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Digital Network Systems

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Copyright 2000 by Motorola, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means or used to make any derivative work (such as translation, transformation or adaptation) without written permission from Motorola, Inc. Motorola, Inc. reserves the right to revise this publication and to make changes in content from time to time without obligation on the part of Motorola, Inc. to provide notification of such revision or change. Motorola, Inc. provides this guide without warranty of any kind, either implied or expressed, including, but not limited, to the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Motorola, Inc. may make improvements or changes in the product(s) described in this manual at any time.

MOTOROLA and the stylized M logo are registered trademarks and NETsentry is a trademark of Motorola, Inc. Cisco is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems, Inc. ProLiant is a registered trademark of Compaq Computer Corporation. Netscape and Netscape Communicator are registered trademarks of Netscape Communications Corporation.

Rev 1.0

Number 473294-001-99

Description First Release - Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Incorporated By Seshadri Paravastu

Date 8/10/00

Position Originator

Approved Seshadri Paravastu

Date 8/10/00

Document Title Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Document Number: Revision Number:


Digital Network Systems 101 Tournament Drive Horsham PA 19044

473294-001-99 1.0

Contents
Section 1

Introduction
Scope .......................................................................................................................................1-1 Purpose.....................................................................................................................................1-1 Using This Manual .......................................................................................................................1-1 Related Documentation ................................................................................................................1-2 References ................................................................................................................................1-2 Document Conventions .................................................................................................................1-2 Section 2

Overview
Motorola Network Devices ............................................................................................................2-2 Device-to-Device Communication ...................................................................................................... 2-3 DAC2MPS Connection ............................................................................................................... 2-3 MPS * JAVA-enabled console connection ...................................................................................... 2-4
DLS2OM Connection ................................................................................................................. 2-4 DAC2OM Connection................................................................................................................. 2-4 DAC2IRT connection ................................................................................................................. 2-4 IRT2OM connection................................................................................................................... 2-4 RPD2DAC Connection................................................................................................................ 2-5 RPD2NC connection.................................................................................................................. 2-5 NC 1500 JAVA-enabled console connection ................................................................................ 2-5 NC2OM Connection................................................................................................................... 2-5 NC2DAC Connection ................................................................................................................. 2-5 NETsentry Connection.............................................................................................................. 2-6 Recovering the Electronic Program Guide (EPG) Data Feed .................................................................2-6 Using OM 1000 with an RS-530 Interface .......................................................................................... 2-6 Using the OM 1000s Ethernet Interface ............................................................................................ 2-7 Motorola Headend Broadcast Traffic............................................................................................. 2-10 Remote BOOTP Configuration .......................................................................................................... 2-10 Router Configurations for the Remote BOOTP ............................................................................. 2-12

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Contents

Section 3

Network Configuration Examples


Cisco Routers and Switches .......................................................................................................... 3-1 Ethernet Hubs and Switches ......................................................................................................... 3-1 The Network Cloud ...................................................................................................................... 3-2 Example Configuration 1 .............................................................................................................. 3-3 Configuration 1 Headend Parameters .................................................................................................3-5 DAC 6000 ................................................................................................................................3-5 OM 1000..................................................................................................................................3-5 RPD * ........................................................................................................................................3-5
IRT ........................................................................................................................................3-6 Configuration 1 Traffic Types .............................................................................................................3-6 Central Router (Cisco 3640) ......................................................................................................3-6 Cisco 2600 Series Router Configuration ......................................................................................3-7 Example Configuration 2 .............................................................................................................. 3-8 Configuration 2 Headend Parameters ............................................................................................... 3-10 DAC 6000 ..............................................................................................................................3-10 OM 1000................................................................................................................................3-10 RPD ......................................................................................................................................3-11 IRT ......................................................................................................................................3-11 Configuration 2 Traffic Types ........................................................................................................... 3-11 Special Router Configuration ....................................................................................................3-13 Cisco 2600 Series Router Configuration ....................................................................................3-13 Example Configuration 3 ............................................................................................................ 3-13 Configuration 3 Headend Parameters ............................................................................................... 3-15 DAC 6000 ..............................................................................................................................3-15 OM 1000................................................................................................................................3-15 RPD ......................................................................................................................................3-16 IRT 3-16 Configuration 3 Traffic Types ........................................................................................................... 3-16 Special Router Configuration ....................................................................................................3-18 Cisco 2600 Series Router Configuration ....................................................................................3-18
* * * * *

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Appendix A

WAN Link Capacity Considerations


Recommended Data Rate Settings..................................................................................................A-2 Configuration Specific Link Capacity Budget and Constraints..............................................................A-3 WAN Link Capacity Recommendations for Configuration 1...................................................................A-4 Configuration Recommendations ....................................................................................................... A-4 Constraints ..................................................................................................................................... A-4 WAN Link Capacity Recommendations for Configuration 2...................................................................A-5 Configuration Recommendations ....................................................................................................... A-5 Constraints and Recommended Operational Features for Configuration 2 to Operate on a 56 Kbps WAN Link ................................................................................................................................. A-5 WAN Link Capacity Recommendations for Configuration 3...................................................................A-7 Configuration Recommendations ....................................................................................................... A-7 Appendix B

Router Configuration
Cisco 2600 Series ...................................................................................................................... B-1 Cisco 3600 Series ...................................................................................................................... B-2 Cisco 3640 Central Router Configuration ....................................................................................... B-3 Cisco 2621 Router Configuration Information.................................................................................. B-4 Cisco 2621 FR Router Configuration Information ............................................................................. B-5 Cisco 2900 Switch...................................................................................................................... B-7 NTP Client Configuration for the DAC 6000 ....................................................................................B-10 Appendix C

Network Considerations
IP Address Space Considerations .................................................................................................. C-1 Classful IP Addressing ................................................................................................................ C-1 Primary Address Classes .................................................................................................................. C-2 Class A Networks (/8 Prefixes) .................................................................................................. C-2 Class B Networks (/16 Prefixes) ................................................................................................ C-3 Class C Networks (/24 Prefixes) ................................................................................................ C-3 Other Classes........................................................................................................................... C-3 Dotted-Decimal Notation ........................................................................................................... C-3 Subnetting ............................................................................................................................... C-4 Extended-Network-Prefix............................................................................................................ C-5 Subnet Design Considerations ................................................................................................... C-6 Network Link Considerations............................................................................................................. C-7 Frame Relay............................................................................................................................. C-8

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Contents

High Capacity Terrestrial Digital Service (T1) .....................................................................................C-9 CSU/DSU .................................................................................................................................C-9 Fiber Channel Networks .................................................................................................................. C-10 Ethernet Traffic ........................................................................................................................ C-10 Motorola Headend Ethernet Traffic ................................................................................................... C-11 Switched Ethernet .......................................................................................................................... C-11

Abbreviations and Acronyms Figures


Figure 2-1 Multi-Headend Control System ....................................................................................... 2-1 Figure 2-2 RS-530 interface PID filtering solution ............................................................................ 2-7 Figure 2-3 Ethernet PID filtering solution ....................................................................................... 2-8 Figure 2-4 Sample Ethernet switch configuration ............................................................................. 2-9 Figure 2-5 Sample remote BOOTP traffic flow ................................................................................ 2-11 Figure 3-1 Example Configuration 1 ............................................................................................... 3-4 Figure 3-2 Example Configuration 2 ............................................................................................... 3-9 Figure 3-3 Example Configuration 3 ............................................................................................. 3-14 Figure C-1 Two-level Internet address structure ............................................................................... C-1 Figure C-2 Principle classful IP address formats .............................................................................. C-2 Figure C-3 Dotted-decimal notation............................................................................................... C-3 Figure C-4 Subnet address hierarchy ............................................................................................. C-4 Figure C-5 Subnetting reduces the routing requirements on the network .............................................. C-5 Figure C-6 Extended-network-prefix ............................................................................................... C-5 Figure C-7 Subnet mask .............................................................................................................. C-6 Figure C-8 Extended-network-prefix length ..................................................................................... C-6 Figure C-9 Multiplexer CSU/DSU .................................................................................................. C-9

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Contents

Tables
Table 2-1 Motorola network device numbers ....................................................................................2-2 Table 2-2 Network device pairs .....................................................................................................2-2 Table 2-3 Single network devices...................................................................................................2-3 Table 3-1 Configuration 1 traffic types ...........................................................................................3-6 Table 3-2 Configuration 2 traffic types ......................................................................................... 3-12 Table 3-3 Configuration 3 traffic types ......................................................................................... 3-17 Table A-1 Minimum Recommended Link Capacity..............................................................................A-1 Table A-2 Device Pair Data Rate Setting Recommendations ................................................................A-2 Table A-3 DLS Data Rates.............................................................................................................A-6 Table A-4 Code upgrade time using an HCT on a 56 Kbps link ..............................................................A-6 Table C-1 Dotted-decimal ranges for each address class................................................................... C-4

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Section 1

Introduction
Motorolas digital cable headend architecture uses standard Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols, User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol (UDP/IP), and Ethernet interfaces to interconnect headend devices. This approach provides a large amount of flexibility to enable system features such as remote-headend and multiple-headend control. This document explains the network requirements for interconnecting Motorola headend equipment, and provides information necessary for setting up and maintaining the IP network. Various considerations and networking approaches are discussed, including network setup, configuration, and operation. Finally, three typical system configurations are presented as examples of how to configure the IP network.

Scope
This document describes general network configurations that are currently operational in the field. It covers the setup and configuration of remote headends and their corresponding third party networking equipment, from the Motorola headend to the start of the communication line equipment. You must consult your communication line provider for setup and configuration information about their equipment.

Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide the following information for Motorola headend equipment users: An overview of Motorola network elements within a headend Examples of recommended network configurations for different applications Examples of recommended router/ switch configuration settings A general overview of IP addressing and port assignments

Using This Manual


The following sections provide information on Motorolas Headend Network:
Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Abbreviations and Acronyms Introduction provides the scope and purpose of this manual, as well as related documentation, references, and document conventions Overview describes the functions of the Motorola Headend Network Network Configurations Examples provides sample Motorola Headend Network configurations WAN Link Capacity Considerations provides WAN link capacity considerations and recommendations Router Configuration provides sample results of running a config command on the routers used in the example configurations Network Considerations provides a general overview of IP addressing Abbreviations and Acronyms provides the full spelling of the abbreviations and acronyms used in this manual

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

1-2

Introduction

Related Documentation
The following documents provide additional information on products referenced in this manual: Commander 6 Upconverter Model C6U Installation Manual Commander 8 Upconverter Model C8U Installation Manual DAC 6000 Operation Guide HCT 1000 Headend Configuration Tool User Guide IRT 1000/2000 Integrated Receiver Transcoder Installation and Operation Guide MPS Modular Processing System Mainframe Installation & Operation Manual NC 1500 Network Controller Installation and Operation Guide OM 1000 Out-of-Band Modulator Installation and Operation Guide RPD Return Path Demodulator Installation and Operation Guide

References
Semeria, Chuck. 1996. Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know. NSD Marketing, 3Com Corporation. Gibson, Jerry D. 1996. The Communications Handbook. CRC PRESS. Stevens, W. Richard, and Wesley, Addison. 1994. TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1.

Document Conventions
Before you begin, familiarize yourself with the stylistic conventions used in this manual:
Bold type
SMALL CAPS

Indicates text that you must type exactly as it appears or indicates a default value Denotes silk screening on the equipment, typically representing front- and rear-panel controls and input/output (I/O) connections, and LEDs Indicates that several versions of the same model number exist and the information applies to all models; when the information applies to a specific model, the complete model number is given Denotes a displayed variable, a variable that you must type, or is used for emphasis Indicates text displayed on a graphical user interface (GUI)

* (asterisk) Italic type Courier font

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Section 2

Overview
A typical Multi-Headend Control System (MHCS) employs a Digital Addressable Controller, DAC 6000 to control a number of devices located in remote headends. This requires Wide Area Networks (WAN) connectivity between the DAC 6000 and each remote headend. This connectivity allows two-way communications between devices on different Ethernet networks. These networks may be physically and logically the same (for example, a bridged network), or they may be separate networks or sub-networks (for example, a routed network). Figure 2-1 illustrates a typical MHCS:
Figure 2-1 Multi-Headend Control System
Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet

Headend #N Headend #N-1 Headend #1 Analog services feed L-band feed L-band feed Headend #0

IRT 1000

C6U

RF Ethernet

Network

RF combiner

RF

OM 1000

Diplex filter

RF

RPD 1000

NC 1500

RF RF networks Application servers Telco return Modem bank DAC 6000 DLS KLS ethernet TV KLS

DCT *

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

2-2

Overview

Communications between devices on these distributed headends involves many different protocols. The following list includes many of the protocols used within the Motorola headend:
Physical Data Link Network Transport Session Application 802.3 (10 Mbps Ethernet) and 802.3u (100 Mbps Fast Ethernet) IEEE 802.3 (MAC) and 802.2 (SNAP) IP, ICMP (IP Error Reporting), and ARP UDP, TCP RPC SNMP, SNTP, NTP, Telnet, FTP, DNS, BOOTP, TFTP, Application Specific

There are a number of application-specific protocols used by pairs of Motorola Headend devices to facilitate the communication of special messages between them. For example, the DAC 6000 * sends messages to the Modular Processing System (MPS ) using a special messaging protocol. These protocols require the correct assignment of UDP/TCP port values based on unique number assignments for each headend device. The correct assignment of these port values is described in the next subsection.

Motorola Network Devices


Communications between headend network devices employ one of two transport types connection oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or connectionless User Datagram Protocol (UDP) during a particular phase of operation. Each network device may use singlecast, multicast, or broadcast (or a combination of the three) to communicate with other peers. Each Motorola network device is assigned a unique number, which is used to compose a unique device-to-device UDP/TCP port number that is used in inter-device communications, as illustrated in Table 2-1:
Table 2-1 Motorola network device numbers

Network Element
Network Number
*

DAC 6000
51

IRT *
54

NC 1500
56

OM 1000
57/67
*

RPD *
58

DLS
59

MPS *
60

67 is used for TCP

Table 2-2 describes each network device pair and the type of traffic they generate or receive:
Table 2-2 Network device pairs

Network Pair
DAC2IRT DAC2MPS DLS2OM DAC2OM1

Transport
TCP UDP UDP UDP

Default Port Number


5154 5160 5957 5157

IP Address Mode
Singlecast Singlecast Broadcast Singlecast

Comment
DAC 6000 to IRT messaging DAC 6000 to MPS messaging Code download operation Downstream messaging
* *

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Overview

2-3

Network Pair
DAC2OM2 RPD2DAC IRT2OM

Transport
TCP UDP UDP

Default Port Number


5167 5851 5457

IP Address Mode
Singlecast Singlecast Multicast

Comment
During the OM 1000 boot up Polling data EPG data stream (IP layer Broadcast, MAC layer Multicast) Interactive operation Interactive operation

NC2OM RPD2NC

UDP UDP

5657 5856

Singlecast Singlecast

The names in the Network Pair column combine the sender and receiver names of each network pair. For example, DLS2OM means that the Download Server (DLS) is the sender and the Out-of-Band Modulator, OM 1000 is the receiver. This convention is used throughout this document for UDP ports for the Motorola headend network devices. For the DLS2OM example, the UDP port is 5957 where 59 is always assigned to the Download Server, DLS 1000, and 57 is always assigned to the OM 1000. The OM 1000 also uses port 5167. This is used for the TCP connections between the DAC 6000 and the OM 1000. This TCP connection is used to pass control and status messages. Other single network devices also support the network devices listed in Table 2-2. Table 2-3 lists each single network device and the type of traffic each generates or receives:
Table 2-3 Single network devices

Network Element
HCT 1000

Transport
UDP

IP Address Mode
Broadcast and Singlecast

Comment
During network device startup, BOOTP replies are singlecast to the Gateway address and are broadcast on the network if there is no Gateway address field provided in the BOOTP request. TFTP traffic is singlecast.

MPS JAVA-enabled console NC 1500 JAVA-enabled console NETsentry

UDP UDP TCP/UDP

Singlecast Singlecast Broadcast and Singlecast

JAVA applet uploaded from the MPS HTTP server to a * web browser. This is used to configure the MPS . JAVA applet uploaded from the NC 1500 HTTP server to a web browser. This is used to configure the NC 1500. SNMP Network Managerreceives SNMP traps and can poll SNMP capable devices. Traffic is broadcast during network discovery.

Device-to-Device Communication
The following sections describe the network device pairs listed in Table 2-2, including the types of connections and the information passed between the devices. DAC2MPS Connection The Digital Addressable Controller, DAC 6000, sends commands to the Modular Processing System (MPS*) on UDP port 5160. These commands control MPS decryption, remultiplexing, message insertion, and encryption processing. The DAC 6000 sends commands to a particular MPSs IP address (singlecast addressing).

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

2-4

Overview

MPS * JAVA-enabled console connection The MPS* is configured using a JAVA-enabled console. The JAVA-enabled console is an applet uploaded to a JAVA-enabled browser from an HTTP server running within the MPS. The JAVA-enabled console applet uses SNMP over UDP to send set and get messages to the System Controller in order to read or write configuration settings within the MPSs Management Information Base (MIB).
Netscape Communicator version 4.5 or later is required to properly run the JAVA-enabled console. Remote configuration of the MPS is possible over WAN connections, provided HTTP traffic passed through the connecting routers. Most routers pass HTTP traffic by default. DLS2OM Connection The DLS 1000 sends code objects (digital set-top firmware, Electronic Program Guide [EPG] applications, and interactive applications) and download control messages to an OM 1000 on UDP port 5957. This information is typically sent using the networks broadcast IP address. DAC2OM Connection The DAC 6000 sends messages to an OM 1000 on UDP port 5157 using UDP. When the OM 1000 initiates its boot process, it exchanges registration process information with the DAC 6000 on TCP port 5167 using TCP. DAC2IRT connection The DAC 6000 exchanges information with an Integrated Receiver Transcoder, IRT 1000/2000 using Remote Procedure Calls (RPC). RPC is a Session Layer protocol that utilizes TCP at the Transport Layer. The IRT* uses the Port Mapper process running on the DAC 6000, which * assigns a dynamic TCP port for temporary use in communicating with the IRT . The DAC 6000 * can then use RPC to control the IRT using the assigned UDP port. The Port Mapper process is reached on TCP Port 111. IRT2OM connection In a nationally controlled headend, the IRT* acquires the National Control and Service (NC&S) stream (also known as the TCI Access Control [TAC] stream) from a Headend In The Sky * (HITS) satellite feed. The IRT sends the TAC stream information to the OM 1000 over UDP port 5457. This information is sent using an IP broadcast address, and a defined Multicast Media Access Control (MAC) address. The IP broadcast address is not mapped into a broadcast MAC address. This allows the address to be directed to only the OM 1000s on the plant. The NC&S information delivered to the OM 1000 makes up the Out-Of-Band (OOB) transport stream. This is an MPEG compliant transport stream. It contains EPG data, Digital Consumer * Terminal (DCT ) authorizations, code objects, and various control channel messages (for * example, virtual channel tables (VCTs), system time, and DCT configuration and initialization information). On a locally controlled system, where the DAC 6000 is controlling the system, a primary IRT receives the same NC&S stream. However, an OM 1000 filters out all but the EPG data from this stream. All other OOB information comes from the DAC 6000 and/or the Digital Addressable Network Interface Server.
*

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Overview

2-5

RPD2DAC Connection The Return Path Demodulator, RPD 1000 receives and demodulates up to six separate QPSK upstream signals each carrying Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) cells at 256 Kbps. DigiCipher II (DCII) upstream messages are encapsulated into ATM Adaptation Layer 5 Protocol Data Units (PDUs) prior to being broken up into 48 byte ATM cells. The RPD* aggregates these six channels of information into a single Ethernet frame. These bit streams * * * contain the poll buffer contents of the DCT s on the plant. The RPD sends DCT poll responses * back to the DAC 6000. The RPD transmits this data using UDP port 5851 with appropriate destination IP address. This connection is only used on non-interactive systems, where the DAC * 6000 is the destination host for the RPD .
In interactive systems, the RPD is configured to send received data to the destination IP address of the NC 1500, essentially making this a RPD2NC connection. The NC 1500 decides * whether the traffic returned by the RPD is interactive traffic to be sent to the appropriate application server or poll data to be routed back to the DAC 6000. The NC 1500 uses the same UDP port (5851) to pass poll data back to the DAC 6000. RPD2NC connection RPD*s receives interactive upstream traffic and polling data from the DCT* population. The * * RPD s encapsulate the upstream data into Ethernet frames using UDP over IP. The RPD s are configured to transmit the data directly to the NC 1500s IP address. The NC 1500 determines if the packets contain polling responses or interactive traffic. It then forwards poll data directly to the DAC 6000 and sends interactive traffic to the appropriate application server. Each RPD in the system is configured to transmit its Ethernet traffic to the NC 1500 using Singlecast IP. The UDP port used is 5856. NC 1500 JAVA-enabled console connection The NC 1500 JAVA-enabled console is an applet uploaded from an internal HTTP server to a Web Browser such as Netscape Communicator Version 4.5 or later. The console allows users to setup, configure, and control the NC 1500. The console connection uses the SNMP protocol on top of the UDP transport layer. Remote configuration of the NC 1500 is possible over WAN connections if HTTP traffic is passed through the connecting routers. Most routers pass HTTP traffic by default. NC2OM Connection The NC 15000 uses an OM 1000 path for interactive downstream operation. The NC 1500 communicates with the OM 1000 on the UDP port 5657 using singlecast addressing. NC2DAC Connection The NC 1500 to DAC 6000 connection performs the function of the system return path (RPD2DAC) connection, except that it is only used on interactive systems. The NC 1500 uses the same UDP port (5851) and addressing mode as a RPD* and passes polling traffic through to the DAC 6000 untouched. The DAC 6000 handles data from the NC 1500 as if it is from an * RPD .
* *

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

2-6

Overview

NETsentry Connection NETsentry is Motorolas headend management system. It uses SNMP protocol on top of UDP/TCP transports. The use of UDP or TCP transport depends on the particular network operation.

Recovering the Electronic Program Guide (EPG) Data Feed


The National Control & Signaling (NC&S) stream is delivered to a primary IRT as part of an isochronous data service. The NC&S stream is tunneled into an elementary Packet Identifier * (PID) stream that is part of this service. The IRT recovers the tunneled control stream, which is an entire transport stream destined for the OOB in nationally controlled systems. In locally controlled systems, it is often necessary to pass only the EPG data feed from this stream to the OOB. Therefore, the NC&S stream is normally sent to an OM 1000 to filter all but the EPG data from the stream. In order to transmit the recovered NC&S stream onto the Local Area Network * (LAN), the IRT encapsulates it into IP datagrams and transmits them over the Ethernet. This data is sent as an IP layer broadcast, but MAC layer multicast addresses are used within the Ethernet frames so that one or many OM 1000s on the LAN can receive the information. One significant advantage of filtering the NC&S stream is that the 1.5 Mbps of capacity that would normally be required can be reduced considerably. In most cases, the EPG data feed only utilizes around 100 Kbps of network capacity. There are two ways to pass EPG data (only) received as part of the NC&S streamusing an OM 1000 with an RS-530 interface, or using an OM 1000s Ethernet interface. In each case, an OM 1000 is used to filter all but the EPG data stream(s). Motorola recommends using an OM 1000 with an RS-530 interface over using an OM 1000s Ethernet interface. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are explained below.
*

Using OM 1000 with an RS-530 Interface


Motorola recommends using an OM 1000 with an RS-530 serial interface to receive the tunneled * control stream and pass only the EPG data. The primary IRT is configured to detunnel the NC&S stream and route this transport stream out of its RS-530 interface to an OM 1000. An OM 1000 equipped with the optional RS-530 DTE interface is necessary for this implementation. The OM 1000 is configured to pass only the EPG data PID stream(s). The OM 1000 is also configured to perform an IP broadcast off the EPG data PID stream onto the Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning (OAM&P) Ethernet. This allows multiple OM 1000s to receive the same EPG data. If the broadcast data is sent to remotely located headends, the router must be set-up to forward the broadcasts to each headend. The advantage of this approach is that only EPG data is transmitted onto the OAM&P LAN. Otherwise, the entire 1.5 Mbps NC&S stream would be transmitted onto the Ethernet, which is obviously an inefficient use of network capacity. Keep in mind that a dedicated OM 1000 is recommended (although not required) for this approach.

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Overview

2-7

To set up this configuration, you must complete the following steps:


1

Configure the primary IRT 1000/2000 to extract the NC&S data from the isochronous data service. Select RS-530 at the HITS interface menu of the IRT. Enable the RS-530 interface on the OM 1000. Route the RS-530 data to the Ethernet output. Configure the Ethernet Output to broadcast this data onto the local LAN. Turn on PID Filtering of all input PID streams. Select the EPG Data PID stream to pass.

2 3 4 5 6 7

Figure 2-2 illustrates the RS-530 interface solution:


Figure 2-2 RS-530 interface PID filtering solution
RS-530 delivers the de-tunneled NC&S stream. This is an entire OOB multiplex.

OM 1000 is set up to filter all PIDs and pass only EPG data PIDs. PID stream containing EPG data is sent out on LAN as an IP broadcast. 10 Base T Ethernet

RF

IRT 1000

OM 1000

Router configured to send IP broadcast Router containing EPG data to other remote headends.

OM 1000

DAC 6000 DLS DANIS

Network

QPSK @ IF 2 Mbps

Using the OM 1000s Ethernet Interface


Although not as desirable as the previous approach, you can also configure the primary IRT to send the detunneled NC&S stream to the Ethernet. In this case, the entire NC&S stream will be transmitted onto the Ethernet, so it is recommended that an Ethernet switch be used to segment this traffic from the OAM&P LAN. To set-up this configuration you must complete the following steps:
1 2 3 4
*

Configure the primary IRT to extract the NC&S data from the isochronous data service. Select Ethernet at the HITS interface menu. Define the Ethernet as a logical input port on the OM 1000. Define the Ethernet as a logical output port on the OM 1000.

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

2-8

Overview

5 6 7 8

Route the Ethernet input data to the Ethernet output port. Configure the Ethernet output to broadcast this data onto the local LAN. Turn on PID filtering of all input PID streams. Select the EPG Data PID stream to pass and configure the switch to block the other traffic.

Figure 2-3 illustrates the Ethernet PID filtering solution:


Figure 2-3 Ethernet PID filtering solution
TVGI feed filtered from the NC&S stream by the OM 1000, typically a single PID at 100 Kbps or less; the TVGI stream passes through the Ethernet switch to the main Ethernet. 10 Base T Ethernet OM 1000 The Ethernet switch blocks the 1.5 Mbps stream which is multicast from the IRT to the headends main Ethernet. DAC 6000 OM 1000 DLS DANIS RF from satellite dish IRT 1000 Detunneled 1.5 Mbps NC&S stream generated at HITS uplink, extracted by the IRT and multicast to the OM 1000 through a dedicated 10 Base T Ethernet. Contains the TVGI feed as well as other HITS control streams.

Ethernet switch

10 Base T Ethernet

Router

Network

Router

Cable plant

Ethernet switches pass IP broadcasts and multicasts by default. Therefore, you must configure the Ethernet switch to prevent the primary IRTs IP multicast data from being passed to the OAM&P. The switch will still pass the OM 1000s broadcast data (containing the filtered EPG data feed) by default. Figure 2-4 illustrates a sample Ethernet switch configuration:

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Overview

2-9

Figure 2-4 Sample Ethernet switch configuration


Catalyst 1900 - Port 24 Configuration Built-in 10Base-T 802.1d STP State: Forwarding Forward Transitions: 1

--------------------Settings-----------------[D] Description/name of port [S] Status of port [I] Port priority (spanning tree) [C] Path cost (spanning tree) Catalyst 1900 - Port 24 Addressing Address : Unaddressed Suspended-no-linkbeat 128 (80 hex) 100

--------------------Settings-----------------[T] Address table size [S] Addressing security [U] Flood unknown unicasts [M] Flood unregistered multicasts Restricted static address definitions: Enter address (6 hex octets: * block data from ] hh hh hh hh hh hh): 00 00 F8 01 AF 02 [MAC address of the IRT to Unrestricted Disabled Enabled Enabled

Enter the source ports allowed to send to this address. Enter port numbers: 23

Catalyst 1900 - Port 24 Addressing Address : Restricted 00-00-F8-01-AF-02 23

Accepted source ports:

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

2-10

Overview

Motorola Headend Broadcast Traffic


Motorola headend broadcast traffic primarily consists of Entitlement Management Message (EMM) broadcasts, Bootstrap protocol (BOOTP) requests from clients, code download traffic, and network time broadcasts. This broadcast traffic is blocked by routers on the headend by default. You need to configure routers to pass broadcast traffic. This can be accomplished on Cisco routers by configuring IP helper addresses. An IP helper address can be configured for the specific interface to pass the TFTP, BOOTP, Time Service, and DNS datagrams by default. IP helpers are also used to map one network broadcast to another network's broadcast address. IP filters can be configured to block any traffic that should not be passed to other networks. To pass through specific UDP broadcasts, configure a global IP forward on the router for the specific UDP port number, as shown in the example below: Global configurations
# interface ethernet 0/0 # ip forward UDP 5957

Comment
Forwards UDP packets on port 5157 DAC2OM Forwards UDP packets on port 5957 - DLS2OM

Internet specific configurations


# interface ethernet 0/0 # ip helper-address 192.2.2.2

Comment
Ethernet interface 0 port 0 Any broadcasts on this interface port will be sent to 192.2.2.2 IP

Refer to Section 3, Network Configuration Examples, for more details on the router configurations for each of the example configurations in this document.

Remote BOOTP Configuration


All of Motorolas digital headend equipment uses the Internet BOOTP protocol in order to execute operational code upgrades in the field. The following device's code images can be upgraded in the field using the Headend Configuration Tools HCT 1000 BOOTP Server: OM 1000 RPD
*

IRT* NC 1500 MPS*

When any of these devices initialize or power cycle, the device's BOOTP Client requests an IP address by sending a BOOTP Request (a MAC broadcast) with 'BOOTP server' on port 67 as the destination. When initializing with the self-boot option, the client device times out waiting for a reply. It then initializes itself from the information stored in its NVRAM. The BOOTP server (the HCT 1000) receives the request and generates a 'BOOTP reply' with an IP address and sends it as a broadcast if no gateway address is set in the BOOTP request. If the gateway address is non-zero, the BOOTP server sends the reply singlecast to the gateway address. The router sets the gateway address if the BOOTP requests go through routed networks. If the BOOTP client receives a valid BOOTP response, the BOOTP file-of-files name is extracted from the reply. If the name of the BOOTP file is different from the name of the BOOTP file last loaded, or if no previous BOOTP file was saved in NVRAM, a TFTP request is generated to the

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Overview

2-11

BOOTP Server. Then, using "get" and "set" commands, the new code image and file configurations on the BOOTP server is downloaded to the client device, singlecast addressed. Figure 2-5 illustrates the BOOTP flow for the example network configurations discussed in this document:
Figure 2-5 Sample remote BOOTP traffic flow

BOOTP Client

Routed Network

BOOTP Server

Client sends a broadcast BOOTP request MAC 1 BOOTP server builds a reply and sends it to the Gateway address as singlecast

3 Router broadcasts the reply to the client network 6 MAC +IP Address 4 5 7 Singlecast TFTP traffic between BOOTP server and BOOTP client

The following steps occur during a remote BOOTP:


1

The client sends a BOOTP request (as a MAC layer broadcast) that includes its MAC address. The router forwards the BOOTP request to the BOOTP server using the IP helper configuration on the remote router. The remote router also includes its IP address in the Gateway IP address field of the forwarded request. The router sends this forwarded request as a singlecast to the BOOTP server. The BOOTP server builds the BOOTP reply and sends it to the Gateway IP address. The router builds an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table from the reply information (MAC to IP Mapping). The router forwards the BOOTP reply to the client as a broadcast.

3 4 5

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Overview

6 7

The client recognizes and receives the BOOTP Reply by observing the MAC address and protocol. The BOOTP server downloads (singlecast) the software and configuration files to the client using TFTP.

Router Configurations for the Remote BOOTP You need to configure the IP helper-address on the remote routers closest to the BOOTP clients in order to pass the broadcast BOOTP traffic. An IP helper address can be configured for the router interface that receives the client's BOOTP requests as shown below: Interface specific router configuration
# interface ethernet 0/0 # ip helper-address 192.168.1.12

Comment
Select Ethernet interface 0, port 0 Any broadcasts on this interface port will be sent to IP 192.168.1.12, which is the BOOTP server.

CAUTION!

Configuring the IP helper address also forwards BOOTP, TFTP, DNS, Time Service, and NetBios name server datagrams by default. There may be situations where these datagrams need to be filtered to prevent ingress into other networks. This can be accomplished via setting up IP filters. IP filters can to be configured to prevent broadcast traffic ingress through the remote router into the frame relay and into the OAM&P network. For instance, if a Network Time Protocol (NTP) server is configured on the remote plant and the remote router is configured with an IP helper address, the NTP broadcasts ingress back into the OAM&P network. To prevent this from happening, you need to configure the remote router (near the local NTP server) with the command IP filter UDP 123 which will filter the UDP broadcasts for network time, as shown in the example below: Router Configuration
ip filter UDP 123

Comment
Network time UDP datagrams will be filtered.

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Section 3

Network Configuration Examples


While there are many possible network configurations, all networks have certain common attributes. This section contains three examples of typical Motorola headend network configurations. Each configuration attempts to provide an efficient, scalable, and manageable distributed network system that can be modified to meet specific needs. Some common elements of all three examples are: Ethernet switches are used to increase efficiency by isolating traffic to nodes that are passed. Network routers are configured with IP helper addresses so specific broadcast traffic can pass through. IP addressing settings for all Motorola Network Elements are the same for each example.

Cisco 2600 and 3600 series modular access routers are recommended for the three example configurations discussed here. These routers were used in Motorola Broadband System Integration labs to verify the configurations described in this document. For further details on Cisco router options, refer to Appendix B, Router Configuration. The example networks shown here are class C networks. Please note that the IP addressing schemes and router addresses detailed here are intended to serve only as guidelines. You may need to use different IP addresses to suit your configurations.

Cisco Routers and Switches


The sample network headend configurations in this document use Cisco 3600 and 2600 series routers. The Cisco 3640 is an enterprise router used as the central router in the samples because it provides the needed throughput and expandability. It is important to realize that the central router has to send traffic to multiple remote networks this means the traffic generated at the output port is generally many times greater than that seen by routers at remote sites. The remote routers in the sample networks are Cisco 2600 series routers. They do not need to be as powerful as the Cisco 3600 series routers because of their location in the network. Appendix B, Router Configuration, provides more information about the Cisco routers used in the sample networks Motorola has tested these routers in the network headend configurations that follow. This does not preclude the use of other vendors routers, but the features and command syntax may vary from those described in this document. Cisco 2924 switches were also used in the following network configurations. However, the need to use these devices depends on the location and number of headend devices in the particular configuration. The next section explains how switches can help segment the network and improve traffic flow.

Ethernet Hubs and Switches


In the sample headend network diagrams that follow, there are blocks labeled hub/switch. This indicates that either a hub will suffice, or an Ethernet switch is required. A hub is a network device that allows devices to be interconnected to the same network segment (for example, a physical wire). Hubs regenerate the incoming signals, but they employ no routing

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Network Configuration Examples

intelligence. A hub simply forwards received Ethernet frames out on all ports, even though the destination device is only connected to a segment on one port. Switches, on the other hand, allow a LAN to be separated into different logical/physical segments. Switches learn the location of a particular device on a segment and retain that information. When the switch observes Ethernet traffic is on a particular switch port, it transmits the Ethernet frame to the segment containing the desired destination device. Switches allow connected devices to communicate with each other with greater efficiency than a flat bus configuration. Pairs of devices will often be able to communicate in parallel at the full capacity of the media (for example, 10 or 100 Mbps on a 10 or 100BaseT segment, respectively). The location and numbers of headend components dictate whether a switch or hub is required. For example, a hub will suffice in Example Configuration One. This is because the RPD s (located at various remote locations) are all connected to a single physical interface on the router. Each RPD communicates with a DAC 6000 or NC 1500 located at the central headend. This means there are no device pairs in the remote headend that need to communicate on the LAN. Therefore, the capabilities of a switch are not needed. Example Configuration 3 would benefit from the use of switches because The NC 1500 sends interactive downstream traffic across the LAN to the OM 1000. Furthermore, there can be a fair amount of network traffic between the IRT s and the DAC 6000 located in the master headend. A switch would allow independent communication between the DAC 6000 to the IRT , and between the NC 1500 to the OM 1000, improving network efficiency and diminishing the likelihood of collisions that would be experienced using a simple 10Base T Hub. Note that switches will forward all MAC layer broadcasts or multicasts to each connected segment (with the exception of the segment where the transmission emanated) by default. If switches are used to limit LAN traffic on a particular segment, they may need to be configured to prevent some broadcasts/multicasts. Refer to Section 2, Overview, Using the OM 1000s Ethernet Interface for an example of how to configure a switch to block Multicast IP traffic from the IRT .

The Network Cloud


The network cloud illustrated in the following examples provides WAN connections over a Frame Relay, SONET RING, T1 or any other typical point-to-point connections. Typically, WAN service requirements for these connections are Customer Service Unit/Data Service Unit (CSU/DSU) and a network router. Frame Relay service is generally available in bandwidth increments from 56K, 128K, 256K, 384K, 512K and up. Point-to-Point services usually provide the following bandwidth options: Fractional T1 (DS-0) 64K 256K 384K 512K Full T1 or DS-1 at 1.54 Mbps T2 or DS-2 at 6.312 Mbps T3 or DS3 at 44.7 Mbps

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Contact your local area telephone or Internet service provider for information on the speed options in your area. For more information on WAN considerations, refer to Appendix A, WAN Link Capacity Considerations. For more information on network options, refer to Appendix C, Network Considerations.

Example Configuration 1
Example Configuration 1 covers interactive and non-interactive network configurations. It employs a combination of Ethernet switching and routing to direct network traffic. Each * RPD communicates back to the central headend through the corresponding plant router to an enterprise router over the WAN. All the network devices are co-located, except for the * * RPD s. The RPD s are located in the remote plant and they provide the return path to the headend OAM&P. The central router (3600 series) will block any broadcasts on the central network from being broadcasted to other networks. Central router Cisco model 3640 blocks * these by default. The remote routers will pass the singlecast traffic between the RPD and the * DAC. The remote routers need to be configured for the BOOTP broadcasts from the RPD s to be passed through the remote routers and via the network cloud to the OAM&P network. The EPG feed is located at the central network and hence all the EPG traffic is on the OAM&P network. * The RPD to NC 1500 traffic is passed through the WAN. The NTP server can also be configured on the OAM&P network.

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Network Configuration Examples

Figure 3-1 illustrates Example Configuration 1:


Figure 3-1 Example Configuration 1
From satellite (EPG) 192.168.1.10 DAC 6000 DLS 192.168.1.12 HCT 192.168.1.15 OM 1000 192.168.1.27 IRT 1000 192.168.1.20 Cisco 2900 10/100 BaseT Ethernet switch OAM&P network 192.168.1.1 CISCO 3600 router Application servers 192.168.10.1 192.168.1.13 NC 1500 JAVA console

NC 1500

Network Plant #1 192.168.10.2 Plant #2 192.168.10.3 Plant #3 192.168.10.4 Routers convert Cisco 2600 between full-duplex router and half-duplex as needed 192.168.4.1

Cisco 2600 router 192.168.2.1 Cisco 1900 10/100 Base T Ethernet hub 192.168.2.20 RPD 1000 192.168.2.27

Cisco 2600 router 192.168.3.1 Cisco 1900 10/100 Base T Ethernet hub 192.168.3.20 RPD 1000 192.168.3.27

Cisco 1900 10/100 Base T Ethernet hub 192.168.4.20 RPD 1000 192.168.4.27
*

This example uses a Class C Network address space with each RPD cluster located on an independent network. Users may need to alter the IP addressing scheme shown above depending on their specific application needs. Because Ethernet is half-duplex only and the network cloud (fiber) may be full-duplex, special attention must be paid when interfacing of these two types of networks. The smart hubs, routers, and/or switches will take care of the conversion between half-duplex to full-duplex automatically. In most cases, they support auto-detection between the two modes. For more details on the specific device, see the equipment manufacturer notes. Since the DAC 6000 (ProLiant series) is capable to run at 100 Mbps, the central office network side may run at that speed, provided that a minimum of UTP Category 5 wiring (ISO-11801 EIA/TIA-568) has been used between the DAC 6000 and the enterprise router.

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Configuration 1 Headend Parameters


The following sections contain configuration settings that must be set-up for the headend equipment in Configuration 1: DAC 6000 Configure the Network Interface Card (NIC) with an appropriate NIC number, hostname, IP address, netmask, broadcast address, router, and driver information. Build the host file to reflect the correct IP addresses for each piece of headend equipment. Configure the default gateway to be the 3640s IP address (192.168.1.1). To verify router configuration, type the following command at a 132 prompt on the DAC 6000: > netstat -rn. The DEC HX servers must have cards installed in slots 4, 5, and 6 respective to their type. The IRQs of the cards must be IRQ5 for slot 4, IRQ11 for slot 5, and IRQ15 for slot 6. The Compaq ProLiant servers should have the cards installed in slots 2, 3, and 4. The proper configuration of a three NIC system is as follows: Lowest NIC Slot # = Headend Network Middle NIC Slot # = Keyserver Network Highest NIC Slot # = Any Business Systems All NICs in a server must be the same type. Mixing of cards is not supported. Refer to Appendix B, Router Configuration, for NTP client configuration information.

OM 1000 Configure the appropriate IP address and the subnet mask for the OM 1000. Configure the host file with the DAC 6000's IP address (192.168.1.10). Configure the host as DAC 6000 from the front-panel display of the OM 1000. The service should be set to ACC2OM2. Set Port/Protocol to 5167/tcp connection.

RPD *

Configure the appropriate IP address and the subnet mask for the RPD*.
Configure the host file with the NC 1500's IP address. Configure the gateway (.gtw) file with the local routers IP address:
Plant Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 Default Gateway 192.168.2.1 192.168.3.1 192.168.4.1

Select the NC 1500 as the host from the front-panel display of the RPD*.

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Network Configuration Examples

IRT *

Configure the IP address and subnet mask on the IRT .


Configure the IP address of the DAC 6000 as the IRT 's controller address.

Configuration 1 Traffic Types


Central Router (Cisco 3640) Since all the headend equipment, except for the RPD s, is co-located with the DAC 6000, most of the broadcast traffic is on the Ethernet hub. This broadcast traffic needs to be contained on the central hub and blocked from the network cloud. The central router needs to be configured to block the broadcast traffic. This is done by default on most routers.
Because the RPD is on the remote network, the broadcast BOOTP requests from the * RPD BOOTP Client need to be relayed back to the OAM&P network to get to the BOOTP server. This is accomplished by configuring the IP-helper address on the Cisco 2600 series remote routers and is discussed in the Specific Router Configuration subsection of this section. Table 3-1 illustrates what types of traffic needs to be passed/blocked by the routers in Example Configuration 1:
Table 3-1 Configuration 1 traffic types
*

Device2Device

Transport

IP Address Mode
Singlecast

Router configuration (pass/block)


Block

Comments

DAC2OM1

UDP

OOB Data pathBy default, The central router does not pass this traffic on to the remote network by default. No special router configuration is necessary. The central router does not pass this broadcast traffic on the network cloud by default. No special router configuration is necessary. The OM 1000s control host interface traffic. The central router does not pass this traffic on the network cloud by default. No special router configuration is necessary. Code Download operation Central routers do not pass this traffic on the network cloud by default.

DAC2OM1

UDP

Broadcast

Block

DAC2OM2

TCP

Singlecast

Block

DLS2OM

UDP

Broadcast

Block

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Device2Device

Transport

IP Address Mode
Singlecast

Router configuration (pass/block)


Pass

Comments

HCT

UDP

BOOTP repliesPassed by the central router by default because it is singlecast traffic. No special router configuration is required. EPG data streamBy default, routers do not pass this traffic on the network cloud because of adjacency tests on the local network. This traffic is IP layer broadcast, MAC layer multicast. Polling data path when interactive activity is present By default, routers do not pass this traffic on the network cloud because of adjacency tests on the local network. No special router configuration is necessary. Polling data pathPassed by the router by default since it is singlecast traffic. No special router configuration is required NC 1500 ConsoleBy default, routers do not pass this traffic on the network cloud because of adjacency tests. No special router configuration is necessary. The BOOTP requests need to be passed through the remote router to the OAM&P network. This means that the IP helper address needs to be configured on the remote router.

IRT2OM

UDP

Multicast

Block

NC2DAC

UDP

Singlecast

Block

RPD2NC

UDP

Singlecast

Pass

NC JAVA

UDP

Singlecast

Block

BOOTP Requests

MAC

Broadcast

Pass

Cisco 2600 Series Router Configuration The following information needs to be configured on the Cisco 2621 router at the remote plant locations. The IP helper address on the Cisco router 2621 needs to be set to that of the BOOTP server's IP address. This way, the RPD* BOOTP client's broadcast BOOTP requests are directed to the BOOTP Server by the 2621 router via the Network Cloud. No helper addresses need to be set on the 3640 Router since all the network devices are configured on the OAM&P network. NTP servers are also located at the OAM&P network. This ensures that all the time broadcasts will be on the OAM&P network.

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Network Configuration Examples

For detailed information on remote BOOTP, refer to Appendix B, Router Configuration. Interface specific router configuration for the Cisco 2621 router
# interface ethernet 0/0 # ip helper-address 192.168.1.12

Comment
Sends BOOTP requests to the HCT 1000.

Example Configuration 2
Example Configuration 2 covers non-interactive systems and consists of three separate headends with a controller located at the central location. Each plant communicates with the central controller through the headend router, frame relay, and central office enterprise router. A central office enterprise router handles the aggregate of all network traffic. Each plant receives EPG data locally; the data is not passed across the WAN connections. NTP servers can be configured either locally on each plant or on the OAM&P network. Figure 3-2 illustrates Example Configuration 2:

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Figure 3-2 Example Configuration 2


192.168.1.10 DAC 6000 DLS Cisco 1900 10/100BaseT Ethernet switch

192.168.1.12 HCT

192.168.1.1 CISCO 3600 router 192.168.10.1 Possible network media can include frame relay fiber, ATM, T1, or fractional T1

Network From satellite (EPG) Plant #1 Cisco 2600 router 192.168.2.1 Cisco 2900 10/100 Base T Ethernet switch From satellite (EPG) 192.168.10.2 Plant #2 Cisco 2600 router

From satellite (EPG) 192.168.10.3 Plant #3 Cisco 2600 router 192.168.10.4 Routers convert between full-duplex and half-duplex as needed 192.168.4.1

192.168.3.1 Cisco 2900 10/100 Base T Ethernet switch

Cisco 2900 10/100 Base T Ethernet switch

RPD 1000 192.168.2.10 OM 1000 192.168.2.20 IRT 1000 192.168.2.27

RPD 1000 192.168.2.10 OM 1000 192.168.2.20 IRT 1000 192.168.2.27

RPD 1000 192.168.2.10 OM 1000 192.168.2.20 IRT 1000 192.168.2.27

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Network Configuration Examples

Example 2 uses a Class C network assignment with each headend located on an independent network. You may need to alter the IP addressing scheme to accommodate your specific needs. The IP addressing scheme shown in this example serves as a guideline. Since Ethernet is half-duplex only, and the network cloud (fiber) may be full-duplex, special attention must be paid when interfacing of these two types of networks. The smart hubs, routers, and/or switches will take care of the conversion between half-duplex to full-duplex automatically. In most cases, they support auto-detection between the two modes. For more details on the specific device, see the equipment manufacturer notes. Since the DAC 6000 (ProLiant series) can run at 100 Mbps, the central office network side can also run at that speed, provided that a minimum of UTP Category 5 wiring (ISO-11801 EIA/TIA-568) has been used between the DAC 6000 and the enterprise router.

Configuration 2 Headend Parameters


The following sections contain configuration settings for the headend equipment in Configuration 2: DAC 6000 Configure the NIC with appropriate NIC number, hostname, IP address, netmask, broadcast address, router, and driver information. Build the host file to reflect the correct IP addresses for each piece of headend equipment. Configure the default gateway to be the 3640s IP address (192.168.1.1). To verify router configuration, type the following command at a 132 prompt on the DAC 6000: > netstat -rn. The DEC HX servers must have cards installed in slots 4, 5, and 6 respective to their type. The IRQs of the cards must be IRQ5 for slot 4, IRQ11 for slot 5, and IRQ15 for slot 6. The Compaq ProLiant servers should have the cards installed in slots 2, 3, and 4. The proper configuration of a three NIC system is as follows: Lowest NIC Slot # = Headend Network Middle NIC Slot # = Keyserver Network Highest NIC Slot # = Any Business Systems All NICs in a server must be the same type. Mixing of cards is not supported. Refer to Appendix B, Router Configuration, for NTP client configuration information.

OM 1000 Configure the appropriate IP address and the subnet mask for the OM 1000. Configure the host file with the DAC 6000' s IP address (192.168.1.10). Select the DAC 6000 as the host from the front-panel display of the OM 1000. The service should be set to ACC2OM2. Port/Protocol should be set to 5167/tcp connection.

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Configure the gateway (.gtw) file with the local routers IP address:
Plant Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 Default Gateway 192.168.2.1 192.168.3.1 192.168.4.1

RPD *

Configure the appropriate IP address and the subnet mask for the RPD*.
Configure the .hst file with the DAC 6000' s IP address (192.168.1.10) Configure the gateway (.gtw) file with the local routers IP address:
Plant Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 Default Gateway 192.168.2.1 192.168.3.1 192.168.4.1

Select the DAC 6000 as the host from the front panel display of the RPD*.

IRT *

Configure the IP address and subnet mask on the IRT .


Add a gateway tag into the Define Network Parameters field. The correct tag is T3 and the gateway is the IP address of the local router:
Plant Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 Default Gateway 192.168.2.1 192.168.3.1 192.168.4.1

Configure the IP address of the DAC 6000 as the IRT 's controller address.

Configuration 2 Traffic Types


In this configuration, the routers need to be configured to be able to pass through the broadcast UDP traffic from the DAC 6000 to the OM 1000. Similarly, the routers also need to be configured to be able to pass through the DLS 1000 to OM 1000 traffic. The return path traffic * from the RPD to the DAC 6000 (singlecast) can be passed though the Cisco 2621 router by default. The IRT to OM 1000 EPG traffic is IP broadcast data and is local to each remote plant. Because the OM 1000 is on the same network as the IRT , the remote router, by default, does not forward the broadcast EPG traffic to the other networks. Specific router configurations are outlined in the next sections.

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Network Configuration Examples

Table 3-2 illustrates what type of traffic types need to be passed or blocked by the routers in Example Configuration 2:
Table 3-2 Configuration 2 traffic types

Device2Device
DAC2OM1

Transport
UDP

IP Address Mode
Singlecast

Pass/Block
Pass

Comments
OOB Data pathPassed by the central router to the remote network by default because the traffic is singlecast. No special router configuration is required. Channel Map data Global IP forwarding is configured in Cisco 3600 series router to enable passing the broadcast traffic. The OM 1000s control the host interface traffic Passed by the router by default because it is singlecast traffic. No special router configuration is required. IRT data Singlecast traffic is passed by the central router to the remote network by default. No special router configuration is required. Code Download IP forwarding is configured on the central router to enable passing the broadcast traffic to the remote network. Polling data Passed by the remote router to the OAM&P network by default. No special router configuration is required. Local EPG data streamBlocked by default by the Cisco 2600 router. This prevents ingress to the OAM&P network. This traffic is IP layer Broadcast, MAC layer Multicast. BOOTP repliesPassed by the central router to the remote network by default because they are singlecast. No special router configuration is required. The BOOTP requests need to be passed through the remote router to the OAM&P network. This means that the IP helper address needs to be configured on the remote router.
*

DAC2OM1

UDP

Broadcast

Pass

DAC2OM2

TCP

Singlecast

Pass

DAC2IRT

TCP

Singlecast

Pass

DLS2OM

UDP

Broadcast

Pass

RPD2DAC

UDP

Singlecast

Pass

IRT2OM

UDP

Broadcast

Block

HCT

UDP

Singlecast

Pass

BOOTP Requests

MAC

Broadcast

Pass

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Special Router Configuration The central router needs to be configured with IP helper addresses for the broadcast traffic that goes from the DAC 6000 to the different plants. IP helper address can be set to the plants network addresses. The following interface specific commands need to be configured on the Cisco 3640 router. LAN interface specific commands for the Cisco 3640 router
# interface ethernet 0/0 # ip helper-address 192.168.2.255 # ip helper-address 192.168.3.255 # ip helper-address 192.168.4.255

Global commands
# ip forward-protocol UDP 5157 # ip forward-protocol UDP 5957

Cisco 2600 Series Router Configuration The following information needs to be configured on the Cisco 2621 series router at the remote plant location. The IP helper address on the 2621 router needs to be set to the BOOTP server's IP address. This way, any broadcast BOOTP requests are directed to the BOOTP server by the 2621 router through the Network Cloud: LAN interface specific commands
# interface ethernet 0/0 # ip helper-address 192.168.1.12

For a complete list of Cisco router configuration settings, refer to Appendix B, Router Configuration.

Example Configuration 3
Example Configuration 3 covers interactive systems and can consist of two or more separate headends with a controller located at the central location. Each plant communicates with the central controller through the plant router, public network, and central office enterprise router. The headends enterprise router handles the aggregate of all network traffic. EPG data delivery is located at the OAM&P network and is routed through the network cloud for all the different plants. The De-tunneled 1.5 Mbps NC&S stream generated at the HITS uplink is extracted by the dedicated IRT and is multicast to the dedicated OM 1000 via a 10baseT Ethernet that filters the TVGI PID. This dedicated OM 1000 presents the TVGI feed to the primary OM 1000 for insertion into the OOB steam. For information about the EPG data delivery methods, refer to Section 2, Overview. Each plant has an NC 1500 on its network. The NC 1500 handles interactive activity and provides a firewall between the Motorola headend network and third party application servers. The OAM&P network in Example Configuration 3 comprises of the DAC 6000, NC 1500 Java console, HCT 1000 (BOOTP Server), and the EPG data feed.

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Network Configuration Examples

Figure 3-3 illustrates Example Configuration 3:


Figure 3-3 Example Configuration 3
EPG data feed 192.168.1.10 DAC 6000 DLS 192.168.1.12 HCT 192.168.1.13 NC 1500 JAVA console OM 1000 RS-530 IRT 1000 From L-band satellite NC&S

Cisco 2900 10/100 Base T Ethernet switch 192.168.1.1 CISCO 3600 router 192.168.10.1 Possible network media can include frame relay fiber, ATM, T1, or fractional T1 Network

Plant #1

192.168.10.2

Plant #2

192.168.10.3

Plant #3

Cisco 2600 router 192.168.2.1 Cisco 2900 10/100 Base T Ethernet switch

Cisco 2600 router 192.168.3.1 Cisco 2900 10/100 Base T Ethernet switch

Cisco 2600 router

192.168.10.4 Routers convert between full-duplex and half-duplex as needed 192.168.4.1

Cisco 2900 10/100 Base T Ethernet switch

RPD 1000 192.168.2.10 OM 1000 192.168.2.20 IRT 1000 192.168.2.27 NC 1500

RPD 1000 192.168.3.10 OM 1000 192.168.3.20 IRT 1000 192.168.3.27 NC 1500

RPD 1000 192.168.4.10 OM 1000 192.168.4.20 IRT 1000 192.168.4.27 NC 1500

Application servers

Application servers

Application servers

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Configuration 3 uses a Class C network assignment, with each headend located on an independent sub-net. You may need to alter the IP addressing scheme to accommodate your specific needs. The IP addressing scheme shown in this example serves as a guideline. Since Ethernet is half-duplex only and the network cloud (fiber) may be full-duplex, special attention must be paid when interfacing of these two types of networks. The smart hubs, routers, and/or switches will take care of the conversion between half-duplex to full-duplex automatically. In most cases, they support auto-detection between the two modes. For more details on the specific device, see the equipment manufacturer notes. Since the DAC 6000 (ProLiant series) can run at 100 Mbps, the central office network side can also run at that speed, provided that a minimum of UTP Category 5 wiring (ISO-11801 EIA/TIA-568) has been used between the DAC 6000 and the enterprise router.

Configuration 3 Headend Parameters


The following sections contain configuration settings for the headend equipment in Configuration 3: DAC 6000 Configure the Network Interface Card with appropriate NIC number, hostname, IP address, netmask, broadcast address, router, and driver information. Build the host file to reflect the correct IP addresses for each piece of headend equipment. Configure the default gateway to be the 3640s IP address (192.168.1.1). To verify router configuration, type the following command at a 132 prompt on the DAC 6000: > netstat -rn. The DEC HX servers must have cards installed in slots 4, 5, and 6 respective to their type. The IRQs of the cards must be IRQ5 for slot 4, IRQ11 for slot 5, and IRQ15 for slot 6. The Compaq ProLiant servers should have the cards installed in slots 2, 3, and 4. The proper configuration of a three NIC system is as follows: Lowest NIC Slot # = Headend Network Middle NIC Slot # = Keyserver Network Highest NIC Slot # = Any Business Systems All NICs in a server must be the same type; mixing of cards is not supported. Refer to Appendix B, Router Configuration, for NTP client configuration information.

OM 1000 Configure the appropriate IP address and the subnet mask for the OM 1000. Configure the host file with the DAC 6000' s IP address (192.168.1.10). Port/Protocol should be set to 5167/tcp connection.

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Network Configuration Examples

Configure the gateway (.gtw) file with the local routers IP address:
Plant Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 Default Gateway 192.168.2.1 192.168.3.1 192.168.4.1

Select the DAC 6000 as the host from the front-panel display of the OM 1000. The service should be set to ACC2OM2.

RPD *

Configure the appropriate IP address and the subnet mask for the RPD*.
Configure the .hst file with the DAC 6000' s IP address (192.168.1.10) Configure the gateway (.gtw) file with the local routers IP address:
Plant Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 Default Gateway 192.168.2.1 192.168.3.1 192.168.4.1

Select the DAC 6000 as the host from the front panel display of the RPD*

IRT *

Configure the IP address and subnet mask on the IRT*.


Add a gateway tag into the Define Network Parameters field via the user interface. The correct tag is T3 and the gateway is the IP address of the local router:
Plant Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 Default Gateway 192.168.2.1 192.168.3.1 192.168.4.1

Configure the IP address of the DAC 6000 as the IRT*s controller address.

Configuration 3 Traffic Types


In this configuration, the routers need to be configured to pass through TCP/UDP traffic from the DAC 6000 to the OM 1000. Similarly, the routers need to be configured to pass through the * DAC 6000 to the IRT , the DLS 1000 to the OM 1000, and the EPG traffic. The return path traffic from the NC 1500 to the DAC 6000 needs to be passed though the Cisco 2621 router. The * IRT to OM 1000 traffic is multicast EPG data to the OM 1000. Because the OM 1000 is on the same network, the router does not forward the EPG traffic on to the remote headend or other networks. Specific router configurations are outlined in the next sections.

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Network Configuration Examples

3-17

Table 3-3 illustrates what type of traffic types need to be passed or blocked by the routers in Example Configuration 3:
Table 3-3 Configuration 3 traffic types

Device2Device
DAC2OM1

Transport
UDP

IP Address Mode
Singlecast

Pass/Block
Pass

Comments
OOB data Passed by the central router by default. No special router configuration is required. Channel Map information IP forwarding configured on the Cisco 3600 router enables this to be passed to the remote network. The OM 1000s control the host interface traffic Passed by the router by default. No special router configuration is required. Flush/Fill operation Passed by the central router by default. No special router configuration is required. Code download traffic IP forwarding configuration on the Cisco 3640 router enables this to be passed to the remote headend. EPG data stream This traffic is IP layer Broadcast, MAC layer Multicast. This is singlecast traffic on the local network. The remote router blocks this form the WAN by default. No special router configuration is required. This is singlecast traffic on the local network. The remote router blocks this form the WAN by default. No special router configuration is required. Polling data Passed by the router by default. No special router configuration is required. BOOTP OperationPassed by the router by default. No special router configuration is required.

DAC2OM1

UDP

Broadcast

Pass

DAC2OM2

TCP

Singlecast

Pass

DAC2IRT

TCP

Singlecast

Pass

DLS2OM

UDP

Broadcast

Pass

IRT2OM

UDP

Broadcast

Block

NC2OM

UDP

Singlecast

Block

RPD2NC

UDP

Singlecast

Block

NC2DAC

UDP

Singlecast

Pass

HCT 1000

UDP

Singlecast

Pass

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

3-18

Network Configuration Examples

Device2Device
BOOTP Requests

Transport
MAC

IP Address Mode
Broadcast

Pass/Block
Pass

Comments
The BOOTP requests need to be passed to the OAM&P network through the remote router. This means that the IP helper address needs to be configured on the remote router. NC 1500 JAVA-enabled Console Singlecast traffic is passed by the router by default. No special router configuration is required.

NC JAVA

UDP

Singlecast

Pass

Special Router Configuration The central router needs to be configured with IP helper addresses for the broadcast traffic that goes from the DAC 6000 to the different plants. IP helper address can be set to the plants network addresses. The following interface specific commands need to be configured on the Cisco 3640 router: Interface specific commands on the Cisco 3640 router
# interface ethernet 0/0 # ip helper-address 192.168.2.255 # ip helper-address 192.168.3.255 # ip helper-address 192.168.4.255

Global commands
# ip forward-protocol UDP 5157 # ip forward-protocol UDP 5957

# ip forward-protocol UDP 5457

Cisco 2600 Series Router Configuration The following information needs to be configured on the Cisco 2621 router at the remote plant location. The IP helper address on the router 2621 needs to be set to that of the BOOTP server's IP address. This way, any broadcast BOOTP requests are directed to the BOOTP server by the 2621 router through the Network Cloud: LAN interface specific commands
# interface ethernet 0/0 # ip helper-address 192.168.1.12

For a complete list of Cisco router configuration settings, refer to Appendix B, Router Configuration.

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Appendix A

WAN Link Capacity Considerations


This appendix provides WAN link capacity recommendations and considerations for the headend network configuration examples given in this document. For more information about the example configurations, refer to Section 3, Network Configuration Examples. While in steady state operation, the DAC 6000 sends messages to IRT s, OM 1000s and MPS devices over the WAN. These messages include IRT and MPS control commands, settop box authorizations and configuration commands, code objects, and network information. The WAN also carries polling traffic from the set-tops (RF Global/ Upstream Plant/ Single Terminal) that is received by the RPD and routed to the DAC 6000 for processing. Finally, there may also be other traffic on the same network from EPG servers, third party Interactive/Application Servers, and Network Time Servers. Table A-1shows the minimum recommended WAN link capacities for each of the example configurations discussed in this document:
Table A-1 Minimum Recommended Link Capacity

Example Configuration
Configuration 1 Configuration 2 Configuration 3

Minimum Recommended Link Capacity


56 Kbps 256 Kbps 512 Kbps

The link capacity numbers described in Table A-1 are based on a working test configuration in the Motorola BCS SI lab with the following headend elements software releases. These bandwidth numbers typically dont vary with the software release versions. DAC 6000 v 2.45-4-5 OM 1000 v 3.2.0 RPD 1000 v 3.2.0 DCT 1000 v 6.43 DCT 2000 v 6.50 IRT 1000 v 1.5.1 The link capacities indicated in Table A-1 can be changed with certain headend performance tradeoffs. For instance, Example Configuration 2 can operate using a 56 Kbps link rather than the recommended 256 Kbps link. To do so however, you must change certain DAC 6000 parameters to less than optimal values. These changes will result in sub-optimal system performance, such as a code download rate much slower than recommended to support Example Configuration 2.

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

A-2

Bandwidth Considerations

Recommended Data Rate Settings


Table A-2 contains the recommended data rate settings based on the WAN link capacities specified for each example configuration. The table lists the device pair traffic types and the recommended data rate settings for the device pair. The table is divided into variable (tunable via a DAC 6000), fixed, and miscellaneous data rates. The rates listed below provide enough margins to accommodate expected bursts of traffic, increased reliability, and reduction of data latency.
Table A-2
Device Pair Data Rate Setting Recommendations

Device Pair

Traffic Type

Recommended Data Rate Settings based on WAN Link Capacity for Example Configurations
56 Kbps Example 1 256 Kbps Example 2 60 Kbps 512 Kbps Example 3 180 Kbps

Comments

DLS2OM

Broadcast

N/A

This traffic is broadcast to all the OM 1000s on the headend; therefore, additional OM 1000s do not add significant traffic. Example configuration 1 is on a 56 Kbps WAN link. This link is used only to pass the upstream traffic from RPD2DAC. All other traffic is on the 10BaseT OAM&P network. This facilitates operation of DLS2OM at 180 Kbps in example 1. DLS2OM traffic in examples 2 and 3 is on the WAN link and the recommended settings are as shown. This traffic is broadcast to all the OM 1000s on the headend; therefore, additional OM 1000s do not add significant traffic. Example configuration 1 is on a 56 Kbps WAN link. This link is only used to pass the upstream traffic from RPD2DAC. All other traffic is on the 10BaseT OAM&P network. This facilitates operation of EMM/NETPID2OM traffic at 80 Kbps in example 1. The traffic in examples 2 and 3 is on the WAN link and the recommended settings are as shown. This traffic is generated periodically for programming information (Load IRT) and during operator initiated flush and fill operations. This is singlecast to each IRT. Each IRT added to the network contributes some periodic traffic between the DAC 6000 and the IRT. Load IRT commands are queued and hence are sent to one IRT at a time.

Variable Data Rates

EMM/NETPIDs2 OM

Broadcast

N/A

80 Kbps

80 Kbps

DAC2IRT

RPC Singlecast

N/A

20 Kbps

20 Kbps

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Bandwidth Considerations

A-3

56 Kbps Example 1 IRT2OM Singlecast to the downstrea m plants OM 1000 Singlecast N/A

256 Kbps Example 2 N/A

512 Kbps Example 3 150 Kbps This EPG traffic is carried over the WAN link to each downstream plant.

Fixed Data Rates

RPD2DAC

20 Kbps

20 Kbps

20 Kbps

Depending on the number of parallel polls, the RPD traffic on the example headend was approximately 20 Kbps with 30000 settops that have a 20% buy rate.

56 Kbps Example 1 Miscellaneous SNMP, BOOTP, ARP, etc 10 Kbps

256 Kbps Example 2 10 Kbps

512 Kbps Example 3 10 Kbps This includes the miscellaneous data transfers such as the SNMP traffic, the BOOTP traffic, ARP requests, and so on.

Configuration Specific Link Capacity Budget and Constraints


There are two ways to configure the examples in this document to handle the return path traffic:
1

Interactive settops can be configured on an upstream frequency, which sends the interactive ATM cells back to the NC 1500. Non-interactive settops can be configured on a different upstream frequency to the RPD .

In Configuration 1, all the headend elements, with the exception of the RPD , are co-located with the DAC 6000. The only Ethernet traffic that comes back to the central headend network from the remote site is the RPD return path purchase/poll data from the settops. The RPD2DAC traffic primarily consists of the RF poll traffic and the diagnostic polls. The recommended minimum link capacity required for this traffic is 56 Kbps. Configuration 2 moves the OM 1000s to remote plants. This results in the WAN carrying IP traffic: From the DAC 6000 to the OM 1000s on the remote plant To the IRT s on the remote plant and the return path traffic as well From the remote RPD s to the DAC 6000

Minimum WAN link capacity recommended for this configuration is 256 Kbps. Configuration 3 is similar to but more complex than Configuration 2. There is an additional 150 Kbps of EPG data traffic routed through the WAN. The IRT , OM 1000s, NC 1500s, and RPD s are all on the remote plant. This means the WAN carries the DAC 6000 traffic to the OM 1000s and the IRT s on the remote plant. The WAN also carries the return path traffic from the remote RPD s to the DAC 6000. There may also be interactive set-tops sending traffic to third party application servers using the NC 1500.

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A-4

Bandwidth Considerations

WAN Link Capacity Recommendations for Configuration 1


Example Configuration 1 covers interactive and non-interactive network configurations. All the network devices are co-located at a central site, except for the RPD s. Each RPD communicates back to the central head-end through the corresponding plant router to an enterprise router over the WAN. The RPD s are located in the remote plant and they provide the non-interactive return path for diagnostic polls and purchase poll traffic to the headend OAM&P. Motorola recommends configuring the interactive traffic on a different demodulation frequency from the non-interactive traffic. If there is any interactive traffic, the link capacity budget of the WAN link needs to be increased accordingly to handle the corresponding interactive traffic. The different devices on the central network communicate on a 10/100BaseT network. Non-interactive traffic on the WAN consists of the RF return path traffic from the set-tops, which is the RPD2DAC traffic. The return path traffic consists of the diagnostic polls and the purchase polls. Motorola recommends that the WAN support at least 56 Kbps. The RPD is capable of operating at an upstream RF data rate of 256 Kbps.

Configuration Recommendations
The following DAC 6000 configurations are suggested for this configuration. The traffic generated by the DAC 6000 settings below is present only on the OAM&P network and not on the WAN link. Configure the DLS data rate for 4MPEG/UDP and 30UDP/sec rate. This will operate at an estimated bandwidth of 180 Kbps. This traffic is not on the WAN. Set the EMM data rate be at the default rate of 80 Kbps. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value. Set the NET PID data rate at the default rate of 80 Kbps. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value. Set the ALL PID data rate at the default rate of 80 Kbps. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value. Configure the reportback_timeout tunable to the default value of 1000 milli sec. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value.

Constraints
The 56 Kbps link capacity for the WAN is based on simulations of two RPD s with fully populated chassis.

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Bandwidth Considerations

A-5

WAN Link Capacity Recommendations for Configuration 2


Example Configuration 2 covers non-interactive systems and consists of three separate headends with a controller located at the central location. Each plant communicates with the central controller through the WAN, the headend router, and the central office enterprise router. A central office enterprise router handles the aggregate of all network traffic. Each plant gets its EPG data locally, so the data is not passed across the WAN connections. For this configuration, Motorola recommends that the WAN support at least 256 Kbps. The same configuration can be run on a 56 Kbps link after some data rate throttling. This procedure is described in the Constraints and Recommended Operational Features for Configuration 2 to operate on a 56 Kbps WAN link section that follows.

Configuration Recommendations
In order to support the device-to-device message rates specified in Table A-2, the following DAC 6000 configurations are required: Configure the DLS 1000 data rate for 4 MPEG/UDP and 10 UDP/sec rate. This will operate at an estimated bandwidth of 60 Kbps. Set the EMM data rate be at the default rate of 80 Kbps. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value. Set the NET PID data rate at the default rate of 80 Kbps. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value. Set the ALL PID data rate at the default rate of 80 Kbps. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value. The DAC 6000 is capable of parallel polling. This translates to the number of DCT s that send the upstream poll data simultaneously in case of a global poll. Motorola recommends setting this value to the default DAC 6000 value of 12. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value. Configure the reportback_timeout tunable to the default value of 1000 ms. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value.

Constraints and Recommended Operational Features for Configuration 2 to Operate on a 56 Kbps WAN Link
Configuration 2 can also operate on a 56 Kbps WAN link, with some trade-offs in headend performance. Changing some default values on the DAC 6000, such as the EMM and NET PID, enables you to operate Configuration 2 on a 56 Kbps WAN link, as shown below. In order to support the device-to-device message rates specified in Table A-2, the following DAC 6000 configurations are required: Configure the DLS data rate for 4 MPEG/UDP and 1 UDP/sec rate. This will operate at an estimated bandwidth of 6.4 Kbps. This means that the code download will take 20 times as long as the code download streams operating at the recommended 4 MPEG/UDP and 30 UDP/sec (180 Kbps) for the 256 Kbps link. The following table serves as a guideline for DLS data rate tunables. It is recommended to package more MPEGs/UDP and keep the UDP rate low due to the lower UDP overhead.

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

A-6

Bandwidth Considerations

Table A-3 DLS Data Rates

Data Rate (Kbps)


6.4 30.4 60.5 180.8

MPEG/ UDP
4 4 4 4

UDP/ Sec
1 5 10 30

MPEG/ Sec
4 20 40 120

MPEG Bytes/ Bytes/Sec Sec including overhead


752 3760 7520 22560 798 3806 7566 22606

Flush and Fill conditions on the IRT typically generate approximately 300 kilobits of data, depending on the number of services on the IRT . This takes approximately five times as long to complete as it would take on a 256 Kbps link for Configuration 2. Since this is not a frequently conducted operation, this does not have much affect on the performance of the system.
Set the EMM data rate at 24 Kbps. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value. Set the NET PID data rate at 24 Kbps. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value. Set the ALL PID data rate at 24 Kbps. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value. Space terminal refreshes apart by at least 10 seconds using the DAC 6000 GUI screen. Configure the reportback_timeout tunable to the default value of 1000 ms. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value. The following table contains estimated times for code upgrades to various headend devices from the HCT 1000 (located at the central headend):
Table A-4 Code upgrade time using an HCT on a 56 Kbps link

Source

Destination

File size Kilo Estimated time for Bytes upgrade in minutes


1,560 KB 983 KB 1.181MB 4 min 2 min 3 min

Description
Fof, img, ini, hst, gtw.svc, msg, tsk, adb, htm files cod files and off file All config files + v3.1 code

HCT 1000 OM 1000 HCT 1000 IRT HCT 1000 RPD

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Bandwidth Considerations

A-7

WAN Link Capacity Recommendations for Configuration 3


This example consists of two or more separate headends with a controller located at the central location. Each plant communicates with the central controller through the plant router, public network, and central office enterprise router. The headends enterprise router handles the aggregate of all network traffic. EPG data delivery is located at the OAM&P network and is routed through the network cloud for all the different plants. The de-tunneled 1.5 Mbps NC&S stream generated at the HITS uplink is extracted by the dedicated IRT . It is then multicast to the dedicated OM 1000 using a 10BaseT Ethernet, which filters the TVGI PID. This dedicated OM 1000 presents the TVGI feed to the primary OM 1000 for insertion into the OOB stream. This adds an additional 150 Kbps traffic on the WAN.

Configuration Recommendations
In order to support the device-to-device message rates specified in Table A-2, the following DAC 6000 configurations are required: Configure the DLS data rate for 4 MPEG/UDP and 30 UDP/sec rate. This will operate at an estimated bandwidth of 180 Kbps. If need be, the DLS rate can be scaled down to 4 MEPG/UDP and 10 UDP/sec rate to operate at an estimated bandwidth of 60 Kbps. This would mean that it would take approximately three times as long for the code download to the set-tops compared to the setting above. Set the EMM data rate to the default 80 Kbps. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value. Set the NET PID data rate to the default 80 Kbps setting. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value. Set the ALL PID data rate to the default 80 Kbps. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value. Configure the reportback_timeout tunable to the default value of 1000 ms. Only authorized field personnel should modify this value.

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Appendix B

Router Configuration
This section provides the following information: An overview of what options are available with the Cisco 2600 and 3600 series routers. The Motorola Broadband Communications Sector (BSC) SI lab used Cisco modular routers 2621 and 3640 for the remote configurations examples tested in this manual. The configuration file results from the Cisco routers and switch tested in the Motorola BCS SI lab

For more information on the Cisco routers discussed in this manual, refer to the appropriate Cisco documentation.

Cisco 2600 Series


Cisco 2600 series routers share modular interfaces with the Cisco 1600, 1700 and 3600 series routers. They support: Secure Internet/intranet access with firewall protection Multiservice voice/data integration Analog and digital dial access services Virtual Private Network (VPN) access Inter-VLAN routing, routing with Bandwidth Management

The Cisco 2600 series is available in the following six base configurations: Cisco 2610: One Ethernet port Cisco 2611: Two Ethernet ports Cisco 2612: One Ethernet port and One Token Ring port Cisco 2613: One Token Ring port Cisco 2620: One 10/100 Mbps auto-sensing Ethernet Port Cisco 2621: Two 10/100 Mbps auto-sensing Ethernet Ports

Each model has two WAN interface card slots, one network module slot, and one AIM slot. All Cisco 2600s include the Cisco IOS IP feature set.

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

B-2

Router Configuration

Cisco 3600 Series


The Cisco 3660, Cisco 3640, and Cisco 3620 routers are, respectively, 6-, 4- and 2-slot multi-service access routers. Their LAN and WAN connections are configured by interchangeable network modules and WAN interface cards. The Cisco 3660 also incorporates 1 or optionally 2 integrated 10/100 (Ethernet/Fast Ethernet) ports. The following network modules are available for the Cisco 3660, Cisco 3640, and Cisco 3620 routers: Analog and Digital (T1) Voice Network Modules Single-Port High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) ATM 25 Mbps Network Module (Q1 CY 2000 for the Cisco 3660) ATM OC3 155 Mbps Network Module 6-, 12-, 18-, 24- and 30-digital modem network modules (Q1 CY 2000 for the Cisco 3660) LAN with modular WAN (WAN Interface Cards) 8 and 16 analog modem network modules (Q1 CY2000 for the Cisco 3660) Channelized T1, ISDN PRI and E1 ISDN PRI network modules (Q1 CY 2000 for the Cisco 3660) Combined Fast Ethernet and PRI network modules (Q1 CY 2000 for the Cisco 3660) 4- and 8-port ISDN BRI network modules (Q1 CY 2000 for the Cisco 3660) 16- and 32-port asynchronous network modules 4- and 8-port synchronous/asynchronous network modules 1-and 4-port Ethernet network modules 1-port Fast Ethernet (10/100) network modules (100BaseT - "TX" and Fiber - "FX") 8- and 16-port analog modem modules (Q1 CY 2000 for the Cisco 3660) 4-port serial network module Compression network module (Cisco 3620 and Cisco 3640, AIM for the Cisco 3660)

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Router Configuration

B-3

Cisco 3640 Central Router Configuration


The following table contains the results of running config for the Cisco 3640 router used in the example headend networks in this document: Router Configuration
version 12.0 ! interface Ethernet0/0 ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0 ip helper-address 192.168.3.20 ip helper-address 192.168.2.20 ip helper-address 192.168.4.20 ip directed-broadcast ! interface Serial0/0 No ip address Ip directed-broadcast Encapsulation frame-relay No ip mroute-cache No fair-queue Frame-relay lmi-type ansi ! Interface Serial0/0.1 point-to-point Ip address 192.168.10.102 255.255.255.0 Ip directed-broadcast Frame-relay interface-dlci 102 ! Interface Serial0/0.2 point-to-point Ip address 192.168.11.103 255.255.255.0 Ip directed-broadcast Frame-relay interface-dlci 103 ! Interface Serial0/0.3 point-to-point Ip address 192.168.12.104 255.255.255.0 Ip directed-broadcast Serial sub interface 3 Serial sub interface 2 Additional tag needed for the frame relay Serial sub interface 1 Encapsulation frame relay Serial interface 0/0 Direct broadcasts from the 129 network to the OM's (not needed for example configuration 1) Direct broadcasts from the 129 network to OM's (not needed for example configuration 1) Direct broadcasts from the 129 network to OM's (not needed for example configuration 1) Ethernet interface 0/0

Comments

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

B-4

Router Configuration

Frame-relay interface-dlci 104


! ! ip classless ip forward-protocol udp 5957 ip forward-protocol udp 5157 ip route 192.168.20.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.10.201 ip route 192.168.21.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.12.14 ip route 192.168.22.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.11.13 no ip http server ! line con 0 exec-timeout 5 0 line aux 0 line vty 0 End c3640# Aux port 0 Virt term 0 Allows us to configure from con 0 Send all the traffic from 129 network destined to 20 network will go through the 10.201 network Send all the traffic from 129 network destined to 20 network will go through the 12.14 network Send all the traffic from 129 network destined to 20 network will go through the 11.13 network Enable 5957 broadcasts

Cisco 2621 Router Configuration Information


The following table contains the results of running config for the Cisco 2621 router used in the example headend networks in this document: Config on the Router
sh run interface Loopback0 no ip address no ip directed-broadcast ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0 ip helper-address 192.168.1.12 ip directed-broadcast ! interface Serial0/0 no ip address Serial Interface 0/0 Fast Ethernet interface IP address for the interface IP helper address set to the BOOTP server Loopback interface config No IP address for the interface No IP broadcast forwards

Comments

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Router Configuration

B-5

ip directed-broadcast
encapsulation frame-relay no ip mroute-cache frame-relay lmi-type ansi ! interface Serial0/0.1 point-to-point ip address 192.168.10.201 255.255.255.0 ip directed-broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 201 ! ip classless ip route 192.168.129.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.10.102 static routing table no ip http server End Interface to the frame relay dlci port 201 Serial interface 0/0.1 config IP address and subnet mask

Cisco 2621 FR Router Configuration Information


The following table contains the results of running config for the Cisco 2621 FR router used in the example headend networks in this document:

Config on the Router


c2621_frsw#show run hostname c2621_frsw ! no ip subnet-zero ! frame-relay switching interface FastEthernet0/0 no ip address no ip directed-broadcast Shutdown ! interface Serial0/0 no ip address ip directed-broadcast encapsulation frame-relay no ip mroute-cache

Comments

Routers name

Default setting

Enable router for frame-relay communications Fast Ethernet interface settings

Fast Ethernet interface disabled

Settings for Serial 0/0 interface No IP address Default setting' to allow broadcasts go through Set encapsulation to Frame-Relay Default setting

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

B-6

Router Configuration

clockrate 800000
frame-relay lmi-type ansi frame-relay intf-type dce frame-relay route 102 interface Serial0/1 201 frame-relay route 103 interface Serial0/2 301 frame-relay route 104 interface Serial0/3 401 ! interface Serial0/1 no ip address ip directed-broadcast encapsulation frame-relay clockrate 56000 frame-relay lmi-type ansi frame-relay intf-type dce frame-relay route 201 interface Serial0/0 102 ! interface Serial0/2 no ip address ip directed-broadcast encapsulation frame-relay clockrate 56000 frame-relay lmi-type ansi frame-relay intf-type dce frame-relay route 301 interface Serial0/0 103 ! interface Serial0/3 no ip address ip directed-broadcast encapsulation frame-relay clockrate 56000 frame-relay lmi-type ansi frame-relay intf-type dce frame-relay route 401 interface Serial0/0 104 End c2621_frsw#

Sets clock rate to 800 Kbps


Lmi-type ansi. Must be the same for all routers to communicate Server Route dlci 102 to interface dlci 201 Route dlci 103 to interface dlci 301 Route dlci 104 to interface dlci 401

Serial interface 0/1 No IP address assigned

Clock rate set at 56000 bps (clock rate of the cloud) Lmi-type ansi. Must be the same for all routers to communicate

Serial interface 0/2 No IP address assigned

Clock rate set at 56000 bps Lmi-type ansi. Must be the same for all routers to communicate

Serial interface 0/3 No ip address assigned

Clock rate set at 56000 bps Lmi-type ansi. Must be the same for all routers to communicate

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Router Configuration

B-7

Cisco 2900 Switch


The following table contains the results of running config for the Cisco 2900 switch used in the example headend networks in this document: Config on the Router Comments

c2924sw#sh run hostname c2924sw interface VLAN1 ip address 192.168.20.250 255.255.255.0 no ip route-cache ! interface FastEthernet0/1 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/2 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/3 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/4 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/5 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/6 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/7 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/8 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/9 Host name

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

B-8

Router Configuration

switchport access vlan 2


spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/10 switchport access vlan 2 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/11 switchport access vlan 2 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/12 Switchport access vlan 2 Spanning-tree portfast ! Interface FastEthernet0/13 Switchport access vlan 2 Spanning-tree portfast ! Interface FastEthernet0/14 Switchport access vlan 2 Spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport access vlan 2 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport access vlan 2 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/17 switchport access vlan 3 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/18

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Router Configuration

B-9

switchport access vlan 3


spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport access vlan 3 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/20 switchport access vlan 3 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/21 switchport access vlan 3 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/22 switchport access vlan 3 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/23 switchport access vlan 3 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/24 switchport access vlan 3 spanning-tree portfast ! ! End This port belongs to vlan 3 For the spanning tree

c2924sw#

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

B-10

Router Configuration

NTP Client Configuration for the DAC 6000


Check the following files when troubleshooting the NTP client configuration (the ntp_gi script configures these files automatically):
/etc/rc2.d/S85tcp

:::::::::::::::::::: ... about line 178 >> make sure "timed" is commented out <<

# Uncomment these lines if you want to run timed. Add -M

# to the timed command if you want this machine to be a # potential master server. ## if [ -x /etc/timed -a ! -f /etc/ntp.conf ]; then

# # fi

timed ; echo "timed \c"

>> make sure the "ntpdate -b ... " line appears similar <<

# Xntpd - Don't run this at the same time as timed. if [ -x /etc/xntpd -b -f /etc/ntp.conf ]; then

ntpdate -b ntp_server1 ; xntpd -b >/dev/null; echo "xntpd \c" fi ::::::::::::::::::::

/etc/ntp.conf :::::::::::::::::::: # >> verify the entries in the ntp.conf file <<

# expected to run at stratum level 3

broadcastclient

yes

Motorola Headend Network Solutions

Router Configuration

B-11

driftfile resolver

/etc/ntp.drift /etc/xntpres

keys requestkey server

/etc/ntp.keys 65529

>> keys are only needed if using system <<

>> names, not system IP addresses << version 1 >> verify NTP server name/IP address <<

ntp_server1 ntp_server2

server

:::::::::::::::::::: /etc/ntp.keys

:::::::::::::::::::: 65529 A

key_password

>> only needed if using keys <<

Although unsupported at this time, the following NTP configuration file may be used as a guideline for setting up a UNIX system as an NTP server system that broadcasts NTP synchronization data.

::::::::::::::::::::

/etc/ntp.conf

:::::::::::::::::::: # /etc/ntp.conf file for a SCO UNIX NTP server # Declare this system as a server with stratum 10/11

server fudge # our local sub-nets

127.127.1.10 127.127.1.10

# Local System Clock

(sub-nets to broadcast over)

broadcast

168.84.250.255

# enable monitoring feature monitor yes

driftfile resolver

/etc/ntp.drift /etc/xntpres

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Appendix C

Network Considerations
The following considerations need to be addressed before network setup can begin. All of the issues described in this section may affect the performance, cost, and manageability of the network equipment at the cable headend.

IP Address Space Considerations


Network scaling is a major concern when the IP Address space is subdivided and allocated between network devices. How much IP host space will be needed two or three months, or even years, down the road? Should the network be one contiguous IP space or split into sub-nets?

Classful IP Addressing
When IP was first standardized in September 1981, the specification required that each system attached to an IP-based Internet be assigned a unique, 32-bit Internet address value. Some systems, such as routers, which have interfaces to more than one network, must be assigned a unique IP address for each network interface. The first part of an Internet address identifies the network, on which the host resides, while the second part identifies the particular host on the given network. This created the two-level addressing hierarchy, as illustrated in Figure C-1:
Figure C-1 Two-level Internet address structure

Network-number or Network-prefix

Host-number

Host-number

In recent years, the network-number field has been referred to as the "network-prefix" because the leading portion of each IP address identifies the network number. All hosts on a given network share the same network-prefix but must have a unique host-number. Conversely, any two hosts on different networks must have different network prefixes but may have the same host-number.

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Network Considerations

Primary Address Classes


In order to provide the flexibility required to support different size networks, the designers decided that the IP address space should be divided into three different address classes - Class A, Class B, and Class C. This is often referred to as "classful" addressing because the address space is split into three predefined classes, groupings, or categories. Each class fixes the boundary between the network-prefix and the host-number at a different point within the 32-bit address. The formats of the fundamental address classes are illustrated in Figure C-2:
Figure C-2 Principle classful IP address formats Class A bit # 0 1 0 Networknumber Class B bit # 0 2 10 Networknumber Class C bit # 0 3 110 Networknumber 23 24 31 15 16 31 Hostnumber


One of the fundamental features of classful IP addressing is that each address contains a self-encoding key that identifies the dividing point between the network-prefix and the host-number. For example, if the first two bits of an IP address are 1-0, the dividing point falls between the 15th and 16th bits. This simplified the routing system during the early days because the original routing protocols did not supply a "deciphering key" or "mask" with each route to identify the length of the network-prefix. Class A Networks (/8 Prefixes) Each Class A network address has an 8-bit network-prefix with the highest order bit set to 0 and a seven-bit network number, followed by a 24-bit host-number. Today, it is no longer considered modern to refer to a Class A network. Class A networks are now referred to as "/8s" (pronounced "slash eight" or just "eights") since they have an 8-bitnetwork-prefix. A maximum of 126 (27 -2) /8 networks can be defined. The calculation requires that the 2 is subtracted because the /8 network 0.0.0.0 is reserved for use as the default route and the /8 network 127.0.0.0 (also written 127/8 or 127.0.0.0/8) has been reserved for the "loopback" 24 function. Each /8 supports a maximum of 16,777,214 (2 -2) hosts per network. The host calculation requires that 2 is subtracted because the all-0s ("this network") and all-1s ("broadcast") host-numbers may not be assigned to individual hosts.

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7 8

31

Hostnumber

Hostnumber

Network Considerations

C-3

Since the /8 address block contains 2 (2,147,483,648) individual addresses and the Internet 32 Protocol version four (IPv4) address space contains a maximum of 2 (4,294,967,296) addresses, the /8 address space is 50% of the total unicast address space. Class B Networks (/16 Prefixes) Each Class B network address has a 16-bit network-prefix with the two highest order bits set to 1-0 and a 14-bit network number followed by a 16-bit host-number. Class B networks are now referred to as"/16s" since they have a 16-bit network-prefix. A maximum of 16,384 (214) /16 networks can be defined with up to 65,534 (216 -2) hosts per 30 network. Since the entire /16 address block contains 2 (1,073,741,824) addresses, it represents 25% of the total unicast address space. Class C Networks (/24 Prefixes) Each Class C network address has a 24-bit network-prefix with the three highest order bits set to 1-1-0 and a 21-bit network number, followed by an 8-bit host-number. Class C networks are now referred to as "/24s" since they have a 24-bit network-prefix. A maximum of 2,097,152 (221) /24 networks can be defined with up to 254 (28 -2) hosts per 29 network. Since the entire /24 address block contains 2 (536,870,912) addresses, it represents 12.5% (or 1/8th) of the total unicast address space. Other Classes In addition to the three most popular classes, there are two additional classes, class D and class E. Class D addresses have their leading four-bits set to 1-1-1-0 and are used to support IP Multicasting. Class E addresses have their leading four-bit set to 1-1-1-1 and are reserved for experimental use. Dotted-Decimal Notation To make Internet addresses easier for human users to read and write, IP addresses are often expressed as four decimal numbers, each separated by a dot. This format is called "dotted-decimal notation." Figure C-3 shows how a typical /16 (Class B) Internet address can be expressed in dotted-decimal notation:
Figure C-3 Dotted-decimal notation
bit # 0 10010001 145 00001010 10 00100010 34 31 00000011 3

31

145.10.34.3
Dotted-decimal notation divides the 32-bit Internet address into four 8-bit (byte) fields and specifies the value of each field independently as a decimal number with the fields separated by dots.

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C-4

Network Considerations

Table C-1 displays the range of dotted-decimal values that can be assigned to each of the three principle address classes. The xxx represents the host-number field of the address, which is assigned by the local network administrator.
Table C-1 Dotted-decimal ranges for each address class

Address class
A (/8 prefixes) B (/16 prefixes) C (/24 prefixes)

Dotted-decimal notation ranges


1.XXX.XXX.XXX through 126. XXX.XXX.XXX

128.0.XXX.XXX through 191.255.XXX.XXX 192.0.XXX.XXX through 223.255.255.XXX

Subnetting In 1985, Request For Comments (RFC) document 950 defined a standard procedure to support the subnetting, or division, of a single Class A, B, or C network number into smaller pieces. Subnetting was introduced to overcome some of the problems that parts of the Internet were beginning to experience with the classful two-level addressing hierarchy: Internet routing tables were beginning to grow. Local administrators had to request another network number from the Internet before a new network could be installed at their site.

Both of these problems were addressed by adding another level of hierarchy to the IP addressing structure. Instead of the classful two-level hierarchy, subnetting supports a three-level hierarchy. The basic idea of subnetting is to divide the standard classful host-number field into two parts the subnet-number and the host-number on that subnet, as illustrated in Figure C-4:
Figure C-4 Subnet address hierarchy

Two-level classful hierarchy


Network-prefix Host-number

Three-level subnet hierarchy


Network-prefix Subset-number Host-number

Subnetting solved the expanding routing table problem by ensuring that the subnet structure of a network is never visible outside of the organization's private network. The route from the Internet to any subnet of a given IP address is the same, no matter which subnet the destination host is on. This is because all subnets of a given network are numbered using the same network-prefix but different subnet numbers. The routers within the private organization need to differentiate between the individual subnets, but as far as the Internet routers are concerned, all of the subnets in the organization are collected into a single routing table entry. This allows the local administrator to introduce arbitrary complexity into the private network without affecting the size of the Internet's routing tables. Subnetting overcame the registered number issue by assigning each organization one (or at most a few) network number(s) from the IPv4 address space. The organization was then free to

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Network Considerations

C-5

assign a distinct sub-network number for each of its internal networks. This allows the organization to deploy additional subnets without needing to obtain a new network number from the Enterprise Network. A site with several logical networks uses subnet addressing to cover them with a single /16 (Class B) network address. The router accepts all traffic from the Internet addressed to network 130.5.0.0, and forwards traffic to the interior sub-networks based on the third octet of the classful address, as illustrated in Figure C-5:
Figure C-5 Subnetting reduces the routing requirements on the network Private network 130.5.32.0 130.5.64.0 130.5.96.0 130.5.128.0 130.5.160.0 130.5.192.0 130.5.224.0

130.5.0.0 Internet Router

The deployment of subnetting within the private network provides several benefits: The size of the global Internet routing table does not grow because the site administrator does not need to obtain additional address space and the routing advertisements for all of the subnets are combined into a single routing table entry. The local administrator has the flexibility to deploy additional subnets without obtaining a new network number from the Enterprise Network. Route flapping (such as the rapid changing of routes) within the private network does not affect the network routing table since Internet routers do not know about the reachability of the individual subnets they just know about the reachability of the parent network number.

Extended-Network-Prefix Internet routers use only the network-prefix of the destination address to route traffic to a subnetted environment. Routers within the subnetted environment use the extended-networkprefix to route traffic between the individual subnets. The extended-network-prefix is composed of the classful network-prefix and the subnet-number, as illustrated in Figure C-6:
Figure C-6 Extended-network-prefix

Extended-network-prefix Network-prefix Subset-number Host-number

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C-6

Network Considerations

The subnet mask has traditionally identified the extended-network-prefix. For example, if you have the /16 address of 130.5.0.0 and you want to use the entire third octet to represent the subnet-number, you need to specify a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0. The bits in the subnet mask and the Internet address have a one-to-one correspondence. The bits of the subnet mask are set to 1 if the system examining the address should treat the corresponding bit in the IP address as part of the extended-network- prefix. The bits in the mask are set to 0 if the system should treat the bit as part of the host-number, as illustrated in Figure C-7:
Figure C-7 Subnet mask Subnet Number Host Number

Network-Prefix
IP Address: 130.5.5.25 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0

10000010.00000101.00000101.00011001 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 Extended Network-Prefix

The standards describing modern routing protocols often refer to the extended-network-prefixlength rather than the subnet mask. The prefix length is equal to the number of contiguous one-bits in the traditional subnet mask. This means that specifying the network address 130.5.5.25 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 can also be expressed as 130.5.5.25/24. The /<prefix length> notation is more compact and easier to understand than writing out the mask in its traditional dotted-decimal format, as illustrated in Figure C-8:
Figure C-8 Extended-network-prefix length 130.5.5.25 255.255.255.0 10000010.00000101.00000101.00011001 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 or 130.5.5.25/24 10000010.00000101.00000101.00011001 24 Bit Extended Network-Prefix

However, it is important to note that modern routing protocols still carry the subnet mask. There are no Internet standard routing protocols that have a one-byte field in their header that contains the number of bits in the extended-network prefix. Rather, each routing protocol is still required to carry the complete four-octet subnet mask. Subnet Design Considerations The deployment of an addressing plan requires careful thought on the part of the network administrator. The following four key questions must be answered before any design should be undertaken:
1 2 3 4

How many total subnets does the organization need today? How many total subnets will the organization need in the future? How many hosts are there on the organization's largest subnet today? How many hosts will there be on the organization's largest subnet in the future?

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Network Considerations

C-7

The first step in the planning process is to take the maximum number of subnets required and 3 round up to the nearest power of two. For example, if an organization needs 9 subnets, 2 (or 8) will not provide enough subnet addressing space, so the network administrator will need to 4 round up to 2 (or 16). When performing this assessment, it is critical that the network administrator always allows adequate room for future growth. For example, if 14 subnets are required today, then 16 subnets might not be enough in two years when the 17th subnet needs 5 to be deployed. In this case, it might be wise to allow for more growth and select 2 (or 32) as the maximum number of subnets. The second step is to answer the question of whether IP addresses should be private or public. Private addresses are Class A 10.0.0.0-10.255.255.255, Class B 172.16.0.0-172.31.255.255, Class C 192.168.0.0-192.168.255.255 and are for internal use only (not connected to the Internet or any other network, maintained by an organization). Public addresses are all other valid IP addresses, assigned in accordance with IANA (Internet Assigned Network Authority) regulations and are globally unique. When designing a network, one must consider which of these two addresses schemes will be used. Private network IP addresses can be assigned when there will be no external network connections. If in the future external connections are required a protocol such as Network Address Translator (NAT) can be used to translate between these private and public addresses (this requires a pool of public addresses be available for this use as well as routing hardware to support the protocol). Public addresses will assure that the devices can be externally connected, but will require the proper procedures to acquire blocks of IP addresses from the Internet authorities. A detailed determination of the IP addressing requirements for the present and future must be assessed and enough time allowed for the appropriate IP address request paper work. The third step is to make sure that there are enough host addresses for the organization's 5 largest subnet. If the largest subnet needs to support 50 host addresses today, 2 (or 32) will not 6 provide enough host address space so the network administrator will need to round up to 2 (or 64 2). The final step is to make sure that the organizations address allocation provides enough bits to deploy the required subnet addressing plan. For example, if the organization has a single /16, it could easily deploy 4-bits for the subnet-number and 6-bits for the host number. However, if the organization has several /24s and it needs to deploy 9 subnets, it may be required to subnet each of its /24s into four subnets (using 2 bits) and then build the Internet by combining the subnets of 3 different /24 network numbers. An alternative solution would be to deploy network numbers from the private address space (RFC 1918) for internal connectivity and use a Network Address Translator (NAT) to provide external Internet access.

Network Link Considerations


The following network link considerations are discussed below: Frame Relay Committed information rate Local loop speed Port speed Committed burst size

Other network link options, such as ATM, are also available.

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C-8

Network Considerations

Frame Relay Frame Relay provides a packet-switching data communications capability that is used across the interface between user devices (for example, routers, bridges, host machines) and network equipment (for example, switching nodes). User devices are often referred to as data terminal equipment (DTE), while network equipment that interfaces to DTE is often referred to as data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE). The network providing the Frame Relay interface can be either a carrier-provided public network or a network of privately owned equipment serving a single enterprise. As an interface between user and network equipment, Frame Relay provides a means for statistically multiplexing many logical data conversations (referred to as virtual circuits) over a single physical transmission link. This contrasts with systems that use only time-division-multiplexing (TDM) techniques for supporting multiple data streams. Frame Relay's statistical multiplexing provides more flexible and efficient use of available bandwidth. It can be used without TDM techniques or on top of channels provided by TDM systems. Another important characteristic of Frame Relay is that it exploits the recent advances in wide-area network (WAN) transmission technology. Earlier WAN protocols such as X.25 were developed when analog transmission systems and copper media were predominant. These links are much less reliable than the fiber media/digital transmission links available today. Over links such as these, link-layer protocols can forego time-consuming error correction algorithms, leaving these to be performed at higher protocol layers. Greater performance and efficiency is therefore possible without sacrificing data integrity. Frame Relay is designed with this approach in mind. It includes a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) algorithm for detecting corrupted bits (so the data can be discarded), but it does not include any protocol mechanisms for correcting bad data (for example, by re-transmitting it at this level of protocol). Frame Relay, therefore, does not include explicit flow control procedures that duplicate those in higher layers. Instead, very simple congestion notification mechanisms are provided to allow a network to inform a user device that the network resources are close to a congested state. This notification can alert higher-layer protocols that flow control may be needed. To provision the communication line from the Frame Relay circuit to the target site, the phone company will need to know the following parameters: Committed Information Rate (CIR) Local loop speed Port speed Committed burst size

Committed Information Rate (CIR)

The CIR represents the maximum sustained rate of data traffic that your carrier is committing to carry for you. You may burst above this rate, but your traffic above the CIR will be marked "discard eligible," and may get thrown away in the event of congestion in the network. So CIR is really the only true data rate number of these three (local loop, port speed, CIR) that you can count on. You could have, for example, a T1 local loop, a 384k port speed, but only 128k CIR. And you could only count on 128k throughput, though you might be able to burst for a short time up to 384k.

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Network Considerations

C-9

Local Loop Speed

The local loop speed is typically either T1 or 56k. These are the only two options available from the phone companies for frame relay. They are options not on the router, but when you buy the frame relay circuit from the Phone Company. They will ask you this question to provision the line. If you buy a T1 local loop, you can buy a port speed and CIR up to 1.5 Mbps. If you buy a 56k circuit, the highest port speed and CIR you can buy is 56k and you could only count on 128k throughput, though you might be able to burst for a short time up to 384k.
Port Speed

Port speed is a measure of the speed of access you buy from the frame relay network provider. This can vary from 15k to 1.5 Mbps. This parameter literally measures the speed at which you access into the frame relay providers network. This speed also represents the maximum speed up to which you can burst.
Committed Burst Size

Committed burst size is the maximum amount of data (in bits) that the network agrees to transfer, under normal conditions, during some defined time interval.

High Capacity Terrestrial Digital Service (T1)


T1 digital transport services are available through telephone companies and even many Internet Service Providers (ISPs). T1 refers to a physical layer protocol that supports transmission of digital serial data over TDM channels at rates up to 1.544 Mbps. A CSU/DSU is required on both ends of a T1 link to translate data from the Routers, over various physical interfaces (e.g. RS-232, RS-449, V.35, etc.), into the proper physical format and TDM channels (i.e. time slots). T1 service providers usually offer fractional T1 capabilities, wherein multiples of 64 Kbps TDM channels can be purchased rather than an entire T1. An entire T1 would constitute 24 of these 64 Kbps time slots. CSU/DSU A Channel Service Unit (CSU) is Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) that terminates a digital carrier circuit and provides line conditioning, diagnostics, and testing functions. A Data Service Unit (DSU) is CPE that provides an interface to a digital carrier such as a T1. At the user end of every T1 and DDS (Digital Data Service) line is a CSU. The CSU can be a separate device or be combined with a DSU as a dual function device. The carrier requires a CSU/DSU unit in any situation where a user has purchased a high-speed service such as a T1, Fractional T1, or a DDS 56k/64k line, as illustrated in figure C-9:
Figure C-9 Multiplexer CSU/DSU
User interface (V.35 or RS-449) Router DSU CSU Transmit pair Receive pair Telco

If the T1 CSU/DSU has more than one user port, it can function as a multiplexer allocating the DS-0 time slots between the ports in multiples of 64 Kbps or 56 Kbps.

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C-10

Network Considerations

The Router interface to CSU/DSU is an RS-449 type interface. The serial connector on the router end of the cable is the same regardless of the type of serial interface (V.35, RS-232, RS-449, EIA-530, or X.21) on the modem or CSU/DSU. The DSUs provide: Timing to each user port Input signal format manipulation -i.e., takes the incoming user data signals (e.g., RS-449, RS-232 or V.35) and converts them into the form needed for transmission over the Telco provided line. This conversion manipulates the input signal into the specified line code and framing format.

The three Primary Functions of the CSU are: Protection for the T1 line and the user equipment from lightening strikes and other types of electrical interference and a keep-alive signal Storage for keeping track of statistics Capabilities for Telco initiated loopback

Fiber Channel Networks


The major application area of fiber channel, which became an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard in 1994, is to provide high-bandwidth (up to 100 Mbps) connectivity for peripheral devices. Fiber channel defines a point-to-point or switched point-to-point link, which includes definitions of the physical layer, transmission code, and higher level functions such as flow control and multiplexing. Access networks provide interconnections between the customer equipment and central offices locations. The average distance of these types of networks is usually less than 3 miles. The components of access networks are extremely cost sensitive. The design of the access network is thus to minimize the use of active devices such as laser diodes or confine the use of such devices within central offices. The current fiber deployment strategies are divided into the following two categories: hybrid fiber coaxial (HFC) and fiber to home (or fiber in the loop).

Ethernet Traffic
The Ethernet evolved from a random access protocol that was developed at the University of Hawaii in the 1970s. Ethernet protocol is located at the Data Link Layer, which sits on top of the Physical Layer in the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model for computer communications. The Data Link Layer is formed from the Logic Link Control (LLC-802.2) sub-layer on top of the Media Access Control (MAC-802.3), or simply Ethernet protocol. All 802.3 MAC (Ethernet) standards share certain common features. Chief amongst them is a common MAC framing format for the exchange of information. This format includes the following: A fixed preamble for synchronization, destination and source address for managing frame exchanges A start of frame delimiter and length of frame field to track the boundaries of the frames A frame check sequence to detect errors A data field and a pad field for collision detection

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Network Considerations

C-11

Prior to transmitting frames, the MAC layer senses the physical channel. If transmitting activity is detected, the node continues to monitor until a break is detected, at which time the node transmits its frame. Only one device (node) can send its frame to an intended destination at a time. This mode of operation is called half-duplex. In spite of the prior channel sensing performed, it is possible that the frame will collide with one or more other frames. Such collisions may occur either because two or more nodes concurrently initiate transmissions following the end of the previous transmission, or because propagation delays prevent a node from sensing the transmission initiated by another node at the earlier instant. In order to resolve collisions, the Ethernet nodes retransmit after a randomly chosen delay. The probability distribution of the retransmission delay of a given packet is updated each time the packet experiences collision. The choice of the initial probability distribution of the retransmission delay, and the dynamics of its updates, determines whether the population of new and retransmitted users can transmit successfully. Thus, the retransmission algorithm lies at the heart of the Ethernet protocol. Because of the collision resolution process, the order in which the Ethernet serves packets depends on the traffic intensity. During the periods of light traffic, service is first come, first serve. During the periods of heavy contention, some colliding users will defer their retransmission into the future.

Motorola Headend Ethernet Traffic


Motorola headend devices such as the DAC 6000, OM 1000, IRT , RPD , and NC 1500 are interconnected with network links from an Ethernet system with a mix of communication speeds. A network can have multiple Ethernet systems that are interconnected with routers, switches, or combinations thereof. Peak data rates are buffered depending on the device and traffic load. The average data rate (during peak message loading) drives the size of the communication link.
*

The network link bandwidth availability depends on the networks configuration, setup, and activity. Variations in code download bandwidth, between 10 to 100 Kbps, will affect the network bandwidth in some cases. These variations includes the following: The number of MPEG packets per UDP frame The number of packets per second The number of objects per stream The number of streams per multiplex

The amount of bandwidth available is also affected during interactive activity such as client requests, and the collisions that occur during client requests or server responses.

Switched Ethernet
To resolve the Ethernet s half-duplex deficiency, switched Ethernet techniques have been used. Switching directs network traffic in a very efficient manner; it sends information directly from the port of origin to its destination ports. Switching establishes a direct line of communication between two ports and maintains multiple simultaneous links between various ports. It manages network traffic by reducing media sharing traffic is contained to the segment for which it is destined.

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C-12

Network Considerations

Ethernet switches segment a LAN into many parallel-dedicated lines that can enable a powerful, scalable architecture. A switch port may be configured as a segment with many stations attached to it, or with a single station connected to it. The rule is that only one conversation may originate from any individual port at a time, regardless of whether there are one or many stations connected off that port. That is, all ports still listen before they speak. When a single LAN station is connected to a switched port, it may operate in full-duplex mode. Full duplex does not require collision detection; there is a suspension of MAC protocols. A single device resides on that port; therefore, there will be no collisions. An estimate for the aggregate bandwidth of an Ethernet switch may be calculated by multiplying the number of switched ports n by the media bit rate (mbr) and dividing this number by two since a conversation involves two parties (communication involves sender and receiver):
(nmbr)/2 = ~aggregate bandwidth of an Ethernet switch

For full-duplex operation, the equation is the same except the division is unnecessary since a single port both sends and receives information. Full-duplex switching enables traffic to be sent and received simultaneously. Aggregate throughputs for 10 Mbps Ethernet networks jump to 20 Mbps, and from 100 Mbps to 200 Mbps. Hubs between a workgroup and a switch will not run full duplex, because the hub is governed by collision detection requirements. (The workgroup connected to the hub is unswitched Ethernet). Ethernet switches are used when there is a need to minimize collision domain. Not only it will provide hub operation, it also uses full-duplex mode whenever possible.

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Abbreviations and Acronyms


ARP ATM BOOTP DAC 6000 DCT* DLM DLS DNS EMM EPG GUI HCT 1000 HITS IP IRT* KLS LAN MAC MPS* MSO NAS NC 1500 NC&S OAM&P OM 1000 OOB PID RPC SNMP TCP/IP TFTP TVGI UDP WAN Address Resolution Protocol Asynchronous Transfer Mode Boot Protocol Digital Addressable Control Computer Digital Consumer Terminal Data Link Manager Download Server Domain Name System Entitlement Management Message Electronic Program Guide Graphical User Interface Headend Configuration Tool Headend In The Sky Internet Protocol Integrated Receive Transcoder 1000/2000 Key List Server Local Area Network Media Access Conrtol Modular Processing System Multiple System Operator National Authorization System Network Controller National Control and Service Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning Out-of-Band Modulator Out-of-Band Packet identifier Remote Procedure Call Simple Network Management Protocol Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Trivial File Transfer Protocol TV Guide Interactive User Datagram Protocol Wide Area Network

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473294-001-99 8/00