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What Islam says about ''Terrorism'' !

This question was asked in the wake of the recent terrorist acts perpetrated by those
claiming to be Muslims and acting in the name of Jihad. There is also clarification of the
Islamic Ruling on Suicide Bombers.

This is the reply Hadrat Shaykh al Islam gave to the question...

'This is a disease spreading throughout the modern world, where the irresponsible
words and actions of certain powerful Government leaders triggers and spurs a violent
and grotesque reaction amongst individuals or some politically inclined groups which is
then highlighted by the world media as 'Islamic Terrorism'. Nothing can be further from
the truth. If only people read and try to understand the real teachings of this great faith,
for Islam is the most peace loving and tolerant religion.

Islam teaches us to show care and compassion even towards the plants and animals.
To inflict destruction, harm or injury towards them is deemed as a major sin, so how can
anyone under any circumstances justify the killing or maiming of innocent human
beings? Even during the times of war when the Blessed Companions of our Noble
Messenger peace be upon him were engaged in battle they had clear instructions to
spare the elderly and those who cultivate the land. They were also informed to treat the
prisoners of war humanely and to feed them as they would expect to be fed. Those
prisoners who taught the illiterate how to read and write were freed and it was through
observing this compassion and good nature of the Muslims when they expected to be
ill-treated and abused that many converted to Islam.

To commit suicide is Haraam, clearly a forbidden act. Such a person who ends his/her
life this way will be answerable to the Almighty Allah who gives and takes life. He grants
us life and has commanded us to fulfil it according to His law and order. We as mere
mortals have no say or control as to when we are given life and when it is ended. Those
who intentionally end their life through their own actions are committing a major error of
sin. And those who end their life in such a manner by blowing themselves up thus killing
many innocent civilians with them thinking it is an act of 'Jihad' or Islamically acceptable
are surely brainwashed by the leaders of these extremist groups and organisations. The
leaders of such groups and sects use these gullible recruits to fulfil their own ambitions
such as to gain control of a disputed territory. Many a times the aftermath of a foreign

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invasion ignites rival groups and sects of improper and radical views to engage in civil

No religion teaches or encourages violence, hatred or even terrorism for that matter but
to drag the great religion of Islam to such debacle and debate is nothing short of absurd.
Undoubtedly the real enemies of Islam are working and planning day in day out
conspiring and conniving every possible opportunity to tarnish the pure name of Islam.
The new found 'Terrorist' label they have associated with it is certainly helping their
cause especially with the rising number of suicide bombers and fanatical organisations.
But we are all sensible enough to understand that the woeful and evil actions of an
individual or groups of individuals does not and cannot change the teachings of a Global
Faith. The message of Islam is precisely today as it was over 1400 years ago; teaching
and encouraging peace, tolerance and love. How can we forget the Prophet's last
sermon, ''You are all the children of Adam, there is no superiority of an Arab over a
Non-Arab, the Non-Arab over the Arab or the white over the black nor the black over the
white except those who are righteous and have good hearts''.

One has to be very careful when talking and discussing these issues in the present
sensitive climate. When we condemn the actions of the extreme Wahhabi/Salafi and
Shi'ites who have blood on their hands, are responsible for the murder of many innocent
bystanders but unconcerned and engaged in terrorist activity in the way of suicide
bombings, kidnapping and beheadings, the observers immediately imply that we are
supporting the right wing regimes whose ultimate aim is to divide the Muslims even
further and tarnish the name of Islam. And when we equally condemn those
administrations for instigating and fuelling terrorism, for their illegal interventions and
destruction of foreign lands, their lies and hypocrisies and greed for oil and power the
observers are quick to jump at the chance to label us as supporters or sympathisers
of Al-Qaeda. It is for this reason many people choose not to openly talk on these issues
however The Ahl as-Sunnah w'al Jama'ah denounce and distance themselves from
such dirty policies and politics and choose to live and be governed by the beautiful
teachings and the life of the Last Messenger of Allah, may infinite peace and blessings
be upon him.'

(Source: )

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The Principles of Islam

Maulana Abdul Aleem siddiqui Qadri

The beautiful panorama of the heavens and the earth, which we see around us, carries in its
bosom the testimony that it is the creation of a Great Artist. The existence of order and design
in the universe, which modern science teaches us, leads us to the belief in the existence of a
Supreme Power and a Supreme Intelligence who is responsible for this complex but orderly
design, --of a Supreme Being who brought it into existence and supplied it with all that it
needed for its life and growth, --in the language of the Holy Qur?an, of the Rabbul-Alameen.

The universe, as we know it in Science, is an organic Whole, all of whose parts are beautifully
and harmoniously inter-related. It is, further, a Domain of Law in which every particle exists
and moves in subjection to a prescribed and immutable course of law. Neither the huge
planets that swim in space, nor the tiny particles of sand that lie scattered on the seashore,
can deviate even slightly from that course. Their life is a life of complete submission to the
Laws of Nature, in the language of Science, and to the Laws of God, in the language of
Religion. Their life is the life of Islam, which means submission to Divine Commands. In other
words, they are Muslims. The Holy Qur?an refers to this truth in the following words:

"And to Him submits whatever is in the heavens and the earth, willingly, or
unwillingly, and to Him do they return" (III: 83).
The sole exception to this general rule is man. He is unique in the whole domain of creation,
inasmuch as he possesses not only the faculty of reasoning but also a free will. This makes his
course of action and the pattern of his behaviour undetermined. You can predict the action of
the sun, because it functions under an immutable law and possesses no freedom to deviate
from it. But you cannot do the same thing in the case of man. The activity of all the things of
the universe is mechanical. But not so that of man. He can choose his ends and he can
prescribe the means. For that purpose, he relies on his Reason. But, in that way, he commits
mistakes side by side with achieving great things, and ultimately lands himself in a confusion.
The same faculty, which is his asset, becomes the instrument of his undoing, solely because of
its wrong use. The human intellect can guide him only to certain limits, because it works on
the basis of known facts to discover the unknown. It can serve efficiently to some extent in
the domain of the physical reality. But when it enters the realm of fundamental truths, where
the first requirement is the possession of a comprehensive knowledge of the past, the present,
and the future, it can give us only conjectures and inferences. In its very nature, it is incapable
of discovering ultimate truths of life.

The human soul is, however, in dead earnest to know those ultimate truths, because without
them the real meaning of life remains unexplained and the true code of human endeavour
remains unfixed. Science cannot supply that, because it deals only with the immediate physical
reality. Philosophy cannot give it, because it works on postulates and inferences.

It is at this stage that the human soul cries for guidance from the Great Beyond or the Great
Unseen. It yearns to have a torch which might illumine its path, and a Guide who might supply

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the guidance based on sure and certain knowledge.

Humanity needs such a sure, positive and comprehensive guidance, and the same Loving
Creator who sustains us and the universe in the matter of physical needs and has also taken it
upon Himself to supply this vital need.

Human history bears testimony to the fact that religion has existed since the beginnings of the
life of humanity on this earth. This shows that the Beneficent God supplied mankind with
guidance simultaneously with its creation, so that it might not have to grope in the dark and
might walk the way of the law in conformity with its nature.

Those who were appointed by God to deliver that guidance are known in the terminology of
religion as Prophets and Messengers. They themselves received that guidance in the form of
"Divine Revelation", and when they presented it to the people in a written form, it was known
as "Scripture" or "Revealed Book". The contents of those Scriptures have always been those
laws which the Creator and Sustainer of the universe has appointed for the right life of man.
The aim of that guidance has always been to teach man to submit to the Divine Laws, which
attitude is expressed in Arabic by the term "Islam". Divine Guidance wants man to act and
behave in accordance with the law of his true nature, as a free being, even as the rest of the
creation conforms with the laws of nature in a mechanical way ---in one word, to be Muslim.
The Holy Qur?an says:

"The nature (made by) God in which He has created man. There is no altering in
God?s creation. That is the right religion. But most men do not know" (XX: 30).
This guidance from God was not confined to one group or community, but was sent to all
nations and races. This blessing of God was bestowed universally as the Holy Qur?an reports:
"And there is not a (single nation to whom a Warner was not sent." (XXXV: 24).
History has preserved the names of some of them, while the names and works of many others
have now been forgotten. Among those whose names are still remembered are: Adam, Noah,
Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Moses and Jesus. The last of the line was Muhammad (God
bless him and all other Prophets!). He appeared in the seventh century of the Christian era,
called humanity back to the path of the former Prophets, and presented to the world the Holy
Qur?an, which contains the laws taught by the former Prophets in their perfect and most
comprehensive form. People had named the teachings of the previous Teachers variously as
"Judaism", "Christianity", etc. The last Prophet reminded them of the real and original and
meaningful name, namely, Islam. He declared, in the words of the Holy Qur’an:
"Verily, the religion with God is Al-Islam (i.e. Submission)".(III: 9).

"The religion of your forefather Abraham. He named you as Muslims". (XXII: 78).

"Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was upright and submitted (to
his Lord)". (III: 67).
The Final Prophet raised religion from the level of sectarianism and taught that the Divine
Religion, wherever found and by whomsoever preached, had always been the same, namely,
Islam, which, as I have already emphasized twice, means submission to and conformity with
the laws appointed by God.

Now, the teachings of Islam fall under two headings, namely: (1) Belief, and (2) Action. In
matters of belief, the basic belief is that which-relates to God. It is the form of this belief

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which fashions the whole human outlook. When the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be with
him!) appeared, different religious communities had different notions. People had invented
conceptions of godhead and had raised human beings, nay, even the inorganic things, to the
status of divinity. Reforming all those wrong notions, the Holy Prophet Muhammad taught the
first lesson of Islam in the words:

"There is none worthy of worship except Allah".

This revolutionary declaration means that God is One and One only, and has no partner. God
is the Creator, and everything beside Him is "created". It means that no creature can be
ranked with the Creator, however great might be his achievements and attributes. The line of
demarcation is very distinct and cannot be crossed.

Of course, history has recorded the working of miracles by the Prophets and Messengers. But,
in that case, the Prophets and Messengers were merely instruments and the force that really
worked behind their miracles was the Hand of God. The sole function of the Prophets and
Messengers was to invite humanity to God and to attract the human hearts and intellects to
Him. Of all the Great Signs, which were associated with their lives, the greatest was the
reception of messages from God for delivery to the people. It was because of this that they
were called "Messengers". They taught the highest truths in spite of their illiteracy and
complete lack of schooling.

Belief in the mission and the message of all those Messengers was preached by the Holy
Prophet Muhammad (peace be with him!) as the second part of Islamic basic belief, and along
with the declaration of the Unity of God, the Divine Messengership of Muhammad was added,
for, as the last of the line of Prophets and Messengers, he represents all his predecessors. This
gives us the full Islamic article of faith:

"There is none worthy of worship but Allah, (and) Muhammad is the Messenger of
Now, just as the belief in the plurality of gods leads to the irreconcilable division of humanity,
so does the notion of differentiating between God?s Prophets and Messengers. Therefore, the
guidance coming truly from one God cannot permit it, and, consequently, we find the Holy
Qur?an teaching us the following basic belief:
"Say: We believe in Allah, and in that which has been revealed unto us, and in that
which was revealed unto Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the
tribes, and in that which Moses and Jesus got, and in that which (other) Prophets
received from their Lord. We make no distinction between them?"(III: 84).
One other point where humanity has committed grave mistakes concerns a species of God?s
creatures known as "Angles". Some have believed in them as "daughters of God", while others
have made them partners in the Supreme Godhead. Islam makes it clear that they are created
spiritual beings who serve as executors of God?s Will in the capacity of humble slaves. They
are not the bestowers of Divine Blessings but only a medium for Divine Action. The real
Bestower is God Almighty alone, and the angels are mere servants, as the Holy Qur?an says:
"They do not disobey God in what they are commanded and they do as ordered"
Now, I may say a word on the Islamic article of Faith concerning the Last Day and the Day of
Judgment. We all know that the violation of a physical law always causes us physical injury.
The use of wrong foods, the effects of wrong climate, the non-observance of the rules of
hygiene, brings about physical consequences which are evil. On the other hand, the
observance of the laws of health guarantees our development and natural growth. In fact,

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every one of our actions is consequential. The results might manifest themselves early or late,
but they must ultimately manifest themselves. Islam believes in the final assessment of all our
actions and the true manifestation of their ultimate results on a day named by it as the Day of

Regarding the duration of the life of the universe, modern science postulates its ultimate end.
It teaches that the numerous planets and stars which constitute the universe are bound
together by a network of magnetic forces which is fed by the radiation of energy emanating
from those bodies. It further teaches that energy is diminishing and decreasing every day, and
on that basis it infers that a time must come when the balance of forces must be upset,
destroying the entire universe. Islam, too, teaches the belief in the ultimate ending of the
world, and names that occurrence as the Qiyam-e-Qiyamet, or the advent of the Last Day.

These are the simple principles of Islamic belief. And here I may emphasize a very important
point. The fact is that two fundamental beliefs are absolutely necessary to keep man within
the bounds of healthy existence and growth:

Firstly, the belief in the All-Knowing and All-Seeing God, who knows and sees, not
only his positive action, but also the ideas and emotions which run through the
most secret recesses of his heart.

Secondly, the belief that he is responsible for his action and is ultimately bound to
receive his reward or punishment.

It is evident that, for most people, the real deterrent is the existence of the instruments of the
law under which they live and the fear of punishment consequent upon the violation of law. It
is also evident that one would hardly have the courage of committing any crime in the
presence of the sentinels of the law.

The Holy Qur?an has taught in the most unambiguous words that no one can bear the burden
of any other?s sin and no one can be held accountable for the deeds of someone else. Every
human being is responsible for his or her actions alone. The Holy Qur?an says:

"No one bears the burden of the other" (VI : 164).

Consequently, if a person is rightly inspired with the belief in the existence of the All-Seeing
and All-Knowing God and in his ultimate personal accountability, it would be difficult for him to
commit evil.

Thus it is that the fundamental principles of belief in the teachings of all the Prophets, namely,
in Islam, are: Belief in the One True God; Belief in all the Prophets of God; Belief in all the
Divinely-revealed Books; Belief in the Angels; Belief in the Last Day and the Day of Judgment;
Belief in human accountability, on the basis of the possession of free will, and in the ultimate
reward or punishment.

Besides these principles of belief, the Code of Law which humanity received through Divine
Revelation, in the form of the Holy Qur?an, supplies us with a complete system of guidance for
all the practical walks of life. It is not possible to deal with it here in any detail. Only a brief
reference can be made under three fundamental items, namely: (1) Duties towards God; (2)

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Duties towards self; (3) Duties towards others.

Duties towards God rest on the basic problem of the establishment of the right and conscious
relation of man with God. In what form should this relation manifest itself? The basic fact in
this connection is the attitude of love and thankfulness. It is a natural human attribute to feel
thankful to anyone who does the smallest amount of good to us and to love him who loves us.
What then about God who brought us forth from mere nothingness and took upon Himself the
obligation of leading us to the pinnacle of our perfection? Therefore, Islam teaches us to make
that Real Bestower of all Blessings as the center of our love, to bend our personality in
thought and deed towards Him, and to express our gratitude to Him with our tongues as well
as our hearts. It prescribes for that purpose continuous remembrance of God and a form of
worship or prayer, named as Salat. The function of this prayer and remembrance is the same
in the spiritual life of man as that of the nourishing foods in his physical life, and the greater
the attention one pays to it, the greater is the spiritual and moral development. In its
obligatory form, Islam prescribes it to be performed in a fixed manner and to be observed at
certain fixed times of the day and the night, even as the physicians fix the forms and the times
of meals for the proper nourishment of the physical body. Divine Revelation tells us in the Holy

"Verily, prayer is obligatory on the believers at fixed times". (IV: 103).

And the Last Prophet (peace be with him!) emphasized the institution of prayer in these
"What separates a Servant (of God) from infidelity is Prayer".

While referring to the nourishing value of prayer for the soul, the Holy Qur?an says:

"Verily, in the remembrance of God do hearts find rest". (XIII: 28).

The consequences of the observance of prayers have been spoken of in these words:
"Verily, prayer keeps away from indecencies and evil". (XXIX: 45).
Thus prayer provides the protection against moral and spiritual diseases which results in
spiritual development and leads to close communion with God.

The establishment of the right relation with the Creator and the cultivation of love for Him
must result not only in the devotion of one?s attention, but also in the practical and active
dedication of one?s life and wealth to Him. It must further result in the creation of the deepest
sentiments of love for His creatures. For the practical demonstration of this love, Islam
prescribes the obligatory "poor-tax" or Zakat.

Towards this end, Islam also prescribes the observance of Haj or Pilgrimage to Mecca as
obligatory on every Muslim of means. In this observance, a Muslim has to sacrifice his wealth
as well as his comforts for the sake of the love of God. On the social side, the Haj is the
instrument of fostering fraternal relations between the different Muslim units scattered all over
the world and of solving their political, economic an international problems.

There remains now one more Islamic obligatory practice, and that is Saum, or Fasting. The
harmonious development of human personality depends upon the harmonious working of the
human self, which is always in danger of being corrupted or destroyed by the widespread
inclination towards self-indulgence. To steer clear of the temptations and pitfalls of human life,
man is urgently in need of the cultivation of self-control. To that end, Islam has prescribed

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obligatory fasting during the whole month of Ramadan every year.

The Holy Qur?an says:

"O you who believe! Fasting has been prescribed for you as it was prescribed for
those who were before you, so that you may attain piety; -- (It is fasting for a)
fixed number of days". (II: 183).
It may be pointed out here that while announcing the obligatoriness of fasting, the Holy
Qur?an refers to the fact that the same had been prescribed for those who followed the
previous scriptures and Prophets. But this institution also met the same fate in other religions
as the other basic teachings. Misinterpretations and interpolations of those Messages caused
this institution to disappear from those religious groups. The Holy Qur?an reminded about it
and renewed the teaching of the former Prophets with regard to fasting. The Qur?anic
institution of fasting is observed during all the days of Ramadan by means of total abstinence
during daytime from eating, drinking and sexual acts. Thus, when a person practices self-
control with regard to those things which are lawful, he automatically cultivates the power of
resisting the evil temptations in thought and deed.

This completes the statement of the fundamental principles of Islam which have been
summed up by the Holy Prophet Muhammad (God bless him!) in the following words:

"Islam is founded on five things: To bear witness that there is none worthy of
worship but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; to establish
prayer; to pay the prescribed Charity; to fast during Ramadan; and to perform the
Pilgrimage to the Kaaba if one has means of doing so".
It may be pointed out that the general conception prevailing in the world is that it is merely a
bundle of certain rituals, prayers and ceremonies. This is not, however, the conception of
Islam, which comprehends in itself a complete and perfect Code of Life dealing with spiritual,
moral, political, economic, in fact, all the aspects of human activity. The Holy Qur?an declares
in very clear terms:
"This day I have perfected your religion for you, and completed My favour on you,
and chosen for you Al-Islam as your religion."(V : 4).
I have so far referred to those principles of Islam which fall under the category of purely
"religious" or "devotional", although I must emphasize that they, too, have a vital bearing on
human culture.

Now, as regards "Duties towards self", Islam considers human life as the first and the most
important blessing of God, and urges its preservation and reverence for it. Wanton injury to
human life is a sin in Islam, which lays down the general rule in the words of the Holy Qur?an:

"And be not cast by your own hands to ruin" (II: 195).

Suicide is one of the major crimes according to the Islamic law, and God has prescribed the
severest punishment for it. On the other hand, the preservation and right development of
one?s self is one of the major virtues. In that respect, Islam has gone to the extent of
forbidding certain foods and drinks which the All-Knowing God knows are injurious for the
human body. Thus, the Holy Qur?an says:
"O Mankind! Eat of that which is lawful and wholesome, and follow not the ways of
the devil." (II: 168).

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"You have been forbidden only carrion and blood and pork and that which has been
slaughtered in the name of other than Allah" (II ? 173).
"Verily, intoxicants and games of chance and divining by arrows and idols are
pollution of Satan?s handiwork. Therefore, abstain from them if you wish to attain
success." (V: 93).
Islam has also taken into consideration the moral aspect of human dress and has prescribed
the obligatory covering of certain parts of the body which have a sexappeal.

Islam does not hold the world and its struggle in contempt. On the other hand, it regards the
earning of livelihood by rightful means as an obligation and a blessing of God.

The Holy Qur?an says:

"For man is naught but what he strives for." (LIII: 39).

"And seek of the Bounty of Allah."

The Holy Prophet says:

"One who earns livelihood (by sweat of brow) is Allah?s beloved."
Islam has forbidden us from earning wealth by unlawful means.

The Holy Qur?an says:

"Devour not each others? wealth by unlawful means" (IV: 29).

"God has permitted fair business and has prohibited usury." (II: 275).

Islam has also placed limits on the right of spending our wealth. In the Holy Qur?an, we read:
"Be not extravagant. Verily, Allah loveth not those who are extravagant." (VII: 31).

"Be not prodigal. Lo! The prodigals have ever been brothers of the devils. And the
devil was ever ingrate to his Lord." (XVII: 26 ? 27).

Concerning well-doing to others, the Holy Qur?an observes:

"And those who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor miserly, but walk
the middle course." (XXV: 67).
There is a widespread notion that there are only two ideologies in the world, between which
mankind has to make a choice, namely, Communism and Capitalism. But both of these
ideologies suffer from extremism, and the salvation of humanity lies in the adoption of a
balanced ideology. Such an ideology is found in Islam, which allows initiative and private
property, but limits the means of income and the ways of expenditure, which harmonizes the
interests of the society and the individual on a free moral basis, and which, in its state
constitution, guarantees to all individuals the provision of their basic needs.

The one great difference between Islam and the modern ideologies is that Islam bases all its
teachings on moral foundations and lays full emphasis on the moral reform of the individual.
Absolute moral values like Truthfulness, Justice, Charity, etc. are its very life-blood. The
interests of the individual and the society exist as co-centric realities. The Islamic society is a

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co-operative commonwealth of free individuals hedged in with restraints of harmony, even as

the human body is one.

Equality of all human beings in essential humanity is one of the basic principles of Islam. And
this conception stands, not only in respect of relations between man and man, but also in
connection with the relations between man and woman. In fact, Islam ennobled and
established the status of woman at a time when she was being regarded as a chattel and at
best as a plaything for man, and it was being debated whether she was a human being at all,
-- at a time when she possessed no legal personality of her own and was deprived even of the
right of owning property. According to the Islamic ideology, as a daughter, woman is more
beloved than a son; as a wife, she is "The Queen of her house", and as a mother, her status is
superior to that of a father.

Islam wiped off all distinctions of race and colour and taught in the most unambiguous terms
the most practical and the truest form of the human brother-hood. The Holy Qur?an says:

"O Mankind ! We created you from one male and one female and made you into
nations and tribes that ye may know each other. Lo ! the noblest of you in the sight
of God is he who is best in conduct.." (XXXXIX: 13).
This brotherhood is made up of individuals who are to be respected without attaching
importance to any physical distinctions. In fact, Islam regards the individual as a world by
himself, as representing the whole of humanity in his person. Thus says the Holy Qur?an:
"He who kills anyone except for murder or mischief in the land, it is as if he killed
all mankind; and he who saves the life of anyone, it is as if he saved the life of all
mankind." (V: 35).
The one great source of strife between human beings is the existence of egotism culminating
in self-interest. Islam takes a determined stand against it when it preaches the ideal of Muslim
life in the following words:
"They sacrifice their own interests, even though it causes them hardship".
The Islamic conception of sacrifice is a natural corollary of the ideal of unbounded love for
fellow beings. That, in its turn, is rooted in the ideal of the love of God, which is the central
idea to which all the teachings of Islam are directed. The first principle of Islam is true faith in
the Existence and the Unity of God. The goal of Muslim life is the attainment of nearness and
proximity to God. The Muslim lives not for himself but for God, and all his actions as a Muslim
must lead to that goal, as the Holy Qur?an says:
"Say: verily, my prayer and my sacrifice, my life and my death, are all for Allah,
Lord of the worlds, Who has no partner (in His Kingdom)". (VI: 162).
Even in the field of scientific quest, the ideal of a Muslim is to know God and His Plan. For we
read in the Holy Qur?an:
"Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and in the alternation of the
night and the day, are signs for persons of understanding, who remember God
standing, sitting and reclining on their sides and ponder over the creation of the
heavens and the earth, (and say O our Lord! Thou hast not created all this in vain.
Glory be to Thee! Preserve us from the doom of Fire". (III ? 188).
This is a very brief outline of the Islamic principles of life. In this teaching, we have neither
mystery nor dogma. On the other hand, it is the religion of broad daylight. It is based on the
natural laws appointed by God, and consequently every one of its principles is capable of
rational proof and demonstration.

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It is the obligation of every rational human being to employ his reason and to consider
whether he should follow the man-made imperfect "isms" or the Perfect Guidance given by the
All-Knowing God. Islam is not the product of any human brain. It is a Divine Teaching revealed
to a man who knew neither to read nor to write, who had received no schooling in science or
philosophy, and whose very environment was averse to the possibilities of the cultivation of
any higher attributes. That man, that orphan child of Lady Amina, that unlettered son of the
desert, stood in the wilds of Arabia, fourteen centuries ago, and proclaimed about himself the
following words of God:

"And he does not speak of his own desire. It is naught but an inspiration inspired"
He stood up as an unlettered Teacher, but on the basis of the revelation he received from
God, he astounded the world by expounding the highest principles of wisdom and knowledge.
He gave to humanity that revealed and perfect Code of Life which transformed the Bedouins
of the desert into the most advanced nation of the world and revolutionised the whole human
outlook. Those who were sunk in barbarism and moral degradation became the torchbearers
of morals and the teachers of the world in all the arts of peace and war. They stood at the
cradle of modern science and they remained the master-people of the earth for centuries.

The same inspiration, the same message, the same system exists even today in its original
and authentic form in the Holy Qur?an. The life of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be
with him!) as the practical commentary of the Holy Qur?an and as the most comprehensive
model of human perfection is still preserved in the authentic record of history, and stands out
as the Beacon Light for all time.

Let those who honour the demand of rationality and who wish to tread the path of true human
perfection come to the Holy Qur?an and God?s Last Prophet, Muhammad (peace be with him!)
and receive perfect guidance in all the walks of life ? spiritual, moral, political, economic,
individual and collective. May the Beneficent God guide the whole of mankind to the Straight


( Source: )

For more lectures by Maulana Abdul Aleem siddiqui Qadri please download 'Mohammed
(Peace Be Upon Him) the Prophet' by Professor K. S. Rama Krishna Rao - A Non-
Muslim's Views at the following link(at the end of the book many many more links to
lectures on Islam by by Maulana Abdul Aleem siddiqui Qadri and other personalities
are given ):

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Was Islam Spread By The Sword?

Q] How can Islam be called the religion of peace when it was spread by the

A] It is a common complaint among some non-Muslims that Islam would not have
millions of adherents all over the world, if it had not been spread by the use of force.

The following points will make it clear, that far from being spread by the sword, it was
the inherent force of truth, reason and logic that was responsible for the rapid spread of

1. Islam means peace.

Islam comes from the root word 'salaam', which means peace. It also means submitting
one's will to Allah (Subhanahu wa ta'ala). Thus Islam is a religion of peace, which is
acquired by submitting one’s will to the will of the Supreme Creator, Allah (Subhanahu
wa ta'ala).

2. Sometimes force has to be used to maintain peace.

Each and every human being in this world is not in favour of maintaining peace and
harmony. There are many, who would disrupt it for their own vested interests.
Sometimes force has to be used to maintain peace. It is precisely for this reason that
we have the police who use force against criminals and anti-social elements to maintain
peace in the country. Islam promotes peace. At the same time, Islam exhorts it
followers to fight where there is oppression. The fight against oppression may, at times,
require the use of force. In Islam force can only be used to promote peace and justice.

3. Opinion of historian De Lacy O'Leary.

The best reply to the misconception that Islam was spread by the sword is given by the
noted historian De Lacy O’Leary in the book "Islam at the cross road" (Page 8): "History
makes it clear however, that the legend of fanatical Muslims sweeping through the

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world and forcing Islam at the point of the sword upon conquered races is one of the
most fantastically absurd myth that historians have ever repeated."

4. Muslims ruled Spain for 800 years.

Muslims ruled Spain for about 800 years. The Muslims in Spain never used the sword to
force the people to convert. Later the Christian Crusaders came to Spain and wiped out
the Muslims. There was not a single Muslim in Spain who could openly give the adhan,
that is the call for prayers.

5. 14 million Arabs are Coptic Christians.

Muslims were the lords of Arabia for 1400 years. For a few years the British ruled, and
for a few years the French ruled. Overall, the Muslims ruled Arabia for 1400 years. Yet
today, there are 14 million Arabs who are Coptic Christians i.e. Christians since
generations. If the Muslims had used the sword there would not have been a single
Arab who would have remained a Christian.

6. More than 80% non-Muslims in India.

The Muslims ruled India for about a thousand years. If they wanted, they had the
power of converting each and every non-Muslim of India to Islam. Today more than
80% of the population of India are non-Muslims. All these non-Muslim Indians are
bearing witness today that Islam was not spread by the sword.

7. Indonesia and Malaysia.

Indonesia is a country that has the maximum number of Muslims in the world. The
majority of people in Malaysia are Muslims. May one ask, "Which Muslim army went to
Indonesia and Malaysia?"

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8. East Coast of Africa.

Similarly, Islam has spread rapidly on the East Coast of Africa. One may again ask, if
Islam was spread by the sword, "Which Muslim army went to the East Coast of Africa?"

9. Thomas Carlyle.

The famous historian, Thomas Carlyle, in his book "Heroes and Hero worship", refers to
this misconception about the spread of Islam: "The sword indeed, but where will you
get your sword? Every new opinion, at its starting is precisely in a minority of one. In
one man’s head alone. There it dwells as yet. One man alone of the whole world
believes it, there is one man against all men. That he takes a sword and try to
propagate with that, will do little for him. You must get your sword! On the whole, a
thing will propagate itself as it can."

10. No compulsion in religion.

With which sword was Islam spread? Even if Muslims had it they could not use it to
spread Islam because the Qur’an says in the following verse: "Let there be no
compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from error" [Al-Qur’an 2:256]

11. Sword of the Intellect.

It is the sword of intellect. The sword that conquers the hearts and minds of people.
The Qur’an says in Surah Nahl, chapter 16 verse 125: "Invite (all) to the way of thy
Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best
and most gracious." [Al-Qur’an 16:125]

12. Increase in the world religions from 1934 to 1984.

An article in Reader’s Digest 'Almanac', year book 1986, gave the statistics of the
increase of percentage of the major religions of the world in half a century from 1934 to
1984. This article also appeared in 'The Plain Truth' magazine. At the top was Islam,

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which increased by 235%, and Christianity had increased only by 47%. May one ask,
which war took place in this century which converted millions of people to Islam?

13. Islam is the fastest growing religion in America and Europe.

Today the fastest growing religion in America is Islam. The fastest growing religion in
Europe in Islam. Which sword is forcing people in the West to accept Islam in such
large numbers?

14. Dr. Joseph Adam Pearson.

Dr. Joseph Adam Pearson rightly says, "People who worry that nuclear weaponry will
one day fall in the hands of the Arabs, fail to realize that the Islamic bomb has been
dropped already, it fell the day MUHAMMED (pbuh) was born".


Terrorism : Islam's Viewpoint

Reprinted from the Muslim World League Journal

Jumad AI-Ula 1423 - July 2002

During its sixteenth session, which was held between 21-27 Shawwal 1422 H (5-10
January 2002), the Islamic Fiqh Council laid emphasis on the fact that extremism,
violence, and terrorism have no connection whatsoever with Islam. In fact, they are
manifestations of perilous acts with dangerous consequences, and an aggression and
iniquity against the individual.

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Whosoever carefully studies the two sources of the Shari'ah (Islamic law), namely the
Book of Allah [the Qur'an] and the Sunnah (Traditons) of Prophet Muhammad (Peace &
Blessings be upon), would discover that they are devoid of any import of extremism,
acts of violence or terrorism, which imply carrying out aggression against others
without a just cause.

Therefore, in order to draw an Islamic definition of terrorism that unites the vision and
attitudes of all Muslims; and in order to clearly state this fact and highlight the danger
of associating Islam with extremism and terrorism, the Islamic Fiqh Council presents the
following definition of terrorism and Islam's attitude toward it both to the Muslims and
the world at large.


Definition of Terrorism

'Terrorism' is an outrageous attack carried out either by individuals, groups or states

against the human being (his religion, life, intellect, property and honour). It includes all
forms of intimidation, harm, threatening, killing without just cause and everything
connected with any form of armed robbery, hence making pathways insecure, banditry,
every act of violence or threatening intended to fulfil a criminal scheme individually or
collectively, so as to terrify and horrify people by hurting them or by exposing their
lives, liberty, security or conditions to danger; it can also take the form of inflicting
damage on the environment or on a public or a private utility or exposing a national or
natural resource to danger.

All these are manifestations of the mischief in the land, Allah the Almighty has
prohibited Muslims from committing. Allah says in the Qur'an al kareem:

"And seek not occasions for mischief in the land: for Allah loves not those who do

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mischief. " (28:77)

Hence Allah (Exalted is He) did not only enact deterrent punishment against terrorism,
aggression and corruption, but considers these acts tantamount to waging war against
Allah and His Beloved Messenger (Peace and abundant blessings upon him). Allah says
in the Qur'an:

"The punishment of those who wage war against Allah Almighty and His
Messenger (Peace and abundant blessings upon him), and strive with might and main
for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or cutting off of hands and
feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: That is their disgrace in this world, and
a heavy punishment is theirs in the hereafter. " (5:33)

Obviously, in view of the enormity of such acts of aggression, which are viewed by the
Shari'ah (Islamic law) as an act of war against the laws and the creatures of God, there
is no stricter punishment anywhere in the manmade laws. Moreover, according to the
Islamic Fiqh Council, there are various forms of terrorism, which include state terrorism,
the most conspicuous illustration and the most heinous of which is practiced aggresively
in Palestine today by the Israelis, previously by the Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina and
Kosovo, by the Russians in Checheniya and more recently by western governments in
Afghanistan and Iraq and supported the Israeli massacre in Lebanon.

According to the Islamic Fiqh Council, state terrorism is the most menacing to security
and peace in the world.


Islam's Remedy for Extremism & Terrorism

In combating terrorism and protecting society against its evil consequences, Islam is a
trail-blazer. Through clear-cut limitations that must not be trespassed, Islam urges the
protection of human life, honour, property, religion and intellect. Allah the Almighty
says in the Qur'an:

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"If any do transgress the limits ordained by Allah, such persons wrong themselves as
well as others. " (2:229)

Accordingly, in furtherance of this honour bestowed upon mankind, Islam prohibit[s]

man's injustice to his fellow man, and condemn[s] those who cause harm to people, not
only in the Muslim world, but anywhere in the world. Allah says in the Qur'an al

"Say: The things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are; shameful deeds, whether open
or secret; sins and trespasses against truth or reason."


"When he turns his back, his aim everywhere is to spread mischief through the earth
and destroy crops and progeny. But Allah loves not mischief. When it is said to him
'Fear Allah,' he is led by arrogance to (more) crime. Enough for him is Hell - an evil bed
indeed to lie on." (7:33 & 2:205-206)

Furthermore, Islam ordered its adherents to keep away from anything that may cause
turmoil among the people, and warned at the same time, against its evil consequences.
Allah says in the Qur'an:

"And fear tumult or oppression, which affects not in particular (only) those of you who
do wrong: And know that Allah is strict in punishment." (8:25)

In Islam, both the individual and the community are exhorted not only to tow the line
of moderation, but likewise, to root out extremism and religious intolerance which are
sure to destroy the mankind. The Most Beloved Prophet (Peace and
Blessings upon him) said in a report by Imams Ahmad and Al-Nissaie:

"Beware of excesses in matters of religion. For, as a matter of fact, those before you
were destroyed by religious immoderation."

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Islam also addressed the issue of evil tendencies that are apt to lead to intimidation,
terrifying, horrifying and killing without any just cause. The Beloved Prophet (Peace and
Blessings upon him) said:

"A Muslim must not terrify a fellow Muslim."


"Whoever points an iron rod towards his brother, the angels shall go on cursing him
until he stopped, even if he (the victim) happens to be his full brother (from the sides
of his father and mother)." (Sahih Muslim)

With regard to the Dhimmis (Non-Muslims living under Muslim protection), Islam
ordered that they must be treated justly. It gave them rights and imposed duties on
them. It gave them security in the Muslim world, and imposed blood-money and
expiation for an act of killing committed against anyone among them. Allah says:

"If he belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance, blood-
money shall be paid to his family, and a believing slave be freed. " (Qur'an 4:92)

Furthermore, in conformity with the saying of the Beloved Prophet (Peace and
Blessings upon him), Islam prohibits the slaying of a Dhimmi living in the Muslim world.

"Whoever kills a person under the contract of protection shall never smell the scent of
Paradise." (Ibn Majah)

Moreover, Islam does not forbid its followers from being charitable towards those who
do not fight them or expel them from their homes. Allah says in the Qur'an:

"Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for your faith, nor drive
you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: For Allah loves those
who are just. " (60:8)


"And let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from
justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all
that you do." (5:8)

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In view of the foregoing, therefore, the Islamic Fiqh Council would like to make it public
that the crime of taking away one life without a just cause is tantamount to killing all
people, whatever the faith of the murdered or the murderer; and that punishments and
retributions are solely the prerogative of the ruler, not of individuals or groups.

Jihad is not ...

Jihad is not Terrorism

In Islam, Jihad is ordained to uphold right, repel injustice and establish justice, peace,
security and clemency, with which the Beloved Prophet (Peace & Blessings be
upon him) was sent to take mankind out of darkness into light. More specifically, Jihad
has been ordained to eliminate all forms of terrorism, and to defend the homeland
against occupation, plunder and colonialism.

Jihad is waged against those who support others in driving out people out of their
homes, as well as against those who are in breach of their covenants. Jihad is meant to
avoid tempting away Muslims from their faith or restricting their freedom to conduct
peaceful propagation of their religion. Allah the Almighty said:

"Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for your faith, nor drive
you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: For Allah loveth those
who are just. "


"Allah only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for your faith, and drive you
out of your homes, and support others in driving you out, from turning to them (for
friendship and protection). !t is such as turn to them in these circumstances that do
wrong." (Qur'an 60:8-9)

Islam has crystal clear rules and provisions that forbid the killing of non-combatants,
innocent persons, such as the elderly, women and children; pursuit of fleeing persons,
slaying persons who have surrendered, injuring prisoners, or mutilating the bodies of
the dead, or destroying structures and buildings that have no connection with combat.

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Thus it is illogical to equate violence committed by usurpers and tyrants who violate
human dignity, defile sanctuaries and plunder wealth, with the right of legitimate self-
defense, exercised by the oppressed in asserting their legitimate right of self-

In view of the above, the Islamic Fiqh Council would like to call the attention of all
nations, peoples and organizations of the world to the necessity of drawing a distinction
between legitimate Jihad against aggression or oppression designed to establish truth
and justice, and the act of violence which aims at occupation of land, encroaching on
national sovereignty and terrifying civilian populations and turning them into refugees.

The above was taken from the following link and for more information on terrorism
please visit:

Do also read Sufism and its Influence on Europe, a lecture by Dr. Anne-Marie
Schimmel delivered at Stanford University, May 4, 1997:

The following HIGHLY RECOMMENDED books can be bought from:

God's Terrorists : The Wahhabi Cult & the hidden

roots of modern Jihad
By Charles Allen Hardback - 349 pages
An important study of the little-known history of the Wahhabi, a
radical neo-conservative Islamic tribe whose teachings
influence today's extreme Islamic terrorists, including the
Taliban, Deobandis and Osama bin Laden.
In today's post-9/11 world, the everyday news shows us
images of fanatic fighters and suicide bombers willing to die in
holy war, martyrs for jihad. But what are the roots of this
militant fundamentalism in the Muslim world? In this insightful
and wide-ranging history, Charles Allen finds an answer in the
eighteenth-century reform movement of Muhammed ibn Abd
al-Wahhab and his followers--the Wahhabi--who sought the

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restoration of Islamic purity and declared violent jihad on all who opposed them,
Moslems and pagans alike.
As the Wahhabi teaching spread in the nineteenth century, first, to the Arabian
peninsula, and then, to the region around the Afghanistan-Pakistan border, their
followers brought with them a vicious brand of political ideology and militant conflict.
The Wahhabi deeply influenced the rulers of modern Saudi Arabia and their
establishment of a strict Islamic code. A more militant expression of Wahhabism took
root in the mountains of Afghanistan and Pakistan, where fierce tribes have waged
holy war for almost two hundred years. The ranks of the Taliban and al-Qaeda today
are filled with young men who were taught the Wahhabi theology of Islamic purity while
rifles were pressed into their hands for the sake of jihad.
God's Terrorists sheds shocking light on the historical roots of modern terrorism and
shows how this dangerous theology lives on today.

The Great Threft : Wrestling Islam from the Extremists

Hardback - 308 pages
Synopsis: The preeminent voice for moderate Muslims, both an
Islamic jurist and American lawyer, offers a passionate defense
of Islam against the encroaching tide of fundamentalists
corrupting the true faith.
Books on Islam have proliferated in the marketplace recently,
but none have answered the desperate need for a clear
articulation of moderate Islam. Khaled Abou El Fadl is uniquely
qualified to write this impassioned defense against the threat of
Muslim fundamentalism. Seduced by the lure of
fundamentalism himself as a teenager in Egypt, he rejected that
path once he began studying Islamic law. A longtime feminist
and human rights advocate, since 9-11 Abou El Fadl has
become increasingly active and outspoken in support of rescuing the Islamic faith from
radicals. Embraced by moderate Muslims everywhere as one of the only learned
voices defending the faith, he has received death threats from extremists for that very
same reason. As quick to criticize the failure of Islamic leadership in the U.S. as
abroad, Abou El Fadl remains a brave voice against the pressures and threats of
Wahhabi extremism.
The Great Theft will present the beliefs and practices of moderate Muslims, and
identify the points of difference and disagreement with the fundamentalist-puritan
practice of Islam. This book offers a vision for Moderate Islam- past, present, and
future. Abou El Fadl is dedicated to providing the tools necessary to help readers
reclaim an understanding of Islam that is grounded in the tradition's history and law.

The Two Faces of Islam -The House of Sa'ud from

Tradition to Terror

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by Stephen Schwartz Hardback - 313 pages

From Publishers Weekly : Schwartz challenges President
Bush's "axis of terror." "The real exporters of international
Islamic extremism and terror," he says, are not Iraq or Iran, but
an American ally: the Saudis. Saudia Arabia is dominated by
Wahhabism, which journalist Schwartz (Kosovo: Background
to a War) labels a "fascistic" cult. And the West, he goes on,
has "nurtured this serpent in [its] very bosom" by supporting
the Saudis in the belief that they were "moderate..
From Booklist : Schwartz cautions against viewing Islam as a
monolith, pointing out that even under the umbrella of
"fundamentalist" Islam, there is considerable diversity. He
argues that the most dangerous and oppressive brand of Islamic extremism isn't found
in Iran or Iraq, but in America's closest Arab ally, Saudi Arabia. In Arabia, the spiritual
legacy of Muhammad ibn abd al-Wahhab, a radical--and, Schwartz says, heretical--
seventeenth-century cleric, rose to prominence when his followers, the Wahhabis,
forged an allegiance to the Sa'ud family. Together, Wahhabis and Sa'uds murdered
and plundered their way to the Arabian throne. Ever since, Schwartz maintains, the
Saudis have worked tirelessly to export their uniquely extreme vision of Islamic piety.
U.S. alliance with the Saudi regime only furthers the cause of terrorism. Provocative,
detailed, and fervently written analysis. John Green

Wahhabism: A Critical Essay

by Hamid Algar
Paperback - 104 pages

Wahhabism, a peculiar interpretation of Islamic doctrine and

practice that first arose in mid-eighteenth century Arabia, is
sometimes regarded as simply an extreme or uncompromising form
of Sunni Islam. This is incorrect, for at the very outset the
movement was stigmatized as aberrant by the leading Sunni
scholars of the day, because it rejected many of the traditional
beliefs and practices of Sunni Islam and declared permissible
warfare against all Muslims that disputed Wahhabi teachings. Nor
can Wahhabism be regarded as a movement of “purification” or
“renewal,” as the source of the genuinely revivalist movements that were underway at
the time. Not until Saudi oil money was placed at the disposal of its propagandists did
Wahhabism find an echo outside the Arabian Peninsula.

The above HIGHLY RECOMMENDED books can be bought from:

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by Zubair Qamar
condensed and edited by ASFA staff (taken from: )
[Do note that right at the end of this article links are given to many more resources on Islam]

The most extremist pseudo-Sunni movement today is Wahhabism (also known as Salafism).
While many may think that Wahhabi terror is a recent phenomenon that has only targeted non-
Muslims, it will surprise many to know that the orthodox Sunni Muslims were the first to be slaughtered
in waves of Wahhabi massacres in Arabia hundreds of years ago. One only has to read the historical
evolution of Saudi Arabia to know the gruesome details of the tragedy – a tragedy in which thousands of
Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims perished at the hands of Wahhabi militants.

The extremist interpretations of Wahhabism, although previously confined to small pockets of

people in Arabia, has survived to this day under the protection, finance, and tutelage of the Saudi state
religious organs. This has transformed Wahhabism – and related Salafi groups that receive inspiration
and support from them – from a regional to a global threat to be reckoned with by the world
community. To a Wahhabi-Salafi, all those who differ with them, including Sunni Muslims, Shi’ite
Muslims, Christians, and Jews, are infidels who are fair targets.

Do the majority of Sunnis support Wahhabism? Are Sunnis and Wahhabis one and the

What is a Wahhabi?

Because Wahhabis claim to be “true Sunnis,” it is difficult for one who is unfamiliar with
Wahhabism to distinguish it from orthodox Sunni Islam. If a Wahhabi is asked if he/she is Sunni, he/she
will always reply in the affirmative. When asked if they are Wahhabis, they reply with an emphatic “no”
as they consider it an insult to what they believe and stand for: “Purity of worship and reverence to God
alone. The authentic carriers of Islam from the time of the Prophet (s)1[1] until now.” Calling them
Wahhabis implies that they learned ideas from a man – Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab – instead of the
Qur’an and Sunnah – the two great sources of Islam. Irrespective of what they think, they are not

Throughout the article, (s) means “peace be upon him,” and (ra) means “may Allah (swt) be pleased

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following the Islamic sources authentically, but the wrong interpretations of the founder of the Wahhabi
movement who appeared in the 1700s. Sunnis and other Wahhabi detractors have labeled them as
Wahhabis to differentiate them from orthodox Sunnis.

Wahhabis as Salafis: deceptive semantics

Wahhabis differentiate themselves from orthodox Sunnis by labeling themselves Salafis, which
refers to the word salaf – the time period in which the early Muslims lived in the first 300 years after the
Hijra, or emigration, of Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622. The Companions (Sahaba),
those who followed the Companions (Tabi’een), and those who followed those who followed the
Companions (Taba al-Tabi’een) who lived in the time period of the Salaf are exemplars par excellence of
what Muslims should be, as Prophet Muhammad (s) had praised these Muslims as being the best of
Muslims. Therefore, it has been the aim of every Muslim since the time of Prophet Muhammad (s) to
adhere to and to follow the footsteps of the adherents of the salaf. This means that when a Wahhabi
calls himself a Salafi, he claims to be a genuine follower of pristine Islam. This, however, is far from the

Orthodox Sunni Muslims believe that they are the true bearers of pristine Islam since the time
period of the Salaf. Because there were time gaps between the noble period of the Salaf and centuries
that followed, the authentic positions of the early Muslims were passed by scholars in those times and
afterwards to later generations via meticulous, systematic, and methodological means of preservation.
The knowledge was passed from qualified scholars to other qualified scholars through the centuries,
who passed it to the masses. This uninterrupted chain of knowledge from the time of the Salaf until
now has been authentically preserved by the orthodox Sunnis. Orthodox Sunnis, therefore, have roots
in the Salaf, and are represented today by the four surviving authentic schools of Islamic jurisprudence:
Hanafi, Shafi’i, Maliki, and Hanbali schools (madhahib).

The Wahhabis, by calling themselves Salafis, not only claim to follow the footsteps of the early
Muslims, but also use semantics to fool and allure less informed Muslims into accepting Wahhabism.
Wahhabis say, “You must follow the Muslims of the Salaf.” (This is undoubtedly true.) Then the
Wahhabi semantics: “Therefore you must be a Salafi and nothing else. Following anything else means
you’re following a path that is different from the Muslims of the Salaf.” By such deceptive semantics,
the less informed Muslims believe that Salafis must truly represent the pristine interpretations of the
early Muslims of the Salaf. After all, the word Salafi sounds like Salaf, so it must truly be representative
of it. Far from it. When the less informed goes beyond semantics and blind faith and investigates what a
Salafi believes, the truth unveiled is that the understanding of Salafis (Wahhabis) is different and
contradictory to the understanding and positions of the pious Muslims who lived in the Salaf – and the
majority of Muslims who have ever lived (Sunnis).

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Wahhabi-Salafi variety

The Wahhabi-Salafis believe that Sunnis have been vehemently wrong for the past 1,000+ years
and aim to bring the Muslims out of a state of ignorance (jahilliyya) that has existed, in their minds,
since the time of the pious adherents of the Salaf. Even if the majority of orthodox Sunni Muslims were
strong today, indeed if they ruled an empire that stretched far to every corner of the globe, it would still
be a failure to Salafis because to them the foundations of such a political system would have been based
on reprehensible innovation (bid’a) and blasphemy (kufr).

To the Salafi, the presence and power of Sunni orthodoxy, in all of its manifestations as
illustrated throughout Islamic history, is just as impure as the rising European hegemony in all of its
manifestations since the demise of the Muslim Ottoman Empire. To the Salafis, a minority in this world,
the world is an abode of blasphemy, ruled and occupied by infidels that demands reformation through
both non-violent and violent means to bring about a supposedly pure Islamic world system.

Wahhabi-Salafis come in various strains, some being more extreme than others. The variety in
strains is due to differences in approach of bringing the Muslims back to a state of strengthened belief
based on the example of the pious ancestors. It must be emphasized that although all Wahhabis are
called Salafis, all Salafis are not purely Wahhabi. “Salafi Muslims” include those like Syed Qutb who
wish to eradicate the supposed current state of ignorance (jahiliyya) and bring Muslims back to a state
of purity – a purity reminiscent of the purity of Muslims who lived in the time period of the Salaf.
However, all Salafi Muslims, whether they are Wahhabi or Qutbi, admire with exaggeration the role
models Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab and Ahmad Ibn Taymiyah, whose hard-line interpretations have
inspired revolutionaries today. Therefore, although all Salafis are not Wahhabis, they admire many of
the same role models – role models who have been rejected and condemned by masses of orthodox
Sunni scholars for their unauthentic representations of pristine Islam. It can also be said that all
Wahhabis consider themselves to be Salafis and prefer to be called by this name (instead of Wahhabi),
even though differences exist between Salafi groups.

Although there are differences in approach among Salafis, they have nonetheless allied
themselves in an attempt to make the Salafi vision a reality by both non-violent and violent means.

An example of this are the Salafi-oriented Deobandis and their alliance with the Wahhabis. The
alliance between the Muslim Brotherhood (and its various factions and offshoots) and the Wahhabis in
Saudi Arabia was strengthened during the 1950s and 1960s in the struggle of the Muslim Brotherhood
against Egypt’s Nasserist regime. Saudis had provided refuge for some leaders of the Brotherhood, and
also provided assistance to them in other Arab States. The Wahhabi-Salafi alliance was further
strengthened as a response to the growing threat of Shi’ah power when the Ayatollah Ruhollah
Khomeini of Iran revolted and overthrew the U.S.-allied Shah in 1979.

Lastly, the alliance made itself manifest in the holy struggle (jihad) against the
atheist/Communist Soviets in Afghanistan. Salafis of all strains worked together as the “righteous

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Sunnis” to counter the Shi’ah-Communist threat, from proselytizing to killing to make their Salafism
prevail. Indeed, Salafis have used both proselytizing and revolutionary means to express their message
using both political and apolitical approaches. So-called “Sunni terrorism” today is perpetrated by radical
Salafis who desire to replace “infidel” governments with myopic “scholars” who adhere to their fanatical
interpretations and ideologies. Their tentacles are spread to all corners of the globe, including Bosnia,
Albania, Indonesia, Philippines, Uzbekistan, England, Malaysia, South Africa, Lebanon, Afghanistan, and
Pakistan. Salafis have demonstrated the havoc they are capable of wreaking in recent decades.

Wahhabis as neo-Kharijites
The Wahhabis are especially notorious for reviving the ways of the Khawarij (or Kharijites).
They originated in the time of the caliphates of Uthman and Ali, among the closest companions to
Prophet Muhammad. They were the earliest group of fanatics who separated themselves from the
Muslim community. They arose in opposition to Ali – Prophet Muhammad’s son-in-law – because of
his willingness to arbitrate with Mu’awiyah, governor of Damascus at that time, over the issue of
the caliphate. The Khawarij, meaning “those who exited,” slung accusations of blasphemy against
Ali and Mu’awiyah – and those who followed them – saying that the Qur’an, and not them, had the
ultimate authority in the matter. Ibn al-Jawzi, an orthodox Sunni scholar, in his book Talbis Iblis
(The Devil’s Deception) under the chapter heading “A Mention of the Devil’s Delusion upon the
Kharijites,” says that Dhu’l-Khuwaysira al-Tamimi was the first Kharijite in Islam and that “[h]is fault
was to be satisfied with his own view; had he paused he would have realized that there is no view
superior to that of Allah’s Messenger…” Furthermore, the orthodox Sunni scholar Imam Abd al-
Qahir al-Baghdadi discusses the Kharijite rebellions and their bloody massacres of tens of
thousands of Muslims in one of his books. He explicitly mentions the Azariqa, one of the most
atrocious Kharijite movements led by Nafi’ ibn al-Azraq from the tribe of Banu Hanifa – the same
tribe where the heretic Musaylima the Prevaricator (or Liar) who claimed prophethood alongside
Prophet Muhammad came from. Just as the Khawarij threw accusations of blasphemy on Ali and
Mu’awiya, Wahhabis throw accusations of blasphemy against Sunnis and Shi’ites.

The Al-Sa`ud and Muhammad ibn `Abdul-Wahhab – the founder of

Wahhabism is named after the its founder, Muhammad ibn `Abdul-Wahhab (1703-1792), and has
its roots in the land now known as Saudi Arabia. Without this man, the al-Sa`ud , one of many clans
spread over the Arabian peninsula, would not have had the inspiration, reason, and determination to
consolidate the power that they did and wage "jihad" on people they perceived to be “polytheists” – those
who attribute partners in worship to Almighty God. How intimately close was al-Sa`ud’s association with
Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab? Robert Lacey eloquently illustrates this association:

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Until [Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab’s] coming the Al Sa`ud had been a minor sheikhly clan
like many others in Nejd, townsmen and farmers, making a comfortable living from trade,
dates and perhaps a little horse-breeding, combining with the desert tribes to raid outwards
when they felt strong, prudently retrenching in times of weakness. Modestly independent,
they were in no way empire builders, and it is not likely that the wider world would ever have
heard of them without their alliance with the Teacher.2[2]

The al-Sa`ud are originally from the village of ad-Diriyah, located in Najd, in eastern Arabia situated near
modern day Riyadh, the capital of Sa`udi Arabia. Ancestors of Sau’ud Ibn Muhammad, whom little is
known about, settled in the area as agriculturists and gradually grew in number over time into the clan
of al-Sa`ud .

Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab was raised in Uyainah, an oasis in southern Najd, and was from
the Banu Tamim tribe. He came from a religious family and left Uyainah in pursuit of Islamic knowledge.
He traveled to Mecca, Medina, Iraq, and Iran to acquire knowledge from different teachers. When he
returned to his homeland of Uyainah, he preached what he believed to be Islam in its purity – which
was, in fact, a vicious assault on traditional Sunni Islam.

The orthodox Sunni scholar Jamil Effendi al-Zahawi said that the teachers of Ibn `Abdul-Wahhab,
including two teachers he had studied with in Medina – Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Sulayman al-Kurdi and
Shaykh Muhammad Hayat al-Sindi – became aware of his anti-Sunni Wahhabi creed and warned
Muslims from him. His shaykhs, including the two aforementioned shaykhs, used to say: “God will allow
him [to] be led astray; but even unhappier will be the lot of those misled by him.”3[3]

Moreover, Ibn `Abdul-Wahhab’s own father had warned Muslims from him, as did his biological
brother, Sulayman Ibn `Abdul-Wahhab, an orthodox Sunni scholar who refuted him in a book entitled al-
Sawa’iq al-Ilahiyya fi al-radd `ala al-Wahhabiyya [“Divine Lightnings in Refuting the Wahhabis”]. Ibn
`Abdul-Wahhab was refuted by the orthodox Sunni scholars for his many ugly innovations. Perhaps his
most famous book, Kitab at-Tawheed (Book of Unity of God) is widely circulated amongst Wahhabis
worldwide, including the United States. His book is popular in Wahhabi circles, although orthodox Sunni
scholars have said that there is nothing scholarly about it, both in terms of its content and its style.

Ibn Taymiyah: the Wahhabi founder’s role model

It is worth giving an overview of a man named Ahmed Ibn Taymiyah (1263-1328) who lived a
few hundred years before Muhammad ibn `Abdul-Wahhab. The Wahhabi founder admired him as a role

Lacy, Robert. The Kingdom: Arabia & the House of Sa`ud . p. 59.
Zahawi, Jamal E (1996) The Doctrine of Ahl al-Sunna Versus the ‘Salafi’ Movement. Translated by
Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani. As-Sunna Foundation of America.

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model and embraced many of his pseudo-Sunni positions. Who exactly was Ibn Taymiyah and what did
orthodox Sunni scholars say about him? Muslim scholars had mixed opinions about him depending on
his interpretation of various issues. His straying from mainstream Sunni Islam on particular issues of
creed (`aqeedah) and worship (`ibadat) made him an extremely controversial figure in the Muslim

Ibn Taymiya has won the reputation of being the true bearer of the early pious Muslims,
especially among reformist revolutionaries, while the majority of orthodox Sunnis have accused him of
reprehensible bid’ah (reprehenisible innovation), some accusing him of kufr (unbelief).4[4]

It behooves one to ask why Ibn Taymiyah had received so much opposition from reputable Sunni
scholars who were known for their asceticism, trustworthiness, and piety. Some of Ibn Taymiyah’s anti-
Sunni and controversial positions include:

(1) His claim that Allah’s Attributes are “literal”, thereby attributing God with created attributes
and becoming an anthropomorphist;

(2) His claim that created things existed eternally with Allah;

(3) His opposition to the scholarly consensus on the divorce issue;

(4) His opposition to the orthodox Sunni practice of tawassul (asking Allah for things using a
deceased pious individual as an intermediary);

(5) His saying that starting a trip to visit the Prophet Muhammad’s (s) invalidates the shortening
of prayer;

(6) His saying that the torture of the people of Hell stops and doesn’t last forever;

(7) His saying that Allah has a limit (hadd) that only He Knows;

(8) His saying that Allah literally sits on the Throne (al-Kursi) and has left space for Prophet
Muhammad (s) to sit next to Him;

(9) His claim that touching the grave of Prophet Muhammad (s) is polytheism (shirk);

(10) His claim that that making supplication at the Prophet Muhammad’s grave to seek a better
status from Allah is a reprehensible innovation;

(11) His claim that Allah descends and comparing Allah’s “descent” with his, as he stepped down
from a minbar while giving a sermon (khutba) to Muslims;

For example, orthodox Sunni scholar Abu Ala Bukhari accused people of unbelief (kufr) if they called
Ibn Taymiyah “Shaykh”. Imam Zahid al-Kawthari accused Ibn Taymiyah’s positions on the creed to be
tantamount to apostasy.

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(12) His classifying of oneness in worship of Allah (tawheed) into two parts: Tawhid al-rububiyya
and Tawhid al-uluhiyya, which was never done by pious adherents of the salaf.

Although Ibn Taymiyah’s unorthodox, pseudo-Sunni positions were kept away from the public in
Syria and Egypt due to the consensus of orthodox Sunni scholars of his deviance, his teachings were
nevertheless circulating in hiding. An orthodox Sunni scholar says:

Indeed, when a wealthy trader from Jeddah brought to life the long-dead ‘aqida [creed] of Ibn
Taymiya at the beginning of this century by financing the printing in Egypt of Ibn Taymiya’s
Minhaj al-sunna al-nabawiyya [italics mine] and other works, the Mufti of Egypt Muhammad
Bakhit al-Muti‘i, faced with new questions about the validity of anthropomorphism, wrote: "It was
a fitna (strife) that was sleeping; may Allah curse him who awakened it."

It is important to emphasize that although many of the positions of Ibn Taymiyah and
Wahhabis are identical, they nonetheless contradict each other in some positions. While Ibn
Taymiyah accepts Sufism (Tasawwuf) as a legitimate science of Islam (as all orthodox Sunni
Muslims do), Wahhabis reject it wholesale as an ugly innovation in the religion. While Ibn
Taymiyah accepts the legitimacy of commemorating Prophet Muhammad’s birthday (Mawlid)
– accepted by orthodox Sunni Muslims as legitimate – Wahhabis reject it as a reprehensible
innovation that is to be repudiated.
Ibn Taymiyah is an inspiration to Islamist groups that call for revolution. Kepel says, “Ibn
Taymiyya (1268-1323) – a primary reference for the Sunni Islamist movement – would be abundantly
quoted to justify the assassination of Sadat in 1981…and even to condemn the Saudi leadership and call
for its overthrow in the mid-1990s”.5[5]

Sivan says that only six months before Sadat was assassinated, the weekly Mayo singled out Ibn
Taymiyya as “the most pervasive and deleterious influence upon Egyptian youth.” Sivan further says that
Mayo concluded that “the proliferating Muslim associations at the [Egyptian] universities, where Ibn
Taymiyya’s views prevail, have been spawning various terrorist groups.” Indeed, a book entitled The
Absent Precept, by `Abd al-Salam Faraj – the "spiritual" leader of Sadat’s assassins who was tried and
executed by the Egyptian government – strongly refers to Ibn Taymiyya’s and some of his disciples’
writings. Three of four of Sadat’s assassins willingly read a lot of Ibn Taymiyya’s works on their own.6[6]

Ibn Taymiyah is also noted to be a favorite of other Salafi extremists, including the Muslim
Brotherhood’s Syed Qutb. Ibn Taymiyyah’s student, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, is also frequently cited by
Salafis of all colors.

Gilles, Kepel. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam, p. 72.
Sivan, Emmanuel. Radical Islam: Medieval Theology and Modern Politics. Yale University Press,
New Haven and London. pg. 102-103.

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Ibn Taymiyah’s “fatwa” of jihad against Muslims

What is also well-known about Ibn Taymiyah is that he lived in turbulent times when the Mongols
had sacked Baghdad and conquered the Abassid Empire in 1258. In 1303, he was ordered by the Mamluk
Sultan to give a fatwa (religious edict) legalizing jihad against the Mongols. Waging a holy war on the
Mongols for the purpose of eliminating any threat to Mamluk power was no easy matter. The Mongol
Khan Mahmoud Ghazan had converted to Islam in 1295. Although they were Muslims who did not
adhere to Islamic Law in practice, and also supported the Yasa Mongol of code of law, they were deemed
apostates by the edict of Ibn Taymiyah. To Ibn Taymiyah, Islamic Law was not only rejected by
Mongols because of their lack of wholesale adherence, but the “infidel” Yasa code of law made them
legal targets of extermination. The so-called jihad ensued and the Mongol threat to Syria was
exterminated. Wahhabis and other Salafis to this day brand the Mongol Mahmoud Ghazan as a kafir
(disbeliever). Orthodox Sunni Muslims, however, have praised Mahmoud Ghazan as a Muslim. Shaykh
Muhammad Hisham Kabbani writes:

In fact, Ghazan Khan was a firm believer in Islam. Al-Dhahabi relates that he became a Muslim at
the hands of the Sufi shaykh Sadr al-Din Abu al-Majami’ Ibrahim al-Juwayni (d.720), one of
Dhahabi’s own shaykhs of hadith….During his rule he had a huge mosque built in Tabriz in
addition to twelve Islamic schools (madrasa), numerous hostels (khaniqa), forts (ribat), a school
for the secular sciences, and an observatory. He supplied Mecca and Medina with many gifts. He
followed one of the schools (madhahib) of the Ahl al-Sunna [who are the orthodox Sunnis] and
was respectful of religious scholars. He had the descendants of the Prophet mentioned before the
princes and princesses of his house in the state records, and he introduced the turban as the court

Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhab would later follow Ibn Taymiyah’s footsteps and slaughter
thousands of Muslims in Arabia.

Orthodox Sunni scholars who refuted Ibn Taymiyah’s pseudo-Sunni


Ibn Taymiyah was imprisoned by a fatwa (religious edict) signed by four orthodox Sunni judges
in the year 726 A.H for his deviant and unorthodox positions. Note that each of the four judges represents
the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence that Sunni Muslims belong to today. This illustrates that Ibn
Taymiyah did not adhere to the authentic teachings of orthodox Sunni Islam as represented by the four
schools of Sunni jurisprudence. There is no evidence to indicate that there was a “conspiracy” against Ibn
Taymiyyah to condemn him, as Wahhabis and other Salafis purport in his defense. The names of the four
judges are: Qadi [Judge] Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Jama’ah, ash-Shafi’i, Qadi [Judge] Muhammad Ibn
al-Hariri, al-`Ansari, al-Hanafi, Qadi [Judge] Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr, al-Maliki, and Qadi [Judge]
Ahmad Ibn `Umar, al-Maqdisi, al-Hanbali.
Some orthodox Sunni scholars who refuted Ibn Taymiyya for his deviances and opposition to the
positions of orthodox Sunni Islam include: Taqiyy-ud-Din as-Subkiyy, Faqih Muhammad Ibn `Umar Ibn
Makkiyy, Hafiz Salah-ud-Din al-`Ala’i, Qadi, Mufassir Badr-ud-Din Ibn Jama’ah, Shaykh Ahmad Ibn
Yahya al-Kilabi al-Halabi, Hafiz Ibn Daqiq al-`Id, Qadi Kamal-ud-Din az-Zamalkani, Qadi Safi-ud-Din
al-Hindi, Faqih and Muhaddith `Ali Ibn Muhammad al-Baji ash-Shafi’i, the historian al-Fakhr Ibn al-

Kabbani, Hisham M (1996). Islamic Beliefs & Doctrine According to Ahl al-Sunna A Repudiation of
“Salafi” Innovations. Volume I. As-Sunna Foundation of America.

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Mu`allim al-Qurashi, Hafiz Dhahabi, Mufassir Abu Hayyan al-`Andalusi, and Faqih and voyager Ibn

Najd – A place not so holy

Najd, in Saudi Arabia, is where the founder of Wahhabism came from. It was a mostly barren
and dry land inhabited by Bedouins who used to graze animals. With sparse water, it is not the most
comfortable of places since its climate has extremes of heat and cold in the summer and winter seasons.
Najd has a notorious reputation in the orthodox Sunni community for originating seditions (fitan) long
before Muhammad ibn `Abdul-Wahhab came. Indeed, it is known to have harbored many trouble
mongering individuals who challenged the Muslims both spiritually and physically. The orthodox Sunni
Iraqi scholar Jamal Effendi al-Zahawi says:

Famous writers of the day made a point of noting the similarity between Ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhab’s
beginnings and those of the false prophets prominent in Islam’s intial epoch like Musaylima the
Prevaricator, Sajah al-Aswad al-Anasi, Tulaiha al-Asadi and others of his kind [14].

Fenari says that although Najd is closest to to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, it has only been
dispraised by Prophet Muhammad (s) in authentic traditions. He raises another interesting point that
while many Arabian tribes were praised by Prophet Muhammad, the Banu Tamim – the most well
known tribe of Central Arabia where Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab was from – is praised only once.
Moreover, authentic traditions that “explicitly critique” the Banu Tamimites are far more numerous. Ibn
al-Jawzi, an orthodox Sunni scholar, documents the evolution of the Kharijite movements and illustrates
how the tribe of Banu Tamim played a leading role in it. Imam Abd al-Qahir also states that the
Tamimites – and the Central Arabians in general – were intimately involved in the Kharijite rebellions
against the Muslims, contrasting their immense contribution to the minimal contribution of members of
the tribes of Medina and Yemen. It is from Banu Tamim where a man name Abu Bilal Mirdas came
from, who, although being a relentless worshipper, turned out to be one of the most barbaric Kharijite
fanatics. “He is remembered as the first who said the Tahkim – the formula ‘The judgment is Allah’s
alone’ – on the Day of Siffin, which became the slogan of the later Kharijite da’wa.” It is reminiscent of
what Wahhabis say today – that they strictly adhere to nothing but the Qur’an and Sunnah – although it
is merely a jumble of words without coherent meaning. Najda ibn Amir of the tribe of Banu Hanifa was a
Kharijite whose homeland was Najd, and the best known woman among the Kharijites was a Tamimite
named Qutam bint `Alqama. It is fascinating to see that fanatics of all types came from a region where
the fanatic Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab came from.

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The Wahhabi assault on graves and the massacre of Muslim

communities in Riyadh and Karbala

With the ferocious zeal of a “divine” mission, aimed at terminating what they perceived as the
filthy polytheistic scum of Arabia, the Wahhabi army led by Muhammad ibn Sa`ud first destroyed graves
and objects in Najdi towns and villages that were used for what they condemned as “polytheistic
practices.” The Wahhabi movement mustered supporters who rallied behind their cause, increased the
size of their army, and successfully united most of the people of Najd under the banner of Wahhabism
by 1765.
The assault and “jihad”of Wahhabism did not stop after the death of Muhammad ibn Sa`ud in
1765, but continued with unrelenting and barbaric force under the leadership of his son, Abdul-Aziz,
who captured the city of Riyadh in 1773. Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhab died a year earlier but left four
sons who continued spreading Wahhabism and strengthened the Wahhabi family’s alliance with the Al-
Sa`ud .8[8] Later, in 1801, the Wahhabi army marched to Karbala with a force of 10,000 men and 6,000
camels.9[9] Upon reaching Karbala, they mercilessly and indiscriminately attacked its inhabitants for eight
hours, massacring about 5,000 people. Moreover, they severely damaged Imam Hussein’s mosque,
looted the city, and left the carnage-laden city with its treasures on 200 camels.10[10] This holocaust won
the Wahhabi criminals the unforgiving hatred and wrath of the Shi’ite and Sunni Muslims, who, until this
day, curse them passionately. The Shi’ite Muslims consider Imam Hussein, a grandson of Prophet
Muhammad (s), one of the most sacred figures and his tomb one of the most sacred sites on earth.
Every year, thousands of Shi’ites gather at the site to commemorate the death of Imam Hussein. Visiting
Karbala one is indeed filled me with awe and spiritual strength even as a devout Sunni. Shi’ite wrath, of
course, didn’t mean much to the Wahhabis. The Shi’ites, along with the Sunnis, had already been
labeled as “blasphemers” for practicing tawassul and tabarruk. What are these practices? Are they part
of Sunni Islam or not?

Tawassul and Tabarruk

Nuh Keller, an orthodox Sunni scholar, defines tawassul as “supplicating Allah by means of an
intermediary, whether it be a living person, dead person, a good deed, or a name or attribute of Allah
Most High”. I remember doing tawassul in 1989 at Imam Abu Hanifah’s tomb, the noble and renowned

Safran, Nadav. (1988). Saudi Arabia: The Ceaseless Quest for Security. Cornell University Press: Ithaca, NY. Pg. 11.
Safran, Nadav. (1988). Saudi Arabia: The Ceaseless Quest for Security. Cornell University Press:
Ithaca, NY. Pg. 12.
Bagot, Blubb, Sir J. (1961). War in the Desert .New York: Norton. Pg. 44.

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Islamic scholar whose ijtihad the majority of Sunni Muslims follow. Although I had not studied much
about Islam and the practices of tawassul at that time, I had been told by trustworthy Muslims that
using pious individuals as intermediaries when asking Allah for something was a blessed opportunity
that I couldn’t afford to miss. I had also visited the tomb of the great sufi and saint Abdul-Qadir Jilani
and performed tawassul over there. An example of tawassul is: “Oh Allah, I ask you to cure my illness
by means of the noble status of Imam Abu Hanifah (s).”

When doing tawassul, the source of blessings (barakah) when asking Allah through an intermediary

is Allah – not the intermediary. The intermediary is simply a means to ask Allah for things. Although

it is not necessary for a Muslim to use a pious intermediary when asking Allah, it is recommended

because it was a practice of Prophet Muhammad (s), the Companions (ra), and of the great scholars

of Islam (ra). It is not only prophets and saints (in their graves) that are used as means to asking Allah.

A Muslim can also ask Allah through relics (tabarruk) that belonged to pious people, and may even

use amulets with verses on the Qur’an on them as a means of asking God for protection from evil. It

is not the means that provides protection, but Allah.

Wahhabis reject a type of tawassul accepted by orthodox Sunni


Although Sunnis, Shi’ites, and Wahhabis believe that tawassul by one’s good deeds, a name or
attribute of God, or intercession by someone who is alive and present is permissible, Wahhabis accuse
Sunnis (and Shi’ites) of committing shirk (attributing partners in worship to God) when doing tawassul
through an intermediary who is not alive or present (in the worldly life). That is, to a Wahhabi, tawassul
through an intermediary who has died and is in his grave is ugly blasphemy. This is critical to know
because this is the primary reason why Muhammad ibn `Abdul-Wahhab and the Al-Sa`ud criminals that
collaborated with him massacred many Muslims in the Arabian peninsula. Muslims had been doing this
form of tawassul for over 1,000 years but the Wahhabis believed it was blasphemy that had to be
exterminated by the sword. What Wahhabis were doing in actuality was massacring orthodox Sunni
Muslims, even though they foolishly believed they were fighting against evil blasphemors that didn’t
deserve to live. Wahhabis were not following the footsteps of the pious Salaf, but the footsteps of Ibn
Taymiyyah who a couple of hundred years before them denounced that particular form of tawassul as
sinful. Wahhabis today forbid Muslims from doing tawassul through Prophet Muhammad, and have

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enforced strict rules around his grave in Medina, Saudi Arabia. It is for this reason that Wahhabis forbid
Muslims from visiting the graves of pious Muslims, and have destroyed markings on graves to prevent
Muslims from knowing the specific spots where saints are buried. Yet, it is interesting to note the
hypocritical nature of the Wahhabis when they had refused the demolishing of the grave of Ibn
Taymiyah in Damascus, Syria to make way for a road. Somehow, this is not “polytheism” to them, but it
is “polytheism” for the majority of the Islamic community.

The flawed Wahhabi understanding of tawassul: confusing the means

with the Giver

Wahhabis wrongly accuse orthodox Sunnis of committing shirk (polytheism) when asking God
for something using an intermediary, whether the means is a pious human being in his grave, objects
(tabarruk), or seeking protection from God using amulets with verses of the Qur’an written on them
(ruqya). The Wahhabi believes that asking God for something through a means is the same as
worshipping the means itself. That is, for people who do tawassul through a pious saint in his grave is
asking the pious saint – and not God – for things. People who do tabarruk through a relic of Prophet
Muhammad (s) are asking the relic – and not God – for blessings, and people who wear ruqya are asking
the ruqya itself for protection – and not God. When a Muslim visits the Prophet Muhammad’s (s) grave
and calls on the Prophet (s), “Oh Prophet,” (Ya Rasulullah), the Wahhabis accuse such a person of
worshipping the Prophet (s) and refuse to accept the understanding that the Prophet himself is a means to
asking God for things. Such an act to Wahhabis drives a Muslim out of the realms of the religion of
Islam. In sum, the Wahhabis believe that such people are worshipping creation alongside God, and are
therefore guilty of polytheism – attributing partners in worship to God.
The now deceased former Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdullah Ibn Baz, defends Ibn
Abdul-Wahhab’s accusation of polytheism that he had heaped on the Muslim masses and his resorting to
“jihad” by saying that Muslims had gone astray because they had “worshipped” things are than God:

The people of Najd had lived in a condition that could not be approved of by any
believer. Polytheism had appeared there and spread widely. People worshipped domes,
trees, rocks, caves or any persons who claimed to be Auliya (saints) though they might
be insane and idiotic.
There were few to rise up for the sake of Allah and support His Religion. Same was the
situation in Makkah and Madinah as well as Yemen where building domes on the graves,
invoking the saints for their help and other forms of polytheism were predominant. But
in Najd polytheistic beliefs and practices were all the more intense.
In Najd people had worshipped different objects ranging from the graves, caves and
trees to the obsessed and mad men who were called saints.
When the Sheikh [Ibn Abdul-Wahhab] saw that polytheism was dominating the people and that no
one showed any disapproval of it or no one was ready to call the people back to Allah, he decided

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to labour singly and patiently in the field. He knew that nothing could be achieved without jihad
(holy fighting), patience and suffering [italics mine].

Orthodox Sunnis, however, have never claimed to worship the means, but only God. Because
Wahhabis didn’t tolerate this, they massacred thousands of Muslims who they saw as being “polytheists”
in Arabia. In actuality, they were Sunni Muslims who were following Islam in its purity as taught by the
pious ancestors that lived in the time period of the Salaf.

Wahhabis attribute a place and direction to Allah

While accusing the masses of Muslims of being polytheists, Wahhabis themselves have differentiated

themselves from other Muslims in their understanding of creed. Due to the Wahhabis’ adherence to

an unorthodox, grossly flawed literal understanding of God’s Attributes, they comfortably believe

that Allah has created or human attributes, and then attempt to hide their anthropomorphism by

saying that they don’t know ‘how’ Allah has such attributes. For example, Bilal Philips, a Wahhabi

author says:

He has neither corporeal body nor is He a formless spirit. He has a form befitting His
majesty [italics mine], the like of which no man has ever seen or conceived, and which
will only be seen (to the degree of man’s finite limitations) by the people of paradise.

Discussing each part of his statement will shed light into his anthropomorphic mind. Bilal Philips says
that “Allah has a form befitting His majesty…” What he confirms in his mind is that Allah definitely has a
form. He even specifies the kind of form by saying: “He [Allah] has neither corporeal body…” meaning
that Allah has a form that is not like the forms of creation, and then says, “nor is He a formless spirit.
Then he says, “He has a form befitting His majesty…” The problem with such statements to a Muslim is
that they express blatant anthropomorphism. What Bilal Philips is doing here is foolishly attributing a
“form” to God that, in his mind, nobody has ever seen. Therefore, Bilal Philips believes that God has
some type of form, or non-corporeal body. No orthodox Sunni Muslim scholar has ever said such a
perfidious thing.

Abdul Aziz ibn Abdullah ibn Baz. “Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhab.” Available:

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Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, one of the greatest mujtahid Sunni imams ever to have lived, refuted
such anthropomorphic statements over a thousand years before Bilal Philips was born. The great Sunni
Ash`ari scholar, Imam al-Bayhaqi, in his Manaqib Ahmad relates with an authentic chain that Imam
Ahmed said:

A person commits an act of disbelief (kufr) if he says Allah is a body, even if he says:
Allah is a body but not like other bodies.

Imam Ahmad continues:

The expressions are taken from language and from Islam, and linguists applied ‘body’ to a thing
that has length, width, thickness, form, structure, and components. The expression has not been
handed down in Shari’ah. Therefore, it is invalid and cannot be used.

Imam Ahmed is a pious adherer of the time period of the Salaf that was praised by Prophet
Muhammad (s). How can Bilal Philips claim to represent the pious forefathers of the Salaf? He
not only contradicts them but is vehemently refuted by them. The great pious predecessors had
refuted ignoramuses like Bilal Philips in their times long ago.
Blatant anthropomorphism is also illustrated by the Wahhabi Ibn Baz’s commentary on the
great work of Imam Abu Ja’afar at-Tahawi called “Aqeedah at-Tahawiyyah” (The Creed of Tahawi), a
work that has been praised by the orthodox Sunni community as being representative of Sunni
orthodoxy. The now deceased Ibn Baz was Saudi Arabia’s grand Mufti.

Article #38 of Imam Tahawi’s work states:

He is beyond having limits placed on Him, or being restricted, or having parts or limbs. Nor is He
contained by the six directions as all created entities are.

Ibn Baz, in a footnote, comments:

Allah is beyond limits that we know but has limits He knows.

In another footnote, he says:

By hudood (limits) the author [referring to Imam Tahawi] means [limits] such as known by
humans since no one except Allah Almighty knows His limits.

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Ibn Baz deceptively attempts to represent the noble Sunni Imam al-Tahawi as an
anthropomorphist by putting his own anthropomorphic interpretation of Imam Tahawi’s
words in his mouth. It must be emphasized that not a single orthodox Sunni scholar
understood Imam Tahawi’s statement as Ibn Baz did.

Ibn Baz’s also shows anthropomorphism in a commentary by the great Sunni scholar Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani. Ibn Baz says:

As for Ahl ul-Sunna – and these are the Companions and those who followed them in excellence –
they assert a direction for Allah, and that is the direction of elevation, believing that the Exalted is
above the Throne without giving an example and without entering into modality.

Another now deceased Wahhabi scholar, Muhammad Saleh al-Uthaymeen, blatantly expresses his
anthropomorphism. He says:

Allah’s establishment on the throne means that He is sitting ‘in person’ on His Throne.

The great Sunni Hanbali scholar, Ibn al-Jawzi, had refuted anthropomorphists who were saying that
Allah’s establishment is ‘in person’ hundreds of years ago:

Whoever says: He is established on the Throne ‘in person’ (bi dhatihi), has diverted the
sense of the verse to that of sensory perception. Such a person must not neglect that
the principle is established by the mind, by which we have come to know Allah, and
have attributed pre-eternity to Him decisively. If you said: We read the hadiths and
keep quiet, no one would criticize you; it is only your taking them in the external sense
which is hideous. Therefore do not bring into the school of this pious man of the Salaf –
Imam Ahmad [Ibn Hanbal] – what does not belong in it. You have clothed this madhab
[or school of jurisprudence] with an ugly deed, so that it is no longer said ‘Hanbali’
except in the sense of ‘anthropomorphist’

Sulayman ibn `Abdul Allah ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab, the grandson of the Wahhabi
movement’s founder, says:

Whoever believes or says: Allah is in person (bi dhatihi) in every place, or in one place:
he is a disbeliever (kafir). It is obligatory to declare that Allah is distinct from His
creation, established over His Throne without modality or likeness or exemplarity. Allah

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was and there was no place, then He created place and He is exalted as He was before
He created place

Just as Bilal Philips affirms a form to Allah in his mind, and Ibn Baz confirms limits to Allah in his
mind, al-Uthaymeen confirms that Allah is literally sitting ‘in person’ on the Throne in his mind. All of
them have loyally followed the footsteps of Ibn Taymiyyah and Muhammad ibn `Abdul-Wahhab – the
two arch-heretics who were instrumental in causing tribulation (fitna) and division among the Muslim
masses because of their reprehensible, unorthodox interpretations of the Islamic sources.

Wahhabi anthropomorphists say: Allah is in a direction, Allah has limits, Allah is literally above
the Throne, and that Allah is sitting ‘in person’ on the Throne. To a Muslim, the fact is that the Throne is
located in a particular direction and a certain place. By understanding Allah to be above the Throne
literally as the Wahhabis do, they are attributing Allah with created attributes and, as a result, are
implying that a part of the creation was eternal with Allah. This opposes what the the Qur’an and the
following hadith authentically related by al-Bukhari says:

Allah existed eternally and there was nothing else [italics mine].

Sunni orthodoxy clears Allah of all directions and places. To a Sunni, Allah has always existed
without the need of a place, and He did not take a place for Himself after creating it. Orthodox Sunni
scholars have said exactly what was understood by Prophet Muhammad (s) and his Companions (ra).
Imam Abu Hanifah, the great mujtahid Imam who lived in the time period of the Salaf said: “Allah has
no limits…”, period. And this is what Sunni orthodoxy represents.

Orthodox Sunni scholars oppose Wahhabism

I end this article with a selected list of orthodox Sunni scholars who have refuted Wahhabism
and warned Muslims from its poison. The list of scholars, along with names of their books and related
information, is quoted from the orthodox Sunni scholar Muhammad Hisham Kabbani12[12]:

Al-Ahsa'i Al-Misri, Ahmad (1753-1826): Unpublished manuscript of a refutation of the Wahhabi sect. His
son Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn `Abd al-Latif al-Ahsa'i also wrote a book refuting them.

Ibid., Zahawi. pp. 7-15.

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Al-Ahsa'i, Al-Sayyid `Abd al-Rahman: wrote a sixty-seven verse poem which begins with the verse:

Badat fitnatun kal layli qad ghattatil aafaaqa

wa sha``at fa kadat tublighul gharba wash sharaqa

[A confusion came about like nightfall covering the skies

and became widespread almost reaching the whole world]

Al-`Amrawi, `Abd al-Hayy, and `Abd al-Hakim Murad (Qarawiyyin University, Morocco): Al-tahdhir min
al-ightirar bi ma ja'a fi kitab al-hiwar ["Warning Against Being Fooled By the Contents of the Book (by
Ibn Mani`) A Debate With al-Maliki (an attack on Ibn `Alawi al-Maliki by a Wahhabi writer)"] (Fes:
Qarawiyyin, 1984).

`Ata' Allah al-Makki: al-sarim al-hindi fil `unuq al-najdi ["The Indian Scimitar on the Najdi's Neck"].

Al-Azhari, `Abd Rabbih ibn Sulayman al-Shafi`i (The author of Sharh Jami' al-Usul li ahadith al-Rasul, a
basic book of Usul al-Fiqh: Fayd al-Wahhab fi Bayan Ahl al-Haqq wa man dalla `an al-sawab, 4 vols.
["Allah's Outpouring in Differentiating the True Muslims From Those Who Deviated From the Truth"].

Al-`Azzami, `Allama al-shaykh Salama (d. 1379H): Al-Barahin al-sati`at ["The Radiant Proofs..."].

Al-Barakat al-Shafi`i al-Ahmadi al-Makki, `Abd al-Wahhab ibn Ahmad: unpublished manuscript of a
refutation of the Wahhabi sect.

al-Bulaqi, Mustafa al-Masri wrote a refutation to San`a'i's poem in which the latter had praised Ibn `Abd
al-Wahhab. It is in Samnudi's "Sa`adat al-Darayn" and consists in 126 verses beginning thus:

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Bi hamdi wali al-hamdi la al-dhammi astabdi

Wa bil haqqi la bil khalqi lil haqqi astahdi

[By the glory of the Owner of glory, not baseness, do I overcome;

And by Allah, not by creatures, do I seek guidance to Allah]

Al-Buti, Dr. Muhammad Sa`id Ramadan (University of Damascus): Al-Salafiyyatu marhalatun

zamaniyyatun mubarakatun la madhhabun islami ["The Salafiyya is a blessed historical period not an
Islamic school of law"] (Damascus: Dar al-fikr, 1988); Al-lamadhhabiyya akhtaru bid`atin tuhaddidu al-
shari`a al-islamiyya ["Non-madhhabism is the most dangerous innovation presently menacing Islamic
law"] (Damascus: Maktabat al-Farabi, n.d.).

Al-Dahesh ibn `Abd Allah, Dr. (Arab University of Morocco), ed. Munazara `ilmiyya bayna `Ali ibn
Muhammad al-Sharif wa al-Imam Ahmad ibn Idris fi al-radd `ala Wahhabiyyat Najd, Tihama, wa `Asir
["Scholarly Debate Between the Sharif and Ahmad ibn Idris Against the Wahhabis of Najd, Tihama, and

Dahlan, al-Sayyid Ahmad ibn Zayni (d. 1304/1886). Mufti of Mecca and Shaykh al-Islam (highest religious
authority in the Ottoman jurisdiction) for the Hijaz region: al-Durar al-saniyyah fi al-radd ala al-
Wahhabiyyah ["The Pure Pearls in Answering the Wahhabis"] pub. Egypt 1319 & 1347 H; Fitnat al-
Wahhabiyyah ["The Wahhabi Fitna"]; Khulasat al-Kalam fi bayan Umara' al-Balad al-Haram ["The
Summation Concerning the Leaders of the Sacrosanct Country"], a history of the Wahhabi fitna in Najd
and the Hijaz.

al-Dajwi, Hamd Allah: al-Basa'ir li Munkiri al-tawassul ka amthal Muhd. Ibn `Abdul Wahhab ["The
Evident Proofs Against Those Who Deny the Seeking of Intercession Like Muhammad Ibn `Abdul

Shaykh al-Islam Dawud ibn Sulayman al-Baghdadi al-Hanafi (1815-1881 CE): al-Minha al-Wahbiyya fi
radd al-Wahhabiyya ["The Divine Dispensation Concerning the Wahhabi Deviation"]; Ashadd al-Jihad fi
Ibtal Da`wa al-Ijtihad ["The Most Violent Jihad in Proving False Those Who Falsely Claim Ijtihad"].

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Al-Falani al-Maghribi, al-Muhaddith Salih: authored a large volume collating the answers of scholars of
the Four Schools to Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab.

al-Habibi, Muhammad `Ashiq al-Rahman: `Adhab Allah al-Mujdi li Junun al-Munkir al-Najdi ["Allah's
Terrible Punishment for the Mad Rejector From Najd"].

Al-Haddad, al-Sayyid al-`Alawi ibn Ahmad ibn Hasan ibn al-Qutb

Sayyidi `Abd Allah ibn `Alawi al-Haddad al-Shafi`i: al-Sayf al-batir li `unq al-munkir `ala al-akabir ["The
Sharp Sword for the Neck of the Assailant of Great Scholars"]. Unpublished manuscript of about 100
folios; Misbah al-anam wa jala' al-zalam fi radd shubah al-bid`i al-najdi al-lati adalla biha al-`awamm
["The Lamp of Mankind and the Illumination of Darkness Concerning the Refutation of the Errors of the
Innovator From Najd by Which He Had Misled the Common People"]. Published 1325H.

Al-Hamami al-Misri, Shaykh Mustafa: Ghawth al-`ibad bi bayan al-rashad ["The Helper of Allah's
Servants According to the Affirmation of Guidance"].

Al-Hilmi al-Qadiri al-Iskandari, Shaykh Ibrahim: Jalal al-haqq fi kashf ahwal ashrar al-khalq ["The
Splendor of Truth in Exposing the Worst of People] (pub. 1355H).

Al-Husayni, `Amili, Muhsin (1865-1952). Kashf al-irtiyab fi atba` Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab ["The
Dispelling of Doubt Concerning the Followers of Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab"]. [Yemen?]: Maktabat
al-Yaman al-Kubra, 198?.

Al-Kabbani, Muhammad Hisham, Encyclopedia of Islamic Doctrine, vol. 1-7, As-Sunnah Foundation of
America, 1998.

_____, Islamic Beliefs and Doctrine According to Ahl as-Sunna - A Repudiation of "Salafi" Innovations,
ASFA, 1996.

_____, Innovation and True Belief: the Celebration of Mawlid According to the Qur'an and Sunna and the
Scholars of Islam, ASFA, 1995.

_____, Salafi Movement Unveiled, ASFA, 1997.

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Ibn `Abd al-Latif al-Shafi`i, `Abd Allah: Tajrid sayf al-jihad `ala mudda`i al-ijtihad ["The drawing of the
sword of jihad against the false claimants to ijtihad"].

The family of Ibn `Abd al-Razzaq al-Hanbali in Zubara and Bahrayn possess both manuscript and printed
refutations by scholars of the Four Schools from Mecca, Madina, al-Ahsa', al-Basra, Baghdad, Aleppo,
Yemen and other Islamic regions.

Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab al-Najdi, `Allama al-Shaykh Sulayman, elder brother of Muhammad ibn `Abd al-
Wahhab: al-Sawa'iq al-Ilahiyya fi al-radd 'ala al-Wahhabiyya ["Divine Lightnings in Answering the
Wahhabis"]. Ed. Ibrahim Muhammad al-Batawi. Cairo: Dar al-insan, 1987. Offset reprint by Waqf Ikhlas,
Istanbul: Hakikat Kitabevi, 1994. Prefaces by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Sulayman al-Kurdi al-Shafi`i and
Shaykh Muhammad Hayyan al-Sindi (Muhammad Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab's shaykh) to the effect that Ibn
`Abd al-Wahhab is "dall mudill" ("misguided and misguiding").

Ibn `Abidin al-Hanafi, al-Sayyid Muhammad Amin: Radd al-muhtar `ala al-durr al-mukhtar, Vol. 3, Kitab
al-Iman, Bab al-bughat ["Answer to the Perplexed: A Commentary on "The Chosen Pearl,"" Book of
Belief, Chapter on Rebels]. Cairo: Dar al-Tiba`a al-Misriyya, 1272 H.

Ibn `Afaliq al-Hanbali, Muhammad Ibn `Abdul Rahman: Tahakkum al-muqallidin bi man idda`a tajdid al-
din [Sarcasm of the muqallids against the false claimants to the Renewal of Religion]. A very
comprehensive book refuting the Wahhabi heresy and posting questions which Ibn `Abdul Wahhab and
his followers were unable to answer for the most part.

Ibn Dawud al-Hanbali, `Afif al-Din `Abd Allah: as-sawa`iq wa al-ru`ud ["Lightnings and thunder"], a very
important book in 20 chapters. According to the Mufti of Yemen Shaykh al-`Alawi ibn Ahmad al-Haddad,
the mufti of Yemen, "This book has received the approval of the `ulama of Basra, Baghdad, Aleppo, and
Ahsa' [Arabian peninsula]. It was summarized by Muhammad ibn Bashir the qadi of Ra's al-Khayma in

Ibn Ghalbun al-Libi also wrote a refutation in forty verses of al-San`ani's poem in which the latter had
praised Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab. It is in Samnudi's Sa`adat al-darayn and begins thus:

Salami `ala ahlil isabati wal-rushdi

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Wa laysa `ala najdi wa man halla fi najdi

[My salutation is upon the people of truth and guidance

And not upon Najd nor the one who settled in Najd]

Ibn Khalifa `Ulyawi al-Azhari: Hadhihi `aqidatu al-salaf wa al-khalaf fi dhat Allahi ta`ala wa sifatihi wa
af`alihi wa al-jawab al-sahih li ma waqa`a fihi al-khilaf min al-furu` bayna al-da`in li al-Salafiyya wa
atba` al-madhahib al-arba`a al-islamiyya ["This is the doctrine of the Predecessors and the Descendants
concerning the divergences in the branches between those who call to al-Salafiyya and the followers of
the Four Islamic Schools of Law"] (Damascus: Matba`at Zayd ibn Thabit, 1398/1977.

Kawthari al-Hanafi, Muhammad Zahid. Maqalat al-Kawthari. (Cairo: al-Maktabah al-Azhariyah li al-
Turath, 1994).

Al-Kawwash al-Tunisi, `Allama Al-Shaykh Salih: his refutation of the Wahhabi sect is contained in
Samnudi's volume: "Sa`adat al-darayn fi al-radd `ala al-firqatayn."

Khazbek, Shaykh Hasan: Al-maqalat al-wafiyyat fi al-radd `ala al-wahhabiyyah ["Complete Treatise in
Refuting the Wahhabis"].

Makhluf, Muhammad Hasanayn: Risalat fi hukm al-tawassul bil-anbiya wal-awliya ["Treatise on the
Ruling Concerning the Use of Prophets and Saints as Intermediaries"].

Al-Maliki al-Husayni, Al-muhaddith Muhammad al-Hasan ibn `Alawi: Mafahimu yajibu an tusahhah
["Notions that should be corrected"] 4th ed. (Dubai: Hashr ibn Muhammad Dalmuk, 1986); Muhammad
al-insanu al-kamil ["Muhammad, the Perfect Human Being"] 3rd ed. (Jeddah: Dar al-Shuruq,

Al-Mashrifi al-Maliki al-Jaza'iri: Izhar al-`uquq mimman mana`a al-tawassul bil nabi wa al-wali al-saduq
["The Exposure of the Disobedience of Those Who Forbid Using the Intermediary of the Prophets and
the Truthful Saints].

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Al-Mirghani al-Ta'ifi, `Allama `Abd Allah ibn Ibrahim (d. 1793): Tahrid al-aghbiya' `ala al-Istighatha bil-
anbiya' wal-awliya ["The Provocations of the Ignorant Against Seeking the Help of Prophets and Saints"]
(Cairo: al-Halabi, 1939).

Mu'in al-Haqq al-Dehlawi (d. 1289): Sayf al-Jabbar al-maslul `ala a`da' al-Abrar ["The Sword of the
Almighty Drawn Against the Enemies of the Pure Ones"].

Al-Muwaysi al-Yamani, `Abd Allah ibn `Isa: Unpublished manuscript of a refutation of the Wahhabi sect.

Al-Nabahani al-Shafi`i, al-qadi al-muhaddith Yusuf ibn Isma`il (1850-1932): Shawahid al-Haqq fi al-
istighatha bi sayyid al-Khalq (s) ["The Proofs of Truth in the Seeking of the Intercession of the Prophet"].

Al-Qabbani al-Basri al-Shafi`i, Allama Ahmad ibn `Ali: A manuscript treatise in approximately 10

Al-Qadumi al-Nabulusi al-Hanbali: `AbdAllah: Rihlat ["Journey"].

Al-Qazwini, Muhammad Hasan, (d. 1825). Al-Barahin al-jaliyyah fi raf` tashkikat al-Wahhabiyah ["The
Plain Demonstrations That Dispel the Aspersions of the Wahhabis"]. Ed. Muhammad Munir al-Husayni
al-Milani. 1st ed. Beirut: Mu'assasat al-Wafa', 1987.

Al-Qudsi: al-Suyuf al-Siqal fi A`naq man ankara `ala al-awliya ba`d al-intiqal ["The Burnished Swords on
the Necks of Those Who Deny the Role of Saints After Their Leaving This World"].

Al-Rifa`i, Yusuf al-Sayyid Hashim, President of the World Union of Islamic Propagation and Information:
Adillat Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`at aw al-radd al-muhkam al-mani` `ala munkarat wa shubuhat Ibn
Mani` fi tahajjumihi `ala al-sayyid Muhammad `Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki ["The Proofs of the People of
the Way of the Prophet and the Muslim Community: or, the Strong and Decisive Refutation of Ibn
Mani`'s Aberrations and Aspersions in his Assault on Muhammad `Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki"] (Kuwait:
Dar al-siyasa, 1984).

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Al-Samnudi al-Mansuri, al-`Allama al-Shaykh Ibrahim: Sa`adat al-darayn fi al-radd `ala al-firqatayn al-
wahhabiyya wa muqallidat al-zahiriyyah ["Bliss in the Two Abodes: Refutation of the Two Sects,
Wahhabis and Zahiri Followers"].

Al-Saqqaf al-Shafi`i, Hasan ibn `Ali, Islamic Research Intitute, Amman, Jordan: al-Ighatha bi adillat al-
istighatha wa al-radd al-mubin `ala munkiri al-tawassul ["The Mercy of Allah in the Proofs of Seeking
Intercession and the Clear Answer to Those who Reject it"]; Ilqam al hajar li al-mutatawil `ala al-
Asha`ira min al-Bashar ["The Stoning of All Those Who Attack Ash'aris"]; Qamus shata'im al-Albani wa
al-alfaz al-munkara al-lati yatluquha fi haqq ulama al-ummah wa fudalai'ha wa ghayrihim...
["Encyclopedia of al-Albani's Abhorrent Expressions Which He Uses Against the Scholars of the
Community, its Eminent Men, and Others..."] Amman : Dar al-Imam al-Nawawi, 1993.

Al-Sawi al-Misri: Hashiyat `ala al-jalalayn ["Commentary on the Tafsir of the Two Jalal al-Din"].

Sayf al-Din Ahmed ibn Muhammad: Al-Albani Unveiled: An Exposition of His Errors and Other Important
Issues, 2nd ed. (London: s.n., 1994).

Al-Shatti al-Athari al-Hanbali, al-Sayyid Mustafa ibn Ahmad ibn Hasan, Mufti of Syria: al-Nuqul al-
shar'iyyah fi al-radd 'ala al-Wahhabiyya ["The Legal Proofs in Answering the Wahhabis"].

Al-Subki, al-hafiz Taqi al-Din (d. 756/1355): Al-durra al-mudiyya fi al-radd `ala Ibn Taymiyya, ed.
Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari ["The Luminous Pearl: A Refutation of Ibn Taymiyya"]; Al-rasa'il al-
subkiyya fi al-radd `ala Ibn Taymiyya wa tilmidhihi Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, ed. Kamal al-Hut ["Subki's
treatises in Answer to Ibn Taymiyya and his pupil Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya"] (Beirut: `Alam al-Kutub,
1983); Al-sayf al-saqil fi al-radd `ala Ibn Zafil ["The Burnished Sword in Refuting Ibn Zafil (Ibn Qayyim al-
Jawziyya)" Cairo: Matba`at al-Sa`ada, 1937; Shifa' al-siqam fi ziyarat khayr al-anam ["The healing of the
sick in visiting the Best of Creation"].

Sunbul al-Hanafi al-Ta'ifi, Allama Tahir: Sima al-Intisar lil awliya' al-abrar ["The Mark of Victory Belongs
to Allah's Pure Friends"].

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Al-Tabataba'i al-Basri, al-Sayyid: also wrote a reply to San`a'i's poem which was excerpted in Samnudi's
Sa`adat al-Darayn. After reading it, San`a'i reversed his position and said: "I have repented from what I
said concerning the Najdi."

Al-Tamimi al-Maliki, `Allama Isma`il (d. 1248), Shaykh al-Islam in Tunis: wrote a refutation of a treatise
of Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab.

Al-Wazzani, al-Shaykh al-Mahdi, Mufti of Fes, Morocco: Wrote a refutation of Muhammad `Abduh's
prohibition of tawassul.

al-Zahawi al-Baghdadi, Jamil Effendi Sidqi (d. 1355/1936): al-Fajr al-Sadiq fi al-radd 'ala munkiri al-
tawassul wa al-khawariq ["The True Dawn in Refuting Those Who Deny the Seeking of Intercession and
the Miracles of Saints"] Pub. 1323/1905 in Egypt.

Al-Zamzami al-Shafi`i, Muhammad Salih, Imam of the Maqam Ibrahim in Mecca, wrote a book in 20
chapters against them according to al-Sayyid al-Haddad.

See also:

Ahmad, Qeyamuddin. The Wahhabi movement in India. 2nd rev. ed. New Delhi : Manohar, 1994.

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Lectures of Shaykh Mohammed bin Yahya an-Ninowy:

Islam: The Religion of Peace click on page 10 at:

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Freedom in Islam click on page 13 at:

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Books on Islam and Christianity:

Books on Prophet Muhammed (Salalahu alayhi wasallam):

Please do also 'Mohammed (Peace Be Upon Him) the Prophet' by Professor K. S.

Rama Krishna Rao - A Non-Muslim's Views at the following link(at the end of the book
many more links on Islam are given):

In refutation of the Wahabi Cult:

The following HIGHLY RECOMMENDED books can be bought from:

The Genuine Differences Among Ahl-us-Sunnah and Wahhabies /

Paperback - 47 pages

This brief but comprehensively covered book is a must for all

households, as a safeguard for our childrens imaan. The
doebandi/wahabi propaganda machine is rife amongst the youth of
today. This book covers the origins and history of wahabism, their

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beliefs, literature and leaders such as Ibn Tayymiya, and Muhammad Ibn Abd'al-Wahab
and his Kitab at Towhid.
It details the blasphemous writings of the wahabi influenced deobandi sect leaders:
Ashraf Ali Thanwi, Qasim Nanotwi, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and Khalil Ambetwi. Then
their are the other wahhabi influenced sects like the Jamaat-e-Islami founded by Sayyid
Abu Ala Mawdoodi, the Salafiyyah Movement, the political wahabi offshoot known as
Hizb-at-Tehreer and al-Muhaajiroon.

Beliefs - Aqida : Encyclopedia of Islamic Doctrine [Vol 1]

Paperback - 232 pages by Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani [from
The As-Sunnah Foundation of America ]

Have you ever wondered : What are the beliefs and doctrine of
mainstream Islam as opposed to those who call themselves
''Salafis'' with regard to the Names and Attributes of Almighty
Allah? Read the evidence and decide for yourself.
The author says in the introduction : ''Scholars have observed
that the Community's (umma's) greatest achievement over the
past millenium has undoubtedly been its internal intellectual
cohesion. They point out how from the beginning of the Islamic
era to almost the present day, Muslims have maintained an
astounding sense of unity despite the clash of the numerous
dynasties under which they lived. No major religious hostilities have divided Muslims.
At least, this was true until the physical and intellectual assault on Islamic unity initiated
by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792 CE), his immediate successors and by
the self-named ''Salafi'' sect of the present day.
One of Ibn Abd al-Wahhabs more enormous stupidities is that when reason contradicts
his claims, he casts it aside and gives it no role in his judgement. He endeavours to
make people like dumb beasts when it comes to matters of faith. He prohibits the
involvement of reason in religious affairs, despite the fact that there is no contradiction
between reason and faith. On the contrary, whenever human minds reach their full
measure of completeness and perfection, religion's merits and prerogatives with regard
to reason become totally manifest.
The author then explains how the beliefs held by the Wahhabi ''Salafi'' as opposed to
the beliefs held by mainstream Islam are threatening every Muslim's Islamic heritage
He offers this work and its proofs of the real Islam to those who wish to decide for

The above HIGHLY RECOMMENDED books can be bought from:

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For more information on Wahabiism and the proof of the truth of the Ahle Sunnat Wal
Jamat (Sunnhi) Aqidah (Beliefs) please do visit the Wahabiism/”Salafiism” folder at:

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