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Automatic Flight Control Systems An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and
Automatic Flight Control Systems An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and

Automatic

Flight

Automatic Flight Control Systems An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and
Automatic Flight Control Systems An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and

Control

Systems

Automatic Flight Control Systems An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and

An Interactive

Video Teletraining

and Self-Study Course

An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts
An Interactive Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts

a5na

Weight

Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts National
Video Teletraining and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts National

Developed

and Presented

by

and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist for
and Self-Study Course a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist for

Anthony

A. Lambregts

a5na Weight Developed and Presented by Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist for Advanced Controls Federal

National

Resource Specialist

for

by Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist for Advanced Controls Federal Aviation Administration January

Advanced

Controls

Federal Aviation

Administration

Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist for Advanced Controls Federal Aviation Administration January 27,1999
Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist for Advanced Controls Federal Aviation Administration January 27,1999
GETTING STARTED H o w D o I U s e T h i s
GETTING STARTED H o w D o I U s e T h i s
GETTING STARTED H o w D o I U s e T h i s

GETTING

STARTED

GETTING STARTED H o w D o I U s e T h i s G

How Do I Use This Guide?

1

I. SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CURRICULUM What Does the Curriculum Cover? Two-Week Job Function Course Overviews of Technical Subjects Core Technical Subjects Courses

II. IVT COURSE ORIENTATION About This IVT Course

7

What Is IVT?

8

Who Is the Target Audience?

9

Who Is the Instructor?

9

What Will You Learn?

10

How Will This Course Help You On the Job?

11

What Topics Does the Course Cover?

11

What Are Some Good References?

12

III. SELF-ASSESSMENT & EXERCISES Pre- & Post-Course Self-Assessment Questions

14

Job-Related Exercises

16

Questions 14 Job-Related Exercises 16 APPENDICES A. Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation

APPENDICES

Questions 14 Job-Related Exercises 16 APPENDICES A. Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals B

A. Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals

A. Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals B . Course Evaluation Forms IVT’Self-Study Course

B. Course Evaluation Forms

Systems Presentation Visuals B . Course Evaluation Forms IVT’Self-Study Course Automatic Flight Control
Systems Presentation Visuals B . Course Evaluation Forms IVT’Self-Study Course Automatic Flight Control
Systems Presentation Visuals B . Course Evaluation Forms IVT’Self-Study Course Automatic Flight Control
Systems Presentation Visuals B . Course Evaluation Forms IVT’Self-Study Course Automatic Flight Control

IVT’Self-Study

Course

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

Federal

Aviation

Administration

January.

I999

i

Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration January. I999 i
Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration January. I999 i
Getting Started This document is to be used for both the initial IVT broadcast a

Getting Started

Getting Started This document is to be used for both the initial IVT broadcast a n
Getting Started This document is to be used for both the initial IVT broadcast a n

This document is to be used for both the initial IVT broadcast and the self-study course. The guide provides you with the

position of this course in the Systems Curriculum,

to the IVT course, support materials for use during the broadcast

How

Do I Use

This

Guide?

an orientation

I U s e This G u i d e ? an orientation and self-study, self-assessment

and self-study, self-assessment and practice exercises, and both an IVT and self-study course evaluation.

exercises, and both an IVT and self-study course evaluation. Fo How these steps to complete your
exercises, and both an IVT and self-study course evaluation. Fo How these steps to complete your

Fo How these steps to complete your study.

evaluation. Fo How these steps to complete your study. 1. Read Section I, Systems Curriculum, to

1. Read Section I, Systems Curriculum, to familiarize yourself with the the overall scope and format of the curriculum.

with the the overall scope and format of the curriculum. -. 3 Review Section II, IVT

-. 3

Review Section II, IVT Course Orientation, before the broadcast, if possible, or before you watch the tape to get an overview of the purpose of the course, the target audience, the instructor, what you will learn, how this course will help you on the job, the topics covered in the course, and some good references on the topic.

in the course, and some good references on the topic. 3. Answer t,he pre-course self-assessment questions

3. Answer t,he pre-course self-assessment questions in Section III, Self-Assessment crnd Exercises.

questions in Section III, Self-Assessment crnd Exercises. 4. Turn to Appendis A, Automatic Presentdon Flight Control

4. Turn to Appendis A, Automatic

Presentdon

Flight

Control Systems

. Visuds, and refer to it during the broadcast OI

Systems . Visuds, and refer to it during the broadcast OI Appendix A contains the visual

Appendix A contains the

visual support material used by the instructor during the

while watching the videotape.

by the instructor during the while watching the videotape. broadcast. You can use these visuals to

broadcast. You can use these visuals to take notes and follow

You can use these visuals to take notes and follow along with the broadcast presentation. here

along with the broadcast presentation.

here if vou are completing this as a self-studv course.

Begin the videotape

d

-

this as a self-studv course. Begin the videotape d - 5. Complete the post-course self-assessment and

5. Complete the post-course self-assessment and exercises in Section III, Self Assessment crnd Exercises.

exercises in Section III, Self Assessment crnd Exercises. 6. Complete the appropriate form (IVT or self-studv

6. Complete the appropriate form (IVT or self-studv ) from Appendix B, Course Evnluntion Forms. For the IVT course, you will use the keypad you have been using during the course to complete the evaluation.

been using during the course to complete the evaluation. I VT Self-Stud> Course Automatic Flight
been using during the course to complete the evaluation. I VT Self-Stud> Course Automatic Flight

I VT

Self-Stud>

Course

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

Federal

Aviation

Administration

January.

I999

I

Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration J a n u a r y . I 9
Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration J a n u a r y . I 9
Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration J a n u a r y . I 9
Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration J a n u a r y . I 9
Systems Engineering Curriculum I . Systems Engineering Curriculum What Does the Curriculum Cover? The Systems

Systems Engineering

Curriculum

Systems Engineering Curriculum I . Systems Engineering Curriculum What Does the Curriculum Cover? The Systems Engineering
Systems Engineering Curriculum I . Systems Engineering Curriculum What Does the Curriculum Cover? The Systems Engineering

I

.

Systems Engineering

Curriculum

Engineering Curriculum I . Systems Engineering Curriculum What Does the Curriculum Cover? The Systems Engineering
Engineering Curriculum I . Systems Engineering Curriculum What Does the Curriculum Cover? The Systems Engineering

What Does the Curriculum Cover?

The Systems Engineering Curriculum

Training Program that is summarized in the following

fits into the broader AIR

figure.

in the following fits into the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within
in the following fits into the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within
in the following fits into the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within

The AIR

Training

Program

An Overview

the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR
the broader AIR figure. The AIR Training Program An Overview Within the context of the AIR

Within the context of the AIR Training Program, the Systems

Engineering Curriculum

is designed to effectivelv

d meet the

Engineering Curriculum is designed to effectivelv d meet the critical safety mission of the FAA by

critical safety mission of the FAA by addressing the following

safety mission of the FAA by addressing the following Service goals: Stnnhrdizntion l Promote standardization

Service goals:

of the FAA by addressing the following Service goals: Stnnhrdizntion l Promote standardization throughout the

Stnnhrdizntion

by addressing the following Service goals: Stnnhrdizntion l Promote standardization throughout the organization in

l Promote standardization throughout the organization in task accomplishment and application of airworthiness regulations in order to achieve uniform compliance.

regulations in order to achieve uniform compliance. IVT Federal Self-Stud> Aviation Course Administration
regulations in order to achieve uniform compliance. IVT Federal Self-Stud> Aviation Course Administration

IVT

Federal

Self-Stud>

Aviation

Course

Administration

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

3

January.

1999

compliance. IVT Federal Self-Stud> Aviation Course Administration Automatic Flight Control Systems 3 January. 1999
compliance. IVT Federal Self-Stud> Aviation Course Administration Automatic Flight Control Systems 3 January. 1999
compliance. IVT Federal Self-Stud> Aviation Course Administration Automatic Flight Control Systems 3 January. 1999
SystemsEngineering Curriculum Job Performance Proficiencv l Reduce significantly the time required for newly-hired

SystemsEngineering Curriculum

SystemsEngineering Curriculum Job Performance Proficiencv l Reduce significantly the time required for newly-hired
SystemsEngineering Curriculum Job Performance Proficiencv l Reduce significantly the time required for newly-hired

Job Performance

Proficiencv

SystemsEngineering Curriculum Job Performance Proficiencv l Reduce significantly the time required for newly-hired

l Reduce significantly

the time required for newly-hired

l Reduce significantly the time required for newly-hired engineers to attain full job performance proficiency.

engineers to attain full job performance proficiency.

engineers to attain full job performance proficiency. Customer Service l Establish and maintain appropriate,

Customer Service

to attain full job performance proficiency. Customer Service l Establish and maintain appropriate, effective, and

l Establish and maintain appropriate, effective, and responsive communication, collaboration, leadership, and teamwork with both internal and external customers.

and teamwork with both internal and external customers. In addition to the Service goals, the Systems

In addition to the Service goals, the Systems Engineering Curriculum is designed to provide ASEs with job function training in three domains:

to provide ASEs with job function training in three domains: 0 Tasks and procedures governing the

0

Tasks and procedures governing the work of engineers in design approval, technical project management, certificate management, and designee management.

management, certificate management, and designee management. 0 FAR airworthiness requirements that are the purview of

0

FAR airworthiness requirements that are the purview of electrical and mechanical systems engineers. Generally they are Subpart F of FAR parts 23, 25, 27, and 39.

they are Subpart F of FAR parts 23, 25, 27, and 39. 0 Technical subjects essential

0

Technical subjects essential for all new engineers to meet

0 Technical subjects essential for all new engineers to meet both introductor\v requirements and, later, minimum

both introductor\v requirements and, later, minimum

w

meet both introductor\v requirements and, later, minimum w technical proficiency level requirements. l-l I t7eresulting

technical proficiency level requirements.

later, minimum w technical proficiency level requirements. l-l I t7eresulting Systems Engineering Curriculum structure

l-l

I t7eresulting Systems Engineering Curriculum

structure

l-l I t7eresulting Systems Engineering Curriculum structure consists of three main types of training opportunities -

consists of three main types of training opportunities -

consists of three main types of training opportunities - 1. Two-Week Job Function Course 3. Overviews

1.

Two-Week Job Function Course

3.

Overviews of Technical Subjects

3.

Follow-on

Core Technical Subjects Courses

3. Follow-on Core Technical Subjects Courses T w o - W e e k J o
3. Follow-on Core Technical Subjects Courses T w o - W e e k J o

Two-Week

Job

The Two-Week Job Function

Course

uses an instructor-led,

Function

classroom-based format with lecture, discussion, and individual

Course

and group activities.

Supporting materials used in

the course

include print, overhead transparencies, videotapes, job aids,

print, overhead transparencies, videotapes, job aids, and documents and sample reports. IVT’Self-Stud!;

and documents and sample reports.

videotapes, job aids, and documents and sample reports. IVT’Self-Stud!; Course Automatic Flight

IVT’Self-Stud!;

Course

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

Federal

Aviation

Administration

January.

1999

3

Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration January. 1999 3
Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration January. 1999 3
SystemsEngineering Curriculum The course is divided into the following two major sections: Section I l
SystemsEngineering Curriculum The course is divided into the following two major sections: Section I l
SystemsEngineering Curriculum The course is divided into the following two major sections: Section I l

SystemsEngineering Curriculum

SystemsEngineering Curriculum The course is divided into the following two major sections: Section I l Certification
SystemsEngineering Curriculum The course is divided into the following two major sections: Section I l Certification

The course is divided into the following

two major sections:

The course is divided into the following two major sections: Section I l Certification Tasks -

Section I

l Certification Tasks - includes design approval, technical project management, certification management, and DER management.

management, certification management, and DER management. Section 2 l FAR Requirements and Key FAR Sections -

Section 2

certification management, and DER management. Section 2 l FAR Requirements and Key FAR Sections - includes

l FAR Requirements and Key FAR Sections - includes training in the subparts of the FAR that apply to electrical and mechanical systems engineers (Subpart F) at two levels:

and mechanical systems engineers (Subpart F) at two levels: an overview of those subparts across FARs

an overview of those subparts across FARs 23, 25, 27, and 29; and in-depth discussion of significant sections of the FAR that are important to the Service. The importance of

the FAR that are important to the Service. The importance of these sections may stem from

these sections may stem from problems in interpretation an-d application of requirements, technical complexity of a

design, ‘ihigh visibilitv”

d

projects, or safety considerations

‘ihigh visibilitv” d projects, or safety considerations that Lre paramount. 0l.e rliews of High-level

that Lre paramount.

d projects, or safety considerations that Lre paramount. 0l.e rliews of High-level overviews of 13 technical
d projects, or safety considerations that Lre paramount. 0l.e rliews of High-level overviews of 13 technical
d projects, or safety considerations that Lre paramount. 0l.e rliews of High-level overviews of 13 technical

0l.e rliews

of

High-level overviews of 13 technical subjects are presented bv

Technical

NRSs, Technical Specialists or other senior engineers. TIlesed

Subjects

overviews are available in two modes:

Subjects overviews are available in two modes: l An initial live four-hour IVT satellite broadcast with

l

An initial live four-hour IVT satellite broadcast with accompanying course material is received at each

Directorate and other downlink

sites.

l

A Video/Self-Study

Training Package adapted from the

l A Video/Self-Study Training Package adapted from the initial IVT presentation is available through the

initial IVT presentation is available through the Directorate Training Manager.

is available through the Directorate Training Manager. Basic concepts and FAA-specific applications and examples
is available through the Directorate Training Manager. Basic concepts and FAA-specific applications and examples

Basic concepts and FAA-specific

applications and examples

Basic concepts and FAA-specific applications and examples are provided for each of the following 13 technical

are provided for each of the following 13 technical subjects:

provided for each of the following 13 technical subjects: For electrical engineers l Advanced Communications l

For electrical engineers

following 13 technical subjects: For electrical engineers l Advanced Communications l Advanced Display

l

Advanced Communications

l

Advanced Display Systems/Heads-Up Displays

l Advanced Display Systems/Heads-Up Displays IVT’Self-Stud! Course Automatic Flight Control
l Advanced Display Systems/Heads-Up Displays IVT’Self-Stud! Course Automatic Flight Control

IVT’Self-Stud!

Course

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

Federal

Aviation

Administration

Januar!,.

1999

4

Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration Januar!,. 1999 4
Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration Januar!,. 1999 4
Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration Januar!,. 1999 4
Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration Januar!,. 1999 4
SystemsEngineering Curriculum l Advanced Navigation l Low Visibility For mechanical engineers l
SystemsEngineering Curriculum l Advanced Navigation l Low Visibility For mechanical engineers l
SystemsEngineering Curriculum l Advanced Navigation l Low Visibility For mechanical engineers l

SystemsEngineering Curriculum

SystemsEngineering Curriculum l Advanced Navigation l Low Visibility For mechanical engineers l
SystemsEngineering Curriculum l Advanced Navigation l Low Visibility For mechanical engineers l

l

Advanced Navigation

l

Low Visibility

Curriculum l Advanced Navigation l Low Visibility For mechanical engineers l Crashworthiness and Interior

For mechanical engineers

Navigation l Low Visibility For mechanical engineers l Crashworthiness and Interior Compliance l Doors
Navigation l Low Visibility For mechanical engineers l Crashworthiness and Interior Compliance l Doors

l

Crashworthiness and Interior Compliance

l

Doors

0

Icing

For both elecrical and mechanical engineers

0 Icing For both elecrical and mechanical engineers l Automatic Complex Electronic Hardware Flight Control

l

Automatic

Complex Electronic Hardware

Flight Control Systems

Automatic Complex Electronic Hardware Flight Control Systems l l Lightning and HIRF Protection l Human Factors

l

l

Lightning

and HIRF Protection

l

Human Factors

l

Software

l l Lightning and HIRF Protection l Human Factors l Software l Svstem Safetv Analysis w

l

Svstem Safetv Analysis

w

d

I

l Human Factors l Software l Svstem Safetv Analysis w d I Each technical subject overview

Each technical subject overview is designed to not only provide ASEs with the FAA perspective on the topic, but also serve as an indicator of what further training may be needed.

as an indicator of what further training may be needed. C o r e T e

Core

Technical

As a follow-on

to the Overviews of Technical Subjects, the

l As a follow-on to the Overviews of Technical Subjects, the S u b j e

Subjects

curriculum

will provide more in-depth training in the following

will provide more in-depth training in the following C o u r s e s two

Courses

two subject areas:

l

System Safety Assessment

l

Reliability & Probability

Safety Assessment l Reliability & Probability These core technical subjects are essential to the technical

These core technical subjects are essential to the technical work of the systems engineer in a regulatory environment regardless of product or technology. Training in each of the core subjects will be designed to bring systems engineers to a minimum level

be designed to bring systems engineers to a minimum level IVT5elf-Stud!, Course Automatic Flight Control
be designed to bring systems engineers to a minimum level IVT5elf-Stud!, Course Automatic Flight Control

IVT5elf-Stud!,

Course

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

Federal

Aviation

Administration

January.

I999

5

Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration January. I999 5
Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration January. I999 5
Systems Engineering Curriculum of technical proficiency and to help promote proficiency in the application of
Systems Engineering Curriculum of technical proficiency and to help promote proficiency in the application of
Systems Engineering Curriculum of technical proficiency and to help promote proficiency in the application of

Systems Engineering

Curriculum

Systems Engineering Curriculum of technical proficiency and to help promote proficiency in the application of the
Systems Engineering Curriculum of technical proficiency and to help promote proficiency in the application of the

of technical proficiency

and to help promote proficiency

in the

technical proficiency and to help promote proficiency in the application of the technical knowledge in an

application of the technical knowledge in an office work

environment.

of the technical knowledge in an office work environment. Additional technical training for engineers beyond these

Additional technical training for engineers beyond these core subjects will depend largely on AC0 organizational needs stemming from customer requirements, products certified, emerging technology, and the number of staff requiring more specialized training. In short, the more advanced the technical training required, the more individualized it becomes.

training required, the more individualized it becomes. Such training topics could be as follows: . HIRF

Such training topics could be as follows:

. HIRF

it becomes. Such training topics could be as follows: . HIRF l Lightning l Software Fundumentals
it becomes. Such training topics could be as follows: . HIRF l Lightning l Software Fundumentals

l

Lightning

l

Software Fundumentals

l

Dynamic

Seat Testing

l

Icing Certification

l

Accident Investigation

l

Human Factors

l

Flammability

l

Interior Compliance & Crashworthiness

l Interior Compliance & Crashworthiness IVT’Self-Stud!, Course Automatic Flight
l Interior Compliance & Crashworthiness IVT’Self-Stud!, Course Automatic Flight

IVT’Self-Stud!,

Course

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

Federal

Aviation

Administration

January.

I999

6

Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration January. I999 6
Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration January. I999 6
,IVT Course Orientation II. IVT Course Orientation About This IVT Course Automatic Flight Control Systems
,IVT Course Orientation II. IVT Course Orientation About This IVT Course Automatic Flight Control Systems
,IVT Course Orientation II. IVT Course Orientation About This IVT Course Automatic Flight Control Systems
,IVT Course Orientation II. IVT Course Orientation About This IVT Course Automatic Flight Control Systems

,IVT Course Orientation

,IVT Course Orientation II. IVT Course Orientation About This IVT Course Automatic Flight Control Systems is

II. IVT

Course Orientation

,IVT Course Orientation II. IVT Course Orientation About This IVT Course Automatic Flight Control Systems is

About

This

IVT Course

Automatic Flight Control Systems is one of 13 “Overviews of Technical Topics” in the Systems Engineering Curriculum designed to prepare you to effectively meet the critical safety mission of the FAA. [For more information on the Curuiczrla, refer back to Section I of this guide. /

Through a four-hour Interactive Video Teletraining (IVT) format, Anthony Lambregts, National Resource Specialist for Advanced Controls7 will introduce you to the fundamental concepts of automatic flight control. He will discuss some aspects of the applicable regulations and the equally important design aspects for which no regulations exist. His aim is not to make you a control theory expert, but rather to lead you step- by-step through the thicket of current and future automation designs. The emphasis is on functions more than on hardware and software implementation. The course will stay close to the physics of flight, introducing only those control theory elements necessary for you to communicate with the controls experts and to ask pertinent questions related to automation safety. The course will show how the historic, one-function-at- a-time evolution of automation designs has led to very capable, albeit extremely complex, systems architectures in hardware and software, with much undesirable and unnecessary functional overlap. The vulnerabilities of the traditional automation designs to crew errors and confusion will be discussed and related to the underlying root cause design practices. Mr. Lambregts will give his vision on needed improvements in future automation design standards and needed updates in the regulations. Finally, recent advances in automation designs will be discussed, showing reduced complexity, improved performance, standardized / portable design and reduced vulnerability to crew errors are well within the current state of the art and technology.

are well within the current state of the art and technology. IVT’Self-Study Course Automatic Flight Control
are well within the current state of the art and technology. IVT’Self-Study Course Automatic Flight Control

IVT’Self-Study

Course

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

Federal

Aviation

Administration

January.

1999

7

Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration J a n u a r y . 1 9
Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration J a n u a r y . 1 9
Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration J a n u a r y . 1 9
IVT Course Orient&ion What Is IVT? Interactive Video Teletraining, or IVT, is instruction delivered using
IVT Course Orient&ion What Is IVT? Interactive Video Teletraining, or IVT, is instruction delivered using

IVT Course Orient&ion

IVT Course Orient&ion What Is IVT? Interactive Video Teletraining, or IVT, is instruction delivered using some
IVT Course Orient&ion What Is IVT? Interactive Video Teletraining, or IVT, is instruction delivered using some
IVT Course Orient&ion What Is IVT? Interactive Video Teletraining, or IVT, is instruction delivered using some

What Is IVT?

Interactive Video Teletraining,

or IVT, is instruction delivered

using some form of live, interactive television. For the overview courses, the instructor delivers the course from the television studio at the FAA Academy in Oklahoma City. Through the IVT broadcast facility instructors are able to use a variety of visuals, objects, and media formats to support the instruction.

objects, and media formats to support the instruction. Participants are located at various receive sites around
objects, and media formats to support the instruction. Participants are located at various receive sites around

Participants are located at various receive sites around the country and can see the instructor and his/her materials on television sets in their classrooms. The participants can communicate with the instructor either through a microphone and/or the simple-to-use Viewer Response System keypads. During the live presentation, when a participant has a question or thelnstructor asks for specific participant responses to questions. the participant(s) can signal to the instructor using their keypad. The collective participant responses or the name of a specific participant signalling a question are immediately visible to the instructor on the console at the broadcast site. The instructor can then respond as needed. When the instructor calls on a specific participant to speak from a site, participants at each of the other sites can simultaneously hear the participant who is speaking.

can simultaneously hear the participant who is speaking. This guide provides you with the framework for

This guide provides you with the framework for this course as

well as the following

appendices to be used for both the IVT

well as the following appendices to be used for both the IVT and the self-study courses.

and the self-study courses.

to be used for both the IVT and the self-study courses. l Appendix A contains the

l

Appendix A contains the actual visual support material used by the instructor during the broadcast. You can use these visuals to follow along with the videotape and record notes directly on the pages.

l

Appendix B provides the Course Evaluation Forms for the IVT broadcast and the self-study video course.

Forms for the IVT broadcast and the self-study video course. IVT Self-Stud>, Course Automatic Flight
Forms for the IVT broadcast and the self-study video course. IVT Self-Stud>, Course Automatic Flight
Forms for the IVT broadcast and the self-study video course. IVT Self-Stud>, Course Automatic Flight

IVT

Self-Stud>,

Course

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

Federal

Aviation

Administration

Januar!.

I999

8

Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration J a n u a r ! . I 9
Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration J a n u a r ! . I 9

IVT Course Orientation

IVT Course Orientation W h o I s t h e Target A u d i
IVT Course Orientation W h o I s t h e Target A u d i

Who

Is the

Target

Audience?

This course is designed for:

l

Designated Engineering Representatives (DERs) who review and approve automatic flight control/flight management systems designs.

l

FAA systems engineers with a limited background in airplane flight dynamics and automatic control systems who wish to gain a basic familiarity with automatic control systems design concepts and practices, control theory, certification requirements, and issues and trends in future automation.

requirements, and issues and trends in future automation. Anthmy engineering from the University of Delft, the

Anthmy

engineering from the University of Delft, the Netherlands. From 1968 to 1995 he worked for the Boeing Commercial and Military Airplane Company in design, research, and engineering management related to automatic flight control systems for a wide variety of commercial, military, unmanned autonomous and research airplanes. In 1995, Mr. Lambregts joined the FAA as a National Resource Specialist.

A. Lnmbregts received his BS and MS in aeronautical

Instructor?

Lnmbregts received his BS and MS in aeronautical Instructor? Who Is the Anthony Lambregts Mr. Lambregts

Who

Is the

Anthony

Lambregts

Mr. Lambregts is recognized internationally as an expert in advanced control systems. He holds 16 patents, 5 Boeing Invention Awards, and three NASA Recognition Awards. He was involved in variou aircraft certification efforts, including the B747 autopilot/Autothrottle and the B737/B767 Autoland designs. He managed advanced research programs, including the NASA TCV AFC Function Integration project, the Condor Autonomous Flight Control System development, the HSCT avionics/flight controls development, Enhanced Vision System, and the NASA/Boeing FBL program.

Enhanced Vision System, and the NASA/Boeing FBL program. Since joining the FAA, Anthony Lambregts has taken

Since joining the FAA, Anthony Lambregts has taken special interest in automation safety and getting needed design standards improvements adopted by the industry and in getting

improvements adopted by the industry and in getting IVT’Self-Study Course Automatic Flight Control

IVT’Self-Study

Course

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

Federal

Aviation

Administration

January.

1999

9

Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration January. 1999 9
Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration January. 1999 9
IVT Course Orient&ion the applicable FARs and Acs updated. To this effect, he is participating

IVT Course Orient&ion

IVT Course Orient&ion the applicable FARs and Acs updated. To this effect, he is participating in
IVT Course Orient&ion the applicable FARs and Acs updated. To this effect, he is participating in

the applicable FARs and Acs updated. To this effect, he is participating in the FAAIJAA All Weather Operations and Flight Guidance Systems Harmonization working group meetins and in the Autopilot review team, as well as in the

and in the Autopilot review team, as well as in the NASA/NASA Aviation Safety Program planning

NASA/NASA Aviation Safety Program planning and proposal evaluations. He is also working with industry and academia on

advanced flight control

systems designs, such as the Bell 609,

flight control systems designs, such as the Bell 609, as well as controls and displays research.

as well as controls and displays research. Mr. Lambregts is a

well as controls and displays research. Mr. Lambregts is a member of the AIAA. W h

member of the AIAA.

displays research. Mr. Lambregts is a member of the AIAA. W h a t W i
displays research. Mr. Lambregts is a member of the AIAA. W h a t W i
displays research. Mr. Lambregts is a member of the AIAA. W h a t W i

What Will

You

After completing this course, you will have a basic

Learn?

understanding of automatic flight control systems (AFCS) in use today, including:

flight control systems (AFCS) in use today, including: How today’s svstems have evolved over a period

How today’s svstems have evolved over a period of more than 50 years. *

svstems have evolved over a period of more than 50 years. * FARs/ACs related to automatic

FARs/ACs related to automatic flight control design certification (what is covered and what is not).

design certification (what is covered and what is not). Important concepts and approaches used in design

Important concepts and approaches used in design for safety and protection against failures.

used in design for safety and protection against failures. The basics of aerodynamic flight controls and

The basics of aerodynamic flight controls and the consequences for automatic flight control design; concepts

consequences for automatic flight control design; concepts of stability; and trim and control augmentation functions. 0

of stability;

and trim and control augmentation functions.

of stability; and trim and control augmentation functions. 0 AFC system architecture evolution; functional elements;

0 AFC system architecture evolution; functional elements; analog/digital function implementation; hardware components: actuation; and design assurance methodology.

components: actuation; and design assurance methodology. The various modes of AFCS and how full function/full flight

The various modes of AFCS and how full function/full flight envelope AFCS evolved, including automatic landing and FMS.

envelope AFCS evolved, including automatic landing and FMS. An overview of control systems theory, concepts, design

An overview of control systems theory, concepts, design approaches, and analysis techniques.

concepts, design approaches, and analysis techniques. Fly-by-wire handling qualities; and PI0 avoidance. system

Fly-by-wire

handling qualities; and PI0 avoidance.

system concepts; fundamentals in design for

PI0 avoidance. system concepts; fundamentals in design for IVT!Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration
PI0 avoidance. system concepts; fundamentals in design for IVT!Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration

IVT!Self-Study

Federal

Aviation

Course

Administration

January.

1999

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

IO

in design for IVT!Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. 1999 Automatic Flight Control Systems IO
in design for IVT!Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. 1999 Automatic Flight Control Systems IO
in design for IVT!Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. 1999 Automatic Flight Control Systems IO
IVT Course Orient&ion l A look at what is coming: future functionally integrated designs and

IVT Course Orient&ion

IVT Course Orient&ion l A look at what is coming: future functionally integrated designs and systems

l A look at what is coming:

future functionally

integrated

l A look at what is coming: future functionally integrated designs and systems architectures. How Will

designs and systems architectures.

functionally integrated designs and systems architectures. How Will This At the end of this training session
functionally integrated designs and systems architectures. How Will This At the end of this training session

How

Will

This

At the end of this training session you will:

Course

Help

You

On the

Job?

What

Topics

Does the

Course

Cover?

.

0

Have a background on the historical evolution of automatic control systems and design practices.

Understand the basic functional architectures of automatic control systems: How they are put together, what the assumptions and groundrules are that can provide safe operation, and what the limitations are.

0 Know where to look for automation design safetv d vulnerabilities, using better insight in the control strategies and design approaches employed.

The following topic outline is intended to give you an overview of the course content. In addition to this outline, Appendix A contains the visual presentation material used by the instruct01 during the broadcast.

material used by the instruct01 during the broadcast. I. Historic perspective on the evolution of automatic
material used by the instruct01 during the broadcast. I. Historic perspective on the evolution of automatic

I. Historic perspective on the evolution of automatic flight control systems

on the evolution of automatic flight control systems II. FARs covering AFCS: What is and isn’t

II. FARs covering AFCS: What is and isn’t covered

systems II. FARs covering AFCS: What is and isn’t covered III. Safety: Basic concepts and definitions

III.

Safety:

Basic concepts and definitions

and design

III. Safety: Basic concepts and definitions and design approaches IV. Manual airplane control, basic flight, and

approaches

Safety: Basic concepts and definitions and design approaches IV. Manual airplane control, basic flight, and control

IV. Manual airplane control, basic flight, and control dynamics of conventional airplanes

basic flight, and control dynamics of conventional airplanes V. Stability and control augmentation, control theory

V. Stability and control augmentation, control theory fundamentals

and control augmentation, control theory fundamentals VI. Automatic control modes IVl‘ Self-Stud> Course

VI. Automatic control modes

control theory fundamentals VI. Automatic control modes IVl‘ Self-Stud> Course Federal Aviation Administration

IVl‘ Self-Stud> Course Federal Aviation Administration

January.

I999

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

I

I

Course Federal Aviation Administration J a n u a r y . I 9 9 9
Course Federal Aviation Administration J a n u a r y . I 9 9 9
IVT Course Orient&ion VII. Control algorithms functional structure, design provisions VIII. Sensors, sensor
IVT Course Orient&ion VII. Control algorithms functional structure, design provisions VIII. Sensors, sensor
IVT Course Orient&ion VII. Control algorithms functional structure, design provisions VIII. Sensors, sensor

IVT Course Orient&ion

IVT Course Orient&ion VII. Control algorithms functional structure, design provisions VIII. Sensors, sensor
IVT Course Orient&ion VII. Control algorithms functional structure, design provisions VIII. Sensors, sensor

VII. Control algorithms functional structure, design provisions

Control algorithms functional structure, design provisions VIII. Sensors, sensor information blending IX. Automatic

VIII. Sensors, sensor information blending

design provisions VIII. Sensors, sensor information blending IX. Automatic landing, function, performance, design

IX. Automatic

landing, function, performance, design

IX. Automatic landing, function, performance, design implementation X. AFCS function hosting, system hardware

implementation

landing, function, performance, design implementation X. AFCS function hosting, system hardware architectures,

X. AFCS function hosting, system hardware architectures, analog/digital computers, actuators

hardware architectures, analog/digital computers, actuators XI. Design assurance strategies for hardware and software;

XI. Design assurance strategies for hardware and software; failure prevention/tolerance strategies; failure detection, identification, and isolation

strategies; failure detection, identification, and isolation XII. Fly-by-wire design concepts and issues XIII. Automation

XII. Fly-by-wire design concepts and issues

and isolation XII. Fly-by-wire design concepts and issues XIII. Automation safety: issues with current

XIII. Automation safety: issues with current state-of-the-art

Automation safety: issues with current state-of-the-art AFCS design; design limitations; root causes operational

AFCS design; design limitations; root causes

operational problems;

design limitations; root causes operational problems; XIV. Needed design standards improvements xv . Future

XIV. Needed design standards improvements

problems; XIV. Needed design standards improvements xv . Future functionallv architectures d integrated designs

xv .

Future functionallv architectures

d integrated designs and systems

functionallv architectures d integrated designs and systems What Are The instructor has compiled the following
functionallv architectures d integrated designs and systems What Are The instructor has compiled the following

What

Are

The instructor has compiled the following references foi

Some Good

automatic flight control systems.

References?

Flight Controls. Concepts. and Methods, Lambregts, A. A., 1996 Annual Report Netherlands Association of

A. A., 1996 Annual Report Netherlands Association of Aeronautical Engineers (KNVL). Available from the

Aeronautical

Engineers (KNVL).

Available

from the

author.

Engineers (KNVL). Available from the author. Vertical Flight Path and Speed Control Autopilot Design

Vertical Flight Path and Speed Control

Autopilot

Design Using

Total Energy Principles, 83- 2239 CP

Lambregts, A.A., AIAA

paper

Energy Principles, 83- 2239 CP Lambregts, A.A., AIAA paper Automation Safety: Needed Design Standards Improvements,

Automation Safety: Needed Design Standards Improvements, Lambregts, A.A., Presentation at the FAA LA DER Seminar, September, 1998. Available from the author.

LA DER Seminar, September, 1998. Available from the author. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration

IVT’Self-Study

Federal

Aviation

Course

Administration

Januap.

I999

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

12

from the author. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration Januap. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 12
from the author. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration Januap. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 12
I VT Course Orientution Elements of Airplane Performance, Ruijgrok, G.J.J., Delft University Press, 1990. Airplane

I VT Course Orientution

I VT Course Orientution Elements of Airplane Performance, Ruijgrok, G.J.J., Delft University Press, 1990. Airplane
I VT Course Orientution Elements of Airplane Performance, Ruijgrok, G.J.J., Delft University Press, 1990. Airplane

Elements of Airplane Performance, Ruijgrok,

G.J.J., Delft

Elements of Airplane Performance, Ruijgrok, G.J.J., Delft University Press, 1990. Airplane Stability and Control,

University

Press, 1990.

Performance, Ruijgrok, G.J.J., Delft University Press, 1990. Airplane Stability and Control, Abzug, Malcolm J. and

Airplane

Stability and Control, Abzug, Malcolm J. and

1990. Airplane Stability and Control, Abzug, Malcolm J. and Larrabee, E. Eugene, Cambridge Aerospace Series, 1997.

Larrabee, E. Eugene, Cambridge Aerospace Series, 1997.

and Larrabee, E. Eugene, Cambridge Aerospace Series, 1997. Aircraft Dynamics and Automatic Control, McRuer, D.,

Aircraft

Dynamics and Automatic Control, McRuer, D.,

1997. Aircraft Dynamics and Automatic Control, McRuer, D., Ashkenas, I. and Graham, D., Princeton University Press,

Ashkenas, I. and Graham, D., Princeton University

Press,

1973.

Trends in Advanced Avionics, Cur-ran, Jim, Iowa State

University

Flight Control Actuation System Design,” Raymond, E.T., and Chenoweth, CC., SAE 15609 l-376-2.

Press, 1992.

“Aircraft

Aviation Safety and Pilot Control-Understanding

and

Preventing Unfavorable Pilot Vehicle Interactions, National Research Council, National Academic Press,

National Research Council, National Academic Press, 1997. “Accidents Direct Focus on Cockpit Automation,”

1997.

National Research Council, National Academic Press, 1997. “Accidents Direct Focus on Cockpit Automation,” Aviation
National Research Council, National Academic Press, 1997. “Accidents Direct Focus on Cockpit Automation,” Aviation

“Accidents Direct Focus on Cockpit Automation,”

Aviation

“Accidents Direct Focus on Cockpit Automation,” Aviation Week,January30, 1995 and “Studies Highlight Automation

Week,January30, 1995 and “Studies Highlight Automation Surprises,” February 6, 1995.

Highlight Automation Surprises,” February 6, 1995. “Integrating Human Factors and Automation with Progress in

“Integrating

Human Factors and Automation

with Progress in

Aircraft

Airbus Industry, reprinted in Aviation Safety, pp 169- 187,

Design and Flight Management,” E. Tarnowski,

pp 169- 187, Design and Flight Management,” E. Tarnowski, 1997. IVT?Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration

1997.

187, Design and Flight Management,” E. Tarnowski, 1997. IVT?Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration J a
187, Design and Flight Management,” E. Tarnowski, 1997. IVT?Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration J a

IVT?Self-Study

Federal

Aviation

Course

Administration

January.

I999

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

I3

Federal Aviation Course Administration J a n u a r y . I 9 9 9
Federal Aviation Course Administration J a n u a r y . I 9 9 9
Self-Assessmentand Exercises III. Self-Assessment and Exercises P r e - & P o s t
Self-Assessmentand Exercises III. Self-Assessment and Exercises P r e - & P o s t

Self-Assessmentand Exercises

Self-Assessmentand Exercises III. Self-Assessment and Exercises P r e - & P o s t -
Self-Assessmentand Exercises III. Self-Assessment and Exercises P r e - & P o s t -
Self-Assessmentand Exercises III. Self-Assessment and Exercises P r e - & P o s t -

III. Self-Assessment and Exercises

Exercises III. Self-Assessment and Exercises P r e - & P o s t - The
Exercises III. Self-Assessment and Exercises P r e - & P o s t - The

Pre- & Post- The instructor will ask you at the begining and end of the Course Self- presentation to respond to the following five questions a.bout Assessment . automatic flight’control systems. Questions

Rate your confidence Levelfor each of thefollowing statements before and after completing the course.

statements before and after completing the course. 1. I know the basic AFCS certification regulations and
statements before and after completing the course. 1. I know the basic AFCS certification regulations and

1. I know the basic AFCS certification regulations and understand design concepts and failure protection provisions needed for safety.

Very

Moderately

Not

Confident

Confident

Confident

Not C o n f i d e n t Confident Confident BEFORE THE COURSE: q

BEFORE

THE

COURSE:

q

q

q

AFTER

THE

COURSE:

q

q

q

q q q AFTER THE COURSE: q q q A . 9 I understand the basic

A. 9 I understand the basic AFCS modes of operational and known safetv issues associated with the use of current AFCS designs.

issues associated with the use of current AFCS designs. V e r y Moderately N o
issues associated with the use of current AFCS designs. V e r y Moderately N o

Very

Moderately

Not

Confident

Confident

Confident

t C o n f i d e n t Confident Confident BEFORE THE COURSE: q

BEFORE

THE

COURSE:

q

q

q

AFTER

THE

COURSE:

q

q

q

q q q AFTER THE COURSE: q q q 3. I understand the basic AFCS design
q q q AFTER THE COURSE: q q q 3. I understand the basic AFCS design

3. I understand the basic AFCS design safety assurance

q 3. I understand the basic AFCS design safety assurance process, what tvpes of design analyses

process, what tvpes of design analyses documentation

are needed for certifjcation, guidance materials.

and where to find the

for certifjcation, guidance materials. and where to find the Very Moderately Not Confident Confident

Very

Moderately

Not

Confident

Confident

Confident

Moderately Not Confident Confident Confident BEFORE THE COURSE: q q q AFTER THE

BEFORE

THE

COURSE:

q

q

q

AFTER

THE

COURSE:

q

q

q

q q q AFTER THE COURSE: q q q IVT?Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration
q q q AFTER THE COURSE: q q q IVT?Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration

IVT?Self-Study

Federal

Aviation

Course

Administration

January.

I999

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

14

q q q IVT?Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 14
q q q IVT?Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 14
Self-Assessment & Exercises 4 . I can review, understand, and assessa complete automatic flight control

Self-Assessment & Exercises

Self-Assessment & Exercises 4 . I can review, understand, and assessa complete automatic flight control system

4. I can review, understand, and assessa complete automatic flight control system description, performance, and safety analysis documents that arrive

in the office for certification

approval.

 

Very

Moderately

Not

Confident

Confident

Confident

BEFORE

THE

COURSE:

III

0

q

AFTER

THE

COURSE:

0

III

0

III 0 q AFTER THE COURSE: 0 III 0 5 . I understand the weaknesses in
III 0 q AFTER THE COURSE: 0 III 0 5 . I understand the weaknesses in
III 0 q AFTER THE COURSE: 0 III 0 5 . I understand the weaknesses in

5. I understand the weaknesses in the current AFCS designs and know what operational safety aspects need to be addressed in the planned regulation updates.

Very

ModerateI!

Not

Confident

Confident

Confident

ModerateI! Not Confident Confident Confident   BEFORE THE COURSE: q 0 q AFTER
 

BEFORE

THE

COURSE:

q

0

q

AFTER

THE

COURSE:

cl

0

0

IVT.‘Self-Study

Course

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

Federal

Aviation

Administration

Januar1,.

1999

IS

Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration Januar1,. 1999 IS
Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration Januar1,. 1999 IS

---

--- Self-Assessment& Exercises Job-Related Exercises After viewing the IVT broadcast with the support visuals in
--- Self-Assessment& Exercises Job-Related Exercises After viewing the IVT broadcast with the support visuals in

Self-Assessment& Exercises

--- Self-Assessment& Exercises Job-Related Exercises After viewing the IVT broadcast with the support visuals in

Job-Related

Exercises

After viewing the IVT broadcast with the support visuals in Appendix A, complete the following questions to test your knowledge about automatic flight control systems.

test your knowledge about automatic flight control systems. You can check your answers beginning on the

You can check your answers beginning on the page that follows the questions.

answers beginning on the page that follows the questions. 1. What do the regulations say about

1. What do the regulations say about automatic control

1. What do the regulations say about automatic control a. Functions? b. Modes / mode interactions?

a. Functions?

do the regulations say about automatic control a. Functions? b. Modes / mode interactions? c. Hosting

b. Modes / mode interactions?

c. Hosting of modes?

b. Modes / mode interactions? c. Hosting of modes? d. Use of control surfaces? e. Performance?

d. Use of control surfaces?

c. Hosting of modes? d. Use of control surfaces? e. Performance? 3 -. How does a

e. Performance?

3

-.

How

does a conventional

airplane respond to an elevator

3 -. How does a conventional airplane respond to an elevator control input? 3. How does

control input?

conventional airplane respond to an elevator control input? 3. How does a conventional airplane respond to
conventional airplane respond to an elevator control input? 3. How does a conventional airplane respond to

3. How

does a conventional

airplane respond to a throttle

control input?

4. How did the functional use of elevator, and throttle for certain automatic modes come about?

and throttle for certain automatic modes come about? 5. What is the pre-requite condition for the
and throttle for certain automatic modes come about? 5. What is the pre-requite condition for the

5. What is the pre-requite condition for the autopilot to be able to control flight path? What will happen when this requirement is not met?

path? What will happen when this requirement is not met? 6. Can the autothrottle control speed
path? What will happen when this requirement is not met? 6. Can the autothrottle control speed

6. Can the autothrottle control speed unconditionally?

met? 6. Can the autothrottle control speed unconditionally? 7. What led to the development of the

7. What led to the development of the full flight regime autothrottle?

to the development of the full flight regime autothrottle? 8. Name some of the recurrent complaints

8. Name some of the recurrent complaints about autothrottle designs.

9. Why is the VNAV

mode running into performance

designs. 9. Why is the VNAV mode running into performance problems when controlling to a predicted

problems when controlling to a predicted idle descent path?

problems when controlling to a predicted idle descent path? I VT Federal Self-Stud>, Aviation Course Administration
problems when controlling to a predicted idle descent path? I VT Federal Self-Stud>, Aviation Course Administration

I VT

Federal

Self-Stud>,

Aviation

Course

Administration

January.

1999

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

16

path? I VT Federal Self-Stud>, Aviation Course Administration January. 1999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 16
path? I VT Federal Self-Stud>, Aviation Course Administration January. 1999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 16
path? I VT Federal Self-Stud>, Aviation Course Administration January. 1999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 16

Self-Assessment& Exercises

Self-Assessment& Exercises 10. What is speed stability and why is there such a requirement for manual
Self-Assessment& Exercises 10. What is speed stability and why is there such a requirement for manual

10.

What is speed stability and why is there such a requirement for manual airplane control?

11.

What happens to speed stability when the autopilot path mode is engaged? Is there an equivalent substitute for speed stability?

12.

What variable speed or altitude is the most critical to control?

13.

Which variable can be controlled faster, speed or altitude? Why, how?

14.

How is the autopilot stabilizer trim different than the pilot

trimming the stabilizer manually? consequences?

What are the

15.

Which automatic control modes are considered flight critical?

16.

What are the underlying assumptions for the operational safety of the non-critical automatic control modes?

17.

Name key design provisions that are used to assure that no single automatic control system failure, or combination of failures not shown to be extremely improbable, can prevent continued safe flight and landing.

18.

What is a transfer function?

19.

What is the significance of the denominator of the transfer function?

20.

What role does the numerator of the transfer function play in the system stability and command response?

2.1.

What design strategy is often used to alter the command response without altering system stability?

IVT

Federal

Self-Study

Aviation

Course

Administration

January.

I999

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

17

system stability? IVT Federal Self-Study Aviation Course Administration January. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 17
system stability? IVT Federal Self-Study Aviation Course Administration January. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 17
system stability? IVT Federal Self-Study Aviation Course Administration January. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 17

Self-Assessment& Exercises

Self-Assessment& Exercises 22. An overshooting response to a step command is caused by: a) Low system

22. An overshooting response to a step command is caused by:

22. An overshooting response to a step command is caused by: a) Low system damping. b)

a) Low system damping.

to a step command is caused by: a) Low system damping. b) Ill-conditioned numerator of the

b) Ill-conditioned

numerator of the transfer functi,on.

b) Ill-conditioned numerator of the transfer functi,on. c) Possibly both. 23. What design strategies may be

c) Possibly both.

23. What design strategies may be employed to quicken the response to a step command?

may be employed to quicken the response to a step command? 24. What design element is
may be employed to quicken the response to a step command? 24. What design element is

24. What design element is used to assure steady state

24. What design element is used to assure steady state command tracking under a variety of
24. What design element is used to assure steady state command tracking under a variety of

command tracking under a variety of “trim”

conditions?

-35.

What possible design problems can be encountered when using “integral control” of error feedback?

36. What non-linear control algorithm design elements are often used? Why?

control algorithm design elements are often used? Why? 37. Whv e’ is a pitch attitude command
control algorithm design elements are often used? Why? 37. Whv e’ is a pitch attitude command

37. Whv e’ is a pitch attitude command limit often ineffective as a safety devise?

28. What has led to the recent questioning automation designs?

of the safety of

the recent questioning automation designs? of the safety of I?9. Name five automation safety issues. 30.

I?9.

Name five automation safety issues.

of the safety of I?9. Name five automation safety issues. 30. What is envelope protection? 31.

30. What is envelope protection?

automation safety issues. 30. What is envelope protection? 31. What are some of the limitations output

31. What are some of the limitations output control?

of single-input/single

of the limitations output control? of single-input/single 3-. ?3 Name some of the consequences of a

3-. ?3

Name some of the consequences of a not fullv automated

4

?3 Name some of the consequences of a not fullv automated 4 rudder? 33. What are

rudder?

some of the consequences of a not fullv automated 4 rudder? 33. What are possible advantages/disadvantages

33. What are possible advantages/disadvantages of a multi- input/multi-output control strategy?

of a multi- input/multi-output control strategy? 34. What additional automatic control design elements are

34. What additional automatic control design elements are needed to reduce critical dependency on the pilot for operational safety?

IVT’Self-Study

Federal

Aviation

Course

Administration

January.

1999

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

I8

safety? IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. 1999 Automatic Flight Control Systems I8
safety? IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. 1999 Automatic Flight Control Systems I8

Self-Assessment& Exercises

Self-Assessment& Exercises A n s w e r s 1 . Nothing about functions; nothing about

Answers

1.

Nothing about functions; nothing about modes; inappropriate mode combinations should be locked out;

modes; inappropriate mode combinations should be locked out; nothing about control mode hosting; nothing about the

nothing about control mode hosting; nothing about the use

of control surfaces and performance; FAR 25.1309 states

use of control surfaces and performance; FAR 25.1309 states that a system should be shown to

that a system should be shown to perform its intended function.

a system should be shown to perform its intended function. 7 I. A conventional airplane responds

7

I.

A conventional airplane responds in all three degrees of

freedom to an elevator control input: pitch angle, speed, and flight path.

elevator control input: pitch angle, speed, and flight path. 3 . A conventional airplane responds in

3. A conventional airplane responds in all three degrees of

A conventional airplane responds in all three degrees of freedom to a throttle control input: pitch

freedom to a throttle control input:

pitch angle.

speed, flight path and

throttle control input: pitch angle. speed, flight path and 4 . Flight path control (Altitude Hold/Select)
throttle control input: pitch angle. speed, flight path and 4 . Flight path control (Altitude Hold/Select)

4. Flight path control (Altitude Hold/Select) autopilot

4 . Flight path control (Altitude Hold/Select) autopilot development using the elevator came first, next ILS

development using the elevator came first, next ILS glide slope control; speed control on elevator were also developed; tinallv the approach speed control using the

I

developed; tinallv the approach speed control using the I throttles completed the first round of SISO

throttles completed the first round of SISO flight control

I throttles completed the first round of SISO flight control automatic control modes in the vertical

automatic control modes in the vertical plane.

5. The airplane must be on the positive

slope part of the

speed-drag curve in order to provide sustainable flight path control, without speed runaway. If, in the process of controlling flight path the speed drops below the minimum drag speed and the drag rises above the thrust, the autopilot path control will tend to induce airplane stall.

autopilot path control will tend to induce airplane stall. 6 . No. The control authority of
autopilot path control will tend to induce airplane stall. 6 . No. The control authority of

6. No. The control authority of the autothrottle is limited at

No. The control authority of the autothrottle is limited at best to - .25 g (level

best to - .25 g (level flight), allowing active speed control only as long as the autopilot path control keeps the flight path angle within the steady state climb/descent

the flight path angle within the steady state climb/descent performance boundary. to select autopilot vertical path

performance boundary.

to select autopilot vertical path commands (in principle 90 degrees vertical) that far exceed the needed thrust to sustain speed.

However, it is generally possible

thrust to sustain speed. However, it is generally possible IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration

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1999

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possible IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration Januar! 1999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 19
Self-Assessment& Exercises 7 . The desire to fly at minimum drag speed in cruise, for

Self-Assessment& Exercises

Self-Assessment& Exercises 7 . The desire to fly at minimum drag speed in cruise, for best

7. The desire to fly at minimum drag speed in cruise, for best fuel economy. At minimum drag speed, the airplane becomes neutrally speed stable when the autopilot controls

the flight path, any flight path correction will

result in a

the flight path, any flight path correction will result in a corresponding speed deviation which tends

corresponding speed deviation which tends not to self correct, requiring high pilot workload by the pilot manipulating throttles to control speed. The full-flight regime autothrottle development was the answer to the problem, but not the answer to the pilot’s prayer.

to the problem, but not the answer to the pilot’s prayer. 8 . Recurring complaints by

8. Recurring complaints by pilots about autothrottles include:

complaints by pilots about autothrottles include: a. Throttles are much too active, especially when there is

a. Throttles are much too active, especially when there is turbulence

are much too active, especially when there is turbulence b. Autothrottle does not maintain speed close
are much too active, especially when there is turbulence b. Autothrottle does not maintain speed close

b. Autothrottle does not maintain speed close enough, especially on approach in turbulence and windshear

enough, especially on approach in turbulence and windshear C. Autothrottle is pretty dumb: it does not

C. Autothrottle is pretty dumb: it does not take airplane energy situation into consideration

does not take airplane energy situation into consideration d. Autothrottle and autotpilot exhibit too much control

d. Autothrottle and autotpilot exhibit too much control coupling, causing undesirable flight path, speed and throttle gyrations after small disturbances 01 command inputs.

gyrations after small disturbances 01 command inputs. 9 . When thrust is .atthe limit, the elevator

9. When thrust is .atthe limit, the elevator can control either flight path or speed, not both. At idle thrust the steady

state control of flight

path by the elevator away from the

state control of flight path by the elevator away from the idle thrust flight path angle

idle thrust flight path angle will cause large and unacceptable deviations from the intended speed. However? the elevator can be used to control the speed without any restrictions, but the idle descent inertial flight path angle will be affected by airplane weight, configuration, and wind conditions.

by airplane weight, configuration, and wind conditions. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration
by airplane weight, configuration, and wind conditions. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration

IVT’Self-Study

Federal

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Course

Administration

January.

1999

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

20

wind conditions. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. 1999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 20
wind conditions. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. 1999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 20
Self-Assessment& Exercises 10. Speed stability is the desirable characteristic of an airplane to return to

Self-Assessment& Exercises

Self-Assessment& Exercises 10. Speed stability is the desirable characteristic of an airplane to return to the

10.

Speed stability is the desirable characteristic of an airplane to return to the trim speed when the control column is slowly returned to neutral, after the airplane is first maneuvered away from the trim speed by an initial column input. Speed stability is required for safety during manual control, to help keep the airplane within a safe flying speed envelope.

11.

When the autopilot path control mode is engaged speed stability may be defeated, if the airplane is operated at or below the minimum drag speed. The only compensating safety strategy is to turn on the autothrottle speed control, but even the autothrottle cannot always prevent a speed run away if excessive flight path commands are selected.

l3A.

It depends. Maintaining speed is essential for safe and controllable flight. At low altitude obstacle clearance and flight path control, to touchdown on the runway becomes an equally important objective. For up and away flight, maintaining the assigned altitude is an important safety concept for safe air traffic control, but when caught in an emergency (e.g., engine out), maintaining safe flying speed is more important than maintaining assigned altitude. In a life-threatening windshear close to the ground, it is preferable to allow speed to bleed off to just above stall in order to avoid or postpone hitting the ground, but not further, because a stall close to the ground virtually assuresa crash.

13

Speed and altitude are both energy-related quantities that can be changed equally fast (in relative energy level) by the throttles. At constant thrust the use of the elevator

changes altitude

and speed in equal and opposite quantity,

altitude and speed in equal and opposite quantity, in terms of energy level change (no net

in terms of energy level change (no net energy change).

in terms of energy level change (no net energy change). IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration

IVT’Self-Study

Federal

Aviation

Course

Administration

January.

1999

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

21

energy change). IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. 1999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 21

Self-Assessment& Exercises

Self-Assessment& Exercises 14. The autopilot trims when the flight path control algorithm computes a continuous
Self-Assessment& Exercises 14. The autopilot trims when the flight path control algorithm computes a continuous

14. The autopilot trims when the flight path control algorithm computes a continuous command that is greater than a certain threshold, therefore, it will continue to trim even if the power setting for the airplane is wrong to sustain the commanded flight path. As a result, the airplane can end up far out of trim relative to the intended speed. The pilot, on the other hand, trims the airplane to trim the control forces to zero for the intended speed he wants to fly. This means that when the airplane departs the trim speed, the pilot will need to hold a control force to keep the airplane at a speed away from the trim speed. This is a safety feature so the airplane will naturally return to the trim speed if the pilot relaxes his control force.

15. Only the Category III automatic landing function is considered flight critical, because in that case the pilot cannot be expected to provide adequate backup for a failure of the automatic flight path control function and assure continued safety of flight and landing.

function and assure continued safety of flight and landing. 16. The underlying assumption for the safety

16. The underlying assumption for the safety of the noncritical flight control functions is that the pilot can and will correct any failure or malfunction of the automatic flight

control system, to assure continued safe flight and landing. This implies that at least one of the crew-members must

This implies that at least one of the crew-members must monitor the operation of the AFCS

monitor the operation of the AFCS continuously.

assumption is that the crew will operate the AFCS correctly and within its intended flight and performance envelope.

Another

within its intended flight and performance envelope. Another 17. Limited-control authority (e.g. 1 g); split control

17. Limited-control authority (e.g. 1 g); split control surfaces; parallel redundant functional paths; fail passive/fail operational design concepts; in-line performance

operational design concepts; in-line performance monitoring/failure detection, identification and isolation.
operational design concepts; in-line performance monitoring/failure detection, identification and isolation.

monitoring/failure

detection, identification

and isolation.

IVT’Self-Study

Federal

Aviation

Course

Administration

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Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

22

and isolation. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 22
and isolation. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 22
and isolation. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 22

Self-Assessment& Exercises

Self-Assessment& Exercises 18. A transfer function is a mathematical function describing the dynamic time-dependent

18. A transfer function is a mathematical function describing the dynamic time-dependent relationship between control input and a specific control state variable output.

19. The denominator of the transfer function describes the characteristics of the dynamic modes of the system in terms of natural frequency and damping.

of the system in terms of natural frequency and damping. 20. The numerator of the transfer

20. The numerator of the transfer function does not affect the stability of the system dynamics, but plays a very important role in the dynamic response characteristics of the system to a command input.

response characteristics of the system to a command input. 21. The command response of a system

21. The command response of a system can be changed without affecting system stability by certain rearrangements of the feed forward command paths and by adding feed forward command augmentation functions.

33

--.

C. Possiblv both.

d

command augmentation functions. 33 --. C. Possiblv both. d 33 . Feedforward signal command paths, emanating

33 .

Feedforward signal command paths, emanating from a suitable response model, fed into the corresponding state feedback loops.

34.

Integral control of the outer loop error feedback is often used to assure steady state tracking of the command for a variety of “trim” conditions.

25.

Integral control of outer loop error feedback will add a low frequencv control mode; it tends to destabilize the existing modes; if no special design implementation provisions are made, integral control can add a zero in the numerator of the transfer function of interest, causing a whiplash command overshoot characteristic.

causing a whiplash command overshoot characteristic. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration
causing a whiplash command overshoot characteristic. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration

IVT’Self-Study

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Administration

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Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

23

characteristic. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 23
26. Non-linear design elements often used in control elements include: a. Signal amplitude limiters (e.g.,
26. Non-linear design elements often used in control elements include: a. Signal amplitude limiters (e.g.,
26. Non-linear design elements often used in control elements include: a. Signal amplitude limiters (e.g.,
26. Non-linear design elements often used in control elements include: a. Signal amplitude limiters (e.g.,

26.

Non-linear

design elements often used in control elements

include:

design elements often used in control elements include: a. Signal amplitude limiters (e.g., pitch or bank
design elements often used in control elements include: a. Signal amplitude limiters (e.g., pitch or bank

a. Signal amplitude limiters (e.g., pitch or bank angle command limit).

limiters (e.g., pitch or bank angle command limit). b . R a t e l i

b. Rate limiters -- to slow down or smooth out control responses.

s - - to slow down or smooth out control responses. c. Mode switches with associated

c. Mode switches with associated mode logic (e.g., to

c. Mode switches with associated mode logic (e.g., to control the “capture” and “tracking” control

control the “capture” and “tracking” control algorithm).

sub modes of a

and “tracking” control algorithm). sub modes of a - 3 7 . A pitch attitude command

-37. A pitch attitude command signal limit is often ineffective and sometimes dangerous because:

limit is often ineffective and sometimes dangerous because: a. Such a limit is often placed on
limit is often ineffective and sometimes dangerous because: a. Such a limit is often placed on

a. Such a limit is often placed on a proportional control innerloop, where there is no assurance the error signal between the command and the feedback will go to zero, because of steady state control surface trim requirements and other non-zero steady state feedback signals downstream of the command-limited control loop.

signals downstream of the command-limited control loop. b. It is verv difficult to dynamically compute a

b. It is verv difficult to dynamically compute a correct pitch attitude limit based angle of attack and flight path angle performance limits, because of turbulence and wind effects.

performance limits, because of turbulence and wind effects. c. An arbitrary static limit may not prevent
performance limits, because of turbulence and wind effects. c. An arbitrary static limit may not prevent

c. An arbitrary static limit may not prevent stall or allow available performance extraction under all possible flight conditions.

performance extraction under all possible flight conditions. IVT’Self-Study Course Automatic Flight Control Systems
performance extraction under all possible flight conditions. IVT’Self-Study Course Automatic Flight Control Systems

IVT’Self-Study

Course

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

IVT’Self-Study Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration J a n u a r \

Federal

Aviation

Administration

Januar\,.

I999

24

Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration J a n u a r \ ,
Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration J a n u a r \ ,

Self-Assessment& Exercises

Self-Assessment& Exercises 38. A string of catastrophic accidents and incidents involving automatic flight control
Self-Assessment& Exercises 38. A string of catastrophic accidents and incidents involving automatic flight control

38.

A string of catastrophic accidents and incidents involving automatic flight control systems and crew-systems interfaces:

a. accidents near Strasbourg and Habsheim

A320

b. accident near Toulouse

A330

 

c. incident of spiral dive over Pacific

B747

d. shutdown of remaining good engine

B737

e. accident neat Nagoya

A300

f. accident near Bucharest

A310

g. Etc.

39.

Significant

automation safety issues include:

 

a. Autopilot

flight path control without consideration of

available performance (thrust) and effect on speed.

b. Loss of speed control due to lack of control priority strategy when thrust reaches limit.

C.

Autopilot flight path control causing speed bleed

down to stalrwithout

warning or timely disengage.

d. Lack of disengage logic for condition of imminent

control authority limiting,

causing function failure.

e. Crew difficulty in judging adequacy of system performance due to control strategy that differs from the manual control strategy.

f. Operational complexity

making it difficult

for the

crew to maintain situation awareness.

30.

Envelope protection 1sa aeslgn provtston to assure mat tne airplane’s speed, bank angle and normal acceleration will remain within the safe operational envelope.

will remain within the safe operational envelope. I VT ‘Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration
will remain within the safe operational envelope. I VT ‘Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration

I VT ‘Self-Study

Federal

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Administration

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Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

25

envelope. I VT ‘Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 25
envelope. I VT ‘Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 25

Self-Assessment& Exercises

Self-Assessment& Exercises 3 1. Limitations include: of single-input/single output control strategy a. Undesirable

3 1. Limitations include:

of single-input/single

output control strategy

include: of single-input/single output control strategy a. Undesirable control coupling b. Unnecessary high

a. Undesirable control coupling

output control strategy a. Undesirable control coupling b. Unnecessary high controller activity c. Loss of control

b. Unnecessary high controller activity

c. Loss of control when controller authority limit is reached

Loss of control when controller authority limit is reached d. Lower performance e. Possible violations of

d. Lower performance

controller authority limit is reached d. Lower performance e. Possible violations of envelope limits not directly

e. Possible violations of envelope limits not directly controlled by SISO mode (spill over)

32. The incomplete automation of the rudder means that the pilot must be vigilant to provide dynamic compensating for asymmetric thrust. The autopilot must be turned off in case of an engine failure and the pilot must manually retrim the rudder before he can re-engage the lateral autopilot. Difficulty of trimming sideslip to zero, especially in asymmetric trust or lateral imbalance conditions (no sideslip instrument).

or lateral imbalance conditions (no sideslip instrument). 33. Advantages of multi input-multi output control strategy:

33. Advantages of multi input-multi

output control strategy:

33. Advantages of multi input-multi output control strategy: a. Precise control command coordination to achieve decoupled

a. Precise control command coordination to achieve decoupled command responses

command coordination to achieve decoupled command responses b. Lower gains, higher/smoother performance, better design

b. Lower gains, higher/smoother performance, better design robustness (gain/phase margins)

performance, better design robustness (gain/phase margins) c. Better control/design strategies providing more

c. Better control/design strategies providing more functionality with simpler more generalized design, e.g. flight and performance envelope protection based on control priority and control authority allocation, inherent engine out dynamic compensation and automatic rudder re-trim.

out dynamic compensation and automatic rudder re-trim. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration

IVT’Self-Study

Federal

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January.

1999

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

26

rudder re-trim. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. 1999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 26

Self-Assessment& Exercises

Self-Assessment& Exercises 34. To reduce critical dependence on pilot to assure safety of automatic flight systems,

34. To reduce critical dependence on pilot to assure safety of automatic flight systems, future designs will need:

of automatic flight systems, future designs will need: a. More general mimo control strategies. b. A

a. More general mimo control strategies.

designs will need: a. More general mimo control strategies. b. A generalized reusable functional architecture that

b. A generalized reusable functional architecture that allows up-front integration of modes using standard building blocks.

integration of modes using standard building blocks. c. Built-in performance/flight envelope protection

c. Built-in performance/flight

envelope protection

blocks. c. Built-in performance/flight envelope protection functions, covering all modes. d. Fully automated rudder,

functions, covering all modes.

envelope protection functions, covering all modes. d. Fully automated rudder, providing inherent functions of
envelope protection functions, covering all modes. d. Fully automated rudder, providing inherent functions of

d. Fully automated rudder, providing

inherent functions

d. Fully automated rudder, providing inherent functions of yaw damper/turn coordination, asymmetric thrust

of yaw damper/turn coordination, asymmetric thrust compensation, automatic rudder trim, etc.

e. Better performance and failure monitoring

with

suitable system state annunciation and timely automatic disengage, if needed.

annunciation and timely automatic disengage, if needed. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration
annunciation and timely automatic disengage, if needed. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration

IVT’Self-Study

Federal

Aviation

Course

Administration

January.

I999

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

27

if needed. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 27
if needed. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 27
if needed. IVT’Self-Study Federal Aviation Course Administration January. I999 Automatic Flight Control Systems 27

Appendix A

Appendix A Appendix A Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals IVT,‘Self-Study Course Automatic
Appendix A Appendix A Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals IVT,‘Self-Study Course Automatic

Appendix

A

Appendix A Appendix A Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals IVT,‘Self-Study Course Automatic
Appendix A Appendix A Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals IVT,‘Self-Study Course Automatic

Automatic

Flight Control

Systems

Presentation Visuals

A Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals IVT,‘Self-Study Course Automatic Flight
A Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals IVT,‘Self-Study Course Automatic Flight
A Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals IVT,‘Self-Study Course Automatic Flight
A Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals IVT,‘Self-Study Course Automatic Flight
A Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals IVT,‘Self-Study Course Automatic Flight
A Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals IVT,‘Self-Study Course Automatic Flight
A Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals IVT,‘Self-Study Course Automatic Flight
A Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals IVT,‘Self-Study Course Automatic Flight
A Automatic Flight Control Systems Presentation Visuals IVT,‘Self-Study Course Automatic Flight

IVT,‘Self-Study

Course

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

Federal

Aviation

Administration

January.

I999

A

Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration January. I999 A
Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration January. I999 A
Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Administration January. I999 A
Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.
Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.
Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.

Appendix A

Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.
Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.
Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.
Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.
Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.
Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.
Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.
Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.

AUTOMATIC

FLIGHT

Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.

CONTROL

Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.
Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.

FUNDAMENTALS

Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.
Appendix A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1.

Anthony

A. Lambregts

A AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1. Historic

National

Resource

Specialist

Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1. Historic perspective automatic flight
Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1. Historic perspective automatic flight
Anthony A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1. Historic perspective automatic flight

Advanced

Controls

A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1. Historic perspective automatic flight on the evolution
A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1. Historic perspective automatic flight on the evolution
A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1. Historic perspective automatic flight on the evolution
A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1. Historic perspective automatic flight on the evolution
A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1. Historic perspective automatic flight on the evolution
A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1. Historic perspective automatic flight on the evolution
A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1. Historic perspective automatic flight on the evolution
A. Lambregts National Resource Specialist Advanced Controls 1. Historic perspective automatic flight on the evolution

1. Historic perspective

automatic

flight

on the evolution

systems

of

b;:

b

.

23 .$

control

(AFCS)

on the evolution systems of b;: b . 23 .$ control (AFCS) . *l&; * G=

.

*l&;

*

G= h

5 $@id

:;p

.v;.-

2. FARs

covering

AFCS:

What

is/isn’t

covered

3. Safety:

Basic

concepts

& definitions

and

design

approaches

concepts & definitions and design approaches control dynamics of conventional airplanes
concepts & definitions and design approaches control dynamics of conventional airplanes

control dynamics

of conventional

airplanes

Stability

5. and control

augmentation,

control

theory

fundamentals

4. airplane

Manual

control,

basic

flight

and

fundamentals 4. airplane Manual control, basic flight and 2 IVT,‘SeIf-Study Federal Aviation Course Authority  

2

fundamentals 4. airplane Manual control, basic flight and 2 IVT,‘SeIf-Study Federal Aviation Course Authority  
fundamentals 4. airplane Manual control, basic flight and 2 IVT,‘SeIf-Study Federal Aviation Course Authority  

IVT,‘SeIf-Study

Federal

Aviation

Course

Authority

 

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

Januaq.

1999

Al

Aviation Course Authority   Automatic Flight Control Systems J a n u a q . 1
Course Outline, cont. 6. Automatic control modes 7. Control algorithms functional design provisions
Course Outline, cont. 6. Automatic control modes 7. Control algorithms functional design provisions
Course Outline, cont. 6. Automatic control modes 7. Control algorithms functional design provisions
Course Outline, cont. 6. Automatic control modes 7. Control algorithms functional design provisions
Course Outline, cont. 6. Automatic control modes 7. Control algorithms functional design provisions
Course Outline, cont. 6. Automatic control modes 7. Control algorithms functional design provisions

Course

Outline,

cont.

Course Outline, cont. 6. Automatic control modes 7. Control algorithms functional design provisions
Course Outline, cont. 6. Automatic control modes 7. Control algorithms functional design provisions
Course Outline, cont. 6. Automatic control modes 7. Control algorithms functional design provisions
Course Outline, cont. 6. Automatic control modes 7. Control algorithms functional design provisions

6. Automatic

control

modes

7. Control

algorithms

functional

design

provisions

8. Sensors,

sensor

information

9. landing,

Automatic

function,

structure,

blending

‘(c,~. <i;b”

q-g-. $+@II b:, I

structure, blending ‘(c,~. <i;b” q-g-. $+@II b:, I performance, design implementation hosting, system

performance,

design

implementation

hosting,

system

hardware

3

a,

?h” I

a:+;;2 1-q‘*‘-’

f,A-,;.

51 :?> 10. AFCS

function

architectures

l

Analog/digital

computers

l

Actuators

l Analog/digital computers l Actuators 11. Design assurance strategies for hardware and

11. Design

assurance

strategies

for hardware

and software

 

l

Failure

prevention/tolerance

strategies

l

Failure

detection,

identification

and isolation

Failure detection, identification and isolation 12. Fly-by-Wire design concepts and issues A IVT;SeIf-Study

12. Fly-by-Wire

design

concepts

and

issues

and isolation 12. Fly-by-Wire design concepts and issues A IVT;SeIf-Study Course Automatic Flight Control
and isolation 12. Fly-by-Wire design concepts and issues A IVT;SeIf-Study Course Automatic Flight Control

A

and isolation 12. Fly-by-Wire design concepts and issues A IVT;SeIf-Study Course Automatic Flight Control
and isolation 12. Fly-by-Wire design concepts and issues A IVT;SeIf-Study Course Automatic Flight Control

IVT;SeIf-Study

Course

Automatic

Flight

Control

Systems

Federal

Aviation

Authority

January.

1999

A2

Course Automatic Flight Control Systems Federal Aviation Authority January. 1999 A2
Appendix A 13. Automation safety: Issues with current state of the art AFCS designs l
Appendix A 13. Automation safety: Issues with current state of the art AFCS designs l
Appendix A 13. Automation safety: Issues with current state of the art AFCS designs l
Appendix A 13. Automation safety: Issues with current state of the art AFCS designs l

Appendix A

Appendix A 13. Automation safety: Issues with current state of the art AFCS designs l Design
Appendix A 13. Automation safety: Issues with current state of the art AFCS designs l Design
Appendix A 13. Automation safety: Issues with current state of the art AFCS designs l Design
Appendix A 13. Automation safety: Issues with current state of the art AFCS designs l Design
Appendix A 13. Automation safety: Issues with current state of the art AFCS designs l Design
Appendix A 13. Automation safety: Issues with current state of the art AFCS designs l Design
Appendix A 13. Automation safety: Issues with current state of the art AFCS designs l Design
Appendix A 13. Automation safety: Issues with current state of the art AFCS designs l Design
Appendix A 13. Automation safety: Issues with current state of the art AFCS designs l Design

13. Automation

safety:

Issues

with

current

state

of the

art AFCS

designs

with current state of the art AFCS designs l Design limitations; operational problems l

l

Design

limitations;

operational

problems

l

Root

causes

 
operational problems l Root causes   14. Needed design standards improvements 15. Future

14. Needed design standards

improvements

causes   14. Needed design standards improvements 15. Future functionally integrated designs ‘52 1;9 a, ”

15. Future

functionally

integrated

designs

‘52 1;9

a,

%“.@<. .L

b‘&

and systems

architectures

h

7I

.L b‘& and systems architectures h ‘ 7 I s Historic Piecemeal Evolution of Automated F
.L b‘& and systems architectures h ‘ 7 I s Historic Piecemeal Evolution of Automated F
.L b‘& and systems architectures h ‘ 7 I s Historic Piecemeal Evolution of Automated F
.L b‘& and systems architectures h ‘ 7 I s Historic Piecemeal Evolution of Automated F
.L b‘& and systems architectures h ‘ 7 I s Historic Piecemeal Evolution of Automated F
.L b‘& and systems architectures h ‘ 7 I s Historic Piecemeal Evolution of Automated F

s Historic

Piecemeal

Evolution

architectures h ‘ 7 I s Historic Piecemeal Evolution of Automated F u n c t

of Automated

Functions

Piecemeal Evolution of Automated F u n c t i o n s + 1909: Wright
Piecemeal Evolution of Automated F u n c t i o n s + 1909: Wright

+ 1909: Wright stabilizer patent

F u n c t i o n s + 1909: Wright stabilizer patent & :+

&

n c t i o n s + 1909: Wright stabilizer patent & :+ 1920: Sperry

:+ 1920:

Sperry

attitude

stabilization

patent & :+ 1920: Sperry attitude stabilization 34, y&a , I + 1930: Speed and heading

34, y&a ,I

+ 1930: Speed and heading angle modes

34, y&a , I + 1930: Speed and heading angle modes + 1930 - 1960: Continued

+ 1930 - 1960: Continued automation

and heading angle modes + 1930 - 1960: Continued automation l Elevator; ailerons; rudder; throttles +

l

Elevator;

ailerons;

rudder;

throttles

Continued automation l Elevator; ailerons; rudder; throttles + 1960s: “Fully automated” flight control

+ 1960s:

“Fully

automated”

flight