.

b)

Volute Casing

In this type of casing the area of flow gradually increases from the impeller outlet to the delivery pipe so as to reduce the velocity of flow. Thus the increase of pressure occurs in volute casing.

c)

Single and Double volute casing

In a single volute casing design, uniform or near uniform pressure act on the impeller when the pump is operated at design capacity (which coincides with the best efficiency). At other capacities, the pressure around the impeller is not uniform and there is a resultant radial reaction (F).
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F= KD2W2H(S.G) / 10.21(104) in metric units Where K Radial thrust factor (depends on % of design capacity and pump specific speed.) D2 Impeller diameter W2 Impeller width H Pump total head This unbalanced radial thrust increase as capacity decrease from that design flow. Thus a high head pump with a large impeller diameter will have a much greater radial reaction force at partial capacity then a low head pump with a small impeller diameter. Radial thrust is least in the region of Best Efficiency point (discussed later.) Because of the increasing application of pumps which must operate at reduced capacities, it has become desirable to design standard units to accommodate such conditions. One solution is to use heavier shafts and bearings. Expect for low head pumps in which only a small additional load is involved, the solution is not economical. The only practical answer is a casing design that develops a much smaller radial reaction force at reduced capacities. One of these is the double volute casing design, also called twin volute or dual volute design. This design consists of two 180 degree volutes. A pressure unbalance exists at partial capacity through each 180 degree arc, the two forces are approximately equal and opposite. Thus little if any radial forces act on the shaft and bearings.

Fig: A double volute casing pump

d)

Vortex Casing

If a circular chamber is provided between the impellers and the volute chambers, the casing is known as vortex casing. The circular chamber is known as vortex or whirlpool chamber. The efficiency of a volute pump fitted with a vortex chamber is more than that of a simple volute pump.

2.4.8

Seal Chamber and Stuffing Box

Seal chamber and Stuffing box both refer to a chamber, either integral with or separate from the pump case housing that forms the region between the shaft and casing where sealing media are installed. When the sealing is achieved by means of a mechanical seal, the chamber is commonly referred to as a Seal Chamber.

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When the sealing is achieved by means of packing, the chamber is referred to as a Stuffing Box. Both the seal chamber and the stuffing box have the primary function of protecting the pump against leakage at the point where the shaft passes out through the pump pressure casing. When the pressure at the bottom of the chamber is below atmospheric, it prevents air leakage into the pump. When the pressure is above atmospheric, the chambers prevent liquid leakage out of the pump. The seal chambers and stuffing boxes are also provided with cooling or heating arrangement for proper temperature control.

2.4.9

Mechanical Seal or Packing

Packing or seal are required to prevent the process fluid from leaking to atmosphere and to prevent loss of pressure energy. Packing are now used for only water services. For all hydrocarbon services mechanical seal may be used in single, tandem or double configurations. Single pusher type seal are most commonly used. Tandem seal are used for hazardous fluids where leakage to atmosphere cannot be allowed.

Advantages of mechanical seals:1. Greater sealing capability 2. Lower leakage 3. Tolerance of liquids 4. No adjustment- self compensation for wear, therefore do not require adjustment .

Fig: Gland packing

Fig: Mechanical seal

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Fig: Tandem seal


i) Principle (Mechanical seals)

The sliding seal interface is affected between the flat, polished mating faces of two rings, one connected and sealed to pumps rotor, the other to its casing. One of the ring is flexibly mounted to accommodate manufacturing tolerances, axial movement of pumps rotor and wear of the seal faces. Lubricants are used to lower the coefficient of friction and remove the heat generated. For mechanical seal to function, the forces tending to close its faces must exceed those tending to open the faces. This net closing force gives rise to what is termed as face loading has a upper limit beyond which the lubricating film between the faces break down.

ii)

Seal material

Depends upon the type of fluid to be handled and on operating conditions. Most commonly used material is carbon and silicon carbide.

iii) Mechanical seal classification


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By design:- Unbalance, Balance, rotating seal ring face seal, stationary face ring seal, single spring seal. By installation:- Single, Double, Internally mounted, Back to back mounted, Face to face mounted, Tandem seal.

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2.4.12

Couplings

A coupling is used wherever there is a need to connect a prime mover to a piece of driven machinery. The principal purpose of a coupling is to transmit rotary motion and torque from one piece of equipment to another. Couplings may perform other secondary functions, such as accommodating misalignment between shafts, compensating for axial shaft movement, and helping to isolate vibration, heat, and electrical eddy currents from one shaft to another. Centrifugal pumps are connected to their drivers through couplings of one sort or another, except for close-coupled units, in which the impeller is mounted on an extension of the shaft of the driver.

Classification:i) Rigid Couplings:- Rigid couplings are used to connect machines where it is desired to maintain shafts in precise alignment. They are also used where the rotor of one machine is used to support and position the other rotor in a drive train. Because a rigid coupling cannot accommodate misalignment between shafts, precise alignment of machinery is necessary when one is used. ii) Flexible Couplings:- Flexible couplings accomplish the primary purpose of any coupling; that is, to transmit a driving torque between prime mover and driven machine. In addition, they perform a second important function: they accommodate unavoidable misalignment between shafts. A proliferation of designs exists for flexible couplings, which may be classified into two types: mechanically flexible and materially flexible. A. Mechanically flexible coupling:- Mechanically flexible couplings compensate for misalignment between two connected shafts by means of clearances incorporated in the design of the coupling. B. Material flexible coupling:- These couplings rely on flexing of the coupling element to compensate for shaft misalignment. The flexing element may be of any suitable material (metal, elastomer, or plastic) that has sufficient resistance to fatigue failure to provide acceptable life. Material flexible shaft couplings can be divided into two basic groups: elastomeric and non-elastomeric. Elastomeric couplings use either rubber or polymer elements to achieve flexibility. These elements can either be in shear or in compression. Tire and rubber sleeve designs are elastomer in shear couplings; jaw and pin and bushing designs are elastomer in compression couplings. Non-elastomeric couplings use metallic elements to obtain flexibility. These can be one of two types: lubricated or non- lubricated. Lubricated designs accommodate misalignment by the sliding action of their components, hence the need for lubrication. The non-lubricated designs accommodate
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misalignment through flexing. Gear, grid and chain couplings are examples of nonelastomeric, lubricated couplings. Disc and diaphragm couplings are non-elastomeric and non- lubricated

Fig: Elastomer coupling (flexible type coupling)

2.4.13

Suction and Discharge Nozzle

The suction and discharge nozzles are part of the casings itself. They commonly have the following configurations. 1. End suction/Top discharge - The suction nozzle is located at the end of, and concentric to, the shaft while the discharge nozzle is located at the top of the case perpendicular to the shaft. This pump is always of an overhung type and typically has lower NPSHR because the liquid feeds directly into the impeller eye.

Top Discharge

End Suction
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2. Top suction /Top discharge nozzle -The suction and discharge nozzles are located at the top of the case perpendicular to the shaft. This pump can either be an overhung type or between-bearing type but is always a radially split case pump. Top Suction Top Discharge

3. Side suction / Side discharge nozzles - The suction and discharge nozzles are

located at the sides of the case perpendicular to the shaft. This pump can have either an axially or radially split case type.

Side Suction

Side Discharge

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2.5

CRITERIA IN PUMP DESIGN

Following points are taken into consideration, according to American Petroleum Institute (API) standards, while selecting a pump: 2.5.1 BASIC DESIGN CONDITIONS 1) Pumps shall be designed & constructed for a minimum service life of 20 yrs. & at least 3 yrs. of uninterrupted operation. 2) Pumps shall be capable of operation at the normal & rated operating points & any other anticipated operating conditions. 3) Pumps shall be capable of at least 5% head increase at rated conditions by replacement of impeller. 4) Pumps shall be capable of operating at least upto the maximum continuous speed (equals 105% of rated speed). 5) Pumps that have stable head/ flow rate curves are preferred for all applications. 6) Pumps shall have a preferred operating region of 70% to 120% of best efficiency flow rate of the pump. 7) The best efficiency point for the pump should be between the rated point & the normal point. 8) For pumps with heads greater than 200m & more than 225kw the radial clearance between the diffuser vane & the impeller shall be at least 30% of the maximum impeller blade tip radius for diffuser design & at least 6% for volute design. % clearance, P = 100(R2 R1)/R1 R2 Radius of volute R1 Maximum impeller blade tip radius 9) Cooling system if specified by the purchaser is used. To avoid condensation, the minimum temperature at the cooling water inlet to bearing housing should be above the ambient air temperature. 10) Spares & all replacement parts of the pump & all furnished auxiliaries shall as a minimum meet the criteria of the API codes. 2.5.2 WEAR RINGS AND RUNNING CLEARANCES 1. Mating wear surfaces of hardenable materials shall have difference in Brinell hardness no. of at least 50 unless both the stationary & the rotating wear surfaces have Brinell hardness no. of at least 400. 2. Renewable wear rings if used shall be held in place by a press fit with locking pins, screws or by tack welding.
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3. The diameter of hole in a wear for radial pin shall not be more than 1/3 the width of the wear ring. 4. Running clearances shall be sufficient to assure freedom from seizure under all specified operating conditions. 5. For materials with low galling tendencies the clearance shall be used within the range 010 037 inches & for materials with high galling tendencies operating at above 200 C, 125 um shall be added to the above diametric clearances. 6. For non-metallic wear rings materials with very low galling tendencies clearances less than above should be used. 2.5.3 MECHANICAL SHAFT SEALS 1. Seal cartridge shall be removable without disturbing the driver. 2. Seal chamber face runout should not exceed 5 um/mm of seal chamber box. 3. Seal chamber & seal gland shall have provisions for for only those connections required by the seal flush plan. 4. Provision shall be made to ensure complete venting of the seal chamber. 5. If specified jackets shall be provided on seal chambers for heating. 2.5.4 BEARINGS & BEARING HOUSINGS 1. Each shaft shall be supported by 2 radial bearing & 1 double acting axial bearing. 2. Thrust bearings shall be sized for continuous operation under all specified conditions including maximum differential pressure. 3. Rolling element bearings shall be mounted directly on the shaft & shall be retained on the shaft with an interference fit. 4. Bearing housings shall be arranged so that bearings can be replaced without disturbing pump drives or mountings. 5. Sufficient cooling, including an allowance for fouling shall be provided to maintain oil & bearing temperature. 6. Bearing housing for rolling element bearing shall be designed to prevent contamination by moisture, dust & other foreign matter. 7. Shielded or sealed bearings shall not be used.

2.5.5 LUBRICATION For lubrication of bearing & bearing housings following points shall be taken into consideration: 1. Unless otherwise specified, bearings & bearing housing shall be designed for oil lubrication.
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2. The operation & maintenance manual shall describe how the lubrication system circulates oil. 3. If specified, provision shall be made for either pure oil or purge oil lubrication. 4. If specified, rolling element bearing shall be grease lubricated. 2.5.6 MATERIAL Material for pump elements is selected on the basis of following points: 1. The purchaser shall specify the material class for pump parts. 2. The material specification of all components shall be clearly stated in the vendors proposal. 3. The vendor shall specify the optional test & inspection procedures that are necessary to ensure that materials are satisfactory for the service. 4. Pump casing parts of double casing pumps that are to handle flammable or hazardous liquids shall be of carbon steel or alloy steel. 5. The purchaser shall specify any erosive or corrosive agents present in the process fluids & in site environment. 6. The purchaser shall specify the amount of wet H2S that may be present.

2.6

Criterion for selection of motor

The power of the motor should be taken as the greatest of the following three values: 1. At the rated point 2. At the end of curve 3. At the minimum continuous flow After selecting the largest value it should be multiplied by suitable safety factor depending on its value. The safety factor is to be chosen as follows: 1. 1.25 for P less than 22KW 2. 1,15 for 22KW < P < 55KW
3. 1.1for P greater than 55KW

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
12

GENERAL Project: Owner: Purchaser: Max./Min. Item No.: Ambient C: No. Reqd.: Applicable to Driver: Working Job No.: Site: Unit: Service: Parallel Operation Required: As Built
the selected option.

Unit No: Yes No

Working Proposal Purchase

Standby

Scope option & Information specified by purchaser

Information Reqd. from & option left to vendor. Vendor to cross

13 14 15
16

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
33 34

Driver Supplied & Mounted By: Pump Mfr. Other OPERATING CONDITIONS Liquid Handled Capacity (m3/hr): Min/Nor/Rated: Pumping Temp. ( C): Normal Max. Discharge Pressure (kg/cm,A): Suction Pressure: Nor./ Max. (kg/cm,A): Specific Gravity at P.T./15 C: Vapour Pressure at P.T. (kg/cm,A): Diff. Pressure (kg/cm) @ Rated Capacity: Viscosity at P.T. (cP/cst): Corr./Eros. By: Diff. Head (m) @ Rated Capacity: % Solids in suspension Size: Yes No NPSH Available (m): MANUFACTURERS SPECIFICATIONS Pump Manufacturer: CONSTRUCTION Casing Mounting: Centerline Casing Split: Axial Type: Single Volute Casing Connection: Vent Model No.: PERFORMANCE Proposal Curve No. Visc. Corr. Factor: C
NPSH Reqd. (Water) (m):

Standby

Nozzles Size Suction Discharge Rated: Min: Type: Imp. (mm) Max: Brg.: Type/No. Radial: Thrust: Lub: Fleximetl w spacer Nonspark Guard Yes Cplg.:Make/Type: Driver Half cplg. mounted by: Pump Mfr. Others Packing Type: Size: No. of rings: Mech. Seal: Make
Base Plate Drain Rim Type : Throat Bush: Yes

Foot Inline Radial Double Volute Diffuser Drain Gauge ANSI Rating Facing Position

CQ

CH
F/L Speed (rpm):

No. of stages: Rated BKW(0% Tol.): BKW @ MCF( =1.0): Max.head rtd imp.(m):
MCF (m3/hr):Stable

Efficiency (%): kW Max.BKW rtd. Imp.: kW Rec. Driver Rating: (kW)


Cap@ BEP(m3/hr): Thermal

kW kW

No

M.A.W.P @ 15 C/P.T./Design Temp.(kg/cm,G): Hydrostatic Test pressure (kg/cm,G): Rotation facing coupling end: CW CCW Seal flush/ Quench plan: Material : Ext. seal flush fluid: Seal Barrier fluid: Ext. quench fluid: C.W. Plan :
Weight(kg): Pump+Base+Coupling: LPM: LPM: LPM: LPM: @ kg/cmG/ @ kg/cmG/ @ kg/cmG/ @ kg/cmG/ C C C C

Model: : Yes
NoNo Matl.:

API Code :
No Fdn. Bolts: Bal. Device: Yes Yes No No

35 36 37 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

Materials (API-610 Matl. Class): I - Cast Iron Casing B - Bronze Impeller S - Carbon Steel Inner Case parts C - 11-13% Chr. Stl. Sleeve Packed h - Hardened Sleeve Seal H-BHN f - Faced Casing ring K -SS 304 Impeller ring 50(min) L -SS 316 Shaft X Throttle Bush Y Throat Bush Z Balance Drum

MOC

ASTM Grades

Driver: AUXILIARY PIPING INTERFACE CONNECTIONS 38 B - Bronze Impeller (All interface conn.shall be termntd.with a flng. block valves) (All interface conn.shall be termntd.with a f/l. block valve) Size Rating(ANSI) Facin g Lantern Ring Inlet/Outlet
Ext. Seal flush fluid Inlet/Outlet Seal Quench fluid Inlet Seal pot vent/ drain Casing vent/ drain C.W Inlet/ Outlet Base plate drain (only flanged)

Casing steam jacket Driver suitable for Pump starting with open Disc. Valve condition. INSPECTION & TESTS (EACH PUMP) SHOP Observe INSPECTION & TESTS (EACH PUMP) Witness

Witness

Observe

Shop Test / Inspection NPSH As Reqd. Per Spec. Mandatory Material Certificates Dismantle Insp. & Re-assembly after Test Hydrostatic Unitisation/Dimensional Check Performance/Sound Level Check for direction of rotation of pump & driver. Applicable Specification: API Std. 610, Edition, alongwith EIL Std. Spec.No. 6-41REMARKS:- 1) Max. allowable casing working pressure shall not be less than kg/cmG @ C. 2) Down Stream Design Pressure is kg/cmg. 3) Accessories and Instrumentation shall be as per EIL approved vendors only. 4) Unitization of Pump and Driver shall be done in pump manufacturer's shop.

FORMAT FOR PUMP DATASHEET

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2.7 SUNDYNE PUMPS: It is a centrifugal vertical type of Pump(API OH 6) ,they are able to achieve high heads with very low NPSH(a) using their conical diffuser and straight vaned impellers by running at relatively high speeds. Unlike most centrifugal pumps, it operates at impeller speedup to 23400 RPM.

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2.8

Double Suction Pumps

DOUBLE SUCTION, SPLIT CASE, HORIZONTAL CENTRIFUGAL PUMP Higher flows moderate head Used when low NPSHA

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2.9

Axial Flow Pump

Applications - Pumping from a pit

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2.10 Barrel or Can Pump

Applications Barrel Pump is used when no NPSHA Submersible pump is used in Tank
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2.11 Multistage Pump

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Applications High head applications (Around 400 m & above) SINGLE STAGE: In this type of pump head is developed by a single impeller. MULTISTAGE PUMP: In this type of pump head is developed by the use of two or more impeller operating in series each taking suction from the discharge of the preceding impeller

Approx 150 m head can be achieved per impeller

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CHAPTER-3
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP Positive displacement- in which energy is periodically added by application of force to one or more movable boundaries of any desired number of enclosed, fluid containing volumes, resulting in a direct increase in pressure up to the value required to move the fluid through valves and ports in to the discharge line. Displacement pumps are essentially divided in to reciprocating and rotary types, depending upon the nature of the pressure producing members.

3.1
A.

Types of the Positive Displacement Pumps.


RECIPROCATING: PISTON PLUNGER DIAPHRAGM ROTARY: TWIN SCREW SINGLE SCREW (PROGRESSIVE CAVITY) GEAR VANE LOBE (TWO, THREE LOBES)

B.

3.2

Difference between Centrifugal Pump & Positive Displacement Pump

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3.3

Advantages of PD pumps over centrifugal Pumps

1. Flow is independent of pressure. You can change the flow without upsetting the pump's efficiency. 2. The pump can handle high viscosity fluids efficiently. 3. The pump is self priming 4. You can get the desirable high head low flow combination that is need in many high pressure applications. 5. They give you a non-shearing act that will not degrade petrochemicals and polymers. sensitive

3.4

Pump Characteristic for PD Pumps

Positive displacement pumps deliver a definite volume of Liquid for each cycle of pump operation. Therefore, the only factor that effects flow rate in an ideal positive displacement pump is the speed at which it operates. The flow resistance of the system in which the pump is operating will not effect the flow rate through the pump.

The dashed line shows actual positive displacement pump performance. This line reflects the fact that as the discharge pressure of the pump increases, some amount of liquid will leak from the discharge of the pump back to the pump suction, reducing the effective flow rate of the pump. The rate at which liquid leaks from the pump discharge to its suction is called slippage. Some commonly used terms Slip: Leakage flow within a rotary positive displacement pump from the discharge back to the suction caused by the clearances needed between the rotating and stationary parts. Pulsation: The variation of pressure in line due to flow variations caused by piston, plunger or diaphragm which are creating a pumping action.

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Self priming: The ability for a pump to draw liquid into itself and start pumping liquid by evacuating the air or vapour. PD pumps are inherently self priming.

3.5 When to use Positive Displacement Pumps

RECIPROCATING PUMP:

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3.6 PLUNGER PUMPS


Power end is similar to that of Piston Pumps. The difference lies in the fluid end, where the plunger runs through the packing like a piston rod.

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3.7

Reciprocating Diaphragm type Pump:

Diaphragm Pumps are displacement pumps with flexible membranes clamped at their peripheries in sealing arrangement with a stationary housing. The central portion moves in a reciprocating manner through mechanical means such as crank or eccentric cam or by fluid means such as compressed air or liquid under alternating pressure.
.

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3.8

ROTARY TYPES PUMPS

3.8.1 Main Features of Rotary Positive Displacement Pump


Positive Displacement Slow and medium speed Self Priming Fairly constant discharge Less vibration Weight per unit flow is lower when compared to Reciprocating Type Pumps Because of less number of parts in contact with each other, lower friction (hydraulic and mechanically), higher efficiency. Rotary pumps are often employed in systems where small flows at relatively high pressures are required. Rotary Pumps are used in the lubricating and control systems of turbine sets, large pumps and compressors, hydraulic systems. An advantage of all Rotary Pump types is that they can be directly coupled to the drives, which make the unit compact.

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3.8.2

Screw Pumps

Screw Pumps are operating on the principle of progressively moving a fluid between sets of counter-rotating screws. Screw Pumps have been traditionally chosen to pump viscous fluids and impart minimum shear forces on the fluid with relatively low discharge pressures. Screws Pumps do not have drawbacks like speed limitations and discharge pulsations and are characterized by uniform discharge high pressures, high speed, quiet operations and high efficiency. Screw Pumps are more expensive than gear and rigid vanes pumps of the same performance because of manufacturing of specially profiled screws involve complicated techniques.

Working of Twin Screw Pump: Liquid is trapped at the outer end of each pair of screws. As the first space between the screw threads rotates away from the opposite screw, a one-turn, spiral-shaped quantity of liquid is enclosed when the end of the screw again meshes with the opposite screw. As the screw continues to rotate, the entrapped spiral turns of liquid slide along the cylinder toward the center discharge space while the next slug is being entrapped. Each screw functions similarly, and each pair of screws discharges an equal quantity of liquid in opposed streams toward the center, thus eliminating hydraulic thrust. The removal of liquid from the suction end by the screws produces a reduction in pressure, which draws liquid through the suction line.

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3.8.3

Working of Triple screw pump

The three-screw, high-pitch, screw pump, has many of the same elements as the two-screw, low-pitch, screw pump, and their operations are similar. Three screws, oppositely threaded on each end, are employed. They rotate in a triple cylinder, the two outer bores of which overlap the center bore. The pitch of the screws is much higher than in the low pitch screw pump; therefore, the center screw, or power rotor, is used to drive the two outer idler rotors directly without external timing gears. Pedestal bearings at the base support the weight of the rotors and maintain their axial position. The liquid being pumped enters the suction opening, flows through passages around the rotor housing, and through the screws from each end, in opposed streams, toward the center discharge. This eliminates unbalanced hydraulic thrust. The screw pump is used for pumping viscous fluids, usually lubricating, hydraulic, or fuel oil.

Twin v/s Triple screw pumps Twin screw Pumps Very effective with Viscous fluids Dry running is also permitted as rotating elements operate without contact. Entrant gas or air can also be pumped without interrupting the flow Four mechanical seals are required Large size, More expensive Triple Screw pump. Handles only clean lubricating fluids Must not run Dry as the screws are in close contact If the liquid being handled congeals at low temp, then heat the pump casing sufficiently otherwise the pump element would adhere to each other. One or maximum two seals are required. Compact in size and less expensive.

3.8.4

GEAR PUMPS

Gear Pump traps the liquid between the gear teeth on the suction side and carry it around to the discharge side from where it forced out into the discharge pipe. A Brief Introduction of Pumps:Page 62

Advantage Two moving parts One stuffing box Positive suction, non-pulsating discharge Ideal for high viscosity liquids Constant and even discharge regardless of varying pressure conditions Low NPSH required Easy to maintain

Disadvantage Low speeds usually required Medium pressure One bearing runs in pumped product Overhung load on shaft bearing

Working of Gear Pump

3.8.4 .i)

External Gear Pump

A Brief Introduction of Pumps:-

Page 63

Advantage High speed Medium pressure No overhung bearing loads Relatively quiet Design lens itself to use of a wide variety of materials

Disadvantage Four bushings in liquid area Four stuffing boxes No solids allowed

Applications
Industrial and mobile applications Fuel and lubrication Metering Mixing and blending (double pump) Hydraulic applications OEM configurations Precise metering applications Low-volume transfers Light or medium duty

3.8.4.ii) Internal gear pump

A Brief Introduction of Pumps:-

Page 64

Advantage

Disadvantage

Two moving parts One stuffing box Positive suction, nonpulsating discharge Ideal for high viscosity liquids Constant and even discharge regardless of varying pressure conditions Low NPSH required Easy to maintain working of Internal Gear Pump:

Low speeds usually required Medium pressure One bearing runs in pumped product Overhung load on shaft bearing

Internal Gear V/s External Gear


Ideal for High Viscosity Use less of space One stuffing box Overhung load of the shaft
A Brief Introduction of Pumps:-

Low to medium viscosity Use of more space Four stuffing Box Load is divided with between bearing design
Page 65

3.8.5

VANES PUMP

Liquid is drawn into and discharged from an axial hole in the rotor, which is divided into suction and discharge chambers by tight fitting end covers. As the rotor rotates in the direction indicated, space between the vanes grows in volume, the result being that the liquid is drawn in from suction chamber through radial holes.

As the vanes run along the volume of space is decreased and the liquid is discharged into discharge chamber.

Working of Vane Pumps:

SLIDIDNG VANE PUMP


A Brief Introduction of Pumps:-

SWINGING VANE PUMP


Page 66

Advantages

Disadvantages

Medium capacity Medium speed Thin liquids Sometimes preferred for solvents, LPG Can run dry for short periods Can have one seal or stuffing box Develops good vacuum Applications

Can have two stuffing boxes Medium pressure Complex housing Not suitable for high viscosity Not good with abrasives

Aerosol/Propellants Aviation Service - Fuel Transfer, Deicing Auto Industry - Fuels, Lubes, Refrigeration Coolants Barge Unloading Bulk Transfer of LPG and NH3 Chemical Process Industry LPG Cylinder Filling Ethanol/Alcohol Refining Fertilizer Production - CO Transfer Lubrication Blending - Solvents, Oils Mobile Transport - Chemicals, Fuels, LPG, NH3 Petroleum Industry - Crude Oils and Hydrocarbons Power Generation - Fuels, Lubrication Pulp and Paper Railroad Transfer - Fuels, Lube Oils, Coolant Refrigeration - Freons, Ammonia Rubber and Plastic Solvent Distribution

A Brief Introduction of Pumps:-

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3.8.6

Lobe pump

Advantage

Pass medium solids High acceptance Little galling possibility

Disadvantage Timing gears More space required May require factory service to repair Two seals

Working of lobe Pumps:

Applications:
Food processing. Beverages. Dairy Produce. Personal Hygiene Products. Pharmaceutical. Biotechnology. Chemical. Industrial. Medium and heavy duty cycles.
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A Brief Introduction of Pumps:-

3.8.7 PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP


It is used for pumping difficult materials such as sewage sludge contaminated with large particles or highly viscous liquid containing solid particle, this pump consists of a helical shaped rotor, about ten times as long as its width. This can be visualized as a central core of diameter , with typically a curved spiral wound around . This shaft fits inside a heavy duty rubber sleeve. As the shaft rotates, fluid is gradually forced up the rubber sleeve. Such pumps can develop very high pressure at quite low volumes.

1>Rotor,2>Stator,3>Drive train with joint,4>Shaft Seal, 5> Suction / Discharge housing, 6>lantern (housing) with flanged drive
3.9 Selection between Reciprocating Pumps

A Brief Introduction of Pumps:-

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3.9.1 Depending on solid particles in the fluid for rotary Pumps

3.9.2 Depending on the flow requirement for rotary pumps

A Brief Introduction of Pumps:-

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CHAPTER-4
PROCUREMENT/ORDERING SYSTEM IN GAIL PATA

4.1

Categorizations of Material Requisition

The following considerations were made for categorizations of MR (Material Requisition): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. SINGLE STAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SUNDYNE PUMP RECIPROCATING PUMP VERTICAL PUMP MEETING THE BIDDERS CRITERIA FOR NPSHA COSTING OF MR SHOULD BE LESS THAN 10 CR (POA CASE)

4.2Summary of Ordering system of Pump for Cracker Unit of GAIL PATA

MR PO Bids TBA Price MR MR QTY. QTY. Recd. Relsd. Bids No. Description Date Opening
CENTRIFUGAL HORIZONTAL PUMP PUMP CENTRIFUGAL HORIZINTAL PUMP CETRIFUGAL PUMP PUMP CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

Sch. Act. Date Date of of Order Order


22 JUL 02 SEP

5580

65

63

21 JUL

12 AUG

25 AUG

5570

01 SEP

19 SEP

26 SEP

20 JUL

19 OCT

5560

10

10

05 SEP

07 OCT

25 OCT

17 JUL

09 NOV

5620

18 16 8 2

18 14

8 NOV 9 NOV 27 DEC

07 DEC 21 NOV 06 FEB 5 JAN

14 DEC 19 DEC 17 FEB 18 JAN

30 NOV 20 DEC 25 OCT 13 AUG 15 NOV 22 DEC 04 MAR 28 JAN

5550 VERTICAL PUMP RECIPROCATING PUMP PROGRESSIVE 5552 CAVITY PUMP 5590

8
2

31 OCT

A Brief Introduction of Pumps:-

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4.3

Evaluation Criterion:

1. The offered Model of Pump by bidder should meet Pump datasheet parameter. 2. The NPSHA should normally be at least 0.6m above the NPSHR of offered model. 3. By Analyzing the Pump Characteristic Curves, i.e. Pump Curve shall meet the rated condition of Pump Datasheet BEP should be between the rated point and the normal point The head capacity characteristic curve should continuously rise as flow is reduced to shutoff (or zero flow). Operating Point should be between MCF and 120% of BEP Do not select the pump at max. Impeller dia. (5% head rise should be possible)

4. By reviewing the Performance Track Record of offered model. 5. Power loading

4.4

EVALUATION OF PRICES IN CASE OF PUMPS

TOTAL EVALUATED COST = A+ B + C A Total Capital cost of Package/ item comprising: Basic quoted price of equipment including Commissioning, special tools & tackles and Mandatory Spare Freight Taxes & duties i.e Excise Duty + Educational Cess (10.3%), Sales Tax (CST with concessional Form i.e. 2% / VAT), Service Tax (applicable on freight & services @10.3%)

A Brief Introduction of Pumps:-

Page 72

Differential Operating Cost, i.e. B= N(OP) * (BKWE BKWR) * CF * 8000*DF WHERE, N(OP) = NO. OF OPERATING UNITS BKWE = GUARANTEE SHAFT POWER(KW) FOR PUMP QUOTED BY BIDDER UNDER EVALUATION. BKWR = LOWEST QUOTED (GUARANTEE) PUMP BKW (AMONGST THE TECHNICALLY ACCEPTABLE BIDDERS) CF = COST OF ENERGY i.e. 3.84 RUPEES PER KWH 8000 = NUMBER OF OPERATING HOURS PER YEAR DF = DISCOUNTING FACTOR TO ARRIVE AT NET PRESENT VALUE(NPV) BASED ON NO. OF OPERATING YEARS (i.e. N=2 TO N = K+1 [ 1 / {1 +(X/100)}]N = 2.915) X = PERCENTAGE RATE OF INTEREST = SBI BASE RATE ON THE DATE OF PRICE OPENING + 5% = 10% + 5% = 15% NOTE:- Power loading applicable for Centrifugal Pump only. Cost of Supervision of Erection , Testing & Commissioning (i.e. no. of pumps X no. of Mandays X per diem rate)

4.5

Problems faced & Lessons learnt

1. Changes in data sheets by Process after floating of enquiry. 2. Revised MR issued rather than amendments showing key changes. 3. Though limited enquiry was issued as per EIL MSL, PTR requirement was there and many vendors didnt submit along with offer. 4. Though zero deviation tendering TQs were issued. 5. Cost estimate data bank not accurate always. 6. Type of pump changed by Licensor based on our feedback regarding Charcoal particle presence in fluid (type of pump changed from screw to progressive cavity).
A Brief Introduction of Pumps:Page 73

7. Seal related issues (packing / dual 53A & 53B) 8. Limited source for supply of Vertical pumps - Landed in single vendor

case. 4.6 Areas for improvement

1. Pre tendering / Pre Bid must 2. Data bank for various types of models offered to be available with RED rather than seeking PTR for each MR 3. Costing data bank to be strengthened 4. MR to be concise rather than bulky 5. Only addendum covering changes in MR clauses to be issued rather than revision of entire MR 6. TBA format needs revision. 7. MR should preferably specify end top arrangement for ease of piping

4.7

Important Documents for review

1. Pump General arrangement drawing 2. Pump Cross sectional drawing 3. Pump Datasheets and Characteristic curves. 4. Utility Data 5. Pump Motor data or Turbine datasheet with P&IDs.

A Brief Introduction of Pumps:-

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