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EXP 6 - GAS TEMPERATURE (AT 922) PROCESS CONTROL TABLE OF CONTENTS Bil.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Title Objectives Summary Introduction and Theory Results and Discussions Conclusion References Appendices Page 2 3 4 5 10 11 12

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EXP 6 - GAS TEMPERATURE (AT 922) PROCESS CONTROL OBJECTIVES There are several objectives in experiment gas temperature (at 922) process control. The objectives of this experiment are: 1. To identify the important components of the air temperature control system and to mark them in the P&I Diagram 2. To carry out the start-up procedures systematically. 3. To determine the values of the parameters for a first order plus dead time transfer function model of a thermal process. 4. To control the Air-Heater process using PID controller

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EXP 6 - GAS TEMPERATURE (AT 922) PROCESS CONTROL SUMMARY The objectives of this experiment is to identify the important components of the air temperature control system and to mark them in the P&I Diagram, to carry out the start-up procedures systematically, to determine the values of the parameters for a first order plus dead time transfer function model of a thermal process and to control the Air-Heater process using PID controller. Lag occurred when the process started. This is also known as dead time. It uses a transistor to adjust the heat flow to the heater. The air flow rate is measured using a rotameter. PID algorithm is used for direct field control. That is either both of its input (PV) and output (MV) is directly connected to field or process equipment. Three different PID trial values show different results based on the tuning. Experiment was also done on load disturbance and set point change to observe the responses Temperature measuring device used in these experiment are RTD and type K. Using PID controller as a process controller, tuning a temperature controller involves setting the proportional, integral and derivatives to get the best possible control for a particular process. The MV is first adjusted to 24.4% and then it is increased to 50%, it is shown that there is disturbance occurred when the valve is being closed, the dead time was 28.8 secs. The tangent for the increase is calculated using Pythagoras theorem. The tangent calculated is the response rate of the process.

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EXP 6 - GAS TEMPERATURE (AT 922) PROCESS CONTROL INTRODUCTION The objective of this experiment is to determine the gas temperature process control type AT 922 uses to stimulate a gas or vapor phase temperature process. The temperature process is a lag/dead time process with no noise. The dead time in time unit is: Dead time = It uses a transistor to adjust the heat flow to the heater. The air flow rate is measured using a rotameter. A selective control technique is employed here that automatically select only a less heat demanding output to manipulate only one final control element (the transistor/heater). This system requires a high gain PID controller. Temperature measuring device used in these experiment are RTD and type K. A resistance temperature detector (RTD) is a temperature sensing probe of finely wound platinum wire that displays a linear resistance increase for a corresponding temperature increase. RTDs are built on the principle that most metals have a positive charge in electrical resistance with a change in temperature. When quality control is importance, a RTD is unequalled for accuracy and repeatability. Using PID controller as a process controller, tuning a temperature controller involves setting the proportional, integral and derivatives to get the best possible control for a particular process. The PID function uses system feedback to continuously control a dynamic process. The purpose of PID control is to keep process running as close as possible to a desired set point.

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EXP 6 - GAS TEMPERATURE (AT 922) PROCESS CONTROL RESULT AND DISCUSSION

First order plus time delay (FOPTD) transfer function as follows:

G(s) =

es

The chart below shows how dead time value can be determined. Distance of point 1 to point 2 is measured by using ruler and substituted to the formula to get value. Based on the graph, it shows that as the heater is on the heated temperature is starting to increase slowly. The MV is first adjusted to 24.4% and then it is increased to 50%, it is shown that there is disturbance occurred when the valve is being closed. This experiment chart was run at 500mm/Hr.

Figure 1: dead time Dead time =

=
= 28.8 secs The dead time is the time after each event during which the system is not able to record another event. After the increase, for 4 seconds, there is a dead time as shown in the chart.
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EXP 6 - GAS TEMPERATURE (AT 922) PROCESS CONTROL Dead time can arise in a control loop for a number of reasons such as the time it takes for material to travel from one point to another. The travel time is dead time. Not only that, sensors can take precious time to yield their measurement result. The dead time is calculated using a ruler and the limitation of the calculation is that the y-axis on the graph is precise only up to one second. This is a problem because the time constants are in the order of one second. Hence in calculation it is not possible to achieve a higher precision because of the lack of measuring instruments with higher precision.

Figure 2: Response rate Next, response rate must be calculated too using the chart which is shown in figure 2. The tangent for the increase is calculated using Pythagoras theorem. The tangent calculated is the response rate of the process.

1.02 cm 0.2 cm

1 cm

Figure 3: Response rate, RR = 1.02 cm Using the response rate, the process gain, K and time constant of the process value, are obtained from the calculation using formula shown below. For process gain, K can be calculated as follow:
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EXP 6 - GAS TEMPERATURE (AT 922) PROCESS CONTROL

The constant time, can be calculated as follow: Maximum change in the air temperature at the exit = 1980C 1560C = 420C

The parameter of the First Order with Delay model is:

G(s) = G(s) =

e s e28.8 s

Next, the air heater is controlled using the PID controller with load disturbances and set point changes which are set point SV= 80C and 90 C at the temperature PID controller TIC91 and is still in Manual (M) mode and its MV = 0%. For load disturbances the MV value changes from 0 to 30%.

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EXP 6 - GAS TEMPERATURE (AT 922) PROCESS CONTROL

Figure 4: First trial values: PB (%) = 10%, TI (secs) = 100secs, TD (secs) = 25secs

For the first trial PID controller, the response for the air heated temperature is fast. It can be said that when the load disturbance is being introduced the temperature is increases due to the rapid opening of valve for the air flow rate. At set point, SV=80C, it reaches a steady state after few cycles. While for SV=80C and load disturbance MV= 30%, it shows the overshoot is smaller compared to the previous one. To reduce the offset, the temperature for set point and the temperature after load disturbance introduced must be stable.

Figure 5: Second trial values: PB (%) = 20%, TI (secs) = 70secs, TD (secs) = 18secs
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EXP 6 - GAS TEMPERATURE (AT 922) PROCESS CONTROL For the second trial PID values, the response for the air heated temperature started to oscillate mildly as the process gain is increased. As the MV is increased to 50%, the response become stable due to the opening of valve, then the response became little oscillatory when MV is increased to 90%. As in theory, the response is slower but the offset can be reduced much faster.

Figure 6: Third trial values: PB (%) = 20%, TI (secs) = 150secs, TD (secs) = 37secs For the third values, the hart is becoming more stable. That is why it has a very small oscillation. When the set point is changed to 900C, the response shows some oscillation and it is undershoot as the temperature is being increased. After the response is stable, the set point is then increased to 1000C and it shows that response is overshoots due to the changes of set point and the response is became stable again. Error might happen in opening of valve and air inlet valve. This will produce error in the process. Since for measuring gas temperature uses heater instrument kept in air temperature, the temperature reading may fluctuate.

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EXP 6 - GAS TEMPERATURE (AT 922) PROCESS CONTROL CONCLUSION Firstly, the experiment shows that lag occurred when the process started. This is also known as dead time. Dead time can arise in a control loop for a number of reasons such as the long distance for material to travel from one point to another. However, there are limitations to calculate dead time, for example high precision equipment acquired. Next is the control of process using PID controller. PID algorithm is used for direct field control. That is either both of its input (PV) and output (MV) is directly connected to field or process equipment. It is designed to cope with any electrical noise induced into its circuits by equipment in the plant or factory. Three different PID trial values show different results based on the tuning. Experiment was also done on load disturbance and set point change to observe the responses, whether they are overshoot or undershoot according to changes made. Several errors occurred during the experiment was done and the results are no exactly precise or accurate. Some recommendations to improve the results are following the procedures accordingly and monitoring the panel closely.

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EXP 6 - GAS TEMPERATURE (AT 922) PROCESS CONTROL REFERENCES

1. Altmann W. (2005). Practical Process Control of Engineers and Technicians. Oxford: Elsevier. 2. Carlos A. Smith, Armando Corrpion (2006). Principles and practice of Automatic Control [Third Edition] 3. http://neogeo.kent.edu/munro/physical/Notes_Fall09/air%20temp.pdf(acsessed on 3 October 2011) 4. http://iseinc.com/what%20is%20pid.htm(acsessed on 3 October 2011)

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EXP 6 - GAS TEMPERATURE (AT 922) PROCESS CONTROL APPENDICES

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EXP 6 - GAS TEMPERATURE (AT 922) PROCESS CONTROL

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