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Kfiu

jeho, f Fghf gf ajF khwf fjj

isthf midJ tif gfY xnu f Kiw, uhd ghll vw


mogil bghJghl l eilKiwgLjgLtJ kd iwit mwJ.
jehL muR mJs j ma thid f xL bkhj tsF
gagL bfhs ntL.

midJ mafSF muahd fjkhdJ cshj kid,

mjnf ca LF, mHF bfhL vbwW wJ sF xU ghlkhf


fwJ. ma, bgha kW w ghlfY fj, f Koahj lij
twJ. vdnt ma kW bjhEg tsF kW jeg jh
njbjLF Jiw wJ sf, fj m f mtakhwJ. mf
ms vLf Toa fj gahdJ xUtUF fj mit mgnjhL
kL, uhd F wid, fyhd uridfis gFjh Mwiy
mF.

j fPf fjahd bghahbkh yt, ma UtSt

Rkh ulhu MLfSF Kghfnt, fj f kig czJ


tif,

vbzg Vid vGbjg uL


- Fw (392)

fbzg thG cF.

vW Tsh.

e th ehS vHToa ffSF fhQ MwY, mtiw

vbfhS

wik

mta

ekF

njitgLwd.

fj

vgJ

fzFfSF fhz cj fU kLkW; mJ f r thj gilghwiy


cUthF irahf csJ. j cikfis vyh khztf fU
bfhL, mtf kdkfhf, nkikfhf fjij nknkY gy
ntL.

eho ey vfhy rjdiu cUthf njj fjg mtakhF.

nghJ fW bfhS fj mogil fUJf caf fj kW


ma ghlfSF mogilahf mik. fj mogil TWfis fW
bfhtnjhL Wlhk, mitfis vthW fzFf fis fhg

(iii)

gagLJtJ vgjid mJ bfhs ntL. jid fU bfhL


totikfgLsJ. gntW iyf fj vgo tswJ ; vthW gagLwJ
vW ma itg ehf mf ftd vLJ bfhLnsh. Ys
mahaf midJ aifahf, jf , ey vLJfhLfSl tir
gLjgLsd. nkY, khztf gfis nkbfhL fj fUJfis
J bfhs thgF tif xbthU mahaK xGfikfgLsJ.
khztf, Maf JiznahL fj cshj fUJfis mt
bjhlfis bjJ bfhL mjF wF g fzFfSF fhgJ
wj Kiw vd enwh.

vf maiy, fj xU gFahf bfhL guJ J csJ

vgij id bfhs ntL. tFgiw, khztf fj fg


Ma gF ff KakhdjhF. mt cj Mnyhrid fw
aikahjd. Mug fjUJ ca fjF khWw goiyf
Ma f Ka gif twh. j nehfid iw bra Toajhf,
xU Cahf ghl mik vd enwh. Ma - khzt U t
gkhwf cikahf <Lglh _y mf ms gadilayh.
fgtiu ikagLJ tFgiw braghLfSF Ka rnjfl
ttif br. khztfSF fj njLj gazF, vyh tifY
wfis tsJ bfhtjF taikJ jUtij Ka nehfkhf
bfhLsJ. vLJfhLf rahf gfis nkbfhlh, gYs
fzFfSF fhQ tKiwfis rtu J bfhtjF mit ngUj
. mogil fUJfis fgJ, g fzFf <LgLtJ, wF mjndhL
bjhlila a fzFfis cUthFtJ Mat _y xUtUila fj
m tsbgW.
fzFf brtj _y fjij fngh
(We learn Mathematics by doing Mathematics)

nkikF ca fUJfis tYef, Maf kW khztf

tHdh, ehf f kailnth.


uh. _
ghl FGjiyt

(iv)

ghll

10M tF

vghfgL fw
gyf

ghlbghU

jiy

I. fzfS rhfS

mKf
fz
braghLf
gf
o khf f
rghj
btgl
gagLJj
Nu
n (A , B , C)
rhf

III. afj

II. bkbaf
bjhltirf kW bjhlf

mKf
bjhl tirf
TL bjhl
tir (A.P)
bgUF
bjhltir (G.P)
bjhlf

nea
rkghLfis
j
gYW
nfhitf

fz braf
mogil fUJf
-ghit
fz gfis J
bfhs
gkhW g
nr g
gL g
(_W fzf kL)
u fz
fis J bfhs
o khf fis J
bfhs; btgl _y
sFj
brhbwhl fzFfis
Nu _yK,
btgl _yK j
rhf tiuaiw, mt
tiff kW mitfis
FF Kiwf
Matiw J bfhs
rhf tiffis va
vLJfhLf _y mj

fj gkhw
bra lf


TL bjhltir
bgUF bjhltir
Matiw J bfhs
TL bjhltir
bgUF bjhltir
Mat n MtJ
cWig flj.
TL bjhltir
bgUF bjhltir n cWf TLjiy
fhz
y KoW bjhlf
TLjfis fhz

U khfSila xU nrho
nea rkghLf ga
fUij J bfhs.
UkhfSl xU nrho
nea rkghLfis, f
KiwY, FWF bgUf
KiwY j

(v)

midJ
sffSF
btglij
gagLJj
bghUa,
kUJt,
ma nghw
JiwfUJ
vLJfhLf.

mik mQF
Kiwia
gagLJj
mikig
Jiz fUahf
gagLJj
v bjhl
mikfis
bfhL
Nuij
jUj
eilKiw
thif
NHfUJ
vLJ fhLf

sfkhd
vLJfhLf

ntis

26

27

III. afj

bjhFKiw tFj

bgU bghJ
tF kW W
bghJ klF

jKW nfhitf
tf _y
Ugo rkghLf



IV. mf

mKf
mf tiff
TlY fjY
bgUf
m rkghL

Ugo gYWnfhit
afSF
bfGfSF ilna
cs bjhlid mj
bfhLfgl nfhit <,
Matiw bjhFKiw
tFj _y fhz
bjhFKiw tFj Kiwia
gagL bfhLfgl
nfhitF fhufis
flj
jKW nfhitf
.bgh.t, .bgh.k
MatWF ilna
cs ntWghLfis J
bfhs
jKW nfhitfis
RUFj (va fzFf)
tf_yij J
bfhs
Ugo rkgho l
totij mj
Ugo rkghoid
j (bkbaf
_yf kL)
fhugLJ Kiw,
tf u Kiw, Ugo
rkgho Nu Kiw.
Ugo rkghLfis
mogilahf bfhL
brhbwhlf mikj
fzFfis j
jikfhoF
_yf jikF
ilna cs bjhlid
izJ ghj
_yf bfhLfglh
Ugo rkghLfis
mikj
mfis mikj
tirfis mj
mf tiffis
bjJ bfhs
bfhLfgl mfis
Tl ff fw
X mid irah
bgUFj kW iu u
khW m
bfhLfgl
(2 x 2, 2 x 3, 3 x 2 tirf)
mfis Vw mfsh
bgUf
Ukhfis bfhl
rkghLfis mKiw
_y j

(vi)

bka mil
glfis Jiz
fUfshf
bfhs
Jtf
vf
.bgh.t., .bgh.k
id Tj

df
braghLfSl
xl.

40

vf
tf_y
brafSl
xl

_yf
jikid
afj
_ykhf
tiugl
thyhf
CJzu
cjj

brtf tot
v bjhFig
gagLJj
eilKiw
thif
NHfis
gagLJj
v brafis
gagLJj

16

V. Mabjhiy toa

VI. toa

VII. Knfhza

mKf
Uj : U
fSF
ilgl u
Nu
eL Nu
eLnfhL ika
Nu)
Knfhz
kW ehfu
gugs,
nenfhL

mogil
jrk njw
(UgzJl)
m..r.nj. kWjiy
(UgzJl)
nfhz U
rkbto njw
(Ugz cw
kL)
nfhz Urkbto
njw - kWjiy
(Ugz cw
kL)
tobthj
Knfhzf
(njwf
Ugz)
jhfu njw,
bjhLnfhLeh njw
(Ugz)

mKf
KbwhUikf
caufS
ufS

U fSF ilgl
uij id Tj.
U fis izF
nfhLJo
ikaia Fj
Nuij
gagL F
ia Fj
Knfhz guid
fzLj
U f myJ rkghL,
bfhLfgL nghJ xU
nfho rh flj
bfhLfgl tuij
bfhL xU nfho
rkghoid flj
rh btLJL
tot, - rh
tot, U f tot,
btLJL tot Ma
totf xU nfho
rkghoid fhz
xU tna brY,
xU nfhoF izahf,
brFjhf cs nfho
rkghLfis mj

25


njwfis J
bfhs, mtiw va
fzFfSF
fhg gagLJj

Knfhza
KbwhUikfis mj
mtiw va fzFf
gagLJj
Knfhza jfis
mj. cauf, uf
fzl mtiw
gagLJj
(U brnfhz
KnfhzfSF
ifahfhk)

(vii)

jhf
ko rk
jikia mj,
khwf
Egfis
ifahSj
Kiwahd
%gzfis
mj
totglfis
tiuj
glfSl Toa
jUf ahd,
gogoahd
Ugzf.
sfgLj,
thfgLj

20

afj
Nufis
gagLJj
Knfhza
jfis
gagLJj
njhuha kf
jikfis
sFj

21

VIII. msa

mKf
cUis,
T, nfhs,
miunfhs,
il fl
Mat
wgu, fdms
izj
cUtf
wgu fd ms
khwh fd ms

cUis, T, nfhs, miu


nfhs, ilfl
Mat fdms kW
wgu mj
izj cUtf
wgu, fdms
(uL cUtf kL)
khwh fdmsf y
fzFf

X.
tiuglf

IX. brKiw toa

mKf

tlfSF
bjhLnfhLf
tiuj

Knfhzf
tiuj
tl ehfu
tiuj

mKf
Ugo tiugl
y w
tiuglf

tlfSF
bjhLnfhLf tiuj
Knfhz tiuj.
mogf, v Kid
c nfhz kW
- eLnfhL
- FJau bfhLfgo
tl ehfu tiuj

Ugo rkghoid
tiugl _y j

XI. a
XII. fjf

ika
nghfsitfis
id Tj
guj msf
khWghLbfG

mKf
fjf
bjhik tiuaiw
fjf
Tl njw

brhbwhl fzFfis
tiugl _y j

guj, R, l yf,
gutgo, khWghLbfG
(bjhFfgl,
bjhFfglhj tuf)
Ma fUJfis J
bfhs
khWghLbfGit
fzl
zz rkth nrhjid,
nrhjid TWbt,
ff, ya f,
u ff, cWahd
f, ayh ff
fjf Tl
njwij J
bfhSj. mjid va
fzFfSF fhz
gagLJj

(viii)

izj
cUtfis
cUthf
Kgkhz
khfis
gagLJj
khfis
glfis
Jiz
fUfsh
gagLJj
eilKiw
thif
NHfUJ
vLJ
fhLfis
bjbjLj

24

bjhLnfhLf
sfis
afj
Kiw
rghjiy
mKfgLJj
tl mik
nfhzf
gfis gl
tiutjF K
id Tj

15

bjhlila
njwfis
id Tj
eilKiw
thif
NHfis
mKf gLJj

njf
isahLf
nghw eilKiw
thif
NHfis
gagLJj

ehza RLj,
gfil cULj,
L foUJ
xU oid
vLj.

16

10

15

bghUslf
1. fzfS rhfS

1.1
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
1.8.

1-34

mKf
fzf
fzf braf
fz braf gf

o khf f

fzf M v myJ fz v
cwf
rhf

1
1
3
5
12
16
19
20

2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.

35-70

mKf

bjhltirf

TL bjhltir myJ TL U

bgUF bjhltir myJ bgUF U
bjhlf

35
36
39
44
50

3. afj

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8

71-124

mKf
U khf mikj xUfik nea rkghLf
Ugo gYWnfhitf

bjhFKiw tFj

bgU bghJ tF kW W bghJ klF
jKW nfhitf
tf_y

Ugo rkghLf

4. mf

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

125-147

mKf
mfis mikj
mf tiff

mf jhd braf
mf Tl gf
mf bgUf
mf bgUf gf

125
126
128
133
136
137
140

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7


mKf

Nu

Knfhz gu
xnu nfhoyik _W f
ehfu gu

nenfhLf

nenfhL rkgho bghJ mik

5. Mabjhiy toa

71
72
83
86
90
97
101
106

(ix)

148-180

148
149
155
156
157
160
174

6. toa

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

181-205

mKf
mogil jrk kW nfhz Urkbto njwf
tobthj Knfhzf
tlf kW bjhLnfhLf

7. Knfhza

7.1
7.2
7.3


mKf

Knfhza KbwhUikf
caufS ufS

8. msa

8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

206-229

9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4

mKf
wgu myJ nkgu
fdms
izj fdcUtf

230
230
241
250
260- 277

mKf

xU tlF bjhLnfhL tiuj
Knfhzf tiuj
tl ehfuf tiuj

10. tiuglf

278
278
287
292-311

11.1 mKf
11.2 guj msitf

292
293

12. fjf

260
261
265
270
278-291

10.1 mKf
10.2 Ugo nfhitf tiuglf
10.3 y w tif tiuglf

11. a

206
206
215
230-259

9. brKiw toa

181
182
191
199

312-331

12.1 mKf
12.2 fjf bjhik tiuaiw
12.3 fjf Tl njw

312
315
324

ilf

332-342

gtif fzFf

343-345

ghit f

346
347-350

dhjh totik

(x)

1

mKf

fzfS rhfS
A set is Many that allows itself to be thought of as a One
- Georg Cantor

1.1 mKf


fz (set) vgJ fj mogil
fUJfS xwhF. fza FpLfS kW
gaghL
fiybrhfS fj

fz braf gf mj
xbthU Y f gaDsjhf Uwd.

o khf f
vdnt, fzaiy (set theory) fj bkh

rhf
(language of mathematics) vd Twyh. 19 M
who gF #h{ ny (George Boole)
(1815 - 1864) kW #h{ nfl (Georg Cantor)
(1845-1918) Ma fj tYef gfdh
njha fzayhdJ, 20M who fj
midJ
fY
eilbgw
tsfSF
bgUJiz jJ. fj cs btntW
fUJfis xizf, fza cj j _y
fj tsailjjF fza Jiz wJ

xgjh tF fz ga fUJf,
#h{ ny
fzf
nr, btL kW U fzf
(George Boole)
ahr nghw fz brafis ga fUJfis
(1815-1864)
fWnsh. F fzf bjhlghd nkY gy
yhJ
fUJfis,
fj
kWbkhU
Ka
jUf ahd thjfis
fUjha rhf g fwnth. Kj mogil
FF FpLf kW
tiuaiwf ytiw vLJfhLfSl id
afj FpLfS ilna
Tnth. F midJ if KGfis N vd
beUa xik cL vW
midJ bkbafis R vd Fngh.
ny edh.

fzf

jUf ahd bjhlfSF


t fj FpLfis
gagLdh. t fhy
fbghf y h U j
nghY mtUila a
afj, fbgh v
fjbrafSF mojskhf
mikwJ vgjid mjh
mt ktilUgh.
ed yf-fbgha
jUf
mogilahd
a jUfij fLojt
vgjh,
ny fbgh
ma
jij
vd
nghwgLwh.

1.2 fzf (Sets)

tiuaiw
fz vgJ eF tiuaWfgl bghUf
bjhFghF. xU fzYs bghUf mj
cWf (elements) vd TwgL.


``eF tiuaWfgl vgJ, xU fz xU
bghU cWghf mikkh myJ mikahjh vgjid
Ia tiuaWgjhF.

vLJfhlhf, bridYs midJ
caukhd kjf bjhF vgJ xU fzij
mikf ayhJ. Vbd, caukhd kjf vgij
khF Kiw eF tiuaWfgliy. vdnt
bjhF xU fzid tiuaWfiy.
1

FpL

bghJthf xU fzij Ff A, B, X,g nghw My bga vGJfis
gagLJnwh. xU fz cWfis Ff x, y, g nghw My a
vGJfis gagLJnwh. x vgJ Y - xU cW vgij x ! Y vd
vGJnwh. t vgJ Y - xU cW my vgij t b Y vd vGJnwh.
vLJfhLf

(i) jehoYs midJ caiyg khztf fz.

(ii) jehos midJ caiyg myJ f khztf fz.

(iii) midJ if uil KGf fz.

(iv) tfgLJnghJ Fiw vzhf mik KGf fz.

(v) y wa midJ kjf fz.

A, B, C, D, E vgd Kiwna (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Matiw Fgjhf
bfhnth. it eF tiuaWfgl fzfis FF. xU KG tf,
a myJ if KG v vgjh vjbthU KG tfK Fiw vzhf
UfhJ. vdnt, fz D- vj xU cW iy. khahd fzf btW
fz (Empty Set) vd miHfgL. btW fzij z vd FLnth.
tiuaiw

(i) xU fz cs cWf KoW vif (finite) U


mfz KoW fz (Finite set) vdgL.
(ii) xU fz KoW fzkhf yhkU, mJ Kowh fz myJ
Ko fz (Infinite set) vdgL.


nkny Flt fz A xU KoW fz, Mdh fz C xU Kowh fz
MF. btWfz cWf VJiy vgij ma. btWfz cs
cWf vif a MF. vdnt, btWfz xU KoW fz MF.
tiuaiw
(i) fz X xU KoW fz v, X- cWf vif mj fz v
myJ M v (Cordinality of a set) vdgL. X- fz viz n(X) vd
Fngh.
(ii) fz X xU Kowh fz v, X- fz viz 3 vw Fah
Fnwh.
nkny cs vLJfhLf cs fzf A, B Mat A- xbthU
cW B- cWghF. jifa nef A vgJ B- cfz vdgL.

xgjh tF fw y tiuaiwfis id Tnth.

cfz (Subset) X, Y vgd U fzf vf. X-Ys xbthU cW Y-


cWf v, X MdJ Y- cfz MF. mjhtJ z ! X vgJ z ! Y vd
czJtjh, X vgJ Y- cfz MF. X vgJ Y- cfz v, X 3 Y vd
Fnwh.
rk fzf (Equal sets) X, Y vw uL fzfY xnu cWf Ujh X kW
Y Mad rk fzf vdgL. thUFnghJ X = Y vd Fnwh. nkY,
X 3 Y kW Y 3 X v, v kLnk X = Y MF.
rkhd fzf (Equivalent Sets) U KoW fzf X kW Y vgdtF
n (X) = n (Y) v, U fzfS rkhd fzf vdgL. rkhd fzf xnu
vif btntwhd cWf Ufyh.
2

10M tF fzF

2

vLJfhlhf, P = " x ; x - x - 6 = 0 , , Q = "3, - 2 , kW F = "3, 2 , v,
P, Q vgd xnu cWfis bfhLsd. vdnt P = Q MF. F kW Q vgd
rkhd fzfshF. Mdh Q ! F. rhfis bfhL Kowh fzf rkhd
jikia tiuaWfyh.
mLF fz (Power Set) fz A- midJ cfzf bjhF P (A) v,
P (A) vgJ A- mLF fz vdgL.

n (A) = m v, P^ Ah - cs cWf vif n 6 P^ Ah@ = 2 m MF.
vLJfhlhf, A = {a, b, c} v, P^ Ah = {z, {a}, {b}, {c}, {a, b}, {a, c}, {b, c}, {a, b, c}}
MF. vdnt, n 6 P^ Ah@ = 8 MF.

U fzf bfhLfglh tiw bfhL vthW a fzfis eh
cUthf Ko?

U fzfYKs midJ cWfis xW nru vLJ bfhL, a
fzbkhiw mikfyh. bghJthd cWfis kL vLJ bfhL xU fzij
mikfyh. nkY xU fz yhj kbwhU fz cs cWfis bfhL
xU fzij cUthfyh. thwhd fzfis mikf tU tiuaiwf
bjgLJ. xbthU tiuaiwY mjid sF tif btglf
(Venn diagram) bfhLfgLsd.

1.3 fzf jhd braf (Operations on sets)

X, Y vgd fzf vf. mtiw gagL, tU a fzfis tiuaWngh.


Y
(i) nr (Union) X , Y = " z ; z ! X myJ z ! Y ,
X

( X nr Y vd gof)
X , Y - X kW Y fzf midJ cWfS
csd. gl 1.1 ij sFwJ.
X,Y
X 3 X , Y kW Y 3 X , Y vgJ bjthwJ.
gl 1.1
(ii) btL (Intersection) X + Y = " z ; z ! X kW z ! Y ,
Y
X
( X btL Y vd gof)
X + Y - X kW Y fzf bghJthd cWf
kLnk csd. gl 1.2 ij sFwJ.
X + Y 3 X kW X + Y 3 Y vgJ bjthwJ.
X+Y
(iii) fz ahr (Set difference)
gl 1.2

X \ Y = " z ; z ! X Mdh z b Y ,
Y
X
( X ahr Y vd gof)
X \ Y vw fz Y- yhj X- cWf kLnk
csd. ij gl 1.3 sFwJ. y yhaf A\B I
X \Y
vGJt. A\B vw FpL fj
A - B vd
gl
1.3
gutyhf gagLjgLwJ. vdnt, ehK A\B-id
gagLJnth.
Y
X
(iv) rk ahr (Symmetric Difference)

X 3 Y =( X \Y ) , (Y \ X )
( X rk ahr Y vd gof).
X3Y

X 3 Y vw fz X + Y - yhj Mdh, X , Y -
gl 1.4
cs midJ cWfS csd.
1. fzfS rhfS

(v)

u (Complement)

U vgJ midJ fz vf.


X 3 U v, U \ X vgJ U -I bghUJ X -
u fz (fzu) MF. midJ fz
Flglh, U \ X vgij X l vd Flyh.
mJ X- fzu vdgLwJ. A \ B vD fz
ahr A-I bghWJ B- fzuahF.
btlh fzf (Disjoint sets) fzf X kW
Y- bghJthd cWf VJ iyba, mit
btlh fzf vdgL. mjhtJ X + Y = z v,
X kW Y vgd btlh fzfshF.

(vi)

Xl

gl 1.5
Y

gl 1.6

A kW B btlh fzf v, n^ A , Bh = n^ Ah + n^ Bh MF.


Fiu
btglf fzfis Ff bghJthf tlfis gagLJnwh.
MD, fzid Ff VjhtJ xU _oa tistiuid (any closed curve)
gagLjyh. fz cWfis vGJ nghJ xU cWid xU KiwF nk
vGJtij mDkgiy.

bghGJ y vLJfhLfis fhngh.



A = " x ; x vgJ 12 I l a if KG , ,

B = "1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 12, 15 , , C = "- 2, - 1, 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 , vf.

(i)

A , B = " x ; x ! A myJ x ! B ,
= " x ; x vgJ 12 I l a if KG myJ x = 12 myJ 15 ,
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15} .

(ii)

C + B = " y ; y ! C kW y ! B , = "1, 7 , .

(iii)

A \ C = " x ; x ! A Mdh x b C , = "2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11 , .

(iv) A 3 C = ( A \ C ) , ( C \ A )
= "2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11 , , "- 2, - 1, 0 , = { - 2, - 1, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9,10,11 } .
(v) U = {x | x xU KG} vgij midJfz vf.

a ifky Fiwky vgij mf. Mfnt 0 g A .

bghGJ, A' = U\A = {x : x vgJ xU KG Mdh A - cWgy}

= {x ; x vgJ a myJ xU Fiw KG myJ


12-F rkkhd kW 12-I l bga if KG}

= {g , - 4, - 3, - 2, - 1, 0} , { 12, 13, 14, 15, g}

= {g , - 4, - 3, - 2, - 1, 0,12,13,14,15, g} .
y gaDs Kofis tUkhW goaLnth.
U vgJ midJ fz kW A, B vgd U - c fzf vf.
(i) A \ B = A + Bl
(ii) B \ A = B + Al
(iv) (A \ B) , B = A , B
(iii) A \ B = A + A + B = z
(v) (A \ B) + B = z
(vi) (A \ B) , (B \ A) = (A , B) \ (A + B)

10M tF fzF

1.4 fz braf gf (Properties of set operations)



fz braf y gfis fhngh. A, B kW C vw VnjD _W
fzfSF tU gf bkahF.
I. gkhW g (Commutative property)
(i) A , B = B , A
(fzf nr, gkhW g cilaJ)
(ii) A + B = B + A
(fzf btL, gkhW g cilaJ)
II. nr g (Associative property)
(i) A , ^ B , C h = ^ A , Bh , C
(fzf nr, nr g cilaJ)
(ii) A + ^ B + C h = ^ A + Bh + C
(fzf btL, nr g cilaJ)
III. gL g (Distributive property)
(i) A + ^ B , C h = ^ A + Bh , (A + C) (fzf btL, nr J gL g cilaJ)
(ii) A , ^ B + C h = ^ A , Bh + (A , C) (fzf nr , bto J gL g cilaJ)

bghJthf, bfhLfgLs fzfis bfhnl gfis Ufyh.
nkny TwgLs gfis vLJfhLf _y rghjYF gyhf, fj
%gzij bfhLgJ cfjjhF. J, ghl tuF mghglJ.
UD, fj %gzij J bfhs, mjid ghuhl, xU gig
vLJ bfhL mjFa %gzij bfhLngh.
I. (i) fzf nrfhd gkhW g

A, B Ma U fzfis vLJ bfhL, A , B kW B , A Mad
rkfzf vd Wnth. U fzf xnu cWfU mit rk fzf
vgij mnth. Kj A , B - xbthU cW B , A - cW vd Wnth.
z ! A , B vgJ VnjD xU cW vf. A kW B- nr tiuaiwgo,
z ! A myJ z ! B .

mjhtJ, xbthU z ! A , B ( z ! A myJ z ! B

( z ! B myJ z ! A

Mfnt, B , A - tiuaiwgo

xbthU z ! A , B -F (1) cikahjyh, A , B - xbthU cW B , A -


cW vgJ bkahF.

Mfnt, cfz tiuaiwgo (A , B) 3 (B , A) .

jnghJ, y ! B , A vw VnjD xU cWig vLJ bfhL, y MdJ A , B -


cW vd fhLnth.

bghGJ, xbthU y ! B , A ( y ! B myJ y ! A

A , B - tiuaiwgo,

z ! B , A

(1)

( y ! A myJ y ! B

y ! A , B

(2)


xbthU y ! B , A -F (2) MdJ bk vgjh, B , A - xbthU cW A , B -
cW vgJ bkahF. Mfnt, cfz tiuaiwgo (B , A) 3 (A , B) . Mfnt,
(A , B) 3 (B , A) kW (B , A) 3 (A , B) vd fhonsh. J (A , B) = (B , A)
v, v kLnk fG. nkTwgl Kiwf kw gfis %fyh.
1. fzfS rhfS

fj %gzf (Proofs in Mathematics)



fj xU TW vbghGJ bkahdh, mJ bkTW vdgL. xU TW
VnjD xU f bkahf iy vwhY, mJ jtwhd TW vdgL.
vLJfhlhf, tU y TWfis fUJnth.

(i) vj xU if xiw KG xU gfh v MF.

(ii) xU Knfhz midJ nfhzf TLj 180c

(iii) xbthU gfh vQ xU xiw KG

(iv) A, B vw vj U fzfSF A \ B = B \ A
gy xiw if KGf gfh vzhf UjhY Tl TW (i) jtwhdJ.

Vbd, 9, 15, 21, 45 nghw KGf if xiw vf. Mdh, gfh vfsy.

vj Knfhzij vLJ bfhlhY mj midJ nfhzf TLj
180c . Mfnt, tha (ii) bkahF.

TW (iii) jtwhdJ. Vbd, gfh v 2 xU uil KGthF. Mdh
TW (iii) v 2 I ju kw xbthU gfh vQF cikahF. xU
Tid bkbad %f ntLbk, midJ ffY mJ bkahdJ
vd eh %f ntL. VjhtJ xU f mJ jtW vd %fglh,
mTW jtwhF. TW (iv) jtwhdJ. mogilahf A\B I mikF nghJ,
A-UJ B - midJ cWfis Fnwh. mnj ngh B \ A-F B -UJ
A - midJ cWfS fgL. A = { 2, 5, 8} kW B = {5, 7, - 1} vf.
F A \ B = {2, 8} kW B \ A = { 7, - 1} . Mfnt, A \ B ! B \ A .
vdnt, TW (iv) vgJ jtwhdJ.

vLJfhL 1.1

A = {- 10, 0, 1, 9, 2, 4, 5} kW B = {- 1, - 2, 5, 6, 2, 3, 4} vw fzfSF
tUtdtiw rghf. nkY, btgl _yK rghf.

(i) fzf nr gkhW g cilaJ
(ii) fzf btL gkhW g cilaJ

(i)

fzf nr gkhW g cilaJ vd rghngh.

bghGJ, A , B = {- 10, 0, 1, 9, 2, 4, 5} , {- 1, - 2, 5, 6, 2, 3, 4}

= {- 10, - 2, - 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9}

(1)

B , A = {- 1, - 2, 5, 6, 2, 3, 4} , {- 10, 0, 1, 9, 2, 4, 5}
(2)

= {- 10, - 2, - 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9}


Mfnt (1) kW (2)-UJ bfhLfgl fzf A, B-fSF A , B = B , A
A
B
vd rghfglJ.
A 10
B

btgl _y, (gl 1.7)
fzf nr vgJ
gkhW g cilaJ vd
rghfglJ.
6

10M tF fzF

0
1

A,B = B,A

gl 1.7

1
2
3

10

1
9

(ii) fzf btL gkhW g cilaJ vd rghngh.



A + B = {- 10, 0, 1, 9, 2, 4, 5} + {- 1, - 2, 5, 6, 2, 3, 4}

= {2, 4, 5} .

B + A = {- 1, - 2, 5, 6, 2, 3, 4} + {- 10, 0, 1, 9, 2, 4, 5}

= {2, 4, 5} .

(1), (2) MatUJ A + B = B + A vgJ rghfglJ.
B

(1)

(2)

4
A+B = B+A

gl 1.8

btgl _y (gl 1.8) A + B = B + A vd rghfglJ.

vLJfhL 1.2

A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, C = {5, 6, 7, 8} v,

(i) A , ^ B , C h = ^ A , Bh , C vdfhLf.

(ii) btglfis gagL A , ^ B , C h = ^ A , Bh , C vgij rghf.

(i) B , C = {3, 4, 5, 6} , {5, 6, 7, 8} = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}



` A , (B , C) = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, { 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} (1)


A , B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} , {3, 4, 5, 6} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}


(ii)

` ^ A , Bh , C = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} , {5, 6, 7, 8} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}


(1) kW (2)-UJ A , ^ B , C h = ^ A , Bh , C vd rghfglJ.
jFj btglf tUkhW csd.
A
3
5

3
5

2
7

1
3
5

2
6

8

C
A , ^B , Ch

(1)
A,B

B,C

4
6

3
5

(2)

(3)
B

8
(2)
C
^ A , Bh , C

(4)
gl 1.9

gl 1.9- (2) kW (4) MatUJ fzf nr MdJ nr



gid iw brwJ.
1. fzfS rhfS

vLJfhL 1.3


A = {a, b, c, d}, B = {a, c, e} kW C = {a, e} v,


(i) A + ^ B + C h = ^ A + Bh + C vd fhLf.
(ii) btglfis gagL A + ^ B + C h = ^ A + Bh + C vd rghf.

(i)
bfhLfglit : A = {a, b, c, d}, B = {a, c, e} , C = {a, e} .

A + ^ B + C h = ^ A + Bh + C vgij rghngh.

Kj, A + ^ B + C h -I fhngh.

B + C = {a, c, e} + {a, e} = {a, e}

vdnt,

mLjjhf,

A + ^ B + C h = {a, b, c, d} + {a, e} = {a} .

(1)

A + B = {a, b, c, d.} + {a, c, e} = {a, c}


(2)

^ A + Bh + C = {a, c} + {a, e} = {a}

(1) kW (2)-UJ ^ A + Bh + C = A + ^ B + C h vd rghfglJ.

(ii)

jFj btglf tUkhW.


A

B
a

B
c
a

C
B+C

(1)
A+B
B

C

A + ^B + Ch

(3)
B

C
^ A + Bh + C
(2)

(4)
gl 1.10

gl 1.10- (2) kW (4)-UJ A + ^ B + C h = ^ A + Bh + C vgJ rghfglJ.

vLJfhL 1.4


A = {a, b, c, d, e}, B = {a, e, i, o, u}, C = {c, d, e, u} vd bfhLfgLsJ v,


(i) A\ ^ B \ C h ! ^ A \ Bh \C vd fhLf.
(ii) btglfis gagL A\ ^ B \ C h ! ^ A \ Bh \C vd rghf.
8

10M tF fzF


(i)

^ B \ C h = {a, e, i, o, u} \ {c, d, e, u} = {a, i, o} .

vdnt, A\ ^ B \ C h = {a, b, c, d, e} \ {a, i, o} = {b, c, d, e} .

jnghJ,

vdnt, ^ A \ Bh \C = {b, c, d} \ {c, d, e, u} = {b} .

(1) kW (2)-UJ A\ ^ B \ C h ! ^ A \ Bh \C vd WtglJ.

Mfnt, fzf ahr nr g cilajy.

(ii)

jFj btglf tUkhW.

(1)

A \ B = {a, b, c, d, e} \ {a, e, i, o, u} = {b, c, d} .

A
a

(2)

(1)

^ B\C h

^ A\B h

b
c

(3)

B
b

d e

A\^ B\C h

(2)
^ A\Bh \C

(4)
gl 1.11

(2) kW (4)-fUJ A \ (B\C) ! (A \ B) \ C vgJ rghfglJ.


Mjyh, fzf ahr nr g cilajy.

Fiu

bghJthf fzf ahr nr gid iw brahlhY, A,B,C


vgd xWbfhW btlh fzf v, A\ ^ B \ C h = (A \ B) \C MF. ij
v %fyh. B kW C Mad btlh fzf. vdnt, B \ C = B MF.
nkY, A, B Mad btlh fzf. vdnt A \ B = A MF. Mfnt, A\ (B \ C) = A .
nkY, A \ B = A kW A, C Mad btlh fzfshF. vdnt, A \ C = A.
Mjyh, (A \ B) \C = A . Mfnt, A\ ^ B \ C h = (A \ B) \C vgJ cikahF.
thW, btlh fzf ahr nr g cilaJ vd WtglJ.
1. fzfS rhfS

vLJfhL 1.5


A = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {1, - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} kW C = {2, 4, 6, 7} vf.


(i) A , ^ B + C h = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h vdfhLf.
(ii) btglfis gagL A , ^ B + C h = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h vd rghf.

(i)
jnghJ,
Mfnt,

B + C = {1, - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} + {2, 4, 6, 7 } = {4, 6}


A , ^ B + C h = {0,1, 2, 3, 4} , {4, 6} = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6} .

(1)


nkY,
A , B = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4} , {1, - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
= {- 2, 0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} ,

A , C = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4} , {2, 4, 6, 7} = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7} .

Mfnt, ^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h = {- 2, 0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} + {0,1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7}

= {0,1, 2, 3, 4, 6} .

(2)

(1) kW (2)-UJ A , ^ B + C h = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h vgJ rghfglJ.

(ii)

jFj btglf tUkhW.


A


B+C
A
0
2

1
4

A , ^B + Ch

2
5

(1)
A,B
A
0
2

1
4

1
4

(3)

(2)
A,C
A
0
2

1
4

(4)


^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h

(5)
gl 1.12

(2) kW (5)-UJ A , (B + C) = (A , B) + (A , C) vgJ rghfglJ.


10

10M tF fzF

vLJfhL 1.6

A = {x ; - 3 # x 1 4, x ! R} , B = {x ; x 1 5, x ! N} kW

C = {- 5, - 3, - 1, 0, 1, 3} v, A + ^ B , C h = ^ A + Bh , ^ A + C h vd fhLf.

A vw fz 3 kW mijl mfkhd Mdh, 4 I l Fiwthd


midJ bkbafS csd.
3
A
4

nkY, A = {x ; - 3 # x 1 4, x ! R } - v 4 nrfgliy.

fz B-, 5 I l a midJ if KGfS csd.

nkY, B = {x ; x 1 5, x ! N} = {1, 2, 3, 4}

B , C = {1, 2, 3, 4} , {- 5, - 3, - 1, 0, 1, 3}

Mfnt,

= {1, 2, 3, 4, - 5, - 3, - 1, 0}

vdnt,

A + ^ B , C h = A + {1, 2, 3, 4, - 5, - 3, - 1, 0}

= {- 3, - 1, 0, 1, 2, 3} .

nkY,

(1)

A + B = {x ; - 3 # x 1 4, x ! R} + {1, 2, 3, 4} = {1, 2, 3} ;

A + C = {x ; - 3 # x 1 4, x ! R} + {- 5, - 3, - 1, 0, 1, 3}

= {- 3, - 1, 0, 1, 3} .

vdnt,

^ A + Bh , ^ A + C h = {1, 2, 3} , {- 3, - 1, 0, 1, 3}

= {- 3, - 1, 0, 1, 2, 3} .

(2)

(1) kW (2)-UJ A + ^ B , C h = ^ A + Bh , ^ A + C h vgJ bjthwJ.


g 1.1

1.

A 1 B v, A , B = B vd fhLf (btglij gagLj).

2.

A 1 B v, A + B kW A \ B Matiw fhf. (btglij gagLJf).

3.

P = {a, b, c}, Q = {g, h, x, y} kW R = {a, e, f, s} v, tUtdtiw fhf.

(i) P \ R

4.

A = {4, 6, 7, 8, 9}, B = {2, 4, 6} kW C = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} v,


tUtdtiw fhf.

(i) A , ^ B + C h

5.

A = {a, x, y, r, s}, B = {1, 3, 5, 7, - 10} vd bfhLfgLs fzfSF,


fzf nr brayhdJ, gkhW g cilaJ vgij rghf.

6.

A = {l, m, n, o, 2, 3, 4, 7} kW B = {2, 5, 3, - 2, m, n, o, p} MatF


fzf btL, gkhW g cilaJ vgij rghf.

(ii) Q + R

(ii) A + ^ B , C h

(iii) R \ ^ P + Qh .

(iii) A \ ^C \ Bh

1. fzfS rhfS

11

7.

A = {x ; x vgJ 42 - gfh fhu}, B = {x ; 5 1 x # 12, x ! N} kW


C = {1, 4, 5, 6} v, A , ^ B , C h = ^ A , Bh , C vgij rghf.

8.

P = {a, b, c, d, e}, Q = {a, e, i, o, u} kW R = {a, c, e, g} Ma fzf btL,


nr g cilaJ vgij rghf.

9.

A = {5,10,15, 20}, B = {6,10,12, 18, 24} kW C = {7,10,12,14, 21, 28}

Ma fzfSF A \ ^ B \ C h = ^ A \ Bh \ C vgJ bkahFkh vd Muhf. c


ilF jf fhuz TWf.

10.

A = {- 5, - 3, - 2, - 1}, B = {- 2, - 1, 0} kW C = {- 6, - 4, - 2} vf.

A \ ^ B \ C h kW (A \ B) \ C Matiw fhf. UJ ilF fz


ahr bragho gid TWf.

11.

A = {- 3, - 1, 0, 4, 6, 8, 10}, B = {- 1, - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} kW C = {- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7}

MatF tUtdtiw rghf.

(i) A , ^ B + C h = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h

(iii) btglfis gagL A , ^ B + C h = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h

(ii) A + ^ B , C h = ^ A + Bh , ^ A + C h
kW

A + ^ B , C h = ^ A + Bh , ^ A + C h Madtiw rghf.

1.5 o khf f (De Morgans laws)


mfl o khf (Augustus De Morgan) jij (Mnya) ah

Ha fbg g Ujh. o khf (1806-1871) ah,
jehoYs kJiu wjh. mt 7 khj FHijah Uj nghJ mtUila
FLg yhF FobgajJ. mt yh, nf{ cs oo
f (Trinity college, Cambridge, England) f gwh. mogil fz
brafshd nr, btL kW u Maitfis bjhlgLJ tif
o khf f csd.
fz ahrfhd o khf f (De Morgans laws for set difference)

A, B, C vgd VnjD _W fzf v,


(i)

A \ ^ B , C h = ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ C h

(ii) A \ ^ B + C h = ^ A \ Bh , ^ A \ C h .

fz ufhd o khf f (De Morgans laws for complementation)


fz A kW B-fis cfzfshf bfhl midJ fz U v,

(i) ^ A , Bhl = Al + Bl
(ii) ^ A + Bhl = Al , Bl .
VnjD xU fz D v, D' = U \ D vgjh, fz ahr f

%gzUJ fzu f %gzij bgwyh vgij ftf.
jF %gz juhk, fis gagL vthW fzFfSF
fhgij fW bfhnth.
12

10M tF fzF

vLJfhL 1.7

btglfis gagL ^ A + Bhl = Al , Bl vgij rghf.


A+B

(1)

(3)

Al

U
B

(2)

(4)

Bl

(A + B)l

U
B

(5)

Al , Bl

gl 1.13

(2) kW (5)-UJ ^ A + Bhl = Al , Bl vgJ rghfglJ.

vLJfhL 1.8
btglfis gagL A \ ^ B + C h = ^ A \ Bh , ^ A \ C h vD o khf

fz ahr id rghf.


C
B+C
A

A\ (B + C)

(3)

(1)
C
A\B

(2)
C
A\C
A

(4)
B

(A\B) , (A\C)

(5)

gl 1.14

(2) kW (5)-UJ A \ ^ B + C h = ^ A \ Bh , ^ A \ C h vgJ rghfglJ.


1. fzfS rhfS

13

vLJfhL 1.9

U = {- 2, - 1, 0,1, 2, 3, g,10}, A = {- 2, 2, 3, 4, 5} kW B = {1, 3, 5, 8, 9} vf.

o khf fz u fis rghf.

Kj ^ A , Bhl = Al + Bl vgij rghngh.


A , B = {- 2, 2, 3, 4, 5} , {1, 3, 5, 8, 9} = {- 2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9}

vdnt, ^ A , Bhl = U \ {- 2,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9} = {- 1, 0, 6, 7,10} .

nkY,

(1)

Al = U \ A = {- 1, 0,1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
Bl = U \ B = {- 2, - 1, 0, 2, 4, 6, 7, 10} .

Mfnt, Al + Bl = {- 1, 0, 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} + {- 2, - 1, 0, 2, 4, 6, 7, 10}

= {- 1, 0, 6, 7,10} .

(2)

(1) kW (2)-UJ ^ A , Bhl = Al + Bl vd mnwh


thnw, nkny bfhLfgLs fzfSF ^ A + Bhl = Al , Bl vd
rghfyh. J gfhf lgLwJ.

vLJfhL 1.10

A = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, x, y, z} , B = {1, 2, c, d, e} kW C = {d, e, f, g, 2, y} vf.

A \ ^ B , C h = ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ C h vgij rghf.

B , C = {1, 2, c, d, e} , {d, e, f, g, 2, y}

= {1, 2, c, d, e, f, g, y}
Mfnt,

A \ (B , C) = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, x, y, z} \ {1, 2, c, d, e, f, g, y}

= {a, b, x, z} .

(1)

A \ B = {a, b, f, g, x, y, z} kW A \ C = { a, b, c, x, z}

nkY,

Mfnt, (A \ B) + (A \ C) = {a, b, x, z} .

(1) kW (2)-UJ A \ ^ B , C h = ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ C h vgJ rghfglJ.


g 1.2

1.

nH bfhLfgLs fzfis, btglf _y fhLf.

(i)

(ii) U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}, M = {b, d, f, g} kW N = {a, b, d, e, g}


14

U = {5, 6, 7, 8, g, 13}, A = {5, 8, 10, 11} kW B = {5, 6, 7, 9, 10}

10M tF fzF

(2)

2.

HL (nfhoL) fhlgLs xbthU gFia FpL Kiw vGJf.


U, A, B, C, , , + , l kW \ Ma FpLfis njitahd lf gagLJf.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

3.

A, B kW C Ma _W fzfSF tUtdtiw sF btglf


tiuf.
(i) A + B + C

(ii) A kW B vgd C - cfzf. nkY mitf btlh fzf.

(iii) A + ^ B \ C h

(iv) ^ B , C h \ A

(vi) C + ^ B \ Ah

(vii) C + ^ B , Ah

4.

btglfis gagL ^ A + Bh , ^ A \ Bh = A vgij rghf.

5.

U = {4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28} , A = {8, 16, 24} kW


^ A , Bh ' kW ^ A + Bhl Matiw fhf.

6.

U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} , A = {a, b, f, g} kW B = {a, b, c} v, o khf


fz u fis rghf.

7.

tU fzfis bfhL o khf fz ahr fis rghf.

8.

A = {10,15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50} , B = {1, 5,10,15, 20, 30} kW

C = {7, 8,15, 20, 35, 45, 48} Ma fzfSF A \ ^ B + C h = ^ A \ Bh , ^ A \ C h


vgij rghf.

9.

btglfis gagL tUtdtiw rah vd nrhJ ghf.

(v) A , ^ B + C h

B = {4, 16, 20, 28} v,

A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9,11,13,15}, B = {1, 2, 5, 7} kW C = {3, 9, 10,12,13} .

(i) A , ^ B + C h = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h
(iii) ^ A , Bhl = Al + Bl

(ii) A + ^ B , C h = ^ A + Bh , ^ A + C h
(iv) A \ ^ B , C h = ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ C h

1. fzfS rhfS

15

1.6 fzf M v myJ fz v (Cardinality of sets)


xgjh tF n^ A , Bh = n^ Ah + n^ Bh - n^ A + Bh vw Nuij
gagL, U fzfis bfhl fzFfSF fhgij mJ
bfhnlh. Nu A, B kW A + B Mat M vf bfhLfglh
A , B vw fz M viz fzl cjwJ. A, B kW C vw _W
fzfis bfhL A , B , C vw fz M v vthW fltJ? jfhd
Nu nH bfhLfgLsJ.
n^ A , B , C h = n^ Ah + n^ Bh + n^C h - n^ A + Bh - n^ B + C h - n^ A + C h + n^ A + B + C h .
Nu gaghoid tU vLJfhLf sFwd.

vLJfhL 1.11
xU FG 65 khztf fhgJ, 45 ng Ah, 42 ng bfL

isahLwhf. 20 ng fhgjhlK Ah, 25 ng fhgjhlK bfL,
15 ng Ah bfL kW 8 ng _W iahLfis isahLwhf.
mFG cs khztf vifia fhf.

(xbthU khztD FiwjJ xU isahoid isahLth vd bfhf.)

F, H kW C vgd Kiwna fhgjhl, Ah, bf MLgtf


fzfis FfL. Mfnt, n^ F h = 65, n^ H h = 45 kW n^C h = 42 .

nkY, n^ F + H h = 20 , n^ F + C h = 25 , n^ H + C h = 15 kW n^ F + H + C h = 8 .

FGYs khztf bkhj vifia fhngh.

mjhtJ, n^ F , H , C h -I fhngh.
Nugo,

n^ F , H , C h = n^ F h + n^ H h + n^C h - n^ F + H h

- n^ H + C h - n^ F + C h + n^ F + H + C h


= 65 + 45 + 42 - 20 - 25 - 15 + 8 = 100.

Mfnt, FGYs khztf vif = 100.
khW Kiw


btglij gagL nj fzF fhz
Ko. fhy btglfis jUf Kiwia
gagL mwhl thif fG y fzFfSF
fhz aY. j fzFa btglf,
xiwbahW bto bfhS _W fzfis
bfhlJ. xbthW xU isahil FF. glij
ghJ, bfhLfgl TWfis bfhL, ftdkhf
fzL,
isahL
uf
vifia
fhngh. bfhLfgLs tufis gl Fngh.

H
17) 45-(1
+
8
2+8
+
8
+7)
(12
2012
=
65 28
=
1
8
=
F

8
25 17
=

8 1
5-8
=7

42-(8+17+7)
= 10

gl 1.15

Mfnt, FG cs khztf vif = 28 + 12 + 18 + 7 + 10 + 17 + 8 = 100.


16

10M tF fzF

vLJfhL 1.12
gfiyfHf khztf fzbfL, 64 ng fj, 94 ng fbgh

ma, 58 ng aa Ma ghlfis fwd. 28 ng fjK aaY,
26 ng fjK fbgh maY, 22 ng fbgh maY aaY kW
14 ng _W ghlfis fwd. fzbfL fyJ bfhl khztf
vifia fhf. nkY, xU ghlij kL fw khztf
vifia fhf.
bfhLfgl tufis btgl FLnth.

M, C kW P
vgd Kiwna fj,
fbgh ma kW aa fF
khztfis FF fzf vf.
bfhLfgl tufis btgl
Fngh.
n (M + C + P) = 14
n (M + C + Pl ) = 26 14 = 12
gl 1.16

n (M + P + C l ) = 28 14 = 14
n (C + P + M l ) = 22 14 = 8

fzbfL nghJ Uj khztf vif


= 24 + 12 + 60 + 8 + 22 + 14 + 14 = 154

= 64 (14+14+12) = 24

fbgh ma kL fw khztf vif

= 94 (12+14+8) = 60

aa kL fw khztf vif
= 58 (14+14+8) = 22

fj kL fw khztf vif

vdnt, xU ghlij kL fw khztf vif = 24+60+22 = 106.

vLJfhL 1.13
xU thbdh iya 190 khztfl mtf U ir tiffis

khf xU fzbfL elaJ. 114 ng nkfa iria, 50 ng uha
iria, 41 ng fehlf iria, 14 ng nkfa iria uha iria,
15 ng nkfa iria fehlf iria, 11 ng fehlf iria uha
iri kW 5 ng _W irfis
U
190
Uwd vd fzbfL btglJ.
F
R
)
5
0
0
jftfUJ tUtdtiw fhf.
-(9+
+1
(i)

_W tif irfis
khztf vif.

(ii)

U tif irfis kL
khztf vif.

(iii)

uha iria U nkfa iria


Ughj khztf vif.

Ughj
U

5
5+6
+5
)
14 9
(9
4
1
=
=
1
30
0
=9
5 1
1-5
5
15 10
=6
=
41-(10+5+6)
= 20
C

20

gl 1.17
1. fzfS rhfS

17

R, F kW C Mad Kiwna nkfa ir, uha ir kW fehlf ir


U khztf fzfis FfL. btgl bfhLfgl
tufis Fngh.

F, n (R + F) = 14, n (R + C) = 15, n (C + F) = 11 kW n (R + F + C) = 5

vdnt,
n (R + F + C l ) = 14 5 = 9

n (R + C + F l ) = 15 5 = 10

n (F + C + Rl ) = 11 5 = 6.
(i)


(ii)
(iii)

1.

btglUJ, VnjD xU tif iriaahtJ U khztf


vif 90 + 9 + 30 + 6 + 20 + 10 + 5 = 170.
fzbfLfgl khztf vif = 190.
Mfnt, _W tif irfis Ughjtf vif = 190 - 170 = 20 .
VnjD Utif irfis kL Ugtf vif = 9 + 6 + 10 = 25.
uha iria U,
vif = 30 + 6 = 36.

nkfa

iria

Ughj

khztf

g 1.3

A, B vgd U fzf kW U vgJ midJ fz vf. nkY n^U h = 700 ,


n^ Ah = 200, n^ Bh = 300 kW n^ A + Bh = 100 v, n^ Al + Blh I fhf.

2.

n^ Ah = 285, n^ Bh = 195, n^U h = 500 kW n^ A , Bh = 410 v, n^ Al , Blh - I


fhf.
3. A, B kW C VnjD _W fzf vf. nkY,
n^ Ah = 17 , n^ Bh = 17, n^C h = 17, n^ A + Bh = 7 , n (B + C) = 6 , n^ A + C h = 5

kW n^ A + B + C h = 2 v, n^ A , B , C h - I fhf.
4. tU fzfSF n^ A , B , C h = n^ Ah + n^ Bh + n^C h - n^ A + Bh -

n^ B + C h - n^ A + C h + n^ A + B + C h
vgij rghf. (i) A = {4, 5, 6}, B = {5, 6, 7, 8} kW C = {6, 7, 8, 9}
(ii) A = {a, b, c, d, e}, B = {x, y, z} kW C = {a, e, x} .

5. xU f nrUtjF 60 khztf ntaY, 40 ng aaY,
30 ng caY g brJsd. 15 ng ntaY aaY,10
ng aaY caY kW 5 ng caY ntaY g
brJsd. _W ghlfY xUtUnk g braiy v, VnjD xU
ghlfhtJ g brJstf vif ahJ?
6.

xU efu 85% ng j bkh, 40% ng My bkh kW 20% ng


bkh ngRwhf. 32% ng jG MyK, 13% ng jG kW
10% ng MyK ngRwhf v, _W bkhfis ngr
bjjtf rjjid fhf.

7.

170 thoifahsf 115 ng bjhiyfhia, 110 ng thbdhia


kW 130 ng giffis gagLwhf vgij xU sgu
Wtd fljJ. nkY, 85ng bjhiyfh kW gifia, 75 ng
bjhiyfh kW thbdhia, 95 ng thbdh kW gifia,

18

10M tF fzF




8.

9.

70 ng _id gagLJwhf vd fljJ. btgl


tufis FJ, tUtdtiw fhf.
(i) thbdhia kL gagLJgtf vif.
(ii) bjhiyfhia kL gagLJgtf vif.
(iii) bjhiyfh kW giffis gagL thbdhia
gagLjhjtf vif.
4000 khztf gY xU g , 2000 ngUF buR, 3000 ngUF j kW
500 ngUF bj. nkY, 1500 ngUF buR kW j, 300 ngUF
buR kW , 200 ngUF j kW , 50 ngUF _W bkhfS
bj v, tUtdtiw fhf.
(i) _W bkhfS bjahjtf vif.
(ii) VnjD xU bkhahtJ bjjtf vif.
(iii) U bkhf kLnk bjjtf vif.

120 FLgf cs xU uhk 93 FLgf rika brtjF wif


gagLJwd. 63 FLgf kbzbzid gagLJwhf.
45 FLgf rika vthit gagLJwhf. 45 FLgf wF kW
kbzbz, 24 FLgf kbzbz kW vth, 27 FLgf
vth kW wF Matiw gagLJwd. wF, kbzbz kW
rika vth _iw gagLJ FLgf vifia fhf.

1.7 cwf (Relations)


K ghlgF fzfis g fwnjh. bfhLfgl fzfUJ
nr, btL kW u Matdh a fzfis clhFtJ g fnwh.
F, kbwhU Kiw, bfhLfgl fzf A kW B-UJ xU a fzij
cUthFtJ g fhngh. a fz, w Ka fj fUJfshd cw
kW rh Madtiw tiuaWf gagLwJ.

btW fzfsyhj A kW B MatUJ A # B (A uh B vd
gof) vw a fzij cUthFnth. J A, B Mat fhOa
bgUfgy (cartesian product) vd miHfgL.

thnw,

A # B = "^a, bh ; a ! A kW b ! B , vd tiuaWfgLwJ.
B # A = "^b, ah ; b ! B kW a ! A , vd tiuaWfgLwJ.

F
(i) nrho (a, b) - cWf tir f Ka MF. mjhtJ, a ! b v,
(a, b) ! (b, a) MF.
(ii) fhOa bgUf A # B fzf A kW B rk fzfshf Ufyh.
nghJ eh xU vLJfhil ghngh.

xU ifng filfhu _W ahrkhd ifngfis wh. mtiw
eh C1 , C2 , C3 vd miHngh. C1 iy ` 1200, C2 iy ` 2500 kW C3
iy ` 2500 vd vLJ bfhnth.

A = { C1 , C2 , C3 } kW B = { 1200, 2500 } vd vLJ bfhnth.

Mfnt, A # B = { (C1 , 1200), (C1 , 2500), (C2 , 1200), (C2 , 2500), (C3 , 1200), (C3 , 2500) }
Mdh, B # A = { (1200, C1 ), (2500, C1 ), (1200, C2 ), (2500, C2 ,), (1200, C3 ), (2500, C3 ) }.
1. fzfS rhfS

19


nknys vLJfhoUJ, A ! B v, A # B ! B # A vd v fhzyh.

A # B - xU cfz F = {(C1 , 1200), (C2 , 2500), (C3 , 2500)} vf.

nkny cs tir nrhof Kj TW xbthW xnubahU B- cWl
bjhlilaJ. Kj l cs vj TW ulh l, xiwl mfkhd
B- cWl nrho nruiy.

F - cs xbthU nrhoYs ulhtJ TW, Kj T iyia
fhLwJ. mLjjhf, B # A - cfz E = {(1200, C1 ), (2500, C2 ), (2500, C3 )} vf.

Kj TW 2500 MdJ, U btntW A- cWf C2 kW C3
MatWl bjhlgLJgLsJ.
tiuaiw

A kW B Mad btW fzf my vf. A-UJ B-F cs xU cw


R MdJ A # B - btWfzyhj cfzkhF. mjhtJ, R 3 A # B .
R- kgf (Domain) = " x ! A ; ^ x, yh ! R, VnjD xU y ! B ,
R- rf (Range) = " y ! B ; (x, y) ! R, VnjD xU x ! A , .

rhf (Functions)

1.8

tiuaiw

A kW B vgd U btww fzf vf.


A -UJ B-F cs xU cw f 3 A # B MdJ,
(i) cw f - kgf = fz A.
(ii) (x, y) ! f v , xbthU x ! A- F xnubahU

y ! B csJ.
l oby
(1805-1859)

b#k

va, gFgha kW
aua Ma fja
f oby Ka
gfid brJsh.
ed fj fUjhd
rhid, mjFa Fplhd
y = f(x)-ia 1837- t
mKfgLdh.
nkY
midtuhY eF magl
bfhifahd a nAh
bfhifia
(Pigeonhole
principle) mikjh.


Madtiw iw brkhdh, mJ xU rh
(function) vdgL.

A -UJ B-F cs xU rhghdJ nkfl (i)
kW (ii) gjidl mik xU cwthF.

rhid nfhj myJ cUkhw (mapping or
transformation) vd Twyh.

A -UJ B -F cs xU rh f : A " B vd
FfgL. ^ x, yh ! f v, y = f (x) vd vGjyh.

cw vw fUij gagLjhk, tUkhW
rh tiuaiwia kh bjthf mikf Ko.
thW kh mikfgLtij, rh gaghL
tiuaiwahf bfhsyh.

tiuaiw

A kW B vgd btww U fzf vf. A-UJ B-F xU rh

vdgLtJ, A vw fzYs xbthU x- B vD fzYs y vw


xnubahU cWnghL bjhlgLJ xU MF. y = f (x) vgJ, y MdJ x-
xU rh vd bghUgL.
20

10M tF fzF


f : A " B vD rh kgf (Domain) A vd, mj Jiz kgf
(Co-domain) B vd miHfgL. y vgJ x- H cU (image) vd x vgJ y-
K cU (preimage) vd miHfgL. f- midJ H cUfis bfhl
fzkhdJ f- rf (range) vd miHfgL. rfkhdJ, rh f- Jiz
kgf xU cfz MF.

nkny TwgLs, rh a tiuaiwahdJ 1837 M Mo, nfhyh
yhghbt (Nikolai Labachevsky) kW l oby (Peter Dirichlet)Mnahuh
jjna flagljhF. mjF K rhfhd bjthd tiuaiw iy.

1.7- TwgLs vLJfho, F 3 A # B vw cw, rhfSfhd
gjidf (i) kW (ii) Matiw iw brtjh, F = {(C1 , 1200), (C2 , 2500), (C3 ,
2500)} vgJ xU rhghF.


(2500, C2), (2500, C3) ! E Mad nknys gjid (ii) I iw braiy
vgjh, E = {(1200, C1 ), (2500, C2 ), (2500, C3 )} vgJ xU rhghfhJ.
Fiu

(i) clhf mik xbthU k x-F xnubahU k y-I btplhf


jUw xU aukhf rh f I fUjyh.
x=3

cL

f (x) = x

y=9

btpL f (x)

(ii) xU rhig tiuaWf kgf, Jiz kgf kW kgf xbthU


cWid Jiz kgf xnubahU cWnghL bjhl gLJ
Mad ekF njit.

vLJfhL 1.14

A = {1, 2, 3, 4} kW B = {- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 , 11, 12} vf.

R = {(1, 3), (2, 6), (3, 10), (4, 9)} 3 A # B xU cw v, R I xU rh vd
fhLf. mj kgf, Jiz kgf kW rf Madtiw fhf.
R - kgf = {1, 2, 3, 4}= A .

xbthU x ! A -F y = R (x) vwthW xnubahU y ! B csJ.

vdnt, R xU rhghF. R- Jiz kgf B MF.

R (1) = 3, R (2) = 6, R (3) = 10 kW R (4) = 9 vgjh, R - rf = {3, 6, 10, 9} .
vLJfhL 1.15

nH bfhLfgLs mF glf xbthW xU rhid
Fwdth vd Muhf.

b
c
d

x
y
z

(i)
a

gl 1.18

(ii)

2
4
3

20
30
40

gl 1.19
1. fzfS rhfS

21

mF gl (i)- A- xbthU cWF xnubahU HcU csJ.


Mfnt, mJ xU rhghF.
mF gl (ii)- cW 2- F 20 kW 40 vw U H cUf csd.
vdnt, J xU rhghfhJ.

vLJfhL 1.16

X = { 1, 2, 3, 4 } vf. tU xbthU cw, X-UJ X -F xU rhghFkh
vd Muhf. c ilF Vw sf jUf.

(i) f = { (2, 3), (1, 4), (2, 1), (3, 2), (4, 4) }

(ii) g = { (3, 1), (4, 2), (2, 1) }

(iii) h = { (2, 1), (3, 4), (1, 4), (4, 3) }


(i)
f = { (2, 3), (1, 4), (2, 1), (3, 2), (4, 4) }

X - cW 2 MdJ btntwhd cWf 3 kW 1 MatWl


bjhlgLjgLsJ. Mfnt, f xU rhgy .

(ii)

g = { (3, 1), (4, 2), (2, 1)} vd bfhLfgLsJ. 1 vD X- cWF xU HcU


X- iy. mjhtJ, g- kgf {2, 3, 4} ! X . vdnt, g vgJ xU rhgy.

(iii) h = { (2, 1), (3, 4), (1, 4), (4, 3) }


X- xbthU cW X- xnubahU cWnghL bjhlgLjgLsJ.
Mfnt, h MdJ xU rh MF.
vLJfhL 1.17

A = { 1, 4, 9, 16 }-UJ B = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 }-F tU cwf vit
rhghF? mthW rh v, mj rfij fhf.

(i)

f1 = { (1, 1), (4, 2), (9, 3), (16, 4) }

(ii)

f2 = { (1, 4), (1, 1), (9, 3), (16, 2) }

(iii)

f3 = { (4, 2), (1, 2), (9, 2), (16, 2) }

(iv)

f4 = { (1, 2), (4, 5), (9, 4), (16, 5) }

(i) f1 = { (1, 1), (4, 2), (9, 3), (16, 4) }

A - xbthU cW B - xnubahU cWl bjhlgLjgLsJ.

Mfnt, f1 xU rh MF.
nkY, f1 - rf = {- 1, 2, - 3, - 4} .

(ii)

f2 = { (1, 4), (1, 1), (9, 3), (16, 2) }. F 1 MdJ U btntwhd HcUf
4 kW 1 MatWl bjhlgLjgLsJ.
Mfnt, f2 xU rhgy.


22

10M tF fzF

(iii)

f3 = { (4, 2), (1, 2), (9, 2), (16, 2) }.

A - xbthU cW B - xnubahU cWnghL bjhlgLjgLsJ.

vdnt,

(iv)

f4 = { (1, 2), (4, 5), (9, 4), (16, 5) }.

f3 xU rhghF. nkY, f3 - rf = { 2 } MF.

A- xbthU cW B- xnubahU cWnghL bjhlgLjgLsJ.


Mfnt, f4 xU rhghF. nkY, f4 - rf = { 2, 5, 4} MF.

vLJfhL 1.18
x, x $ 0 vDnghJ
,

x =)
- x, x 1 0 vDnghJ

{ ( x, y) | y = | x |, x ! R } vw cw, rhig tiuaWwjh? mj rf fhf.
x- xbthU kF y = | x| vw xU jj (xnubahU) k csJ.

Mfnt, bfhLfgl cw, xU rhid tiuaWwJ.
rh kgf midJ bkbaf fz R MF.
xbthU bkbaQF | x | MdJ vnghJ akhfnth
xl
myJ if bkbazhfnth Ugjh, rhdh
ilF HcUf if bkbafshF.

Mfnt, j rf Fiw bkbaf myhj (if
bkba myJ a) vf fz MF.

y = |x|
x

yl

gl 1.20

Fiu

x, x $ 0 vDnghJ
, vwthW mik rh y = x , x d R , vgJ
x =)
- x, x 1 0 vDnghJ
kL rh myJ mw rh (modulus or absolute value function) vdgL.
vLJfhlhf,

- 8 =-^- 8h = 8. nkY , 8 = 8.

1.8.1 rhfis FF Kiw (Representation of functions)





(i)

(ii)

f : A " B vw rhid tU Kiwf Ffyh.


(i) tir nrhof fz (a set of ordered pairs) (ii) mltiz (a table)
(iii) mF gl (an arrow diagram)
(iv) tiugl (a graph)
f = "(x , y) : y = f (x), x d A , vwthW mik midJ tir nrhof
fzkhf, rh f : A " B -I Ffyh.
x- kf kW f M bgwgL HcUf Madtiw bfhL xU
mltizia mikfyh.

(iii) xU mF gl f- kgf cWfis


HcUfis mFf _y bjhlgL fhlyh.
(iv)

mtFa

f = "(x , y) : y = f (x), x d A , - cs midJ tir nrhofis, xU js


fshf Ffyh. midJ fis FF gl f- tiuglkhF.
1. fzfS rhfS

23


rhfis gntW jf Fgij y vLJfhLf _ykhf sFnth.

gy rhfSF mt tiuglij bgw Ko. Mdh xbthU tiuglK
xU rhid FfhJ.

xU tiugl rhghFkh vgij khf tU nrhjidia gagLjyh.

1.8.2 FJnfhL nrhjid (Vertical line test)



tiuglij, xbthU FJnfhL mfgr xnubahU btodh,
mtiugl xU rhid FF.
F

y FJnfhLf tiuglij btlhkY Ufyh. VnjD xU
FJnfhL tiuglij xWF nkgl f btodh, mj tiugl xU
rhid FfhJ. Vbd, x- xU kF, y-F FiwjJ uL kf
UF. vLJfhlhf, y2 = x vgJ xU rhgy.
vLJfhL 1.19
FJnfhL nrhjidia gagL tU tiuglf vit rhid

FF vd khf.
y

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

yl

yl gl 1.21

xl

xl

gl 1.22

(iv)

xl

xl

yl
yl

gl 1.23

gl 1.24

(i) xU FJnfhL, tiuglij P kW Q Ma U f btLtjh,


bfhLfgl tiugl xU rhid FfhJ.
(ii)

vj xU FJnfhL tiuglij mfgrkhf xnubahU btLtjh,


j tiugl xU rhid FF.

24

10M tF fzF

(iii) xU FJnfhL tiuglij A kW B vw U f btLtjh, j


tiugl xU rhid FfhJ.
(iv)

bfhLfgl tiuglkhdJ FJnfhL nrhjidia iw brtjh, tiugl


xU rhid FF.

vLJfhL 1.20
A = { 0, 1, 2, 3 } kW B = { 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 } vgd U fzf vf. f : A " B

vD rh f (x) = 2x + 1 vd bfhLfgLsJ. rhid (i) tir nrhof


fz (ii) mltiz (iii) mF gl (iv) tiugl Matwh Ff.

A = { 0, 1, 2, 3 }, B = { 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 },

f (x) = 2x + 1 . Mfnt,

f (0) = 2(0) + 1 = 1, f (1) = 2(1)+1 = 3 , f (2) = 2(2) + 1 = 5, f (3) = 2(3) + 1 = 7

(i)

tir nrhof fz

bfhLfgLs rh f -I tU tir nrhof fzkhf vGjyh.

f = { (0, 1), (1, 3), (2, 5), (3, 7) }.

(ii)

mltiz mik

rh f I nH bfhLfgLs mltizah Fngh.

f (x)

(iii)

mF gl

rh f - I xU mF gljh Fngh. fzf A

A
0
1
2
3

kW B Matiw uL _oa tistiufsh Fngh.

A- xbthU cW B- cs mj xnubahU H

gl 1.25

cUl mFah bjhlgLjgLsJ.


y

(iv) tiugl

vd bfhLfgLsJ. (0, 1), (1, 3), (2, 5), (3, 7)

1.26-
js FfgLsd.
f,

gl

midJ
fS
tiuglij FwJ.

nrJ

(3, 7)

f = "^ x, f (x)h ; x ! A , = {(0,1), (1, 3), (2, 5), (3, 7)}


Ma

B
1
3
5
7
9

f : AB

fhosthW

(2, 5)

5
4

(1, 3)

rhDila

(0, 1)

gl 1.26

1. fzfS rhfS

25

1.8.3 rhf tiff (Types of functions)


rhf gfis mogilahf bfhL, rhfis y Fl tiffshf
fyh.
(i)
xWF xwhd rh myJ 1-1 rh (One-One function)

f : A " B vgJ xU rh vf. A- btntwhd cWfis B- cs btntW
cWfSl f MdJ bjhlgLJkhd, f vgJ xWF xwhd rh MF.
mjhtJ A- cs cWf u, v vgd u ! v vDnghJ f (u) ! f (v)
A
B
f
vd Ujh f vgJ 1-1 rh MF. UJ f MdJ 1-1 rh
7
5
9
v, A- cs xWF nkgl cWf H cUfshf
6
10
7
B- vj xU cW UfTlhJ. xWF xwhd rh vgJ
8
8
xUw rh (injective function) vd miHfgL. gl 1.27,
4
gl 1.27
xWF xwhd rhid FwJ.
(ii) nk rh (Onto function)
f : A " B vw rh B-Ys xbthU cWF A- xU KcU U,

A
B
f
f xU nk rh (onto) vdgL. f^ah = b vgjzf xbthU
a
x
b ! B -F FiwjJ xU cW a ! A U, rh f vgJ nk
b
y
c
rh vdgL. J f - rf B vW TWtjF rk. xU nk
z
d
rhig nkw rh (surjective function) vd miHfyh. gl 1. 28
gl 1.28
nk rhig FwJ.
(iii) xWF xwhd kW nk rh (One-One and onto function)

rh f vgJ xWF xwhd rhghf kW nk
A
B
15
rhghf UFnkahdh, f : A " B vgJ xWF xwhd 10
20
25
kW nk rh myJ Uw rh (bijective function) vdgL.
30
35

f : A " B vw rh A- btntW cWf B- btntW 40
45
cWfnshL bjhlgLjgLsjhY, B- xbthU cW
gl 1.29
A- cs xU cW H cUthf UgjhY f MdJ xU xWF xwhd kW
nk rhghF.
F
(i) f : A " B vgJ xU nk rh v, v kLnk B= f- rf MF.
(ii) f^a1h = f^a2h ( a1 = a2 vd, B- xbthU cWF A- xnu xU
KcU Ujh, Ujh kLnk, f : A " B vgJ xWF xwhd kW
nk rhghf UF.
(iii) f : A " B vgJ Uw rh kW A, B Mad KoW fzf v, A, B
f M vf (fz vf) rkkhf UF. gl 1.29 MdJ xWF
xwhd kW nk rhig FwJ.
(iv) f : A " B MdJ xU Uw rh v, A kW B vgd rkhd fzfshf
UF.
(v) xWF xwhd kW nk rh `xWF xwhd nfhj (one-one
correspondence) vW TwgL.
26

10M tF fzF

(iv)

kh rh (constant function)

A- cs vyh cWfS B- cs xnu xU cWid

H cUthf bfhlh, f : A " B vgJ xU kh rh vdgL.


kh rh rf XUW fz (singleton set) MF.

A
x
y
u
v
1

B
3
5
7
8
10
15

A = { x, y, u, v,1 }, B = { 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 15} vf.

rh f : A " B vgJ xbthU x ! A -F f (x) = 5 vd tiuaWfgLwJ.

gl 1.30 MdJ xU kh rhid FwJ.

(v)

rk rh (identity function)

A xU btww fz vf. midJ a ! A -F f (a) = a vd

gl 1.30

rh A-Ys xbthU cW mjDlndna bjhlgLjgL.

y=

Ujh, f : A " A vgJ A- rk rh vdgL. mjhtJ, rk

vLJfhlhf, A = R vf. x ! R -F f (x) = x vd tiuaWfgL


rh f : R $ R vgJ rk rhghF. R - jhd rk rh

gl 1.31

tiuglij gl 1.31 FwJ.

vLJfhL 1.21
2

A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }, B = N kW f : A " B MdJ f (x) = x vd tiuaWfgLsJ

f - rfij fhf. nkY, rh tifia fhf.


A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }; B = { 1, 2, 3, 4, g }
2

f : A " B MdJ f (x) = x vd bfhLfgLsJ.

` f (1) = 12 = 1 ; f (2) = 4 ; f (3) = 9 ;

vdnt, f - rf = { 1, 4, 9, 16, 25}

btntwhd cWf btntW H cUfnshL bjhlgLjgLsjh,

f (4) = 16 kW f (5) = 25.

J xWF xwhd rh MF. nkY, 3 ! B UD f (x) = x = 3 vgjzf


vj xU cW x ! A - yhjjh, J nk rh my.
Fiu

g (x) = x vwthW mikj g : R $ R vw rhid fUJf.


u = 1 kW v =- 1 v, u ! v . Mdh g (u) = g (1) = 1 = g (- 1) = g (v) .
Mfnt, rh g MdJ xU xWF xwhd rhgy. vdnt, Nu kLnk
xU xWF xwhd myJ nk rhid cUthfhJ. xU rhid
xWF xwhd kW nk rh vd khf , kgf kW Jiz
kgf Matiw fU bfhs ntL.
1. fzfS rhfS

27

vLJfhL 1.22

rh f : [1, 6) $ R MdJ tUkhW tiuaWfgLsJ.

1#x12
2 # x 1 4
4#x16
(ii) f^3 h
(i) f (5)
(iii) f^1 h
Mat kfis fhf.
1 + x,
f^ xh = *2x - 1,
3x2 - 10,

(i)

( [1 , 6) = { " x ! R :1 # x 1 6 , )
(iv) f^2h - f^4h

(v) 2 f^5h - 3 f^1 h

f (5) - kig fhngh. 5 MdJ 4- F 6- F il csJ.


2
vdnt,
f (x) = 3x - 10 x = 5 vd ul ntL.
2
Mfnt,
f (5) = 3 (5 ) - 10 = 65

(ii)

f (3) - kigfhngh. 3 MdJ 2-F 4-F il csJ.

vdnt,

f (x) = 2x - 1 x = 3 vd ul ntL.

Mfnt,

f (3) = 2 (3) - 1 = 5.

(iii)

f (1) - kig fhngh. 1 MdJ 1 # x 1 2 vw il bt csJ.

vdnt,

f (x) = 1 + x x =1 vd ul ntL.

Mfnt,

f (1) = 1 + 1 = 2.

(iv) 2 # x 1 4 vw ilbt x = 2 csJ. vdnt, f (2) = 2 (2) - 1 = 3 .


nkY, 4 # x 1 6 vw ilbt x = 4 csJ.

vdnt, f (4) = 3 (4 ) - 10 = 3 (16) - 10 = 48 - 10 = 38

Mfnt, f (2) - f (4) = 3 38 = 35.

(v)

f (5) = 3 (5 ) - 10 = 65 . nkY, f (1) = 1 + 1 = 2 .

vdnt, 2 f^5h - 3 f^1 h = 2 (65) - 3 (2) = 130 - 6 = 124.

g 1.4
1.

tU mF glf rhig Fwdth vd TWf. c ilF


jFj fhuz TWf.

P
Q
(i)
f
a
b
c
d

2.

(ii)

x
y
z

bfhLfgLs F = { (1, 3), (2, 5), (4, 7), (5, 9), (3, 1) } vD rhF, kgf
kW rf Matiw fhf.

28

10M tF fzF

3.

A = { 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 }; B = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 } kW fi : A " B , i = 1,2,3.


vf. nH bfhLfgLsit vtif rhid FF? ilfhd
jFj fhuz jUf.

(i)

(ii) f2 = { (10, 1), (11, 1), (12, 1), (13, 1), (14, 1) }

(iii) f3 = { (10, 0), (11, 1), (12, 2), (13, 3), (14, 5) }

4.

X = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }, Y = { 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 } vf. X-UJ Y-fhd cwf nH


bfhLfgLsd. t vit rhghF? c ilfhd jFj fhuz
jUf. nkY, mit rh v, vtif rhghF?
(i) R1 = { ^ x, yh | y = x + 2 , x ! X , y ! Y }

f1 = { (10, 1), (11, 2), (12, 3), (13, 5), (14, 3) }

(ii) R2 = { (1, 1), (2, 1), (3, 3), (4, 3), (5, 5) }

(iii) R3 = { (1, 1), (1, 3), (3, 5), (3, 7), (5, 7) }

(iv) R4 = { (1, 3), (2, 5), (4, 7), (5, 9), (3, 1) }

5.

R = {(a, - 2), (- 5, b), (8, c), (d, - 1)} vgJ rk rhig FFbk,
a, b, c kW d Mat kfis fhf.

6.

A = { 2, 1, 1, 2 } kW f = $` x, 1 j : x ! A . v, f - rfij fhf.
x
nkY, f vgJ A-UJ A-F xU rhghFkh?

7.

f = { (2, 7), (3, 4), (7, 9), (1, 6), (0, 2), (5, 3) } vgJ
A = { 1, 0, 2, 3, 5, 7 } -UJ B = { 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9 } -F xU rh vf. f vw rh
(i) xWF xwhd rhghFkh?

(ii) nk rhghFkh?

(iii) xWF xwhd kW nk rhghFkh?


8.

f = { (12, 2), (13, 3), (15, 3), (14, 2), (17, 17) } vw rh 2 kW 3 Mat
KcUfis fhf.

9.

nH bfhLfgLs mltiz MdJ, A= { 5, 6, 8, 10 }-UJ

B = { 19, 15, 9, 11 }-F f^ xh = 2x - 1 vwthW mikj xU rh v, a kW


b Madt kfis fhf?
x

10

f(x)

11

19

10.

A = { 5, 6, 7, 8 }; B = { 11, 4, 7, 10,7, 9,13 } vf.


f = {( x, y ) : y = 3 - 2x , x ! A , y ! B } vd tiuaWfgLsJ.

(i) f - cWfis vGJf


(iii) rf fhf

(ii) mj Jiz kgf ahJ?


(iv) vtif rh vd fhf.
1. fzfS rhfS

29

11.

nH bfhLfgLs tiuglf vit rhid Fwd? ilfhd


jFj fhuz jUf.

y
(i)

y
(ii)

(iii)

y
(iv)

(v)

f = { (1, 2), ( 3, 1), (5, 6), ( 4, 3) } I

12.

bfhLfgLs rh

(i) mltiz

13.

A = { 6, 9, 15, 18, 21 }; B = { 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 } kW f : A " B vgJ


f^ xh = x - 3 vd tiuaWfgoU rh f -I
3
(i) mF gl
(ii) tir nrhof fz

(iii) mltiz

14.

A = {4, 6, 8, 10 } kW B = { 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 } vf. f : A " B vgJ


f^ xh = 1 x + 1 vd tiuaWfgLsJ. rh f -I
2
(i) mF gl (ii) tir nrhof fz (iii) mltiz
Mat _y Ff.

15.

(ii) mF gl Mat _y Ff.

(iv) tiugl

Mat _y Ff.

rh f : 6- 3, 7h " R flthW tiuaWfgLsJ.

4 x 2 - 1; - 3 # x 1 2
f^ xh = *3x - 2;
2#x#4
2x - 3;
41x17

tUtdtiw fhf.

(i)
f^5h + f^6h

(iii)
30

f^- 2h - f^4h

10M tF fzF

(ii)

f^1 h - f^- 3h

(iv)

f (3) + f (- 1)
2f (6) - f (1)

16.

rh f : 6- 7, 6h " R flthW tiuaWfgLsJ.

x2 + 2x + 1; - 7 # x 1 - 5
f (x) = * x + 5 ;
-5 # x # 2
x - 1;
2 1 x16
tUtdtiw fhf.

(i) 2 f (- 4) + 3 f (2)

(ii) f (- 7) - f (- 3)

(iii)

4 f (- 3) + 2 f (4)
f (- 6) - 3 f (1)

g 1.5
rahd ilia njbjLf.
1.

A kW B , vgd uL fzf vf. A , B = A vgjF njitahd


kW nghJkhd fLghL.

(A) B 3 A

2.

A 1 B v, A + B =

(A) B

3.

P kW Q vgd VnjD uL fzf v, P + Q =

(A) " x : x ! P myJ x ! Q ,

(B) " x : x ! P kW x b Q ,

(C) " x : x ! P kW x ! Q ,

(D) " x : x b P kW x ! Q ,

4.

A = { p, q, r, s }, B = { r, s, t, u } v, A\B =

(A) { p, q }

5.

n 6 p (A) @ = 64 v, n^ Ah =

(B) A 3 B
(B) A\B

(B) { t, u }
(B) 8

(C) A ! B

(D) A + B = z

(C) A

(D) B\A

(C) { r, s }

(D) {p, q, r, s }

(C) 4

(D) 5

(A) 6

6.

A, B kW C Ma VnjD _W fzfSF, A + ^ B , C h =

(A) ^ A , Bh , ^ B + C h

(B) ^ A + Bh , ^ A + C h

(C) A , (B + C)

(D) ^ A , Bh + ^ B , C h

7.

A, B Ma uL fzfSF, {(A \ B) , (B \ A)} + (A + B) =

(A) z

8.

nH bfhLfgLsitf jtwhd TW vJ?

(A) A \ B = A + Bl

(B) A \ B = A + B

(C) A \ B = (A , B) + Bl

(D) A \ B = (A , B) \ B

9.

A, B kW C Ma _W fzfSF B \ ^ A , C h =

(A) ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ C h

(B) ^ B \ Ah + ^ B \ C h

(C) ^ B \ Ah + ^ A \ C h

(D) ^ A \ Bh + ^ B \ C h

(B) A , B

(C) A + B

(D) Al + Bl

1. fzfS rhfS

31

10.

n(A) = 20 , n(B) = 30 kW n (A , B) = 40 v, n (A + B) =

(A) 50

11.

{ ( x , 2), (4, y) } xU rk rhig FwJ v, (x, y) =

(A) (2, 4)

12.

{ (7, 11), (5, a ) } xU khrhig FwJ v, a - k

(A) 7

13.

f (x) = ^- 1hx vgJ N -UJ Z - F tiuaWf gLsJ.

(A) { 1}

14.

f = { (6, 3), (8, 9), (5, 3), (1, 6) } v, 3- K cUf

(A) 5 kW 1

15.

A = { 1, 3, 4, 7, 11 } kW B = {1, 1, 2, 5, 7, 9 } vf.

f = { (1, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1), (7, 5), (11, 9) } vwthW mikj rh f : A " B vgJ

(A) xWF xwhd rh

(C) Uw rh

16.

bfhLfgLs gl FF rh, xU

(A) nk rh

(B) kh rh

(C) xWF xwhd rh

(D) rh my

2
4
5

17.

A = { 5, 6, 7 }, B = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 } vf. f (x) = x - 2 vwthW tiuaiw bragl


rh f : A " B rf,

(A) { 1, 4, 5 }

18.

f (x) = x2 + 5 v, f (- 4) =

(a) 26

19.

xU rh rf XUW fzkhdh, mJ xU

(A) kh rh

(B) rk rh

(C) Uw rh

(D) xWF xwhd rh

20.

f : A " B xU Uw rh kW n(A) = 5 v, n(B) =

(A) 10

32

(B) 10

(C) 40

(B) (4, 2)

(C) (2, 2)

(B) 11

(C) 5

(B) N

(C) { 1, 1 }

(B) 6 kW 8

(C) 8 kW 1

(B) 4

10M tF fzF

(D) (4, 4)

(D) 9
f - rf

(D) Z

(D) 6 kW 5

(B) nk rh
(D) rh my

(B) { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }

(b) 21

(D) 70

(C) { 2, 3, 4 }

(c) 20

(C) 5

D
4
2
16
25

(D) { 3, 4, 5 }

(d) 20

(D) 25

id bfhf

fzf

q fz vgJ eF tiuaWfgl bghUf bjhFghF.

fzf nr, gkhW g kW nr g cilaJ.


fzf btL, gkhW g kW nr g cilaJ.
fzf ahr gkhW g cilajy.

fzf xWbfhW btlh fzfshU mt ahr


nr g cilaJ.

gL f

A , ^ B + C h = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h
A + ^ B , C h = ^ A + Bh , ^ A + C h

fz ahrfhd o khf f

A\ ^ B , C h = ^ A\B h + ^ A\C h

fz ufhd o khf f

^ A , B h ' = A ' + B'

A\ ^ B + C h = ^ A\B h , ^ A\C h

^ A + Bh ' = A' , B'

fzf nr fz viz (M v) fl Nuf

n (A , B) = n (A) + n (B) - n (A + B)

n^ A , B , C h
= n^ Ah + n^ Bh + n^C h - n^ A + Bh - n^ B + C h - n^ A + C h + n^ A + B + C h .

rhf
q

A , B vD U fzf fhOa bgUfgy

A # B = "^a, bh ; a ! A , b ! B , vd tiuaWfgL.

A -UJ B - F cw R vgJ A # B - btww xU cfz MF.

mjhtJ, R 3 A # B .

f : X " Y vw rh fhQ gjidf go tiuaWfgLsJ:

xbthU x ! X xnubahU y = f (x) ! Y cl bjhlgLjgLsJ.

q xbthU rhid xU tiugl _y Ffyh. MD, bghJthf

j kWjiy bkahfhJ.

1. fzfS rhfS

33

xbthU FJnfhL tiuglij mfgr xU btodh


mtiugl xU rhid FF.

(i) tir nrhof fz

(ii) mF gl

(iii) mltiz

(iv) tiugl

Matwh xU rhid Ffyh.

q rh

y = | x | vD kL rh myJ mw rh vg tiuaiw :

x,
x =)
-x ,

x $ 0 vDnghJ
x 1 0 vDnghJ

rhf tiff tUkhW

xWF xwhd rh

(btntW cWfSF btntW H cUf).

nk rh

( f- rf = f- Jiz kgf )

Uw rh

kh rh

( f- rf XUWfz )

rk rh

( xbthU cW HcU mnj cWghF )

( xWF xwhd kW nk rh )

cfSF bjkh?
a gR fzFf (Millennium Prize problems) vgd mbkfh
cs ns fj Wtd (Clay Mathematics Institute) 2000 M Mo
mj VG fzFfshF. Mf 2010 tiu MW fzFf
fhzglhk csd. xU fz rahd F 1000,000 mbkf
lhyf, mWtdjh gR bjhifahf mfgLsJ. mj VG
fzFf ghnf fb#r (Poincare conjecture) vgJ kLnk
uZa fj nkij nfh bgnk (Girigori Perelman) vgtuh 2010-
fglJ. MD, mjFa gid bgw mt kWJ lh.
(bk myJ bkay vd %fgl ntoa fj Tid fb#r
(conjecture) vngh)

34

10M tF fzF

bkbaf
bjhltirfS bjhlfS
Mathematics is the Queen of Sciences, and arithmetic
is the Queen of Mathematics - C.F.Gauss

mKf

2.1 mKf

bjhltirf


ghl bkbaf bjhltirfis
g, bjhlfis g fngh. bjhltir
vgJ l tuyhW bfhl mogil fj
fUjhF. nkY, bjhltirf w fj fUJfis
nkgLJtjF aghd thif Niyfis
fjkakhFtjF gagL fUahf mikwd.

TL bjhltir (A.P.)
bgUF bjhltir (G.P.)
bjhlf


N kW R vgd Kiwna midJ if
KGfis kW bkbafis FF vgij
id TWnth.

tU eilKiw ffis vLJ bfhnth.

(i)

nuh (ISRO) Phf, rk fhy ilbt xU


Fl fhyF fl klUJ braif
nfh cauij ffhJ g brjd.

(ii)

unt mikrf, brid ka bjhl to


iyaij dr vjid ng gagLJwd
vgij ma UaJ. Mfnt, ka bjhlto
iyaF ehnjhW tUnth vifia
bjhlJ 180 ehfSF g brjJ.

(iii)

9 M tF gY MtKs xU khzt

5 = 2.236067978g vw jKwh v
jrk gF cs jrk vfis ma U
tUkhW vGdh : 2, 3, 6, 0, 6, 7, 9, 7, 8, g .

(iv)

1-I bjhFahf bfhl midJ if


dfis xU khzt fla U
tUkhW vGdh : 1, 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , g .
2 3 4 5
xU fj Mia, j tFYs khztf
bgafis mfu tir vG, mtf bgw
kbgfis tUkhW vGdh :

nahehnlh rhndh
(nghdh)
Leonardo Pisano (Fibonacci)

(1170-1250)

jh
gilfhy
J%Lt

fjF
nghdh

Ka gfhdh. mtUila
bga ed fj tYefSF,
Kakhf nghdh bgauh
miHfgl vf mikj
bjhltir fhuzkhf mKf
khW. nghdh vfis mt
ajhf flaiy. Mdh

(v)

mtiw xU bjhl tir


cjhuzkhf gagLdh.

75, 95, 67, 35, 58, 47, 100, 89, 85, 60.
35

(vi)

mnj Mia, mnj kbgf tuij tUkhW VWtir vGdh :


35, 47, 58, 60, 67, 75, 85, 89, 95, 100.


nkfl vLJfhLf xbth bjhFYs bkbafis Fl
tirgo goalgLsd.

j tirmikf (iii) kW (iv)- f Kowh vif cWf
csd. (i) (ii) , (v) kW (vi)- f KoW vif cWf csd.
Mdh, (v) kW (vi)-f xnu bjhFYs vf khWgl tir csd.

2.2 bjhltirf

(Sequences)

tiuaiw

bkbaf bjhltir vgJ, Fl tir mikfgl myJ
goalgl bkbaf tirahF.

(i) xU bjhltir KoW vif cWfis bfhoUjh, mJ



KoW bjhltir (finite sequence) vdgL.
(ii) xU bjhltir Kowh vif cWf U, mJ Kowh
bjhltir ( infinite sequence) vdgL.
n

KoW bjhltiria S : a1, a2, a3, g, an myJ S = {a j} j = 1 vd, Kowh



3
bjhltiria S : a1, a2, a3, g , an, g myJ S = {a j} j = 1 vd Fngh. F ak
vgJ bjhltir k-MtJ cWig FF. vLJfhlhf, bjhltir

a1 vgJ Kj cW vd a7 vgJ 7 M cW vd FlgL.



nkfl vLJfhLf (i), (ii), (v) kW (vi) vgd KoW
bjhltirfshF. Mdh, (iii) kW (iv) Mat cs bjhltirf Kowh
bjhltirfshF.

vf bjhFig bjhltirahf mikjh, mbjhltir bjthd
Kj cW, ulh cW, _wh cW, vd bjhlahf w cWfis
bfhoUF. Kng bjhltirF y vLJfhLfis fnlh. nkY,
tU vLJfhLfis fU bfhnth.

(i) 2, 4, 6, 8, g , 2010.

(KoW vif cWf)

(ii) 1, - 1, 1, - 1, 1, - 1, 1, g. (1 kW -1 MatF il cWf CryhLwd)

(iii) r, r, r, r, r.

(iv) 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, g . (gfh vf goa)

(v) 0.3, 0.33, 0.333, 0.3333, 0.33333, g . (Ko vif cWf)

(vi) S = " an ,13 , F ehzaij bjhlJ RL nghJ n-MtJ is jiy


myJ iljh an - k Kiwna 1 myJ 0 MF.

(cWf xJsd vdnt J kh bjhltir)

nknys vLJfhLf (i) kW (iii) vgd KoW bjhltirf



kwit Kowh bjhltirf MF. (i)-UJ (v) tiuYs vLJfhLf
36

10M tF fzF

cs bjhltirf cWf xU Fl mik myJ go


tirgLjgLsd. vdnt, mjifa bjhltirf Fl iy
cWfis flayh. Mdh, (vi)- cs bjhltir Fl iy
cs cWid khf ayhJ. mJ 1 myJ 0 Mf UF. F mik
vD brhiy, xU bjhltir n-MtJ cWig mj Kija cWf
mikJs tifia bfhL mj vD bghU gagLJnwh. bghJthf
bjhltirfis rhfshf fUjyh.

2.2.1 bjhltirfis rhfshf mj (Sequences viewed as functions)


n


bkbafshyhd xU KoW bjhltir a1, a2, a3, g, an myJ S = {a j} j = 1
vgij f^ k h = ak, k = 1, 2, 3, g, n vd tiuaWfgl f : {1, 2, 3, 4, g, n} " R vw
rhghf fUjyh.

bkbafshyhd xU Kowh bjhltir a1, a2, a3, g , an, g myJ
S = {a j} 3j = 1 I g^ k h = ak, 6 k ! N vd tiuaWfgl g : N " R vw rhghf fUjyh.

F 6 vw FpL
vyhtFkhf (for all) vd bghUgL.
bjhltir " ak ,13 - bghJ cW ak juglh, bjhltiria KGikahf mikf
Ko. Mfnt, bjhltir vgJ xU rh MF. mj kgf a vf fz
N = { 1, 2, 3, g, } Mfnth myJ a vf y cfzfshfnth UF.
mj rf bkbaf xU cfzkhf UF.
Fiu

rhghdJ xU bjhltirahf Uf ntoa mta iy.
vLJfhlhf, rh f : R $ R MdJ f (x) = 2x + 1 , 6 x ! R vd mikkhdh,
mJ xU bjhltirahfhJ. Vbd, rh rf cWfis
bjhltir mikf KoahJ. nkY, rh kgf MdJ a vf
fz N Mfnth myJ a vf cfz { 1, 2, g, n } Mfnth mika
bgwiy vgij ftf.

vLJfhL 2.1

-MtJ cW bfhLfgLs tU bjhltir Kj _W
cWfis fhf.
n^n + 1h^2n + 1h
cn =
, 6n!N
6
n^n + 1h^2n + 1h

F,
, 6n!N
cn =
6
1^1 + 1h^2^1 h + 1h

n = 1 v,
= 1.
c1 =
6
2^2 + 1h^4 + 1h
2^3 h^5h
=
= 5.

n = 2 v,
c2 =
6
6
3^3 + 1h^7h
^3 h^4h^7h
=
= 14.

n = 3 v,
c3 =
6
6

vdnt, bjhltir Kj _W cWf Kiwna 1, 5 kW 14.

nkTa vLJfho, bghJ cW Nu ekF bfhLfgLsJ.
vdnt, vj xU Fl cWig neuoahf fLofyh.
tU vLJfho, kbwhU Kiw bjhltir mikjiy fhzyh.
2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

37

vLJfhL 2.2

tU bjhltirf Kj IJ cWfis fhf.
a

(i) a1 =- 1,
an = n - 1 , n 2 1 kW 6 n ! N
n+2

(ii) F1 = F2 = 1 kW Fn = Fn - 1 + Fn - 2, n = 3, 4, g.

a
(i)
a1 =- 1 kW an = n - 1 , n 2 1 vd bfhLfgLsJ.
n+2
a1

vdnt,
=-1
a2 =
4
2+2
-1
a2


a3 =
= 4 =- 1
3+2
5
20
1
a3


a4 =
= 20 =- 1
4+2
6
120
1
a4
120 =- 1


a5 =
=
5+2
7
840

` bjhltir Kj IJ cWf - 1, - 1 , - 1 , - 1 kW - 1 .
840
4
20
120
(ii) F1 = F2 = 1 kW Fn = Fn - 1 + Fn - 2 , 6 n = 3, 4, 5, g vd bfhLfgLsJ.
bghGJ,

F1 = 1 , F2 = 1
F3 = F2 + F1 = 1 + 1 = 2

F4 = F3 + F2 = 2 + 1 = 3

F5 = F4 + F3 = 3 + 2 = 5

` bjhltir Kj IJ cWf Kiwna 1, 1, 2, 3, 5.

Fiu


F1 = F2 = 1 kW Fn = Fn - 1 + Fn - 2, n = 3, 4, g
vgUJ bgwgL bjhltir nghdh (Fibonacci
sequence) bjhltir vdgL. j cWf 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13,
21, 34, g. Nafh cs ijf miknghW
nghdh bjhltir aif fhzgLwJ.
Nafh ijf RU RUshf v v
irf mikJsd. mj RUf vif
nghdh bjhltir cs mLjLj vfis FwJ.
g 2.1
1.

38

n-MtJ cW bfhLfgl tU bjhltir xbthY Kj _W


cWfis fhf.
n^ n - 2h
^- 1hn n^n + 2h
n+2
(i) an =

(ii) cn = ^- 1hn 3

(iii) zn =
4
3
10M tF fzF

2.

xbthU bjhltir n- MtJ cW nH bfhLfgLsJ. mit

xbthY FlgLs cWfis fhf.


n+3
(i) an = n + 2 ; a7 , a9
(ii) an = ^- 1hn 2 ^n + 1h ; a5 , a8
2n + 3
2
n
2
(iv) an = (- 1) (1 - n + n ); a5 , a8
(iii) an = 2n - 3n + 1; a5 , a7.


3.

n (n + 3), n ! N kW n uilgil v vDnghJ


2n , n ! N kW n xiwgil v vDnghJ
an = *
2
n +1
vd tiuaWfgl bjhltir 18- tJ kW 25-tJ cWfis fhf.

4.

bn = )

vd tiuaWfgl bjhltir 13 MtJ kW 16MtJ cWfis fhf.

5.

a1 = 2, a2 = 3 + a1 kW an = 2an - 1 + 5, n 2 2, vd bfhl bjhltir

n,
n ! N kW n uilgil v vDnghJ
n (n + 2), n ! N kW n xiwgil v vDnghJ

Kj 5 cWfis fhf.

6.

a1 = a2 = a3 = 1 kW an = an - 1 + an - 2 , n 2 3 , vd bfhl bjhltir
Kj 6 cWfis fhf.

2.3 TL bjhltir myJ TL U


(Arithmetic Sequence or Arithmetic Progression, A.P.)

gF y w bjhltirfis fhngh.
tiuaiw
an + 1 = an + d , n ! N kW d xU khahf U, bjhltir
a1, a2, a3, g, an , g I xU TL bjhltir vngh. F a1 vgJ Kj cW
kW kh d vgJ bghJ ahr vW TL bjhltiria TL
U vd miHg. jid RUfkhf A.P. vd Ffyh.

vLJfhLf

(i) 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, g


vgJ xU TL bjhltir. F, a1 = 2 kW
bghJ ahr d = 3 xU kh.
(ii) - 4, - 4, - 4, - 4, g vgJ xU TL bjhltir.
F, a 1 = - 4 kW d = 0 xU kh.
(iii) 2, 1.5, 1, 0.5, 0, - 0.5, - 1.0, - 1.5, g vgJ xU TL bjhltir.
F, a1 = 2 kW d = - 0.5 xU kh.

TL bjhltir bghJtot (General form of an Arithmetic Progression)



TL bjhltir bghJtotij mJ bfhnth. xU TL
3
bjhltir {ak} k = 1 - Kj cWig a vd bghJ ahrij d vd vLJ
bfhf.
vdnt,
a1 = a , an + 1 = an + d , 6 n ! N
2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

39

Mfnt, n = 1, 2, 3 v,
a2 = a1 + d = a + d = a + (2 - 1) d

a3 = a2 + d = (a + d) + d = a + 2d = a + (3 - 1) d
a4 = a3 + d = (a + 2d) + d = a + 3d = a + (4 - 1) d
Kiwia bjhlu, n-MtJ cWid tUkhW fhzyh.

an = an - 1 + d = [a + (n - 2) d] + d = a + (n - 1) d.

vdnt, xbthU n ! N -F an = a + (n - 1) d vd ilwJ.

Mfnt, xU TL bjhltir myJ TL U (A.P.)


a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d, g , a + (n - 1) d, a + nd, g vd mik.

nkY, xU TL bjhltir bghJ cWfhd Nu

tn = a + (n - 1) d , 6n ! N .
F

(i) xU bjhltir KoW bjhltirahf Ufyh. TL bjhltir
n cWf kLnk csJ v, fil cW l = a + ^n - 1h d MF.
(ii) l = a + ^n - 1h d vgij n = ` l - a j + 1 vd vGjyh. Kj cW,
d
fil cW kW bghJ ahr Mad bfhLfglh TL
bjhltirYs cWf vifia fla Nu gagL.

(iii) xU A.P.- bjhlahd 3 cWfis m - d, m, m + d vd bfhsyh.


F bghJ ahr d MF.
(iv) xU TL bjhltir bjhlahd 4 cWfis
m - 3d, m - d, m + d, m + 3d vd bfhsyh. F bghJ ahr 2d.
(v) TL bjhltir xbthU cWlD xnu khia TodhY
fjhY mbjhltir xU TL bjhltirahfnt UF.

(vi) TL bjhltir xbthU cWig xU akw khah


bgUdhY ,tFjhY mbjhltir TL bjhltirahfnt UF.

vLJfhL 2.3

tUtdtW vit TL bjhltir (A.P.) csJ?

(i) 2 , 4 , 6 , g . (ii) 3m - 1, 3m - 3, 3m - 5, g .
3 5 7

(i) n d N , tn bfhLfgl bjhltir n MtJ cW vf.


F,

t1 = 2 , t2 = 4 , t3 = 6
3
5
7
t2 - t1 = 4 - 2 = 12 - 10 = 2
5 3
15
15
t3 - t2 = 6 - 4 = 30 - 28 = 2
7 5
35
35
t2 - t1 =
Y t3 - t2 .

Mfnt, bfhLfgl bjhltir xU TL bjhltir my. mjhtJ, A.P. my.


40

10M tF fzF

(ii)

3m - 1, 3m - 3, 3m - 5, g vgJ bfhLfgl bjhltirahF.

F,

t1 = 3m - 1, t2 = 3m - 3, t3 = 3m - 5, g .
t2 - t1 = (3m - 3) - (3m - 1) =- 2

t3 - t2 = (3m - 5) - (3m - 3) =- 2

Mfnt, bfhLfgl bjhltirahdJ 3m1 Kj cWghf kW bghJ


ahr 2 Mf bfhl xU TL bjhltir MF.

vLJfhL 2.4
tU TL bjhltirf Kj cW kW bghJ ahrij

fhf.

(i) 5, 2, - 1, - 4, g . (ii) 1 , 5 , 7 , 3 , g, 17
2 6 6 2
6

(i)

Kj cW a = 5 kW bghJ ahr d = 2 - 5 = - 3 .

(ii)

a = 1 kW bghJ ahr d = 5 - 1 = 5 - 3 = 1 .
6 2
6
3
2

vLJfhL 2.5

20,19 1 ,18 1 , g vw TL bjhltir cW tn xU Fiw vzhf
4
2
mika n- fa if KG k ahJ?
F, a = 20, d = 19 1 - 20 = - 3 .
4
4

tn 1 0 vW mikkhW n- W if KG kig fhgjhdJ,

fa n ! N -F a + (n - 1) d 1 0 -I gjF xghF.

Mfnt, fa n ! N -F 20 + ^n - 1h`- 3 j 1 0 .
4
3

^n - 1h`- j 1 - 20 ( (n - 1) # 3 2 20
4
4
(mrkghoid UwK - 1 M bgUf)

n - 1 2 20 # 4 = 80 = 26 2 .
3
3
3
2
Mfnt,
n 2 26 + 1 . mjhtJ, n 2 27 2 = 27.66
3
3
vdnt, j mrkghoid iw br fa if KG n = 28.
TL bjhltir Kj Fiw v bfhl cW, 28 MtJ cW ^t28h MF.
`

vLJfhL 2.6
xU njhl Kj tir 23 nuh#h brof, ulh tir 21

nuh#h brof _wh tir 19 nuh#h brof vw Kiw nuh#h brof
xU bjhltirmik csd. fil tir 5 nuh#h brof U,
mnjhl vjid tirf csd?
2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

41

njhl cs tirf (iuf) vif n vf.




1, 2, 3 , g , n -MtJ tirf cs nuh#h brof vif Kiwna


23, 21, 19, g , 5 MF.
F, tk - tk - 1 =- 2 (k = 2, g, n)

vdnt, 23, 21, 19, g, 5 Ma vf TL bjhltir (A.P.)mikJsd.

nkY, a = 23,

d =- 2, l = 5 vgjh,

` n = l - a + 1 = 5 - 23 + 1 = 10.
d
-2
vdnt, mnjhl 10 tirf nuh#h brof csd.

vLJfhL 2.7

2010- xUt ML Ca ` 30,000 vd g nrUwh. nkY xbthU
tUlK `600-I ML Ca cathf bgWwh. mtUila ML Ca vj
tUl `39,000-Mf UF?
n MtJ tUl mtUila ML Ca `39,000 Mf UF vd bfhf.
2010, 2011, 2012, g , [2010 +(n - 1) ] Ma tUlf mtUila ML
Ca Kiwna `30,000, `30,600, `31,200, g , `39000.

ML Caf bjhltir xU TL bjhltiria mikwJ.

xbthU cWig 100 M tFf 300, 306, 312, g , 390 vw TL


bjhltir ilwJ.
vdnt, a = 300, d = 6, l = 390.

n = l - a + 1
d
= 390 - 300 + 1 = 90 + 1 = 16
6
6
vdnt, 16 MtJ Mo Ca ` 39,000 MF.

ML Ca ` 39,000-I 2025-M ML bgWth.

vLJfhL 2.8
_W vf j 2 : 5 : 7 vf. Kjyh v, ulh vUJ

7-I fJ bgwgL v kW _wh v Mad xU TL bjhltiria
VgLdh, mbtfis fhf.

mbtfis 2x, 5x kW 7x vf. ( x ! 0 )


bfhLfgl tu go 2x, 5x - 7, 7x vgd xU TL bjhltir MF.

` ^5x - 7h - 2x = 7x - (5x - 7) ( 3x - 7 = 2x + 7 ( x = 14.

njitahd mbtf 28, 70, 98 MF.


42

10M tF fzF

g 2.2
1.

xU TL bjhltir Kj cW 6 kW bghJ ahr 5 v,


mbjhltir, mj bghJ cWig fhf.

2.

125, 120, 115, 110, g vw TL bjhltir bghJ ahrij


15 MtJ cWig fhf.

3.

24, 23 1 , 22 1 , 21 3 , g vw TL bjhltir 3 vgJ vjidahtJ


4
2
4
cW MF?

4.

2 , 3 2 , 5 2 , g vw TL bjhltir 12 MtJ cW ahJ?

5.

4, 9, 14, g vw TL bjhltir 17 MtJ cWig fhf.

6.

tU TL bjhltir cs bkhj cWfis fhf.


7.

(i) - 1, - 5 , - 2 , g, 10 . (ii) 7, 13, 19, g , 205.


6
3
3
xU TL bjhltir 9 MtJ cW a v, 19 MtJ cW
UklF 29 MtJ cW vd %.

8.

xU TL bjhltir 10 kW 18 MtJ cWf Kiwna 41 kW 73


v, 27 MtJ cWig fhf.

9.

1, 7, 13, 19,g kW 100, 95, 90, g Ma TL bjhltirf n MtJ


cW rkbk, n- kig fhf.

10.

13M tFgL <yf if KG vf vifia fhf.

11.

xU bjhiyfh bgo jahghs VHhtJ Mo 1000 bjhiyfh


bgofis, gjhtJ Mo 1450 bjhiyfh bgofis jahjh.
xbthU ML jahF bjhiyfh bgof vif uhf
xU kh v ms mfjh, Kjyh MoY, 15 MtJ MoY
jahfgl bjhiyfh bgof vifia fhf.

12.

xUt, Kj khj `640, 2M khj `720, 3M khj `800-I nrwh. mt


jDila nrig nj bjhltir bjhljh, 25MtJ khj mt
nrF bjhifia fhf.

13.

xU TL bjhltir mLjLj _W cWf TLj 6 kW


mt bgUF bjhif 120 v, m_W vfis fhf.

14.

xU TL bjhltir mLjLj _W cWf TLj 18 kW


mWf tff TLj 140 v, m_W vfis fhf.

15.

xU TL bjhltir m-MtJ cW m klF mj n-MtJ cW

n klFF rkbk, mTL bjhltir (m+n)-MtJ cW a


vdfhLf.
2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

43

16. xUt tUlF jto 14% jU Kjo `25,000-I KjL brjh. xbthU
tUl KoY ilF mr kW jto nrj bkhj bjhif xU TL
bjhltiria mikFkh? mthbw, 20 MLfSF wF Kjo cs
bjhifia fhf.
2

17.

a, b, c Mad TL bjhltir U (a - c) = 4 (b - ac) vd Wf.

18.

a, b, c Mad TL bjhltir U 1 , 1 , 1 Mad xU


bc ca ab
TL bjhltir UF vd Wf.
2 2 2
1 , 1 , 1
Mad TL bjhltir U
a ,b ,c
b+c c+a a+b
Mad TL bjhltir UF vdfhLf.
x
y
z
2
a = b = c , x ! 0, y ! 0, z ! 0 kW b = ac v, 1 , 1 , 1 Mad xU TL
x y z
bjhltir UF vd fhLf.

19.
20.

2.4 bgUF bjhltir myJ bgUF U


(Geometric Sequence or Geometric Progression, G.P.)
tiuaiw

n ! N -F an + 1 = an r (F r vgJ xU akw xU kh) vd


mikj bjhltir a1, a2, a3, g, an, g xU bgUF bjhltir (Geometric
Sequence) vdgL. xU bgUF bjhltiria bgUF U (Geometric
Progression) vd Twyh. F, a1 vgJ Kj cW kW r vgJ bghJ
j (common ratio) vdgL.

bgUF bjhltirF y vLJfhLfis F fhngh.

(i)

3, 6, 12, 24, g .
an + 1
= r ! 0 , n ! N vwthW mikj
an
bjhl tir " an ,13 xU bgUF bjhltir MF.

F, 6 = 12 = 24 = 2 ! 0 vgjh 3, 6, 12, 24, g vgJ xU bgUF


3
6
12
bjhltir MF.

(ii)

1 , - 1 , 1 , - 1 ,g .
9
27 81
243
1
1
- 1
27
81
243 = - 1 ! 0 .
F,
=
=
1
1
1
3
9
27
81
vdnt, bfhLfgl bjhltirahdJ xU bgUF bjhltir MF.

bgUF bjhltir bghJtot (General form of a G.P)


3

xU bgUF bjhltir {ak} k = 1 - Kj cW a kW bghJj r v,


a
midJ n ! N -F, a1 = a kW n + 1 = r MF.
an
44

10M tF fzF

mjhtJ, midJ n ! N -F, an + 1 = r an MF.

UJ n = 1, 2, 3 vd ul,
2-1

a2 = a1 r = ar = ar

a3 = a2 r = (ar) r = ar = ar

a4 = a3 r = (ar ) r = ar = ar

3-1
4-1


nkY, Kiwia bjhlu,
n-2
n-1

vd ilF.
an = an - 1 r = (ar ) r = ar
vdnt, xU bgUF bjhltir n-MtJ cW an = ar

n-1

, n ! N, MF.


nkY, xU bgUF bjhltirahdJ a, ar, ar , ar , g, ar
vw to UF.

n-1

, ar , g .

xU bgUF bjhltir bghJ cWid fhQ Nu

tn = ar

n-1

, n = 1, 2, 3, g MF.

xU bjhltir Kj y cWf bfhLfglh, mbjhltir xU

bgUF bjhltirah myJ iyah vd vthW khgJ?

tn + 1 r , F n ! N kW r xU akw kh, vwthW mik


=
tn
bjhltir " tn ,13 MdJ xU bgUF bjhltirahF.

F
(i) bjhltir Kj cWid jJ, vj xU cWF, mj Kija
cWF cs jkhdJ, akw xU kh v, mbjhltir,
bgUF bjhltir vdgL.

(ii) xU bgUF bjhltir xbthU cWig xU akw khah


bgUdhY myJ tFjhY ilF bjhltir, xU bgUF
bjhltirahfnt mik.

(iii) xU bgUF bjhltir mLjLj _W cWfis a , a, ar vd


r
vLJ bfhsyh. F r vgJ bghJ j.

3
(iv) xU bgUF bjhltir mLjLj ehF cWfis a3 , a , ar, ar
r
r
2
vd vLJ bfhsyh. (F bghJ j r )

vLJfhL 2.9

tUtdt vit bgUF bjhltir MF?

(i) 5, 10, 15, 20, g . (ii) 0.15, 0.015, 0.0015, g . (iii)

7,

21 , 3 7 , 3 21 , g .

2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

45


(i)

mLjLj

cWf

bghJ

jij

vLJbfhlh

vdnt, bjhltir bghJ jiy.

10 =
Y 15 .
5
10

Mfnt, bjhltir, xU bgUF bjhltir my.

(ii)

F, 0.015 = 0.0015 = g = 1 vd ilwJ.


0.15
0.015
10
Mfnt, bghJ j = 1 MF. vdnt, J xU bgUF bjhltirahF.
10


(iii)

21 = 3 7 = 3 21 = g = 3 . j bghJ j
7
21
3 7
vdnt, bjhltir xU bgUF bjhltir MF.

F,

3 MF.

vLJfhL 2.10
tU bgUF bjhltirf bghJ jij kW mj bghJ

cWig fhf.

(i) 2 , 6 , 18 , g .
(ii) 0.02, 0.006, 0.0018, g .
5 25 125

(i)


bfhLfgoUF bjhltir xU bgUF bjhltirahF.


t
t
Mfnt, bghJ j r = 2 = 3 = g .
t1
t2
6
vdnt, r = 25 = 3 . nkY, Kj cW 2 MF.
2
5
5
5
vdnt, bghJ cW,

tn = ar

n-1

, n = 1, 2, 3, g .

n-1
tn = 2 ` 3 j ,
5 5

n = 1, 2, 3, g

(ii) bfhLfgoUF bgUF bjhltir bghJj


r = 0.006 = 0.3 = 3 .
0.02
10

Kj cW = 0.02

vdnt, bjhltir bghJ cW


n-1
tn = (0.02) ` 3 j ,
10

n = 1, 2, 3, g

vLJfhL 2.11
xU bgUF bjhltir ehfhtJ cW 2 kW mj VHhtJ
3
16
v, mbgUF bjhltiria fhf.
cW
81

46

10M tF fzF

t4 = 2 ; t7 = 16 vd bfhLfgLsJ.
3
81
n-1
bgUF bjhltir bghJ cWfhd Nu, tn = ar , n = 1, 2, 3, g
vgij gagLJnth.
3
6
t4 = ar = 2 kW t7 = ar = 16 MF.
3
81

jnghJ, Kj cW a kW bghJj r Matiw fhngh.

t7 -I t4 M tFf,
16
6
t7
ar

= 3 = 81 = 8 .
t4
2
27
ar

3
(
3
3

r = 8 = ` 2 j vgUJ r = 2 .
27
3
3

r- kig t4 - ul,
3
t4 = 2 ( ar = ` 2 j .
3
3
2
8
` a = 9 .
( a ( ) = .
3
4
27

vdnt, bgUF bjhltir : a, ar, ar , ar , g, ar


mjhtJ, G.P. = 9 ,
4

9 2 ,
4`3j

n-1

, ar , g MF.

9 2 2, g MF.
4`3j

vLJfhL 2.12
xU EQ gnrhjid xbthU k neuK ghOahf vif

uoghwJ. gnrhjid bjhlf 30 ghOahf Ujd. 14 MtJ k
neu Ko cs ghOahf vifia fhf.

bjhlJ xbthU kneu KoY Uf Toa ghOahf vif


U klfhwJ.

EQ nrhjid bjhlf cs ghOahf vif = 30

Kj kneu Ko ghOahf vif = 2 (30)

2M kneu Ko ghOahf vif = 2 (2 (30)) = 30 (22)


thW bjhlU bghGJ, xbthU kneu KoY cs ghOahf
vif xU bgUF bjhltiria mikwJ. mj bghJj r = 2.
n kneu Ko ghOahf vif tn vW Flh,
n
tn = 30 (2 ) vgJ bgUF bjhltir bghJ cWghF.

Mfnt, 14 MtJ kneu Ko cs ghOahf vif t14 = 30 (2 ) .

14

vLJfhL 2.13

MLF 10% j TL to mF xU t, xUt `500-I it
bjhifahf brYJwh. 10 ML Ko mtUF ilF bkhj bjhif vts?
2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

47

mr = `500 kW TL to j 10%

xU tUlfhd to = 500` 10 j = 50 .
100

2 MtJ tUlfhd mr = Kj tUl mr + to
= 500 + 500` 10 j = 500`1 + 10 j
100
100
10
10

2 MtJ tUlfhd to = `500`1 +
.
100 jj` 100 j

3 MtJ tUlfhd mr = 500`1 + 10 j + 500`1 + 10 j 10
100
100 100
2
= 500`1 + 10 j
100

thW bjhljh,
n-1
n MtJ MoF mr = 500`1 + 10 j .
100
(n1) MtJ ML Ko ilF bkhj bjhif = n MtJ Mofhd mr.
Mfnt, n MtJ ML Ko ilF bkhj bjhif

n-1
n-1
n
= 500`1 + 10 j + 500`1 + 10 j ` 10 j = 500` 11 j
100
100
100
10
10
10 MtJ tUlKo ilF bkhj bjhif = ` 500` 11 j .
10

Fiu
nknys Kiwia gagL TLto fzFf bkhj bjhif

fhQ tU Nuij mikf Ko.

A = P (1 + i) ,

F A vgJ n MtJ ML Ko ilF bkhj bjhif, P vgJ mr,


i = r , r vgJ ML to j kW n vgJ MLf vif.
100

vLJfhL 2.14
xU bgUF bjhltir Kj _W cWf TLj 13 kW

12
mt bgUfgy - 1 v, bghJ jij nkY mWfis fhf.
bgUF bjhl Kj _W cwf a , a, ar vf.
r
a + a + ar = 13
nghJ,


r
12
2

(1)
(
a` 1 + 1 + r j = 13 ( a c r + r + 1 m = 13
12
12
r
r
a

nkY,
` r j^ah^ar h = - 1
3

(
a = - 1
` a =- 1

a =- 1 I rkghL (1)- ul, ekF ilgJ


2

^- 1hc r + r + 1 m = 13
r
12
48

10M tF fzF

12r + 12r + 12 = - 13r


2

12r + 25r + 12 = 0

^3r + 4h^4r + 3h = 0

r = - 4 myJ - 3
3
4

r = - 4 , a = 1 vD nghJ, bjhltir Kj _W cWf 3 , 1, 4 .


3
4
3
r = - 3 , a = 1 vDnghJ, bjhltir Kj _W cWf 4 , 1, 3 vd
4
3
4
nehF tir UF.

vLJfhL 2.15

a, b, c, d vgd xU bgUF bjhltir csd v


^b - ch2 + ^c - ah2 + ^d - bh2 = ^a - d h2 vd Wf.

a, b, c, d vgd bgUF bjhltir csd.


Kj cW a kW bghJ j r vd bfhf.

vdnt, b = ar, c = ar , d = ar

2
2
3
^b - ch2 + ^c - ah2 + ^d - bh2 = ^ar - ar h + ^ar - ah + ^ar - ar h

3
2

2
2
2
2 2
2
3
= a 6^r - r h + ^r - 1h + ^r - r h @

2 2
3
4
4
2
6
4
2
= a 6 r - 2r + r + r - 2r + 1 + r - 2r + r @

2 6
3
2 3
= a 6 r - 2r + 1 @ = a 6 r - 1 @

3
3
2
= ^ar - ah = ^a - ar h = (a - d)

g 2.3
1.

tU bjhltirf vJ bgUF bjhltir vd fhf. bgUF


bjhltirfshf csdt bghJ j fhf.

(i) 0.12, 0.24, 0.48, g .

(iv) 12, 1, 1 , g .
12
1 , - 1 , 1, - 2, g vw bgUF bjhltir 10 MtJ cWig, bghJ
4
2
jij fhf.

2.
3.

(ii) 0.004, 0.02, 0.1, g . (iii) 1 , 1 , 2 , 4 , g.


2 3 9 27
1
1
(v) 2 ,
,
, g . (vi) 4, - 2, - 1, - 1 , g .
2
2 2 2

xU bgUF bjhltir 4MtJ kW 7 MtJ cWf Kiwna 54 kW


1458 v, mbjhltiria fhf.

4.

xU bgUF bjhltir Kj kW MwhtJ cWf Kiwna 1 , 1


3 729
v, mbgUF bjhltiria fhf.
2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

49

5.

6.
7.
8.

tU bgUF bjhltir bfhLfgl cW vjidahtJ cW


vd fhf.
(i) 5, 2, 4 , 8 , g - 128 vw cW (ii) 1, 2, 4, 8, g - 1024 vw cW
15625
5 25
162, 54, 18,g kW 2 , 2 , 2 , g Ma bgUF bjhltirf n MtJ
81 27 9
cW rkbk, n- k fhf.
xU bgUF bjhltir Kj cW 3 kW IjhtJ cW 1875 v,
mj bghJ j fhf.
xU bgUF bjhltir mLjLj _W cWf TLj 39
10
kW mt bgUfgy 1 v, mbjhltir bghJ jij,
m_W cWfis fhf.

9.

xU bgUF bjhltir mLjLj 3 cWf bgUF bjhif 216


kW mitf uouL cWf bgUfgyf TLj 156
v, mj cWfis fhf.

10.

xU bgUF bjhltir mLjLj _W cWf TLj 7 kW


mt jiyf TLj 7 v, mWfis fhf.
4
xU bgUF bjhltir Kj _W cWf TLj 13 kW mt
tff TLj 91 v, mbjhltiria fhf.

11.
12.

xUt MoF 5% TL to jU xU t `1000-I it ahf


itjh, 12 M tUlKo ilF bkhj bjhifia fhf.

13.

xU Wtd ` 50,000- F xU mRu auij thFwJ. mau


xbthU ML j k 15% HwJ vd klgLwJ. 15
MLfSF wF mj mRu au k vd?

14.

a, b, c, d Mad xU bgUF bjhltir mikjh,


^a - b + ch^b + c + d h = ab + bc + cd vdfhLf.


15.

a, b, c, d Mad xU bgUF bjhltir mikjh a + b, b + c, c + d


vgit bgUF bjhltir mik vd Wf.

2.5 bjhlf (Series)


tU fzif vLJ bfhnth.

xUt ML Ca `25,000 bgW g 1990 M ML rdt Kj
njaW nrjh. xbthU ML Mofhd Ca ca `500 bgwh. 2010 M
ML rdt Kj nj tiu mt bgw bkhj Ca vts?
Kj mtUila ML Ca tU xU TL bjhltiria
mikwJ vd mayh.

25000, 25500, 26000, 26500, g, (25000 + 19 (500)) .


20 tUlf mt bgw Caij Todh fzfhd il ilF.
bkhj Ca = 25000 + 25500 + 26000 + 26500 + g + (25000 + 19 (500)) .
Mjyh, bjhltir cWf TLj fhz xU ttif fhz ntL.

50

10M tF fzF

tiuaiw

bjhltir cs cWfis Tl F + M izJ
mitf TLjfshf vGJtnj bjhl vdgL. xU bjhl KoW
vif cWf U, mJ KoW bjhl (Finite Series) vdgL.
xU bjhl Ko vif cWf U, mJ Kowh bjhl
(Infinite Series) vdgL.


vw bkbaf bjhltiria vLJbfhnth. xbthU
S = " an ,3
n=1
n ! N -F Sn = a1 + a2 + , g + an , n = 1, 2, 3, g, vd gF TLjiy tiuaWnwh.
3
3
{Sn} n = 1 vgJ bjhltir {an} n = 1 - gF TLjf bjhltir MF.

tirgLjgl

, S 3
^" an ,3
n = 1 " n ,n = 1h

vgJ

bjhltir

" an ,13 -

cs

cWf Kowh bjhl vdgL. j Kowh bjhlid a1 + a2 + a3 + g


3

myJ RUfkhf

/ an

vd Fngh. F Sigma vwiHfgL Fahd

n=1

vgJ TLjiy FF.


KoW bjhl vgJ KoW cWf TLj vgij v mayh.
Kowh vif cWfsla bjhl tir TLjiy eh vthW ma
Ko? ca tFf fj ijg ff Unwh. jnghJ, Fghf
KoW bjhlf TLj fhQjiy g fngh.

gF TL bjhl kW bgUF bjhl Matiw ff cnsh.

2.5.1 TL bjhl (Arithmetic Series)


xU bjhlYs cWf TL bjhltirU, mbjhl xU TL
bjhl vdgL.
xU TL bjhltirYs Kj n cWf TLj
(Sum of first n terms of the Arithmetic sequence)

xU TL bjhltir Kj cW a kW bghJ ahr d vf.

mTL bjhltir a, a + d, a + 2d, ..., a + ^n - 1h d, g MF.

Sn vgJ TL bjhltir Kj n cWf TLj vf.

Mfnt, Sn = a + (a + d) + (a + 2d) + g (a + (n - 1) d)
( Sn = na + ( d + 2d + 3d + g + (n - 1) d )

= na + d (1 + 2 + 3 + g + (n - 1) )
jnghJ, 1 + 2 + g + (n - 1) vw TLj fLofglh, j Nuij
RUf aY.
TLj 1 + 2 + g + (n - 1) MdJ 1, 2, g, (n - 1) vD TL bjhltir
TLjyhF.

jnghJ, Kj n if KGf Tlgyid fhngh.

Sn = 1 + 2 + 3 + g + (n - 2) + (n - 1) + n vf.

(1)

2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

51

nknys Tliy fhz tU xU va braiy brnth.


(1) I tUkhW vGjyh

Sn = n + (n - 1) + (n - 2) + g + 3 + 2 + 1
(1) kW (2) Madtiw Tl,
2Sn = (n + 1) + (n + 1) + g + (n + 1) + (n + 1) .
rkghL (3)- tyJw (n + 1) cWf csd.
(1) kW (2) Ma xbthY n cWf csd
(1)-I (2)-I Tl n vifs (n + 1) kLnk csd.

(2)
(3)

(3)-I RUf 2Sn = n (n + 1) .


n (n + 1)
.
vdnt, Kj n if KGf TLj Sn =
2
n (n + 1)
Mfnt, 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n =
.

(4)
2
Nu if KGf TLj fhz xU gaDs Nu MF.

Fiu

nkny FLs TLj fhQ KiwahdJ, b#k ehil
rhjtU, fj stur vd fHgltUkhd
fjayP fh bul fh (Carl Fredrick Gauss) vgh
100 tiuYs if KG vf TLjiy fhQnghJ
gagLajhF. mtUF IJ taJ UF nghJ mtUila
g Ma bfhLj fzF JthF. ca tF
fjij fF nghJ nknys Nuij jUf ntWy
Carl Fredrick Gauss
Kiwfis ff cnsh.
(1777 1855)


xU bghJthd TL bjhltir Kj n cWf TLjiy jnghJ
fhngh. a, a + d, a + 2d, g, - Kj n cWf TLj,
Sn = na + [d + 2d + 3d + g + (n - 1) d]
= na + d [1 + 2 + 3 + g + (n - 1)]
n (n - 1)
(Nu (4) I gagLj)
m
= na + d c
2


= n [2a + (n - 1) d]
(5)
2

Mfnt, Sn = n [a + (a + (n - 1) d)] = n (Kj cW + fil cW)
2
2

= n (a + l) .
2
Kj cW a kW bghJ ahr d vdbfhl xU TL
bjhltir Kj n cWf TLj
(i) Sn = n [2a + (n - 1) d] (bghJ ahr d bfhLfglh)
2
(fil cW l bfhLfglh)
(ii) Sn = n (a + l)
2
52

10M tF fzF

vLJfhL 2.16

5 + 11 + 17 + g + 95 vw TL bjhl TLj fhf.

5 + 11 + 17 + g + 95 vw TLbjhl
d = 11 - 5 = 6 ,

a = 5,

jnghJ, n = l - a + 1
d

Mfnt, bfhLfgl bjhl 16 cWf csd.

l = 95.

n = 95 - 5 + 1 = 90 + 1 = 16.
6
6

vdnt, Sn = n 6l + a @
2
Mfnt, S16 = 16 695 + 5 @ = 8 (100) = 800.
2

vLJfhL 2.17

1 - 2 + 3 - 4 + ... vw bjhl Kj 2n cWf TLj fhf.

1 - 2 + 3 - 4 + g 2n cWf tiu TLj S vf.


Mfnt, TLj S = 1 - 4 + 9 - 16 + 25 - g 2n cWf tiu

= ^1 - 4h + ^9 - 16h + ^25 - 36h + g n milFf tiu.

= - 3 + ^- 7h + ^- 11h + g n cWf tiu.

bjhl, xU TLbjhluhF. nkY a =- 3 , d =- 7 - (- 3) =- 4 MF.

TLj = n 62a + ^n - 1h d @
2

= n 62^- 3h + ^n - 1h^- 4h@
2

= n 6- 6 - 4n + 4 @ = n 6- 4n - 2 @
2
2

TLj S = - 2n ^2n + 1h = - n^2n + 1h .
`
2

vdnt,

vLJfhL 2.18

xU TL bjhl Kj 14 cWf TLj - 203 kW mLj 11

cWf TLj 572 v, mbjhliu fhf.

S14 = - 203

14 62a + 13d @ = - 203


2
7 62a + 13d @ = - 203

(bfhLfgLsJ)

2a + 13d = - 29 .

(1)

2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

53

nkY, mLj 11 cWf TLj = - 572 .

jnghJ,

S25 = S14 + (- 572)

S25 = - 203 - 572

( 25 62a + 24d @ = - 775


2
2a + 24d = - 31 # 2
(

a + 12d = - 31
(
(1) kW (2) Matiw f, a = 5 , d =- 3 .

vdnt, njitahd TLbjhl 5 + ^5 - 3h + ^5 + 2^- 3hh + g MF.

mjhtJ,

(2)

5 + 2 - 1 - 4 - 7 - g vgJ njitahd TL bjhl MF.

vLJfhL 2.19

24 + 21 + 18 + 15 + g vw TL bjhl bjhlahf vjid
cWfis Todh TLj 351 ilF?
bfhLfgLs TLbjhl, a = 24, d =- 3 kW Sn = 351.

jbghGJ,
Sn = n 62a + ^n - 1h d @ = - 351
2
n
(


62^24h + ^n - 1h^- 3h@ = - 351
2
n 648 - 3n + 3 @ = - 351

(
2

n^51 - 3nh = - 702
(
2

n - 17n - 234 = 0

vdnt,

^n - 26h^n + 9h = 0

n = 26 myJ n =- 9


F n vgJ njitahd cWf vif vgjh n- k Fiw
vzhf UfTlhJ. vdnt TLj - 351 vd ilf 26 cWfis Tl ntL.
vLJfhL 2.20

8 M tFgL midJ _yf a vf TLj fhf.


8 M tFgL _yf a vf 104, 112, 120, g , 992 MF.

mt TLj, Sn = 104 + 112 + 120 + 128 + , g + 992 .

F,

a = 104, d = 8 , l = 992.

n = l - a + 1 = 992 - 104 + 1
d
8

= 888 + 1 = 112.
8
n

Mfnt,
S112 = 6 a + l @ = 112 6104 + 992 @ = 56 (1096) = 61376 .
2
2

vdnt, 8 M tFgL midJ _yf a vf TLj = 61376.
`

54

10M tF fzF

vLJfhL 2.21
xU gynfhz cnfhzf msfis tirgo vLJ bfhlh,

mit xU TL bjhltiria mikwd. mTL bjhltir f
Fiwj nfhzms 85c kW f caj nfhz ms 215c v, mj gynfhz
gff vifia fhf.

gynfhz gff vifia n vf.


nfhzf msf xU TLbjhltiria mikgjh gynfhz
nfhzf msf TLj

Sn = a + ^a + d h + ^a + 2d h + g + l F, a = 85 , l = 215.

(1)
Sn = n 6 a + l @
2
0
xU gynfhz cnfhzf TLj = ( n - 2 ) # 180 vdmnth.

Mfnt,

Sn = ^n - 2h # 180

rkghL (1)-UJ, n 6 a + l @ = ^n - 2h # 180


2
n
(
685 + 215 @ = ^n - 2h # 180
2
150n = 180^n - 2h (
(

n = 12.
Mfnt, gynfhz gff vif 12 MF.

g 2.4
1.

tUtdt TLj fhf.

2.

n MtJ cW 3 + 2n vwthW mikj xU TL bjhltir

(i) Kj 75 if KGf (ii) Kj 125 a vf


Kj 30 cWf Tlgyid fhf.

3.

tU TLbjhlf Tlgyid fhf.

(i) 38 + 35 + 32 + g + 2 .

(ii) 6 + 5 1 + 4 1 + g 25 cWf tiu.


4
2

4.

tU tufis bfhl TL bjhlf TLj Sn fhf.

5.

1 - 2 + 3 - 4 + g vw bjhl Kj 40 cWf Tlgyid fhf.

6.

xU TL bjhl Kj 11 cWf TLj 44 kW mj mLj

(i) a = 5,
2

n = 30,

l = 121

(ii) a = 50, n = 25,

d =- 4

11 cWf TLj 55 v, mbjhliu fhf.

7.

60, 56, 52, 48,g vw TL bjhltir Kj cWUJ bjhlahf


vjid cWfis Todh TLj 368 ilF?

8.

9 M tFgL midJ _yf a vf TLj fhf.


2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

55

9.

xU TL bjhl 3 MtJ cW 7 kW mj 7 MtJ cWghdJ 3 MtJ


cW _W klif l 2 mf. mbjhl Kj 20 cWf
Tlgyid fhf.

10.

300-F 500-F ilnas 11 M tFgL midJ a vf


Tlgy fhf.

11.

1 + 6 + 11 + 16 + g + x = 148 v, x- kid fhf.

12.

100-F 200-F ilnas 5 M tFglhj midJ a vf


Tlgyid fhf.

13.

xU fLkhd FGk, xU ghyij fo Kof jhkjkhF nghJ, jhkjkhF


xbthU ehSF mguhjbjhif flntL. Kj eh jhkjF
mguhj `4000 nkY mLJtU xbthU ehSF Kija ehis l `1000
mf brYj ntoUF. tu brylgo mFGk bkhj
mguhjbjhifahf `1,65,000 brYj aY v, vjid ehfSF ghy
KoF gia jhkjgLjyh?

14.

8% j jto jU Wtd xbthU ML `1000 it bjhifahf


brYjgLwJ. xbthU Mo W bgW toia fzLf. bgW
tobjhiff xU TL bjhltiria mikFkh? mthW mikf
Kokhdh, 30 MLf Ko ilF bkhj toia fhf.

15.

xU bjhl Kj n cWf TLj 3n - 2n v, mbjhluhdJ xU

TL bjhl vd Wf.

16.

xU fofhu xU kF xU Kiw, 2 kF U Kiw, 3 kF _W Kiw


vwthW, bjhlJ rahf xbthU kF x vG v, xU eh
mfofhu vjid Kiw x vG?

17.

Kj cW a, ulh cW b kW fil cW c vd bfhl xU TL


^a + ch^b + c - 2ah
bjhl Tlgy
vdfhLf.
2^ b - ah
xU TL bjhl ^2n + 1h cWf U xiwgil cWf

18.

TlgyDF, uilgil cWf TlgyDF ilnas j


^n + 1h : n vd Wf.

19.

xU TL bjhl Kj m cWf TlgyDF, Kj n cWf


2

TlgyDF ilnas j m : n v, m MtJ cW kW n MtJ


cW Maitf ^2m - 1h : ^2n - 1h vw j mik vd fhLf.

20.

56

xU njhlfhu rtf to Rt xid mikf lLwh. rtf


l Kj tirF 97 brff njitgLwJ. xbthU tir
UwK uouL brff Fiwthf itf ntL. mtotik 25
tirfU, mt thf ntoa brff vif vjid?
10M tF fzF

2.5.2 bgUF bjhl (Geometric series)


xU bjhl cWf, bgUF bjhl tir xiw mikFkhdh, mbjhl

bgUF bjhl vdgL. r =
Y 0 vw bghJ jij bfhl xU bgUF bjhl
2
n-1
n
tir a, ar, ar , g, ar , ar , g vd bfhf. bjhl tir Kj n cWf
TLjiy fhngh.
2

n-1

jnghJ, Sn = a + ar + ar + g + ar

r = 1 v, (1)-UJ Sn = na MF.

r ! 1 v, (1) -UJ,
2

rSn = r (a + ar + ar + g + ar

n-1

(1)

(2)

) = ar + ar + ar + g + ar

(1)- UJ (2)-I ff,


Sn - rSn = (a + ar + ar + g + ar

vdnt,

n-1

) - (ar + ar + g + ar )

n
Sn ^1 - r h = a^1 - r h
n
^
h
Sn = a 1 - r ; r ! 1 .
1-r

xU bgUF bjhl Kj n cWf TLj


n

a (r - 1)
a (1 - r )
Sn = * r - 1 = 1 - r , (r ! 1 v)
(r = 1 v)
na
F a vgJ Kj cW, r vgJ bghJ j.
Fiu

- 1 1 r 1 1 v,
a .
1-r
Ko vif if vf TLj xU KoW kig bfhLfyh
vgij mf.
2

a + ar + ar + g + ar + g =

vLJfhL 2.22

16 - 48 + 144 - 432 + g vw bgUF bjhl cs Kj 25 cWf
TLjiy fhf.
F a = 16, r = - 48 = - 3 ! 1.
16

n
^
h
vdnt, Sn = a 1 - r , r ! 1 vw Nuij gagLj,
1-r

S25 =

16^1 - ^- 3h25h 16^1 + 325h


25
=
= 4^1 + 3 h .
4
1 - ^- 3h
2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

57

vLJfhL 2.23
tU tufis bfhl xbthU bgUF bjhlUF Sn I fhf.


(i) a = 2, t6 = 486, n = 6
(ii) a = 2400, r = 3, n = 5

(i)

F, a = 2, t6 = 486,

jnghJ, t6 = 2 (r) = 486

nkY,

Mfnt,

(ii)

F , a = 2400, r =- 3, n = 5

n=6

243
` r = 3.
n
^
h
Sn = a r - 1 ; F r ! 1
r-1
^ 6
h
6
S6 = 2 3 - 1 = 3 - 1 = 728 .
3-1
r =

S5 =

a^r - 1h ;
r-1

F r =
Y 1.

24006^- 3h5 - 1 @
^- 3h - 1
5

vdnt,
S5 = 2400 ^1 + 3 h = 600^1 + 243h = 146400.
4
vLJfhL 2.24
=


2 + 4 + 8 + g vw bgUF bjhl, Kj cWUJ bjhlahf vjid
cWfis Todh, TLj 1022 ilF?
bfhLfgLs bgUF bjhl 2 + 4 + 8 + g .

TLj 1022 bgwnjitahd cWf vif n vf.

F a = 2, r = 2, Sn = 1022 .

n I fhz,

@
6
Sn = a r - 1 ; F r =
Y 1.
r-1
n
n
= ^2h; 2 - 1 E = 2^2 - 1h .
2-1
n
Mdh, S = 1022.
Mfnt, 2^2 - 1h = 1022

n

(
(

vdnt, TLj 1022-I bgw Kj 9 cWfis Tl ntL.

2 - 1 = 511
n
9
2 = 512 = 2 .

` n = 9.

vLJfhL 2.25

xU bgUF bjhl Kj cW 375 kW mj 4 MtJ cW 192 v,
mj bghJ jij, Kj 14 cWf TLjiy fhf.
58

10M tF fzF

bgUF bjhl Kj cW a kW mj bghJ j r vf.



a = 375, t4 = 192 .
n-1
jnghJ,
tn = ar

( t4 = 375 r

( 375 r = 192

3
3
r = 192 ( r = 64
375
125
3
3

r = ` 4 j
( r = 4 Jnt njitahd bghJ jkhF.
5
5
n

nkY,
Sn = a ; r - 1 E ; F r =
Y 1.
r-1
14
375 8` 4 j - 1 B
14
5

S14 =
= (- 1) # 5 # 375 # 8` 4 j - 1 B
4 -1
5
5
14
14
= ^375h^5h81 - ` 4 j B = 1875 81 - ` 4 j B .
5
5
F

nknys vLJfho,

r ! 1 vgjh, Sn =a ; 1 - r E-I Sn = a ; r - 1 E-F gyhf gagLjyh.


1-r
r-1
n

vLJfhL 2.26

bghJ j if vzhf UF xU bgUF bjhl 4 cWf
csd. Kj uL cWf TLj 8 kW mj fil uL cWf
TLj 72 v, mbjhliu fhf.
2
3
4 cWf TLj a + ar + ar + ar vf. r 2 0 vd bfhLfgLsJ.

nkY, a + ar = 8 kW ar + ar = 72
2

jnghJ, ar + ar = r (a + ar) = 72

2

( r (8) = 72 ` r = ! 3

r > 0 vgjh, r = 3 MF.

vdnt,
a + ar = 8 ( a = 2

Mfnt, mbgUF bjhl 2 + 6 + 18 + 54 MF.

vLJfhL 2.27

6 + 66 + 666 +g vD bjhl Kj n cWf TLj fhf.

Sn = 6 + 66 + 666 + g n cWf tiu vf.
Sn = 6 (1 + 11 + 111 + g n cWf tiu)
= 6 ^9 + 99 + 999 + g n cWf tiuh (9 M bgU, 9M tFf)
9
= 2 6^10 - 1h + ^100 - 1h + ^1000 - 1h + g n milFftiu @
3
2
3
2
= [(10 + 10 + 10 + g n cWf tiu) - n]
3
n
10 (10 - 1)
2
Mfnt, Sn = ;
- n E.
3
9

2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

59

vLJfhL 2.28

xU bjhL Wtd xU efuYs 25 f kufWfis eLbghUL,
Kj xU kufW, ulh U kufWf, _wh 4
kufWf, ehfhtJ 8 kufWf vw Kiw eLtjF lLwJ.
mntiyia Kof njitahd kufWf vifia fhf.
25 f xbthY eLtjF njitahd kuf vif xU
bgUF bjhliu mikwJ. Sn vgJ njitahd kufWf vif vf.

Mfnt, Sn = 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + g 25 cWf tiu

F, a = 1, r = 2, n = 25

Sn = a ; r - 1 E
r-1
@
6 25

S25 = (1) 2 - 1
2-1
25
= 2 - 1
25

vdnt, njitahd kufWf vif 2 - 1 MF.

vdnt,

g 2.5
1.
2.
3.

5 + 5 + 5 + g vw bgUF bjhl Kj 20 cWf TLjiy fhf.


2 6 18
1 + 1 + 1 + g vw bgUF bjhl Kj 27 cWf TLjiy
9 27 81
fhf.
tU tufis bfhl bgUF bjhl TLj Sn fhf.
(ii) a = 5, r = 3 , n = 12 .
(i) a = 3, t8 = 384, n = 8 .

4.

tU KoW bjhlf TLj fhf.

5.

tU bjhlf, vjid cWfis Todh

6.

xU bgUF bjhl ulhtJ cW 3 kW mj bghJ j 4 v, TL


5
bjhlYs Kj cWUJ bjhlahf 23 cWf TLj fhf.

7.

bghJ j if vzhf cs xU bgUF bjhl 4 cWf csd.


mj Kj uL cWf TLj 9 kW fil uL cWf TLj
36 v, mbjhliu fhf.
tU bjhlf Kj n cWf TLj fhf.

8.

9.

60

(i) 1 + 0.1 + 0.01 + 0.001 + g + ^0.1h9

(ii) 1 + 11 + 111 + g 20 cWf tiu.

(i) 3 + 9 + 27 + g TLj 1092 ilF?


(ii) 2 + 6 + 18 + g TLj 728 ilF ?

(ii) 0.4 + 0.94 + 0.994 + g .


(i) 7 + 77 + 777 + g .
bjhWneh gu fhy, Kj thu 5 ngUF cley Fiw VglJ.
cleyFiww xbthUtU ulhtJ thu W 4 ngUF mbjhW
nehia gut. tif bjhWneh gudh 15 MtJ thu W
vjid ng, mbjhWnehdh ghfggLt?
10M tF fzF

10.

eg brj xU WtDF grf Ua njhlfhu y khgHfis


grhf mf Ktjh. mWt cldoahf 1000 khgHfis bgW
bfhsyh myJ Kj eh 1 khgH, ulh eh 2 khgHf, _wh
eh 4 khgHf, ehfh eh 8 khgHf g vDkhW 10 ehfSF bgW
bfhsyh vd U thf mjh. mWt mf vifs
khgHfis bgw vj thid njbjLf ntL?

11.

uilgil vif cWfis bfhl xU bgUF bjhl


xiw gil vfsh FfgL cWf TLj _W klF,
mbgUF bjhlYs midJ cWf TLjYF rkbk, mj
bghJ jij fhf.

12.

xU bgUF bjhl Kj n, 2n kW 3n Ma cWf TLjf Kiwna


S1, S2 kW S3 v, S1 ^ S3 - S2h = ^ S2 - S1h2 vd Wf.

Fiu

a = 1 kW bghJj x ! 1 vdbfhl xU bgUF bjhl


n
2
n-1
= x - 1, x =
Kj n cWf TLj 1 + x + x + g + x
Y 1 MF.
x-1

nknys rkgho lw cs nfhitahdJ go ( n - 1 )-I bfhl
x- J mikj xU w gYW nfhit vgij mf. y KoW
bjhlf TLjiy fhz j Nu cj.

2.5.3 w bjhlf (Special Series)

k=1

k,

k kW

k=1

/ k3

k=1


R vw Fpil TLjYfhf eh Kng gagLnsh. Fpil
gagL y KoW bjhlf vLJfhLf goalgLsd.
tir
v

1.
2.
3.

FpL
n

thf
n

/k

myJ

k=1

/j
j=1

1+2+3+g+n

/ (n - 1)

1+2+3+4+5

n=2
5

/ (d + 5)

5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10

d=0

/ k2

4.

k=1

5.

1 +2 +3 +g+n

10

10

k=1

k=1

/3 = 3 /1

eh Kng, 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n =

3 61 + 1 + g 10 cWf @ = 30
n^ n + 1h
vD Nuij tUnjh.
2

2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

61

jidna a =1 , d = 1,

l = n vd vLJ bfhL TL bjhltir

TLjiy gagL, Sn = n (a + l) = n (1 + n) vd fhzyh.


2
2
n

/ k = n (n2+ 1)

jid, kh Fpil gagL

vd vGjyh.

k=1

tUtdtF Nufis jUngh.

(i)

/^2k - 1h,

(ii)

k=1

/ k2

k=1

(iii)

/ k3

k=1

%gz:

(i)

/^2k - 1h = 1 + 3 + 5 + g + ^2n - 1h vg kid fhngh.

k=1

J a = 1, d = 2, l = ^2n - 1h vwthW mikj n cWfSs xU TL


bjhluhF.

2
` Sn = n (1 + 2n - 1) = n
2

mjhtJ,

(Sn = n (a + l) )
2

/^2k - 1h = n2

(1)

k=1

Fiu

1. Nu (1)-I tU kbwhU KiwY fhzyh.


n
n
n
n
2
2 (n) (n + 1)

(2k - 1) =
2k - 1 = 2 c k m - n =
-n = n .
2
k=1
k=1
k=1
k=1

2
2. (1)-UJ 1 + 3 + 5 + g + l = ` l + 1 j . Vbd, l = 2n 1 ( n = l + 1 .
2
2

(ii)

3
3
2
2
a - b = ^a - bh^a + ab + b h vW eh mnth.
3

` k - ^k - 1h3 = k + k^k - 1h + ^k - 1h2

(F a = k , b = k 1 vd bfhf)

( k - ^k - 1h3 = 3k - 3k + 1

k = 1 v,

1 - 0 = 3^1 h2 - 3^1 h + 1

k = 2 v,

2 - 1 = 3^2h2 - 3^2h + 1

k = 3 v,

3 - 2 = 3^3 h2 - 3^3 h + 1

k = n v ,

k = 1, 2, g, n -fSFa rkghLfis UwK uft Tl

n - ^n - 1h3 = 3^nh2 - 3^nh + 1 . Kiw bjhlu,


3
2
2
2
n = 3 61 + 2 + g + n @ - 361 + 2 + g + n @ + n

2
2
2
3
( 3 61 + 2 + g + n @ = n + 3 61 + 2 + g + n @ - n


62

(2)

3 ;

10M tF fzF

/ k2 E = n3 + 3n^n2+ 1h - n
n

k=1

/ k2 =

Mfnt,

(iii)

/ k3 = 13 + 23 + gn3

k=1

n^n + 1h^2n + 1h
.
6

(3)

k=1

tU mikig TJ nehFnth.
3

1 = 1 = ^1 h2

1 + 2 = 9 = ^1 + 2h2

1 + 2 + 3 = 36 = ^1 + 2 + 3h2
3

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 100 = ^1 + 2 + 3 + 4h2 .

tikig n cWf tiu bjhljh,

1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 61 + 2 + 3 + g + n @2
3

= ;

(i)

vdnt,

n^ n + 1h 2
E
2
n
n
2
n^ n + 1h 2
3
k = c km = ;
E .
2
k=1
k=1

Kj n a vf TLj

(4)

/ k = n (n2+ 1) .

k=1

(ii)

Kj n xiwgil a vf TLj,

/^2k - 1h = n2 .

k=1

(iii)

filcW l juglh, Kj n xiwgil a vf TLj


2

1 + 3 + 5 + g + l = `l + 1j .
2
(iv) Kj n a vf tff TLj
n
n^n + 1h^2n + 1h
2
.
k =
6
k=1

(v) Kj n a vf fdf TLj


n
n^ n + 1h 2
3
k =;
E .
2
k=1

vLJfhL 2.29

tU bjhlf TLj fhf.
(i) 26 + 27 + 28 + g + 60

(ii) 1 + 3 + 5 + g 25 cWf tiu


(iii) 31 + 33 + g + 53.

(i)

26 + 27 + 28 + g + 60 = ^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 60h - ^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 25h
2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

63

60

25

/n - /n

60^60 + 1h 25^25 + 1h
=
2
2
= (30 # 61) - (25 # 13) = 1830 - 325 = 1505.
(ii)

F n = 25

` 1 + 3 + 5 + g (25 cWf tiu) = 25 = 625.

/ (2k - 1) = n2 )

k=1

(iii)

31 + 33 + g + 53

= ^1 + 3 + 5 + g + 53h -^1 + 3 + 5 + g + 29h

= ` 53 + 1 j - ` 29 + 1 j
2
2

= 27 - 15 = 504.

( 1 + 3 + 5 + g + l = `l + 1j )
2

vLJfhL 2.30

tU bjhlf TLjiy fhf.

(i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 25

(iii) 1 + 3 + 5 + g + 51 .

(ii) 12 + 13 + 14 + g + 35

(i)

1 + 2 + 3 + g + 25 =

25

/ n2
1

25^25 + 1h^50 + 1h
6

^25h^26h^51h

` 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 25 = 5525.

(ii)

12 + 13 + 14 + g + 35

/ k2 = n^n + 1h6^2n + 1h )

k=1

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
= ^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 35 h -^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 11 h

35

11

/ n2 - / n2

35^35 + 1h^70 + 1h 11^12h^23h


6
6

^35h^36h^71h

^11h^12h^23h

6
= 14910 - 506 = 14404 .
64

10M tF fzF

(iii)

1 + 3 + 5 + g + 51

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
= ^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 51 h - ^2 + 4 + 6 + g + 50 h

=
=

/ n2 - 22 612 + 22 + 32 + g + 252 @
51
1
51

25

n -4

/ n2
1

51^51 + 1h^102 + 1h
25^25 + 1h^50 + 1h
- 4 #
6
6
^51h^52h^103h
25^26h^51h
=
-4 #
6
6
= 45526 - 22100 = 23426.
=

vLJfhL 2.31

tU bjhlf TLjiy fhf.

(i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 20

(i)

(ii) 11 + 12 + 13 + g + 28

20

1 + 2 + 3 + g20 =

/ n3
1

/ k3 = ; n^n2+ 1h E .

20^20 + 1h 2
m
2

=c

2
= ` 20 # 21 j = ^210h2 = 44100.
2

(ii)

k=1

11 + 12 + g + 28 vgij tUkhW vGjyh


3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
11 + 12 + g + 28 = ^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 28 h - ^1 + 2 + g + 10 h

Mfnt, 11 + 12 + g + 28 =

28

10

/ n3 - / n3

28^28 + 1h 2
10^10 + 1h 2
=;
E -;
E
2
2

= 406 - 55 = (406 + 55) (406 - 55)

= (461)(351) = 161811.

vLJfhL 2.32

1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 4356 v, k- kig fhf.

k vgJ xU if KG v. nkY,

1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 4356 vd bfhLfgLsJ.
2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

65

k ^ k + 1h 2
m = 4356 =6 # 6 # 11 # 11
2
k ^ k + 1h
tf_y vLf,
= 66
2
2
( k + k - 132 = 0
( ^k + 12h^k - 11h = 0 ( k = 11 myJ k = 12

k vgJ xU if v vgjh, k = 11 MF.

vdnt,

vLJfhL 2.33
3

(i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 120 v, 1 + 2 + 3 + g n - kig fhf.


3

(ii) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 36100 v, 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n - kig fhf

(i)

1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 120 vdnt,

(ii)

1 + 2 + g + n = c
3

n^ n + 1h
= 120
2

n^ n + 1h 2
2
m = 120 = 14400
2

1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 36100

n^ n + 1h 2
m = 36100 = 19 # 19 # 10 # 10
2
n^ n + 1h
= 190
(
2
Mfnt, 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 190.
(

vLJfhL 2.34

11 br., 12 br., 13 br., g , 24 br. Madtiw Kiwna gf msfshf
bfhl 14 rJuf bkhj gu fhf.
2

14 rJuf guf TLj 11 + 12 + g + 24 vw bjhliu mikwJ.


rJuf bkhj gu = 11 + 12 + 13 + g + 24

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
= ^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 24 h -^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 10 h

24

10

/ n2 - / n2

24^24 + 1h^48 + 1h
10^10 + 1h^20 + 1h
6
6

^24h^25h^49h

= 4900 - 385

= 4515 r.br..

66

10M tF fzF

^10h^11h^21h

g 2.6
1.

tU bjhlf TLjiy fhf.

(i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 45

(iii) 2 + 4 + 6 + g + 100
2

(v) 5 + 7 + 9 + g + 39

(ii)

16 + 17 + 18 + g + 25

(iv) 7 + 14 +21 g + 490


3

(vi)

16 + 17 + g + 35

2.

tUtdtF k- k fhf.

(i)

3.

1 + 2 + 3 + g + p = 171 v, 1 + 2 + 3 + g + p - kig fhf.

4.

1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 8281 v, 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k - kig fhf.

5.

12 br., 13 br., g, 23 br. Madtiw Kiwna gf msfshf bfhl


12 rJuf bkhj gugs fhf.

6.

16 br., 17 br., 18 br., g , 30 br. Madtiw Kiwna gf msfshf


bfhl 15 fdrJuf fdmsf TLj fhf.

1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 6084
3

(ii)
3

1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 2025
3

g 2.7
rahd ilia njbjLf.
1.

tUtdtW vJ bkahd Twy?

(A) a vf fz N - tiuaiw bragl bkba kila rh


xU bjhltirahF.

(B) xbthU rh xU bjhl tirid FF.

(C) xU bjhltir, Ko vif cWfis bfhoUfyh.

(D) xU bjhltir, KoW vif cWfis bfhoUfyh.

2.

1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, g vw bjhltir 8 MtJ cW

(A) 25

3.

1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , g vw bjhltir, cW 1 - F mLj cW
20
2 6 12 20
(B) 1
(C) 1
(D) 1
(A) 1
24
22
30
18

(B) 24

(C) 23

(D) 21

4.

a, b, c, l, m vgd TL bjhltir U a - 4b + 6c - 4l + m =

(A) 1

5.

(B) 2

(C) 3

(D) 0
a, b, c vgd xU TL bjhltir csd v, a - b =
b-c
(A) a
(B) b
(C) a
(D) 1
b
c
c
2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

67

6.

100 n +10 vgJ xU bjhltir n MtJ cW v, mJ

(A) xU TL bjhltir
(B) xU bgUF bjhltir
(C) xU kh bjhltir
(D) xU TL bjhltir my bgUF bjhltir my
a
a1, a2, a3, g vgd xU TL bjhltirYsd. nkY 4 = 3 v,
a7
2
13tJ cW
(A) 3
(B) 0
(C) 12a1
(D) 14a1
2

7.

8.

a1, a2, a3, g vgJ xU TL bjhltir v, a5, a10, a15, g vw


bjhltirahdJ

(A) xU bgUF bjhltir

(B) xU TL bjhltir

(C) xU TL bjhltir my bgUF bjhltir my

(D) xU kh bjhltir

9.

xU TL bjhltir mLjLj _W cWf k + 2, 4k 6, 3k 2


v, k - k
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5

a, b, c, l, m. n vgd TL bjhltir mikJsd v,


3a + 7, 3b + 7, 3c + 7, 3l + 7, 3m + 7, 3n + 7 vw bjhltir
(A) xU bgUF bjhltir

(B) xU TL bjhltir

(C) xU kh bjhltir

(D) xU TL bjhltir my bgUF bjhltir my

11.

xU bgUF bjhl tir 3 MtJ cW 2 v, mj Kj 5 cWf


bgUfgy

(A) 5

12.

a, b, c vgd xU bgUF bjhltir csd v, a - b =


b-c
a
b
a
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D) c
b
a
c
b

10.

(B) 2

(C) 10

(D) 15

13.

x, 2x + 2 , 3x + 3 vgd xU bgUF bjhltirU


5x, 10x + 10 , 15x + 15 vw bjhltirahdJ

(A) xU TL bjhltir

(B) xU bgUF bjhltir

(C) xU kh bjhltir

(D) xU TL bjhltir my bgUF bjhltir my


68

10M tF fzF

14.



3, 3, 3,g vw bjhltirahdJ
(A) xU TL bjhltir kL
(B) xU bgUF bjhltir kL
(C) xU TL bjhltir my bgUF bjhltir my
(D) xU TL bjhltir kW bgUF bjhltir

15.

xU bgUF bjhltir Kj ehF cWf bgUfgy 256,


mj bghJ j 4 kW mj Kj cW if v v, mj bgUF
bjhltir 3 tJ cW
(A) 8
(B) 1
(C) 1
(D) 16
16
32

xU bgUF bjhltir t2 = 3 kW t3 = 1 v, mj bghJj


5
5
(A) 1
(B) 1
(C) 1
(D) 5
5
3

16.

17.

x ! 0 v, 1 + sec x + sec x + sec x + sec x + sec x =

(A) (1 + sec x) (sec x + sec x + sec x) (B) (1 + sec x) (1 + sec x + sec x)

(C) (1 - sec x) (sec x + sec x + sec x) (D) (1 + sec x) (1 + sec x + sec x)

18.

tn = 3 - 5n vgJ xU TL bjhltir n MtJ cW v,


mTL bjhltir Kj n cWf TLj
(A) n 61 - 5n @ (B) n^1 - 5nh
(C) n ^1 + 5nh (D) n ^1 + nh
2
2
2

m-n

,a ,a

m+n

19.

(A) a

20.

1 + 2 + 3 +. . . + n = k v, 1 + 2 + g + n vgJ
k ^ k + 1h
2
3
(A) k
(B) k
(C)

2
id bfhf

vw bgUF bjhltir bghJ j


-m

(B) a

(C) a
3

-n

(D) a

(D) ^k + 1h3

q
bkbaf xU bjhltir vgJ xU xGfhd mik myJ Fl

tir goalgl bkbaf mik MF.


q

F1 = F2 = 1 kW Fn = Fn - 1 + Fn - 2, n = 3, 4, g vw bjhlUJ ilf
bgW bjhltir nghdh bjhltir vdgL. jid 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21,
34, g vd vGjyh
! N kW d xU kh vdbfhL an + 1 = an + d vDkhW mikj bjhltir
a1, a2, a3, g, an xU TL bjhltirahF. F a1 vgJ Kj cW kW
d vgJ bghJ ahr. tn = a + (n - 1) d 6 n ! N vgJ xU TL
bjhltir bghJ cWghF (n MtJ cW).

q n

2. bkbaf bjhltirfS bjhlfS

69

q a1, a2, a3, g, an , g

vD bjhltir an + 1 = an r, F r ! 0, n ! N , vd

U mJ xU bgUF bjhltir vdgL. F a1 vgJ KjYW kW


kh r vgJ bghJ j MF. nkY, tn = ar

n-1

, n = 1, 2, 3, g . vgJ xU

bgUF bjhltir bghJthd cWghF (n MtJ cW).


q xU bjhltir cs cWfis + vD Tl Fah izJ TLjfshf

mikgnj bjhl vdgL. mTLj Fl vifs cWf


TLj v, mJ KoW bjhl vdgL. bjhl Ko vif
cWf Ujh, mJ xU Kowh bjhl MF.

a-id KjYWghf,
ahrkhf bfhl Kj n cWf TLj

q xU

TL

bjhltir

vgij

bghJ

Sn = n [2a + (n - 1) d] = n (a + l) , F l vgJ fil cWghF.


2
2
q xU bgUF bjhltir Kj n cWf TLj
n
n
a (r - 1)
a (1 - r )
, r ! 1 vDnghJ
=

Sn = * r - 1
1-r
na , r = 1 vDnghJ
n
n (n + 1)
q Kj n a vf TLj
.
k=
2
k=1

/^2k - 1h = n2

q Kj n xiwgil a vf TLj,

k=1

q Kj n xiwgil a vf TLj (fil cW l bfhLfglh)

1 + 3 + 5 + g + l = `l + 1j .
2
n

/ k2 = n^n + 1h6^2n + 1h .

q Kj n a vf tff TLj,

k=1

q Kj n a vf fdf TLj,

/ k3 = ; n^n2+ 1h E .
n

k=1

cfSF bjkh?
bk bk (Marin Mersenne) vgt bgauh miHfgL vzhd
bk v (Mersenne number) vgJ M =2 p - 1 vw tot mikj xU if
KG v MF. F p MdJ xU if KG v. M xU gfh v v, mJ bk
gfh v vd miHfgL. nkY, 2 p - 1 MdJ xU gfh vzhf Ujh, p-
xU gfh vzhf UF. J tiu bjj fbga gfh v 243,112,609 - 1
vgJ xU bk gfh v MF.

70

10M tF fzF

3
mKf
gYWnfhitf
bjhFKiw tFj
. bgh. t. kW . bgh. k
jKW nfhitf
tf _y
Ugo rkghLf

mth
(Al-Khwarizmi)
(780-850)

muehL
fjF, aYF
mth mtf a
gfghdJ, afj kW
Knfhza
Madt
tsF
mogilahf
mikjJ. xUgo kW Ugo
rkghLf S F K j K j
t K i w a h d f i s
mjh.
mth afjid
cUthat vd fUjgLwh.
fj mogil braf
t Ma ma gahdJ,
a-mnua vQUfis
mogilahf bfhl mnua
vQUfis nkfa ehLfSF
mKfgLaikF VJth
mikjJ.

afj

The human mind has never invented a labour-saving machine


equal to algebra - Author unknown

3.1 mKf

afjkhdJ fj fbjhikahdJ
KakhdJkhd xU thF. J afj
rkghLfSF

fhQjiy
cslaJ.
_wh who nuf fjtYe lnahghl
(Diophantus) vgt jDila mbko (Arithmetic)
vw
jf
gy
eilKiw
fzFfis
FLsh. Mwh kW VHh whLf
a fjtYefshd Maglh (Aryabhatta) kW
ukFjh (Brahmagupta) Mnah xUgo kW Ugo
rkghLfis ifahL, mtF fhQ
bghJ Kiwfis cUthdhf.

afj mLj bgU ts xgjh
who mnua fj tYefsh VglJ.
Fghf Compendium on Calculation by Completion and
balancing vw jiyila mth (Al-Khwarizmi)
jf afj tuyh xU Kakhd
ikf MF. mt gagLa m#huh vw
thij muh vW y bkh khwgL,
ngho myJ zuik vd bkh bgafglJ.
13 M who nahdhnlh nghdhah
(Leonardo Fibonacci) vGjgl afj jff
Kakhdit. nkY, mjff midt J
jhf VgLd.

f <fgl w afj gilf
jhauhd Yfh ghnah (Luca Pacioli) (1445 - 1517)
kW My fja mP uhg bufh
(Robert Recorde) (1510 - 1558) Mnahuh gilfglld.
mLj whLf afj Efjkhf
kyjJ. 19M who My fj tYef
71

Kndhoahd fh (Peacock) (1791 - 1858) vgt fj mogil braf


kW afj monfhfSfhd jidia cUthat. jfhfnt mt
afj vd miHfglh. kbwhU My fj mP o khf
(De Morgan) (1806 - 1871) vgt fh gia th tiuaWfgl E

FpLfis bfhL fjF j gfig brjh.



ghlgF nea rkghLf bjhF kW Ugo rkghLf
MatF fis fhQ Kiwf ftd brYJnth.

3.2 U khf mikj xUfik nea rkghLf


(System of linear equations in two unknowns)

ax + b = 0, a ! 0 , vw x- mikj xUgo rkghil 9M tF fnwh.

a,b Mat Fiwjgr xwhtJ a iyba, ax + by = c



vw x, y Mat mikj nea rkghil fUJnth. x = x0, y = y0
Ma kf nea rkghil iw brkhd, tir nrho (x0, y0) vgJ
mrkgho xU vdgL. toa ax + by = c vgJ xU js
mikj xU nenfhlhF. nenfhoYs xbthU ( x, y )- ax + by = c
vw rkgho xU thf mik.

kWjiyahf, rkgho vj xU

( x, y )- nenfhoYs xU ahF. Mjyh, ax + by = c vw rkghoF


Ko vif f cL.

x, y- mikj KoW vifyhd nea rkghLfis xUnf fU


bfhlh, mit x, y- mikj nea rkghLf bjhF (system of linear

equations) myJ xUfik rkghLf (simultaneous equations) vdgL.


tiuaiw


x = x0 kW y = y0 vgd bjhF midJ nea rkghLfis
iw brwJ v, tir nrho (x0, y0) MdJ U khf mikj nea
rkghLf bjhF vdgL.

tU nea rkghLf xU bjhFid fUJnth.

a1 x + b1 y = c1

a2 x + b2 y = c2

(i)

Ys U rkghLfis iw brkhW Fiwjgr xU thtJ


U, bjhF xik (consistent) bjhF vdgL.

(ii)

nknys U rkghLfis xUnf iw brkhW vj xU


iyba, bjhFid xthj (inconsistent) bjhF vdgL.

72

10M tF fzF

Fiu
(i) rkghL ax + by = c vgJ xU nea rkghL vdgLwJ. Vbd khf
xU goia kLnk bfhLsd kW rkgho khf bgUfgyf
iy.

(ii) uoF nkgl khf mikj xUfik rkghLfis vLJ


bfhL fis g Muhayh. jifa rkghLfis g nk
tFf ff Unwh.

U khf x kW y-f mikj tU nea rkghLf bjhFid

fUJnth.

(1)
a1 x + b1 y = c1
(2)

a2 x + b2 y = c2

F bfhLfgl xbthU rkghoY Fiwj gr xU khahtJ
UFgoahf, bfGf a1, b1, a2, b2 Madt y bfGf akhf Ufyh,
2
2
2
2
myJ RUfkhf a1 + b1 ! 0 , a2 + b2 ! 0 vd Uf ntL.


rkghLf (1) kW (2) Matwh FfgL nenfhLf, toa Kiw
fl tiff mikayh.


(i) uL nenfhLfS xiwbahW xnu xU bto bfhsyh.


(ii) uL nenfhLfS xiwbahW bto bfhshkUfyh.
(iii) uL nenfhLfS x J xW bghU xnu nenfhlhfyh.


tif (i)- csthW btobfhS ahdJ xUfik rkghLf
jj myJ xnu xU (unique solution) MF.
tif (ii)- TathW btobfhshlh bjhFF iy (No solution).
tif (iii)- go bghUJ nenfhLf v, nenfho J UF xbthU
bjhF xU F iajjhf mik. vdnt, rkghLf bjhFF
Ko vif (infinitely many solutions) f UF.

nghJ afj Kiwfis gagL uL khfis bfhl nea
rkghLf bjhFF tU Kiwf fhngh.

(i) f Kiw
(ii) FWF bgUf Kiw.

3.2.1 f Kiw (Elimination method)



Kiw bjhFYs rkghLfis bghUjkhd tif xW nrJ
uL khf xid Fnth. VnjD xU khia f tU tf eh
Ka brnth.

(i) fUF kh bfGfis vzs rkgLJ bghUL
rkghLf cWfis ca vfsh bgUf myJ tFf ntL.

(ii) bgwgl bfGf kha Ffis bfhoU, U rkghLfis


To mkhia Ff. xnu Ffis bfhoU xUJ
kbwhiw fJ mj khia fyh.
3. afj

73

vLJfhL 3.1
: 3x - 5y = 16 , 2x + 5y = 31


bfhLfgl rkghLf


3x - 5y = 16

2x + 5y = 31

(1)
(2)

U rkghLfY y- bfGf v k rkkhf, vFlD


Ugjh, eh y-I vjhf fyh.

(1) kW (2) Matiw Tl,


5x = 15 ( x = 3.

x = 3 vgij (1) myJ (2)- ul y-F fhz Ko.

x = 3 vgij (1)- ul, 3(3) 5y = 16 (

x = 3 kW y = 5 vd U rkghLfY ul,

3 (3) 5 (5) = 16 kW 2 (3) +5 (5) = 31 vd ilgjh,

bfhLfgl rkghL bjhF (3, 5) MF.

(3)

y = 5.

F
nknys vLJfho, fhg xU kh mikj rkghL (3)-I
bgWtnj Kakhd goahF. F kh y-I L x- mikj rkghL (3)-I
bgWnsh. Mfnt, khf xiw L bjhFF fhQ
Kiw f Kiw (Elimination method) vdgL.

vLJfhL 3.2

11 bgf kW 3 mghf bkhj iy ` 50. nkY, 8 bgf kW 3
mghf bkhj iy ` 38 v, xU bg kW xU mgh iyia fhf.
xU bg iy `x vf. xU mgh iy `y vf.

bfhLfgLs tuf go, tU rkghLfis fhzyh.
(1)


11x + 3y = 50

(2)
8x + 3y = 38

(1)- UJ (2)-I ff 3x = 12, x = 4 .

x = 4-I (1)- ul, 1 1 (4) + 3y = 50

vdnt, x= 4, y = 2.

mjhtJ, y = 2 .

Mfnt, xU bg iy ` 4 kW xU mgh iy ` 2 MF.


F

thf bgwgl x kW y Mat kfis bfhLfgl uL
rkghLfY uL, mtiw iw brwjh vd rghf.

vLJfhL 3.3

f Kiw : 3x + 4y = 25, 2x - 3y = 6
74

10M tF fzF

3x + 4y = 25
2x - 3y = 6

(1)
(2)

kh x-I f, rkghL (1)-I 2 MY, rkghL (2)-I 3 MY bgUFf.

(1) # 2 (

6x + 8y = 50

(3)

(2) # 3 (

- 6x + 9y = 18

(4)

rkghLf (3) kW (4)- Matiw Tl, 17y = 68 ( y = 4


y = 4 vd rkghL (1)- ul,
3x + 4 (- 4) = 25 ( x = 3

vdnt, ( 3, 4 ) MF.
Fiu
vLJfhL 3.1- brjgo, bfhLfgl rkghLfis Tlnth myJ
ffnth brJ, khf xiw FtJ nknys vLJfhL 3.3- ayhJ.
Mfnt, FpLfis jJ x myJ y- bfGfis vzs rkgLj eh
y ca khwfis rkghLf brantL. wF mrkghLfSF
f Kiw fhzyh.

vLJfhL 3.4

f Kiwia gagL f: 101x + 99y = 499, 99x + 101y = 501

bfhLfgl rkghLf bjhF
101x + 99y = 499
(1)
99x + 101y = 501
(2)
F rkghLfis ca vfsh bgU, khf xiw f Ko.

UD, xU rkghoYs x- bfG, mLj rkgho y- bfGF
rkkhf csJ. thUF nghJ U rkghLfis To fJ mnj
bfhl a rkghL bjhFid tUkhW bgwyh.

200x + 200y = 1000.

(1)-cl (2)-I Tl

ij 200 M tFf,

(1)-UJ (2)-I ff,


2x - 2y = 2
(4)
ij 2 M tFf,
x - y = 1
rkghLf (3) kW (4) Madtiw f, x = 2, y = 3 vd bgwyh.
njitahd (2, 3) MF.

x + y = 5

(3)

vLJfhL 3.5
f Kiw : 3^2x + yh = 7xy ; 3^ x + 3yh = 11xy

bjhF xy cWf csjh bjhFghdJ U nea rkghLf
bjhFgy.

bfhLfgl rkghLf

(1)
3^2x + yh = 7xy
3^ x + 3yh = 11xy
(2)
3. afj

75

x = 0 v, y = 0 kW y = 0 v, x = 0 MF.

vdnt, (0, 0) vgJ bjhF xU .

Mfnt, kbwhU U mJ x ! 0, y ! 0 vd Uf ntL.

eh x ! 0, y ! 0 vd bfhnth.

xbthU rkgho Uwfis xy-M tFf,


6 + 3 = 7 mjhtJ, 3 + 6 = 7
(3)
y
x
x
y
9 + 3 = 11

kW
(4)
x
y
F, a = 1 , b = 1 vf.

x
y

jnghJ, (3) kW (4) Mad tU nea rkghLfshf mik.

3a + 6b = 7
9a + 3b = 11

(5)
(6)

b-I FtjF Vg, (6) # 2 ( 18a + 6b = 22

(7)

(5) -UJ (7) I ff, 15a = 15. mjhtJ, a = 1.


2

a = 1 vgij (5)- ul b = 3 . Mfnt, a = 1 kW b = 2
3

a = 1 v, 1 = 1 . Mfnt, x = 1
x
1
2

b = v,
= 2 . Mfnt, y = 3 .
y
3
3
2

Mfnt, bjhF uL f ( 1, 3 ) kW ( 0, 0 ).
2
khWKiw



(1)
3^2x + yh = 7xy

(2)
3^ x + 3yh = 11xy

bghGJ, (2) 2 (1) ( 15y = 15xy ( 15y(1x) = 0. vdnt, x = 1, y = 0

nkY y = 0 v, x = 0
x = 1 v, y = 3
2
Mfnt, uL f ( 1, 3 ) kW ( 0, 0 ) MF.

2
F : 15y = 15xy vgij 15x = 15 vd vGdh, y = 0 vgij Hf neL.

g 3.1
f Kiwia gagL tU rkghL bjhFfis .
2. 3x + y = 8 , 5x + y = 10
1. x + 2y = 7 , x - 2y = 1
y
x
3. x + = 4 ,
4. 11x - 7y = xy , 9x - 4y = 6xy
+ 2y = 5
2
3
5. 3 + 5 = 20 , 2 + 5 = 15 , x ! 0, y ! 0 6. 8x - 3y = 5xy , 6x - 5y =- 2xy
x
y
xy x
y
xy

7. 13x + 11y = 70 , 11x + 13y = 74


9. 15 + 2 = 17 , 1 + 1 = 36 , x ! 0, y ! 0
5
x
y
x
y
76

10M tF fzF

8. 65x - 33y = 97 , 33x - 65y = 1


10. 2 + 2 = 1 , 3 + 2 = 0, x ! 0, y ! 0
x 3y
6 x
y

nea rkghLf bjhF f fz v msit


(Cardinality of the set of solutions of the system of linear equations)
a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0
a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0

(1)
(2)

Ma U rkghLf bjhFig vLJ bfhnth.


2

F bfGf midJ bkbaf kW a1 + b1 ! 0 , a2 + b2 ! 0.


y- bfGfis rkgLj, f Kiwia gagLJnth.

b2 M rkghL (1)-I kW b1 M rkghL (2)-I bgUf eh bgWtJ,


b2 a1 x + b2 b1 y + b2 c1 = 0

(3)

b1 a2 x + b1 b2 y + b1 c2 = 0

(4)

rkghL (3)-UJ rkghL (4) I ff,


b c - b2 c1

^b2 a1 - b1 a2h x = b1 c2 - b2 c1 ( x = 1 2
a1 b2 - a2 b1

(F a1 b2 - a2 b1 ! 0 )

x- kig (1) myJ (2)- ul,


c a - c2 a1

y = 1 2
vd ilF.
(F a1 b2 - a2 b1 ! 0 )
a1 b2 - a2 b1
b c - b2 c1
c a - c2 a1

Mfnt, x = 1 2
kW y = 1 2
, a1 b2 - a2 b1 ! 0 . (5)
a1 b2 - a2 b1
a1 b2 - a2 b1

F U iyfis eh fU bfhSj ntL.

a1
b
! 1 vd U,
a2 b2

nea rkghLf bjhFF xnubahU UF.
a
b
iy (ii) a1 b2 - a2 b1 = 0 mjhtJ 1 = 1 , a2 ! 0 kW b2 ! 0 vf.
a2
b2
a
b
1
1

=
= m vf. Mfnt a1 = ma2 kW b1 = mb2
a2
b2

a1 kW b1 Madt kfis rkghL (1)- ul,

m^a2 x + b2 yh + c1 = 0
(6)
c

c1 = mc2 mjhtJ, 1 = m vd Ujh kLnk (6) kW (2) MatF
c2
cL. Mfnt, c1 = mc2 v, (1)- vjbthU (2)- thf UF kW
(2)- vjbthU (1)- thf UF.
a
b
c

Mfnt, 1 = 1 = 1 = m v, (1) kW (2) Ma nea rkghLfSF
a2
b2
c2
Ko vifyhd f (infinitely many solutions) cL.
iy (i)

a1 b2 - a2 b1 ! 0 mjhtJ

khwhf, c1 ! mc2 v, rkghL (1)- vj xU rkghL (2)-I iw

brahJ. nj nghy rkghL (2)- vj xU rkghL (1)-I iw brahJ.

Mfnt,

a1
b
c
= 1 ! 1 v, rkghLf bjhFF VJiy.
a2
b2 c2
3. afj

77

nkny tjtiw RUfkhf tUkhW FLnth.

a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0
2
2
2
2
a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 , F a1 + b1 ! 0 , a2 + b2 ! 0,
Ma rkghLf bjhFF
a
b
(i) a1 b2 - b1 a2 ! 0 mjhtJ 1 ! 1 v, xnubahU (unique solution) cL.
a2 b2
a
b
c
(ii) 1 = 1 = 1 v, Ko vif f
a2
b2
c2
(infinitely many solutions) cL.

a
b
c
(iii) 1 = 1 ! 1 v, VJiy (no solution).
a2
b2 c2

3.2.2 FWF bgUf Kiw (Method of cross multiplication)



x kW y Ma U khf cs xU nea rkghLf nrhoF f
Kiw fhQnghJ, bfGf Kiwahf gagLjgL f bgwgld.
fhQ Kiwia nkY vikahf FWF bgUf Kiw vw kbwhU Kiw
csJ. Kiw rkghLfSF vthW fhgJ vgij tngh.

(1)
a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0

a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 ,

F a1 b2 - b1 a2 ! 0

vw bjhFig vLJ bfhnth. rkghLf bjhFF

b1 c2 - b2 c1
c a - c2 a1
, y= 1 2
Mad vd Wnsh.
a1 b2 - a2 b1
a1 b2 - a2 b1
y
x
1
1
mjhtJ,
=
,
=

b1 c2 - b2 c1
a1 b2 - a2 b1 c1 a2 - c2 a1
a1 b2 - a2 b1

(2)

x=

nknystiw tU mik vGjyh.


y
x
1

=
=
.
b1 c2 - b2 c1
a1 b2 - a2 b1
c1 a2 - c2 a1
nknys bjhlig v id bfhs, tU mF gl f
gaDsjhf UF.
1
x
y
c1
b1
a1
b1

b2

c2

a2

b2


uL vfSilnas mF, mit bgUfgLwd vgij
fhLwJ. neha mF fhL vf bgUf gyUJ nk neha
mF fhL vf bgUf gyid ff ntL.

nknysthW rkghLf bjhFF fhQ Kiwid FWF
bgUf Kiw (cross multiplication method) vngh.
78

10M tF fzF

nkY,

y
x
1
=
=
vd vGJ nghJ
b1 c2 - b2 c1
a1 b2 - a2 b1
c1 a2 - c2 a1

b1 c2 - b2 c1 myJ c1 a2 - c2 a1 MdJ aF rkkhf Ufyh. Mdh


a1 b2 - a2 b1 ! 0 vd Uf ntL.

a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0
a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 vw rkghLf bjhFF

(i)

b1 c2 - b2 c1 = 0 kW a1 b2 - a2 b1 ! 0 v, x = 0 MF.

(ii)

c1 a2 - c2 a1 = 0 kW

a1 b2 - a2 b1 ! 0 v, y = 0 MF.


, xnubahU (unique solution) it bfhl rkghLf bjhFig vLJ
bfhL, mt id FWF bgUf Kiw fhngh.
vLJfhL 3.6
FWF bgUf Kiwia gagL f.


2x + 7y 5 = 0

3x + 8y
= 11

: bfhLfgl rkghLf bjhF



2x + 7y 5 = 0

3x + 8y +11 = 0
x
y
FWF bgUf Kiwia gagLj, 7
5
2
bfGfis mF gl fhoathW 8
11
3
miknwh.
y
x
1

=
=
.
(
(7) (11) - (8) (- 5) (- 5) (- 3) - (2)(11) (2)(8) - (- 3)(7)

1
7
8

x = y = 1 . vdnt, x = 117 , y =- 7 .
117
37
37
37
-7

Mfnt, ` 117 , - 7 j MF.


37
37

vLJfhL 3.7

FWF bgUf Kiwia gagL tU bjhFid f:

3x + 5y = 25,

7x + 6y = 30

bfhLfgLs rkgho bjhF 3x + 5y 25 = 0, 7x + 6y30 = 0



F, FWF bgUfYF bfGfis tUkhW vGj,
x
5
6

y
25
30

1
3
7

5
6
3. afj

79

y
x
1
vdnt,
=
=
18 - 35
- 175 + 90
- 150 + 150

Mfnt, (0, 5) MF.

y
( x =
= 1 .
0
- 85
- 17

F x = - 1 bghU x = 0 = 0. vdnt, x vgJ xU FpL kLnk


0
0
17
- 17
ajh tFgjhf fUjTlhJ. X viz ajh tFgJ vgJ

fja tiuaWfgLtiy.

vLJfhL 3.8
X <yf v, xwh l yf v, gjh l yf viz ngh

U klfhf csJ. yff l khdh ilF a v, bfhLfgl
vizl 27 mf v, bfhLfgl <yf viz fLof.

v gjh l yf kW xwh l yff Kiwna x kW y


vf. Mfnt, viz thf Kiw 10x + y vd vGjyh (vLJfhlhf,
35 = 10(3)+5 vd vGjyh). yff l khW nghJ x-MdJ xwh l
yfkhf, y- MdJ gjh l yfkhf khWwd. thf
Kiw a v 10y + x vd vGjyh. bfhLfgl Kj gjidgo,

y = 2x ( 2x - y = 0

(1)

nkY, bfhLfgl ulhtJ gjid go,

(10y + x) - (10x + y) = 27
- 9x + 9y = 27

( - x + y = 3

rkghLf (1) kW (2) Madtiw Tl, x = 3.

rkghL (2)- x = 3 vd ul, y = 6.

vdnt, bfhLfgl v =
(10 # 3) + 6 = 36.

(2)

vLJfhL 3.9

xU d bjhFia 3 M bgU gFUJ 3 I Fiwjh

ilfbgW d 18 . Mdh, mnj d bjhFl 8 I To, gFia


11
Uklfhdh ilf bgW d 2 v, mdij fLo.
5
dij x
vdbfhf. bfhLfgl gjidf go, eh bgW
y
rkghLf Kiwna

3x = 18 kW
y - 3 11

vdnt,

80

x+8 = 2
2y
5

( 11x = 6y - 18 kW 5x + 40 = 4y

11x - 6y + 18 = 0

(1)

5x - 4y + 40 = 0

(2)

10M tF fzF

(1) kW (2)-f bfGfis a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 , a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 vw


rkghLf bfGfSl xl

a1 = 11, b1 = 6, c1 = 18 ;

a2 = 5, b2 = 4,

a1 b2 - a2 b1 = (11) (- 4) - (5) (- 6) = - 14 ! 0.

vdnt,

Mfnt, bjhFF xnubahU csJ.

bfGfis FWF bgUf Kiw vGJ nghJ,

c2 = 40.

18

11

40

y
x
1
=
=
90 - 440 - 44 + 30
- 240 + 72

x = 168 = 12 ; y = 350 = 25. Mfnt, njitahd d = 12 .


14
14
25

y
x
=
= 1
- 350
- 168
- 14

vLJfhL 3.10

8 Mf kW 12 Wtf nrJ xU ntiyia 10 ehf brJ Kog.
mnj ntiyia 6 Mf kW 8 Wtf nrJ 14 ehf brJ Kog. xU
M jahf mntiyia vjid ehf brJ Kogh? xU Wt jahf
mntiyia vjid ehf brJ Kogh?
xU M xU ntiyia jahf brJ Kof MF ehf x vf.

vdnt, xU M xU eh br ntiy ms 1 gF.


x
xU Wt mntiyia jahf brJ Kof MF ehf y vf.

vdnt, xU Wt xU eh br ntiy ms

1
y

gF. F,

x ! 0 kW y ! 0 vgJ bj.






8 Mf kW 12 Wtf nrJ xU eh br ntiy = 1


10
Mfnt,
8 + 12 = 1
x
y
10
6 Mf, 8 Wtf nrJ xU eh br ntiy = 1 MF.
14
6
8
1
Mfnt,

+ =
x
y
14
a = 1 vd b = 1 vd bfhf.
x
y
1
(1) (
8a + 12b =
( 4a + 6b - 1 = 0.
10
20
(2) (
6a + 8b = 1 ( 3a + 4b - 1 = 0.
14
28

(1)

(2)

(3)
(4)

3. afj

81

rkghLf (3) kW (4) Mat bfGfis FWF bgUf Kiw vGj,


a
6 - 1
20
4 - 1
28

1
4

a
b
1
=
=
. ( a = b
= 1 .
3
1
3
1
1
1
16
18
-2
+
+
14 5
20 7
70
140
vdnt, a = 1 , b = 1 . Mfnt, x = 1 = 140 , y = 1 = 280.
a
b
140
280


Mfnt, xU M jahf mntiyia Kof 140 ehfS, xU Wt jahf
mnj ntiyia Kof 280 ehfS MF.

g 3.2
1.


2.

FWF bgUf
bjhFfis f.

Kiwia

gagL

tU

rkghLf

(i) 3x + 4y = 24 , 20x - 11y = 47 (ii) 0.5x + 0.8y = 0.44 , 0.8x + 0.6y = 0.5
5y
y
(iii) 3x =- 2, x + = 13 (iv) 5 - 4 =- 2, 2 + 3 = 13
2
3
x
y
x
y
3 2
6
tU fzFfSfhd rkghLfis mikJ, mt fis fhf.

(i) xU v kbwhU v _W klifl 2 mf. a v


4 klfhdJ bga vizl 5 mf v, mbtfis fhf.

(ii) U egf tUkhdf j 9 : 7. mtf bryf j


4 : 3. xbthUtU khjbkhWF ` 2000 nrf Kojh, mtfSila
khjhu tUkhdij fhf.
(iii) xU <yf v k mj yff TLj ngh 7 klF
csJ. yffis lkhWj bra ilF v bfhLfgl
vizl 18 Fiw v, mbtiz fhf.

(iv) 3 ehfhf kW 2 nkirf bkhj iy ` 700. nkY 5 ehfhf kW


3 nkirf bkhjiy ` 1100 v, 2 ehfhf kW 3 nkirf
bkhjiyia fhf.

(v) xU brtf sij 2 br. mfJ mfyij 2 br. Fiwjh, mj


gu 28 r. br. FiwwJ. sij 1 br. FiwJ mfyij 2 br. mfjh,
brtf gu 33 r. br. mfF v, brtf guig fhf.

(vi) uhd ntf xU Fl uij xU bjhl to Fl neu


fljJ. bjhl to ntf kF 6 . vd mffgoUjh
muij flf, FlgoUj neuij l 4 k neu Fiwthf
mbjhl to vLJ bfhoUF. bjhl to ntf kF
6 . vd FiwfgoUjh, mnj uij flf FlgoUj
neuijl 6 kneu mfUF v, gaz uij fLo.
82

10M tF fzF

3.3 Ugo gYWnfhitf (Quadratic Polynomials)


a0 ! 0 kW a1, a2, a3, ..., an vgd bkbaf v,
n

a0 x + a1 x

n-1

n-2

+ a2 x

+ g + an - 1 x + an vgJ x- mikj go n I bfhl

xU gYWnfhitahF.

kh x- go 2 cs gYWnfhit, Ugo gYWnfhit (Quadratic

Polynomial) vdgL. nkY, bk khfis aij goahf bfhl nfhitfshf

fUjyh.

bghJthf

Ugo

p (x) = ax + bx + c

gYWnfhitia

vd

vGJnth. F a ! 0 , b kW c vgd bkba khf.

x + x + 1,

vLJfhlhf,

3x - 1 ,

gYWnfhitfshF.

2
- 3 x + 2x - 7
2
3

Mad

Ugo

x = k -, p (x) = ax + bx + c vw Ugo gYWnfhit kid x-F


2

gyhf k I uL bgwyh. Mfnt, x = k - p (x) - k p (k) = ak + bk + c MF.

3.3.1 gYWnfhit af (Zeros of Polynomials)


p(x) vw xU gYWnfhitia vLJbfhf. p(k) = 0 vDkhW mik

bkba k-I gYWnfhit p(x)- a (zero) vngh.


vLJfhlhf,
2

q(x) = x - 5x + 6 vw gYWnfhit af 2 kW 3 MF. Vbd


q(2) = 0 kW q(3) = 0.
Fiu

y gYWnfhitfSF bkbafshyhd af yhk


2
Ufyh. vLJfhlhf p (x) = x + 1 vw gYWnfhitF bkbaf
af iy. mjhtJ p^ k h = 0 vwthW k vw vjbthU bkbaQ
iy. toago gYWnfhit a vgJ gYWnfhit
tiuglK x-mR bto bfhlh, bto bfhS x Mabjhiy
MF. glf 3.1 kW 3.2 Matiw ghf
y

y
2

y = x +1

xl

(0, 1)

yl

x + 1 -F bkba
af iy

gl 3.1

y = x - 5x + 6

xl

yl

(2, 0)

x
(3, 0)

x 5x+6-F bkba

af 2 kW 3
gl 3.2

3. afj

83

3.3.2 Ugo gYW nfhit afSF bfGfSF cs


bjhl (Relationship between zeros and Coefficients of a Quadratic Polynomial)

2
p (x) = ax + bx + c , a ! 0 , vw Ugo gYWnfhit
af a kW b v, fhu njwgo x - a kW x - b vgd

bghJthf,

p(x)- fhufshF.
2

vdnt, ax + bx + c = k^ x - ah^ x - b h F k xU akw kh MF.

2
= k 6 x - ^a + b h x + ab @

UwK x , x- bfGfis kW khfis xL nghJ,

a= k, b= - k (a + b) kW c = kab vd ilwJ.

p (x) = ax + bx + c- bfGfSF, afSF ilnaahd mogil bjhl


x- bfG
af TLj, a + b = - b = 2
a
x - bfG

kh cW
af bgUfgy ab = c =
2
a
x - bfG

vLJfhL 3.11
2

Ugo gYWnfhit afis fhf.



x + 9x + 20 vw
afSF bfGfSF ilnas mogil bjhlfis rghf.
2

p (x) = x + 9x + 20 = ^ x + 4h^ x + 5h vf.


p^ xh = 0 ( ^ x + 4h^ x + 5h = 0

x + 9x + 20 -
fhufis tU
KiwY fhzy.
2

x =- 4 myJ x =- 5

jnghJ,

p(4) = (4+4)(4+5) = 0 kW

p(5) = (5+4)(5+5) = 0

Fiu

20
4

5 a 4+5=9, 45=20

kh cW
p (x) = x + 9x + 20 - af 4 kW 5. 4
5
x2 - bfG
1
1
af TLj = 9, bgUfgy = 20 (1)
( x + 4 ) ( x + 5 ).
mogil bjhlfUJ,

af TLj =

Mfnt

af bgUfgy =

x- bfG
2

x - bfG

kh cW
2

x - bfG

= - 9 = 9 (2)
1
= 20 = 20 (3)
1

thW, mogil bjhlf rghfgld.


84

10M tF fzF

F
2
Ugo
gYWnfhit
mfgrkhf
U
p (x) = ax + bx + c -F
2
af Ufyh. VnjD a ! 0 vgjF a^ x - ^a + b h x + ab h vw
gYWnfhitF a kW b vw af csd. a MdJ akw
vj xU bkbazhf Ufyh vgjh a kW b -fis afshf
bfhl Ugo gYWnfhitf Ko vif csd.

vLJfhL 3.12

xU Ugo gYWnfhit af TLj 4 kW mj
bgUfgy 3 v, mnfhitia fhf.
Ugo gYWnfhit af a kW b vf

a + b = 4 kW ab = 3 vd bfhLfgLsJ.

fhitf xW,
njitahd gYW n
2

p (x) = x - (a + b) x + ab

= x - (- 4) x + 3 = x + 4x + 3 MF.
vLJfhL 3.13

x = 1 kW x = 1 vw afis bfhl Ugo gYWnfhitia
4
fhf.
khW Kiw

Ugo gYWnfhit p(x)-
af a kW b vf.
afSF bfGfSF
ilnas bjhl thyhf,
2

njitahd gYWnfhitid
neuoahf tUkhW fhzyh :
p(x) = ` x - 1 j^ x + 1h
4

= x2 + 3 x - 1 .
4
4
akw bkbazh p(x)-I bgU
1 kW -1-fis akhf bfhl gy
4
gYWnfhitfis bgwyh.

p (x) = x - (a + b) x + ab
2
= x - ` 1 - 1j x + ` 1 j^- 1h
4
4
2
3
1
= x + x 4
4
F
4x2 + 3x - 1 vw gYWnfhit afS 1 kW 1 MF.
4
2
20x + 15x - 5 vw gYWnfhit afS 1 kW 1 MF.
4
4kx2 + 3kx - k vw gYWnfhit afS 1 kW 1 MF, k ! R .
4
g 3.3

1.

tU Ugo gYWnfhitf afis fhf. afSF


bfGfSF ilna cs bjhlfis rghf.

(i) x - 2x - 8 (ii) 4x - 4x + 1 (iii) 6x - 3 - 7x


2
2
2
(v) x - 15
(vi) 3x - 5x + 2 (vii) 2x - 2 2 x + 1

(iv) 4x + 8x
2
(viii) x + 2x - 143
3. afj

85

2.

tU xbthU Y bfhLfgLs nrho vfis Kiwna


af TLjyhf kW mitf bgUfgydhf bfhl
gYWnfhitia fhf.
(i) 3, 1
(ii) 2, 4
(iii) 0, 4
(iv)
2, 1
5
1
1
1
1
(v) , 1
(vi) , - 4
(vii) , -
(viii) 3 , 2
3
2
3
3

3.4 bjhFKiw tFj (Synthetic Division)



29 I 7M tFF nghJ < 4 kW 1 vd ekF bj. Mfnt 29 = 4(7)+1.
ijnghynt gYWnfhit p (x) -I kbwhU gYWnfhit q (x) M tFjh
ekF <, ilF. thW p (x) = (<) q (x) +
m

jhtJ p (x) =s^ xh q^ xh + r^ xh . F s^ xh MdJ kW r^ xh - go < q^ xh - go,
J tFj goKiw (Division Algorithm) vdgL.

q (x) = x + a v, r^ xh - go = 0 MF. mjhtJ, r^ xh xU khahf UF.



Mfnt, p (x) = s^ xh^ x + ah + r F r xU khahF.
gYWnfhit
x = a vdul,

p^- ah = s^- ah^- a + ah + r ( r = p^- ah .

Mfnt, p (x) -I x + a M tFf ilF ia, x = a

vd p (x) - uL fhzyh. mjhtJ, p (- a) MF.

tFj goKiw :
p (x) vgJ tFgL nfhitahf, q^ xh vgJ tFahf Ujh,
tFj goKiwgo,
p (x) = s^ xh q^ xh + r^ xh vd vGjyh.
UJ tU Kofis bgWnwh.
(i) q(x) vgJ xUgo nfhit v, r^ xh = r xU khahF.
(ii)

q(x)- go 1 v, p (x) - go = ( s (x) - go) + 1

(iii) p (x) -I x + a M tFF nghJ, ahdJ p (- a) MF.


(iv) r = 0 v, p(x)-I q(x) tFwJ myJ p(x)- xU fhu q(x) MF.
Fiu
gYWnfhitia nea gYWnfhitah tFF
wghd xU Kiwid ghnyh u~ (Paolo Ruffin) vgt 1809
M Mo mKfgLdh. mKiw bjhFKiw tFj
(synthetic division) vdgL. xU gYWnfhitia xUgo
gYWnfhitdh tFf, mgYWnfhit cs
bfGfis kLnk gagLJtJ, bjhF Kiw tFj
wghF.
86

10M tF fzF

Paolo Ruffin
(1765-1822, Italy)

bjhFKiw tFjiy xU vLJfhLl sFnth.


3

tFfgL gYWnfhit p (x) = x + 2x - x - 4 kW tF q (x) = x + 2


vf. < s (x) kW r Matiw tUkhW fLofyh.
go 1 bfhLfgl tFfgL kW tFF gYWnfhitfis x-
mLFfis bghWJ wF tir vGJf. gl 3
2
x + 2x - x - 4
fhoathW tFfgL nfhit bfGfis Kj
tir vGJf. Lgl cWfSF 0 vd vGJf.

go 2 tFF nfhit tF aij fhf.

go 3 ulhtJ tir Kj 0 vGJf. gl fhoathW 2- M kW 3- M

tirfis jf vfsh uf.


2

1 # (2)

1+0

0 # (2)

2
2+(2)

1
0

4
1 # (2)

1+0

2
4+2


= 1
= 0
= 1
= 2

go 4 _whtJ tir fil v ahf kwit < bfGfshf


2

mik. Mfnt < x - 1 kW 2.

vLJfhL 3.14

x + x - 7x - 3 vgij x - 3 M tFF nghJ ilF < kW fhf.


3

p (x) = x + x - 7x - 3 vf. tFF nfhit a + 3 MF.

3 1

12

15

12 $

p (x) I x - 3 M tFfgL nghJ < x + 4x + 5 kW 12.

vLJfhL 3.15
4


2x + 1 M tFF nghJ, x + ax - bx - 6
2x + x - 14x - 19x + 6 -I
vgJ <thdh, a kW b Mat kfis kW ia fhf.

p (x) = 2x + x - 14x - 19x + 6 vf.

tFF nfhit 2x + 1 . vdnt, tFF nfhit a x = - 1


2

1
14 19 6
- 1 2
2

0
1
0
7 6

14

12

12

$
3. afj

87

4
3
2
3
Mfnt, 2x + x - 14x - 19x + 6 = ` x + 1 j^2x - 14x - 12h + 12
2
3


= ^2x + 1h 1 ^2x - 14x - 12h + 12
2
3

vdnt, < = 1 ^2x - 14x - 12h kW = 12
2

mjhtJ, < = x - 7x - 6 kW = 12

nghJ, bfhLfgl < x + ax - bx - 6 cl x3 - 7x - 6 -I

xLif a = 0 , b = 7 Mfnt, a = 0 , b = 7 kW = 12 MF.

g 3.4
1.

bjhFKiw tFjiy gagL tUtdtF < kW fhf.


3

(i) ( x + x - 3x + 5 ) ' ( x - 1 )

(ii) (3x - 2x + 7x - 5 ) ' ( x + 3 )

(iii) (3x + 4x - 10x + 6 ) ' ( 3x - 2 ) (iv) (3x - 4x - 5 ) ' (3x + 1 )

(v) (8x - 2x + 6x - 5 ) ' ( 4x + 1 ) (vi) (2x - 7x - 13x + 63x - 48 ) ' ( 2x - 1 )


4

2. x + 10x + 35x + 50x + 29 vD gYWnfhitia x + 4 M tFf


3
2
ilF < x - ax + bx + 6 v a, b Mat kfis kW
ia fhf
3.

8x - 2x + 6x - 7 vgij 2x + 1 M tFf ilF < 4x + px - qx + 3


v, p, q Mat kfis, ia fhf.

3.4.1 bjhFKiw tFjiy gagL fhugLj



(Factorization using synthetic division)


Ugo gYWnfhitfis vthW fhugLJtbjd xgjh
tF fnwh. ghlgF bjhFKiw tFjiy gagL _whgo
gYWnfhitia vthW fhugLJtJ vd fngh.

go 3- mikj gYWnfhit p (x) -F xUgo fhu xiw bjJ
bfhl wF bjhFKiw tFjiy gagL p (x) - Ugo fhuia
fhzyh. nkY, mj Ugo fhuia f aYbk, mjid xUgo
fhuf bgUf gydhf vGjyh. Mfnt, go 3- mikj gYWnfhitia
fhugLj Ko v, bjhFKiw tFjiy gagL mnfhitia
fhugLjyh.
F
(i) xU gYWnfhit p^ xh -F p^ah = 0 v, v kLnk x = a vgJ
mj akhF.
(ii) x - a MdJ p^ xh -F xU fhu v, v kLnk p^ah = 0 MF.
(fhu njw)
88

10M tF fzF

(iii) p^ xh - khia nrJ vyh cWf bfGf TLj a


v, v kLnk p^ xh -F x - 1 xU fhu MF.
(iv) p^ xh - khia nrJ uilgil mLFf cs cWf
bfGf TLjyhdJ xiwgil mLFf cs cWf
bfGf TLjYF rk v, v kLnk x + 1 MdJ p^ xh -F xU
fhu MF.
vLJfhL 3.16

(i)

3
2
x - 6x + 11x - 6 vw gYWnfhitF x - 1 xU fhu vd Wf.

(ii)

3
2
x + 6x + 11x + 6 vw gYWnfhitF x + 1 xU fhu vd Wf.

(i)

p (x) = x - 6x + 11x - 6 vf.

p^1 h = 1 6 + 11 6 = 0

Mfnt, p (x) -F (x - 1) xU fhu MF.


3

q (x) = x + 6x + 11x + 6 vf.

(ii)

(F bfGf TLjY 0 vgij mf)

q^- 1h = 1 + 6 11 + 6 = 0. Mfnt x + 1 xU fhu MF.

vLJfhL 3.17
3


2x - 3x - 3x + 2
fhugLJf.
3

vD

gYWnfhitia

p (x) = 2x - 3x - 3x + 2 vf.

p^1 h =- 2 ! 0

Mfnt, p (x) -F ( x - 1 ) xU fhu my. UD,


p^- 1h = 2^- 1h3 - 3^- 1h2 - 3^- 1h + 2 = 0.

vdnt, p (x) -F x + 1 xU fhu MF.

bjhFKiw tFjiy gagL kw


fhufis fhzyh.

0
2

2
5

5
2

2
0

2x - 5x + 2 -I
2

(bfGf TLj aky)

fhufshf

Fiu

1 2

xUgo

tU
KiwY
fhugLjyh.

4
4

1 a 4+(1)=5, 4(1)=4

-4 = -2
2
1

-1
2

kh

x2 - bfG

( x - 2 ) ( 2x - 1 ).

thW, p(x) = (x + 1) (2x - 5x + 2)

nkY, 2x - 5x + 2 = 2x - 4x - x + 2 = (x - 2)(2x - 1) .

Mfnt, 2x - 3x - 3x + 2 = (x + 1)(x - 2)(2x - 1) .

3. afj

89

vLJfhL 3.18
3

fhugLJf: x - 3x - 10x + 24
3

p (x) = x - 3x - 10x + 24 vf.


p^1 h ! 0 kW p^- 1h ! 0 . Mfnt, x + 1 kW x - 1 Mad p (x) -F
fhufsy. Mfnt, x-F ntW kfis uL p (x) - afis
fhzyh.
x = 2 Mf UFbghGJ p^2h = 0 . Mfnt, p (x) -F x - 2 xU fhu MF.

bjhFKiw tFjiy gagL,

2 1
3
10 24

24

12

$ .

nkY,

Mfnt, x - 3x - 10x + 24 = ^ x - 2h^ x + 3h^ x - 4h

kbwhU fhu x - x - 12 .
2

x - x - 12 = x - 4x + 3x - 12 = (x - 4)(x + 3)
3

g 3.5
1.

tU gYWnfhitfis fhugLJf.

(iv) 4x - 5x + 7x - 6

(vii) 2x - 9x + 7x + 6

(i) x - 2x - 5x + 6

(ii) 4x3 - 7x + 3

(v) x - 7x + 6

(viii) x - 5x + 4

(x) 2x3 + 11x2 - 7x - 6

(iii) x - 23x + 142x - 120

(vi) x + 13x + 32x + 20

(ix) x - 10x - x + 10

(xi) x + x + x - 14 (xii) x - 5x - 2x + 24

3.5 bgU bghJ tF (.bgh.t) kW W bghJ klF (.bgh.k)


3.5.1 bgU bghJ tF (. bgh. t) (Greatest Common Divisor - GCD)

uL myJ mjF nkgl gYWnfhitf xbthiw
tFF fbga goia (Degree) bfhl nfhitid, mgYWnfhitf
ca bghJ fhu (Highest Common Factor) myJ bgU bghJ tF (.bgh.t) vngh.

tU va nfhitfis vLJ bfhnth.

(i)

a ,a ,a ,a
2

3 4

5 2

2 7

(ii) a b , ab c , a b c


(i)- a, a , a Mad bfhLfgl nfhitf tFfshF. mt
3
4 3 5
6
a vgJ caj goia bfhl tFahF. Mfnt nfhitf a , a , a , a
Madt . bgh.t a3 MF.
4

3 4

5 2

2 7

(ii) njnghy ab MdJ a b , ab c , a b c vgdtWF .bgh.t MF.


nfhitf v bfGf U, mt .bgh.t fLoJ mij
bfhL gYWnfhitf .bgh.t-it bgUf ntL.

D y vLJfhLf thyhf . bgh.t- it eF mJ bfhnth.
90

10M tF fzF

vLJfhL 3.19

tUtdt .bgh.t fhf:

(i) 90, 150, 225

(iii) 6^2x - 3x - 2h , 8^4x + 4x + 1h , 12^2x + 7x + 3h

4 3 5

2 7 2

(ii) 15x y z , 12x y z

(i)
90, 150, 225 Ma vfis mt gfhfhuf bgUfgydhf
vGJnth. vdnt 90 = 2 # 3 # 3 # 5 , 150 = 2 # 3 # 5 # 5 kW 225 = 3 # 3 # 5 # 5 .

bfhLfgLs vfSF 3 kW 5 Mad bghJ gfh fhuf MF.


Mfnt, .bgh.t = 3 # 5 = 15 MF.

(ii)

4 3 5

2 7 2

15x y z kW 12x y z

nj Kiwia gagL afj nfhitf


MatF .bgh.t fhngh.


(iii)

2 3 2

bghJfhuf 3, x , y z . Mfnt, .bgh.t = 3 # x # y # z = 3x y z .


2
2
2
6^2x - 3x - 2h , 8^4x + 4x + 1h , 12^2x + 7x + 3h Mat v bfGfshd

6, 8, 12 Madt .bgh.t 2 MF.


jnghJ, Ugo nfhitfSF fhuf fhngh.


2

2x - 3x - 2 = ^2x + 1h^ x - 2h

4x + 4x + 1 = ^2x + 1h^2x + 1h

2x + 7x + 3 = ^2x + 1h^ x + 3h .

nknys Ugo nfhitf bghJfhu ^2x + 1h .

Mfnt, njitahd .bgh.t = 2^2x + 1h .

3.5.2 tFj goKiw gYWnfhitf bgU bghJ tF fhQj


(Greatest Common Divisor of polynomials using division algorithm)

Kj 924, 105 Ma vfSF .bgh.t fhQ va fzF


fhzyh.
8
1
4
924 = 8 105 + 84
105 924 84 105 21
84
105 = 1 84 + 21,

(myJ)
840
84
84
84 = 4 21 + 0,
84
21
0

vdnt, 924, 105-f .bgh.t 21 MF.

nkny Fl Kiwid gagL gYWnfhitfSF .bgh.t

fhzyh.

f^ xh kW g^ xh vgd, f^ xh - go $ g^ xh - go vwikj U
gYWnfhitf vf. eh f(x) kW g(x) MatF .bgh.t fhngh.
3. afj

91


f^ xh kW g^ xh Madtiw xUgo kW Ugo gYWnfhitfshf
fhugLdh, K fw Kiwid gagL v .bgh.t fhz Ko.
f^ xh kW g^ xh -I v fhugLj ayho, tU Kiw .bgh.t
fhzyh.
go 1 Kj f^ xh -I g^ xh M tFJ, f^ xh = g^ xh q^ xh + r^ xh vd bgWf.

F q^ xh vgJ < kW r^ xh vgJ .

Mfnt, g^ xh - go > r^ xh - go.

r(x) = 0 v f(x), g(x) Madt .bgh.t g(x) MF.

go 2 r (x) MdJ a iy v, g^ xh -I r^ xh M tFf,


g^ xh = r^ xh q^ xh + r1 ^ xh . F r(x)- go > r1 ^ xh - go.

F r1 ^ xh = 0 v, njitahd . bgh. t r^ xh MF.

go 3 r1 (x) aky v, akhf ilF tiu nkfl gofis


bjhlJ brf. WgoF Kija go ilF jh f^ xh kW g^ xh
Mat . bgh. t MF.
nkY, f (x) kW g (x) Mat .bgh.t-it, .bgh.t ( f^ xh , g^ xh) vd Fnwh.
Fiu

bga vUJ a viz fjh U vf .bgh.t


MdJ khwhJ vw mogil jh o tFj Kiw .bgh.t.
fhnwh. vLJfhlhf, .bgh.t (252, 105) = .bgh.t. (147, 105) = .bgh.t.
(42, 105) = . bgh.t. (63, 42) = .bgh.t. (21, 42) = 21 vd mayh.

vLJfhL 3.20
4


x + 3x - x - 3 kW x + x - 5x + 3 Ma gYWnfhitf .bgh.t
fhf.
4

f^ xh = x + 3x - x - 3 , g^ xh = x + x - 5x + 3 vf.

F f^ xh - go > g^ xh - go.
3

` tF x + x - 5x + 3 MF.

x + x - 5x + 3 x4 + 3x3 + 0x2 - x - 3
4
3
2

x + x - 5x + 3x



2 x + 5x - 4 x - 3
3
2
2x + 2x - 10x + 6
2

x2 + 2x - 3 x3 + x2 - 5x + 3

92

10M tF fzF

- x - 2x + 3

- x - 2x + 3

3x + 6x - 9
(! 0)
x2 + 2x - 3 $
2

x + 2x - 3x

Mfnt, .bgh.t ( f^ xh , g^ xh ) = x + 2x - 3 .

x1

x + 2

2
2

0 $

Fiu

nkny cs vLJfho bfhLfgl nfhitfSF v fhuf


(khf) iy. Mfnt mitf . bgh. t. Y v fhuf UfhJ.
2
vdnt 3x + 6x - 9 -UJ fhu 3-I , x2 + 2x - 3 -I a tFahf
vLJ bfhsgLsJ.

vLJfhL 3.21
4

3x + 6x - 12x - 24x kW 4x + 14x + 8x - 8x Ma


gYW nfhitf . bgh. t fhf.

f^ xh = 3x + 6x - 12x - 24x = 3x^ x + 2x - 4x - 8h vf.

g^ xh = 4x + 14x + 8x - 8x = 2x^2x + 7x + 4x - 4h vf.


jbghGJ x + 2x - 4x - 8 kW 2x + 7x + 4x - 4 Ma
gYWnfhitf .bgh.t fhngh.
3


x + 2x - 4x - 8 -I tFahf bfhnth.
x2

2
3
2
2
3
2
3
2
x + 4x + 4 x + 2x - 4x - 8
x + 2x - 4x - 8 2x + 7x + 4x - 4
3

2x + 4x - 8x - 16

3x + 12x + 12
(
x 2 + 4x + 4

- 2x - 8x - 8

- 2x - 8x - 8

(! 0)

x + 4x + 4x

0 $

x + 2x - 4x - 8 kW 2x + 7x + 4x - 4 bghJ tF x2 + 4x + 4 MF.

nkY, 3x kW 2x Madt bghJ tF = x.


2
Mfnt, .bgh.t ( f^ xh , g^ xh ) = x^ x + 4x + 4h .

g 3.6
1.

tUtdt . bgh. t fhf.

(iii) 25bc d , 35b c , 45c d

2.

tUtdt . bgh. t fhf.

(v) x + 3xy + 2y , x + 5xy + 6y

(vii) x - x - 2 , x + x - 6 , 3x - 13x + 14 (viii) x - x + x - 1 , x - 1

4
3
2
6
5
4
(ix) 24^6x - x - 2x h , 20^2x + 3x + x h
(x) ^a - 1h5 ^a + 3h2 , ^a - 2h2 ^a - 1h3 ^a + 3h4

2 5 3

(i) 7x yz , 21x y z
4 3

2 5

5 3 4

2 2
2

2 2

(iv) 35x y z , 49x yz , 14xy z


4

(i) c - d , c^c - d h
2
2
(iii) m - 3m - 18 , m + 5m + 6
2

(ii) x y , x y , x y

(ii) x - 27a x , ^ x - 3ah2


2
3
2
(iv) x + 14x + 33 , x + 10x - 11x
2

(vi) 2x - x - 1 , 4x + 8x + 3

3. afj

93

3.

nH bfhLfgLs gYWnfhitf nrhofSF tFj go


Kiw . bgh. t fhf.

(i)

(ii) 3x + 18x + 33x + 18 , 3x + 13x + 10

(iii) 2x + 2x + 2x + 2 , 6x + 12x + 6x + 12

(iv) x - 3x + 4x - 12 , x + x + 4x + 4x

x - 9x + 23x - 15 , 4x - 16x + 12
3

3.5.3 W bghJ klF (. bgh. k) (Least Common Multiple)



uL myJ mjF nkgl gYWnfhitf W bghJ klF vgJ
mj gYWnfhitf xbthwhY yhk tFgl Toa f Fiwj
goia bfhl gYWnfhitahF.
4

vLJfhlhf, a , a , a Ma va nfhitfis vLJ bfhnth.


4

a , a , a Mat bghJ klFf a , a , a , g.


6
midJ bghJ klFfY a vgJ fa bghJ klF MF.
4 3
6
6
Mfnt, a , a , a Mat . bgh. k a MF.
3 7
3 4
5
2 7
thnw a b , ab , a b Mat . bgh. k a b MF.
nkY y vLJfhLf _y . bgh. k fhngh.

vLJfhL 3.22

tUtdt . bgh. k fhf
2 3
3
2
2 3

(i) 90, 150, 225
(ii) 35a c b , 42a cb , 30ac b

(iii) ^a - 1h5 ^a + 3h2 , ^a - 2h2 ^a - 1h3 ^a + 3h4
3
3
3
3
4
2 2
4

(iv) x + y , x - y , x + x y + y

1
2
1
(i) 90 = 2 # 3 # 3 # 5 = 2 # 3 # 5
1
1
2
150 = 2 # 3 # 5 # 5 = 2 # 3 # 5
2

225 = 3 # 3 # 5 # 5 = 3 # 5
1

90, 150, 225 Mat .bgh.k = 2 # 3 # 5 = 450


(ii) 35, 42, 30 - . bgh. k 5 # 7 # 6 = 210
2 3

2 3

3 3 3

vdnt, 35a c b , 42a cb , 30ac b - . bgh. k = 210a c b .

(iii) ^a - 1h5 ^a + 3h2 , ^a - 2h2 ^a - 1h3 ^a + 3h4 - . bgh. k = ^a - 1h5 ^a + 3h4 ^a - 2h2 .
(iv) Kj bfhLfgLs nfhitf fhufis fhzyh.
3
3
2
2

x + y = ^ x + yh^ x - xy + y h
3
3
2
2

x - y = ^ x - yh^ x + xy + y h
4
2 2
4
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
x + x y + y = (x + y ) - x y = ^ x + xy + y h^ x - xy + y h
2
2
2
2
vdnt,
.bgh.k = ^ x + yh^ x - xy + y h ^ x - yh^ x + xy + y h

3
3
3
3
6
6
= ^ x + y h^ x - y h = x - y .

94

10M tF fzF

g 3.7
tUtdtF .bgh.k fhf.
3 2

x y , xyz

3.

a bc , b ca , c ab

5.

7.

2
3^a - 1h , 2^a - 1h2 , ^a - 1h

9.

^ x + 4h2 ^ x - 3h3 , ^ x - 1h^ x + 4h^ x - 3h2

m+1

, a

m+2

3 3

2. 3x yz , 4x y

1.

, a

m+3

4 2 3

3 4 2

2 3 4

4. 66a b c , 44a b c , 24a b c


2

6. x y + xy , x + xy

8. 2x - 18y , 5x y + 15xy , x + 27y

2
2
2
2
4
3
10. 10^9x + 6xy + y h , 12^3x - 5xy - 2y h , 14^6x + 2x h .

3.5.4 . bgh. t. kW . bgh. k. MatWF ilnas bjhl



(Relation between LCM and GCD)
U if KGf bgUfgy mt . bgh. t kW . bgh. k-
bgUf gyDF rk vd mJnsh. vLJfhlhf, 21 # 35 = 105 # 7.
F 21 kW 35- . bgh. k =105 kW mt . bgh. t = 7.
njngh, VnjD U gYWnfhitf bgUfgy mt . bgh. k
kW .bgh.t Mat bgUfgyDF rkkhF.

mjhtJ, f^ xh # g^ xh = {. bgh. k (f(x) , g(x))} # {. bgh. t (f(x) , g(x))}.

j Koit X vLJfhLl rghfyh.

4
3
4
3
2
f^ xh = 12^ x - x h , g^ xh = 8^ x - 3x + 2x h Ma U gYWnfhitfis
fUJf.
4
3
2
3
(1)
f^ xh = 12^ x - x h = 2 # 3 # x # ^ x - 1h
4
3
2
3
2
(2)
g^ xh = 8^ x - 3x + 2x h = 2 # x # ^ x - 1h # ^ x - 2h


(1) kW (2) MatUJ,
3
1
3
3

. bgh. k (f(x) , g(x)) = 2 # 3 # x # ^ x - 1h # ^ x - 2h = 24x ^ x - 1h^ x - 2h
2


. bgh. t (f(x) , g(x)) = 4x ^ x - 1h
3
2

` . bgh. t # . bgh. k = 24x ^ x - 1h^ x - 2h # 4x ^ x - 1h
5

= 96x ^ x - 1h2 ^ x - 2h

(3)

= 96x ^ x - 1h2 ^ x - 2h
(3) kW (4) MatUJ,

(4)

nkY,

f^ xh # g^ xh = 12x ^ x - 1h # 8x ^ x - 1h^ x - 2h
5


. bgh. k # . bgh. t = f^ xh # g^ xh

Mfnt, U gYWnfhitf . bgh. k kW . bgh. t Mat
bgUfgy MdJ mU gYWnfhitf bgUfgyDF rk. vdnt,
f^ xh , g^ xh kW . bgh. k myJ . bgh. t Mat VnjD xW bfhLfglh,
kbwhiw vjhf fhzKo. Vbd, . bgh. k kW . bgh. t. Mad 1 vw
fhuia jJ jJtKsit.
3. afj

95

vLJfhL 3.23
4


x + 3x + 5x + 26x + 56 kW x + 2x - 4x - x + 28 Mat .bgh.t
2
x + 5x + 7 v, mt . bgh.k-it fhf.
4

f^ xh = x + 3x + 5x + 26x + 56 ; g^ xh = x + 2x - 4x - x + 28 vf.
2
(bfhLfgLsJ)

. bgh. t = x + 5x + 7
. bgh. t # . bgh. k = f^ xh # g^ xh vd mnth.
f^ x h # g^ x h


.bgh.t

f^ xh kW g^ xh Ma uil .bgh.t -M tFf aY.

vdnt f^ xh -I . bgh. t-M tFf,

1 2
8
1 5 7 1
3
5
26
56

1
5
7

26
-2 -2

- 2 - 10 - 14

8
40
56

8
40
56

0
2

f^ xh -I . bgh. t M tFF nghJ ilF < x - 2x + 8 .

vdnt,

. bgh. k =

` (1) (

vdnt,

(1)

.bgh.k = ^ x - 2x + 8h # g^ xh
2

.bgh.k = ^ x - 2x + 8h^ x + 2x - 4x - x + 28h .

F
nkfl fz, g^ xh -ia . bgh. t M tFfyh. ilF <id
f^ xh M bgUfgLnghJ njitahd . bgh. k ilF.

vLJfhL 3.24
6

U gYWnfhitf . bgh. t kW . bgh. k Kiwna x + 1 kW x - 1 .



3
nkY, xU gYWnfhit x + 1 v, kbwhiw fhf.

. bgh. t = x + 1 ,

. bgh. k = x - 1
6

f^ xh = x + 1 vf. njitahd kbwhU gYWnfhit g^ xh vf.

. bgh. k # . bgh. t = f^ xh # g^ xh

^ x6 - 1h^ x + 1h
g^ xh = .bgh.k # .bgh.t =
3
f^ x h
x +1

( =

Mfnt,
96

^ x3 + 1h^ x3 - 1h^ x + 1h
3

x +1

g^ xh = ^ x - 1h^ x + 1h .

10M tF fzF

= ^ x - 1h^ x + 1h
3

g 3.8
1.

tU xbthU nrho gYWnfhitf . bgh. k fhf.

(i)

(ii) x + 3x + 6x + 5x + 3 , x + 2x + x + 2 , t . bgh. t x + x + 1 .

(iii) 2x + 15x + 2x - 35 , x + 8x + 4x - 21 , t . bgh. t x + 7 .

(iv) 2x - 3x - 9x + 5 , 2x - x - 10x - 11x + 8 , t . bgh. t 2x - 1 .

2.

tUtdt Kiwna p^ xh kW q^ xh Mat . bgh. k, kW . bgh. t


nkY p^ xh Mad bfhLfgLsd. q^ xh vw kbwhU gYWnfhitia
fhf.

(i) ^ x + 1h2 ^ x + 2h2 , ^ x + 1h^ x + 2h , ^ x + 1h2 ^ x + 2h .

(ii) ^4x + 5h3 ^3x - 7h3 , ^4x + 5h^3x - 7h2 , ^4x + 5h3 ^3x - 7h2 .
4
4
4
2 2
4
2
2
4
4
(iii) ^ x - y h^ x + x y + y h , x - y , x - y .

x - 5x + 6 , x + 4x - 12 , t . bgh. t x - 2 .
4

3
2
3
2
(iv) ^ x - 4xh^5x + 1h , ^5x + xh , ^5x - 9x - 2xh .
2
3
2
(v) ^ x - 1h^ x - 2h^ x - 3x + 3h , ^ x - 1h , ^ x - 4x + 6x - 3h .

(vi) 2^ x + 1h^ x - 4h , ^ x + 1h , ^ x + 1h^ x - 2h .

3.6 jKW nfhitf (Rational expressions)

m kW n ! 0 vgd U KGf v m vw j xU jKW vzhf


n
tiuaWfgLwJ. njngh p^ xh , q^ xh Ma U gYWnfhitf q^ xh ! 0
p^ x h
v, j
vgJ xU jKW nfhit MF.
q^ x h

p^ x h
vd vGj aY vgjh vj xU gYWnfhit p^ xh - xU
1
jKW gYWnfhitahF.

p^ x h I

UD, xU jKW nfhitahdJ xU gYWnfhitahf Uf


xU jKW nfhit. Mdh, mJ xU
ntoa mtaiy. vLJfhlhf 2 x
x +1
gYWnfhitay.

jKW gYWnfhitfis tU y vLJfhLf _y mayh.


3
2x + 7 , 23x + 2 , x 2+ 2 x + 5
x +x+1 x +x- 3

3.6.1 jKW nfhit RUa (m) va tot (Rational expressions in lowest form)

p^ xh kW q^ xh Ma gYWnfhitf bfGf KG vf Mf,


p^ x h
vgJ RUa myJ va toYs
mt .bgh.t 1 vwthW Ujh,
q^ x h
xU jKW nfhitahF. xU jKWnfhit RUa to yhkU mj
bjhF p^ xh kW gF q^ xh Ma uil p^ xh , q^ xh Mat .bgh.t-M
tFJ va to RUfyh.

y vLJfhLfis fU bfhnth.
3. afj

97

vLJfhL 3.25

tU jKW nfhitfis va toF RUFf.
(i) 5x + 20
7x + 28

(ii) x 3- 5x 4
3x + 2x

(iii) 6x2 - 5x + 1
9x + 12x - 5

(iv)

2
^ x - 3h^ x - 5x + 4h
2
^ x - 1h^ x - 2x - 3h

5x + 20 = 5^ x + 4h = 5
7x + 28 7^ x + 4h 7
2
3
2
x - 5x = x ^ x - 5h = x - 5
(ii)
3
4
3
x^2x + 3h
3x + 2x
x ^2x + 3h
2
(iii) p^ xh = 6x - 5x + 1 = ^2x - 1h^3x - 1h vf.
2

q^ xh = 9x + 12x - 5 = ^3x + 5h^3x - 1h vf.
p^ xh ^2x - 1h^3x - 1h 2x - 1

vdnt,
=
=
^3x + 5h^3x - 1h 3x + 5
q^ x h
(i)

(iv)

f^ xh = ^ x - 3h^ x - 5x + 4h = ^ x - 3h^ x - 1h^ x - 4h vf.


2
g^ xh = ^ x - 1h^ x - 2x - 3h = ^ x - 1h^ x - 3h^ x + 1h vf.
f^ xh ^ x - 3h^ x - 1h^ x - 4h x - 4
vdnt,
=
=
g^ xh ^ x - 1h^ x - 3h^ x + 1h x + 1
g 3.9

tUtdtiw va toF RUFf.

(i)

6x + 9x
2
3x - 12x
3

(ii) x4 + 1
x -1
4

(iii)

x -1
x +x+1
2

2
2
2
4
2
(v) x 2+ x + 1 (F: x + x + 1 = ^ x + 1h - x vdbfhf)
(iv) x 2- 27
x -9
x +x+1
3
2
4
(vi) 4 x +2 8

(vii) 2x2 + x - 3
(viii) 2 2x - 162
^ x + 9h^2x - 6h
x + 4x + 16
2x + 5x + 3
2
2
2
^ x - 3h^ x - 5x + 4h
^ x - 8h^ x + 5x - 50h
4x + 9x + 5

(x)

(xi)
(ix)
2
2
2
8x + 6x - 5
^ x - 4h^ x - 2x - 3h
^ x + 10h^ x - 13x + 40h

(xii)

2
^ x - 1h^ x - 2h^ x - 9x + 14h
2
^ x - 7h^ x - 3x + 2h

3.6.2 jKW nfhitf bgUf kW tFj

(Multiplication and division of rational expressions)


p^ x h
g^ x h
q^ xh ! 0 , h^ xh ! 0 vwthW
kW
Mad U jKW nfhitf v,
q^ x h
h^ x h
p^ x h g^ x h
p^ x h # g^ x h
(i) mitf bgUfgy
=
vd tiuaWfgLwJ.
#
q^ x h h^ x h
q^ x h # h^ x h

p^ x h g^ x h
p^ x h h^ x h
=
vd tiuaWfgLwJ.
'
#
q^ x h h^ x h
q^ x h g^ x h
p^ x h g^ x h
p^ x h # h^ x h
=
vd tiuaWfgLwJ.
'
q^ x h h^ x h
q^ x h # g^ x h

(ii)

mitf tFj

mjhtJ,
98

10M tF fzF

vLJfhL 3.26
3 2
5
x y
27z M bgUFf.
vgij

(i)
4 2
4
9z
x y
2
2
3
3

(ii) 2 a + b 2 vgij a - b M bgUFf.
a-b
a + 2ab + b

(iii) x2 - 8 vgij x2 + 6x + 8 M bgUFf.


x -4
x + 2x + 4
3 2

3 2

5
x y
27z = (x y ) (27z ) = 3z .
#
4
4 2
4
4 2
x
9z
x y
(9z ) (x y )
2
2
2
2
3
3
^a + bh^a - ab + b h ^a + bh^a - bh
2
2
a
b
a
b
+
=
= a - ab + b .
(ii)
#
2
2 # a-b
(a - b)
^a + bh^a + bh
a + 2ab + b
3
2
3
3
^ x + 4h^ x + 2h
(iii) x2 - 8 # x2 + 6x + 8 = x2 - 22 # 2
x -4
x + 2x + 4
x -2
x + 2x + 4
2
^ x - 2h^ x + 2x + 4h ^ x + 4h^ x + 2h

=
= x + 4.
# 2
^ x + 2h^ x - 2h
x + 2x + 4
vLJfhL 3.27
3
2

(i) 4x2 - 4 vgij x - 1 M tFf. (ii) x - 1 vgij x + x + 1 M tFf.
x+3
3x + 9
x+1
x -1

(i)

(iii) x2 - 1 vgij x2 - 4x - 5 M tFf.


x - 25
x + 4x - 5

(i)

(ii)

^ x + 1h
4 (x - 1)
4x - 4 ' x - 1 =
= 4 .
#
2
x + 1 ^ x + 1h^ x - 1h (x - 1)
x-1
x -1
2
3
2
x - 1 ' x + x + 1 = (x - 1)(x + x + 1) # 3 (x + 3) = 3(x1).
2
x+3
x+3
3x + 9
x +x+1

2
2
x - 1 ' x - 4x - 5 = ^ x + 1h^ x - 1h # ^ x + 5h^ x - 1h
2
2
^ x + 5h^ x - 5h ^ x - 5h^ x + 1h
x - 25 x + 4x - 5
2
^ x - 1h^ x - 1h
=
= 2x - 2x + 1 .
^ x - 5h^ x - 5h
x - 10x + 25

(iii)

g 3.10
1.

tU jKW nfhitfis bgU, ilia RUa to vGJf.

(i) x - 2x # 3x + 6
x+2
x-2

(iii) x 2- 3x - 10 # x -3 2x + 4
x - x - 20
x +8

(v) 3x 2 + 2x - 1 # 2x2 - 3x - 2
x -x-2
3x + 5x - 2

(ii)

x - 81 # x + 6x + 8
2
2
x -4
x - 5x - 36

(iv)

x2 - 16 # x2 - 4 # x2 - 4x + 16
x - 3x + 2 x3 + 64
x 2 - 2x - 8

(vi)

2x - 1 # x - 8x # x + 3
2
2
2
x + 2x + 4 2x + 5x - 3 x - 2x

3. afj

99

2.

tUtdiw va to RUFf:
2
x ' x
(i)
x + 1 x2 - 1
2

4x - 5 ' x - 3x - 10
(iii) x 2
2
x - 25
x + 7x + 10

(v) 2x2 + 13x + 15 ' 22x - x - 6


x + 3x - 10
x - 4x + 4

(vii) 2x2 + 5x - 3 ' 2x2 + x - 1


2x + 9x + 9 2x + x - 3

(ii) x2 - 36 ' x + 6
x - 49 x + 7
2
2
(iv) x 2+ 11x + 28 ' x2 + 7x + 12
x - 4x - 77
x - 2x - 15
2

x - 4 ' 4x - 4
(vi) 3x 2
2
9x - 16
3x - 2x - 1

3.6.3 jKW nfhitf TlY fjY



(Addition and subtraction of rational expressions)
p^ x h
r^ x h
Mad uL jKW
q^ xh ! 0 kW s^ xh ! 0 vwthW q^ xh kW
s^ x h
nfhitf v, mt TLj kW fjiy
p^ x h r^ x h
p^ xh .s^ xh ! q^ xh r^ xh
=
vd tiuaWfyh.
!
q^ x h s^ x h
q^ xh .s^ xh

vLJfhL 3.28
RUFf: (i) x + 2 + x - 1
x+3
x-2

(i)
(ii)

(ii)

x+1 + 1
x+1
^ x - 1h2

x - 6 + x + 2x - 24
(iii) x 2
2
x -9
x - x - 12

2
x + 2 + x - 1 = ^ x + 2h^ x - 2h + ^ x - 1h^ x + 3h = 2x + 2x - 7
2
x+3
x-2
^ x + 3h^ x - 2h
x +x-6
2
2
2
x + 1 + 1 = ^ x + 1h + ^ x - 1h =
2x + 2

x+1
^ x - 1h2 ^ x + 1h
^ x - 1h2 ^ x + 1h
^ x - 1h2
2

2x + 2
3
2
x -x -x+1
2
2
x - 6 + x + 2x - 24 = ^ x - 3h^ x + 2h + ^ x + 6h^ x - 4h
(iii) x 2
2
^ x + 3h^ x - 3h ^ x + 3h^ x - 4h
x -9
x - x - 12
= x + 2 + x + 6 = x + 2 + x + 6 = 2x + 8
x+3
x+3
x+3
x+3

vLJfhL 3.29

x - 1 cl vj jKW nfhitia Todh 2x - x + 3 ilF ?


2
2
x +2
x +2

p^ xh vgJ njitahd jKW nfhit vf.


3

x - 1 + p^ xh = 2x - x + 3 vd bfhLfgLsJ.
2
2
x +2
x +2
3
2
3
3
2
3
3
2
x + 3 - x - 1 = 2x - x + 3 - x + 1 = x - x + 4

` p^ xh = 2x 2
2
2
2
x +2
x +2
x +2
x +2

100 10M tF fzF

vLJfhL 3.30
2x - 1 - x + 1 + x + 2 vgij U gYWnfhitf xU dkhf
x-1
2x + 1 m x + 1
(jKW nfhitahf) va to RUFf.
c

c 2x - 1 - x + 1 m + x + 2
x-1
2x + 1
x+1
^2x - 1h^2x + 1h - ^ x + 1h^ x - 1h
= ;
E+ x + 2
x+1
x
x
1
2
1
^ - h^ + h
2
2
2
^
h ^
h
3x
= 4x - 1 - x - 1 + x + 2 =
+ x+2
x + 1 ^ x - 1h^2x + 1h x + 1
^ x - 1h^2x + 1h
2

3x ^ x + 1h + ^ x + 2h^ x - 1h^2x + 1h 5x3 + 6x2 - 3x - 2


=
3
2
^ x2 - 1h^2x + 1h
2x + x - 2x - 1

g 3.11
1.

tUtdtiw U gYWnfhitf xU dkhf (jKW


nfhitahf) va to RUFf.

x + 8
x-2 2-x
2
2
x - 6 + x + 2x - 24
(iii) x 2
2
x -9
x - x - 12
(i)

2x - 5x + 3 - 2x - 7x - 4
2
2
x - 3x + 2
2x - 3x - 2

(ii)
(iv)
(vi)

x+2
+ 2 x-3
x + 3x + 2
x - 2x - 3
x-2
+ 2 x+3
2
x - 7x + 10
x - 2x - 15
2

x - 4 - x - 11x + 30
2
2
x + 6x + 8
x - x - 20

(v)

(vii) = 2x + 5 + x2 + 1 G - ` 3x - 2 j
x+1
x-1
x -1
(viii) 2 1
.
+ 2 1
- 2 2
x + 3x + 2
x + 5x + 6
x + 4x + 3
2


2.
3.
4.

x - 1 cl vj jKW nfhitia Tl 3x + 2x + 4 ilF?


2
2
x +2
x +2
3
2
2
vj jKW nfhitia 4x - 7x + 5 -UJ ff 2x - 5x + 1 ilF?
2x - 1
y
2Q
v, 1 - 2
I fhf.
P= x ,Q=
P - Q P - Q2
x+y
x+y

3.7 tf_y (Square root)


a ! R vgJ xU Fiwaw bkba (Non negative real number) vf.


2

a- tf_ykhdJ b = a vwthW mik xU bkba b MF. a- if


tf_yid
Mad

bkahf

gagLjgLwJ.

a myJ
UD
Mfnt

a vd Fngh. (- 3) 2 = 9 kW (+ 3) 2 = 9
vgJ

9 = 3.

if

njngh

tf_yij

121 = 11,

Ff

10000 = 100.

3. afj 101

vj xU nfhit tf bfhLfgl nfhitF rkkhf csnjh, mnfhit


bfhLfgl nfhit tf_y (square root) vdgL. gYWnfhitfSF
tf_y fhz tUkhW vGJnth.

p (x) , p (x) $ 0 vDnghJ


- p (x) , p (x) 1 0 vDnghJ

^ p^ xhh2 = p^ xh , F p (x) = )

^ x - ah2 = ^ x - ah ,

vdnt,

^a - bh2 = ^a - bh .


bfhLfgl gYWnfhitfSF tU eF mKfkhd U Kiwf
tf_y fhngh.

(i) fhugLj Kiw (Factorization method)

(ii) tFj Kiw (Division method)


gF, fhugLj ay Toa gYWnfhitfis fhugL
tf_y fhQ Kiwia y vLJfhLf _y fngh.

3.7.1 fhugLJj Kiw tf_y fhz


(Square root by factorization method)

vLJfhL 3.31

tf_y fhf.

(ii)

(i) 121^ x - ah4 ^ x - bh6 ^ x - ch12


4 6 8

81x y z

12 14
64w s

(iii) (2x + 3y) - 24xy

121^ x - ah4 ^ x - bh6 ^ x - ch12 = 11 ^ x - ah2 ^ x - bh3 ^ x - ch6

(i)

4 6 8

2 3 4

x y z
81x y z
= 9
12 14
8 w6 s7
64w s

(ii)

(iii) ^2x + 3yh2 - 24xy = 4x + 12xy + 9y - 24xy =



= ^2x - 3yh
vLJfhL 3.32

tf_y fhf.

6
x + 16 - 2
x
2
2
2
(iii) ^6x - x - 2h^3x - 5x + 2h^2x - x - 1h
2

(i) 4x + 20xy + 25y

(ii)

(i)
(ii)

4x + 20xy + 25y =
6
x + 16 - 2 =
x

102 10M tF fzF

^2x + 5yh2 = ^2x + 5yh

3
3
1 2
1
cx - 3 m = cx - 3 m
x
x

^2x - 3yh2

(iii) tf_y fhQ K, gYWnfhitfis fhugLJnth.


2

6x - x - 2 = ^2x + 1h^3x - 2h

3x - 5x + 2 = ^3x - 2h^ x - 1h kW
2

2x - x - 1 = ^ x - 1h^2x + 1h

2
2
2
vdnt, ^6x - x - 2h^3x - 5x + 2h^2x - x - 1h

= ^2x + 1h^3x - 2h # ^3x - 2h^ x - 1h # ^ x - 1h^2x + 1h

= ^2x + 1h2 ^3x - 2h2 ^ x - 1h2

= ^2x + 1h^3x - 2h^ x - 1h


g 3.12

1.

tUtdtF tf_y fhf.

(i) 196a b c

(iv) ^ x - yh2 + 4xy (v) 121x y ' 81x y

2.

tUtdtF tf_y fhf.

(i)

2
2
2
(ii) ^ x - 25h^ x + 8x + 15h^ x - 2x - 15h

(iii) 4x + 9y + 25z - 12xy + 30yz - 20zx

4
(iv) x + 14 + 2
x

2
2
2
(v) ^6x + 5x - 6h^6x - x - 2h^4x + 8x + 3h

2
2
2
(vi) ^2x - 5x + 2h^3x - 5x - 2h^6x - x - 1h

6 8 10

(ii) 289^a - bh4 ^b - ch6


8 6

4 8

(iii) ^ x + 11h2 - 44x


(vi)

64^a + bh4 ^ x - yh8 ^b - ch6


25^ x + yh4 ^a - bh6 ^b + ch10

16x - 24x + 9
2

3.7.2 tFj Kiw xU gYWnfhit tf_y fhz


(Finding the square root of a polynomial by division method)


xU gYWnfhitid, fhuf bgUfgydhf v khw Koahj
nghJ mj tf_yij tFj Kiw _y fhzyh. gYWnfhitf
go mfkhf UjhY tf_yfis tFj Kiwia gagL v
fhzyh.


if KGf tf_yij fhQ tFj Kiwia nghynt, xU
gYWnfhit tf_yij fhzyh. tU vLJfhLfis
bfhL Kiwia sFnth.
3. afj 103


(i) 66564 I fhf.

2 5 8

2

6 65 64
4


45

2 65
2 25

Mfnt ,

9x + 12x + 10x + 4x + 1 I fhf.


4

p (x) = 9x + 12x + 10x + 4x + 1 vf.


2
3x + 2x + 1
2

3x 9x + 12x + 10x + 4x + 1

9x
2
6x + 2x


508 40 64

40 64

0

(ii)

12x + 10x
3

12x + 4x

6x + 4x + 1


4

66564 = 258

6x + 4x + 1
2
6x + 4x + 1
0

9x + 12x + 10x + 4x + 1 = 3x + 2x + 1

Fiu

(i) gYWnfhitia x- mLFfis bghUJ VWtir myJ wF


tir vGJnghJ, Lgl cWfSF gyhf aij vGj.
(ii) nkny cs tf_y fhQ Kiwia tU tKiwl xL ghJ,
mjFa fhuzfis J bfhsyh.
4
3
2

9x + 12x + 10x + 4x + 1 = ^a + b + ch2

Mfnt, tf_y fhgJ vgJ bghUjkhd a, b kW c-fis fhgjhF.
2
2
2
2

vdnt, (a + b + c) = a + b + c + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca
2

= a + b + 2ab + 2ac + 2bc + c

= a + ^2a + bh b + ^2a + 2b + ch c
2 2
2
2
= ^3x h + ^6x + 2xh^2xh + ^6x + 4x + 1h^1 h
`

9x + 12x + 10x + 4x + 1 = 3x + 2x + 1 , Mfnt, a = 3x , b = 2x kW c = 1

khWKiw : tf_y fhz, Kj tUkhW vGJf.


9x4 + 12x3 + 10x2 + 4x + 1 = (mx2 + nx + l) 2 = m2 x4 + 2mnx3 + (n2 + 2lm) x2 + 2nlx + l2
U wK bfGfis xL, m, n, l MatWF kfis fhf.
(iii) tUt vLJfhil JbfhL, tf_yij eF mJ
bfhsyh.




25x - 30x + 29x - 12x + 4 = 25x - 30x + 9x + 20x - 12x + 4


2 2
2
2
= ^5x h + 610x + (- 3x) @ (- 3x) + ^10x - 6x + 2h 2

2 2
2
2
= ^5x h + 62 (5x ) + (- 3x) @ (- 3x) + 62 (5x ) + 2 (- 3x) + 2 @ 2

= a + 62a + (- b) @ (- b) + 62a + 2 (- b) + c @ c
2
2

= a + (- b) + c + 2a (- b) + 2 (- b) c + 2ac
2


= (a - b + c) , F a = 5x , b = 3x, c = 2
4
3
2
2
` 25x - 30x + 29x - 12x + 4 = 5x - 3x + 2 .
104 10M tF fzF

vLJfhL 3.33
4

x - 10x + 37x - 60x + 36 - tf_yij fhf

bfhLfgl gYWnfhit x- mLFf wF tir csJ.


2

x - 5x + 6

2x - 5x

x - 10x + 37x - 60x + 36

- 10x + 37x

- 10x + 25x


2x - 10x + 6

12x - 60x + 36
2
12x - 60x + 36

vdnt,bfhLfgLs gYWnfhit tf_y,


4
3
2
2
x - 10x + 37x - 60x + 36 = ^ x - 5x + 6h MF.

vLJfhL 3.34

x - 6x + 19x - 30x + 25 - tf_yij fhf.

tf_y fhz gYWnfhitia x- mLFf VW tir fUJf.


5 - 3x + x

2
2

5 25 - 30x + 19x - 6x + x

25

103x

- 30x + 19x
- 30x + 9x

10 - 6x + x

10x - 6x + x

10x - 6x + x


0
2

vdnt, bfhLfgLs gYWnfhit tf_y x - 3x + 5 MF.
vLJfhL 3.35
2


m - nx + 28x + 12x + 9x MdJ xU KG tf v, m, n Mat
kfis fhf.
gYWnfhitia x- mLFf wF tir fUJf.
4

9x + 12x + 28x - nx + m .
3. afj 105

3x + 2x + 4
2

3 x 9x + 12x + 28x - nx + m
4

9x
2

6x + 2x

12x + 28x
3

12x + 4x

6x + 4x + 4

2
2

24x - nx + m
2


24x + 16x + 16
0

bfhLfgl gYWnfhit xU KG tfkhjyh, n = 16 kW m = 16.

g 3.13
1.

tU gyW nfhitf tf_yij tFj Kiw_y fhf.


4
3
2
4
3
2
(ii) 4x + 8x + 8x + 4x + 1
(i) x - 4x + 10x - 12x + 9

(iii) 9x - 6x + 7x - 2x + 1

2.

tU gYWnfhitf KGtff v, a, b Mat


kfis fhf.

(i)

(iii) ax + bx + 109x - 60x + 36

(ii)

(iv) ax - bx + 40x + 24x + 36

4x - 12x + 37x + ax + b
4

(iv) 4 + 25x - 12x - 24x + 16x

x - 4x + 10x - ax + b
4

3.8 Ugo rkghLf (Quadratic equations)



nuf fj nkij (Euclid) toa Kiw flj sfns,
jnghJ gagLjgL Ugo rkghLf _yfshF. Ugo rkghLf
fis bghJthd to mj bgUik a fja mPfis nrU.
2
Fghf, ax + bx = c vd mikj Ugo rkghoF fhz bjthd
Nubkhiw ukFjh (Brahma Gupta) (.. 598 - 665) fLojh. fhy
a fjnkij $j Mrhah (Sridhar Acharya) (. 1025) tfgLj
Kiwia gagL Ugorkghil F Kiwia fljh. fj
mP ghfuh II (Bhaskara II) Nuij Ugo Nu (quadratic formula) vd
Flh.

gF gntW Kiwfis gagL Ugo rkghLfSF
fhQjiy fngh. Ugo rkghLf gaghLfis fhngh.
tiuaiw
2

a, b, c Mad bkbaf kW a ! 0 v, ax + bx + c = 0 vw to
mikj rkghoid kh x- mikj Ugo rkghL (quadratic equation)
vngh.

Fghf p^ xh vgJ go 2- mikj gYWnfhit v, p^ xh = 0
2
vgJ Ugo rkghL MF. mj bghJ tot ax + bx + c = 0 , a ! 0 MF.
2
2
vLJfhlhf, 2x - 3x + 4 = 0 , 1 - x + x = 0 Mait Ugo rkghLfshF.
106 10M tF fzF

3.8.1 fhugLj _y Ugo rkgho fhQj



(Solution of a quadratic equation by factorization method)

Ugo rkghoid nea fhufshf fhugLj Kobk
Kiwia gagLj aY. vj bgUfgyY xU fhu a v,
KG bgUfgyD a MF. khwhf, bgUfgy aF rk v,
mj bgUfgy cs y fhuf a MF. nkY, bjahj khia
bfhLs fhu akhf Ufyh. vdnt xU Ugo rkghil f
xbthU fhuia akhF tif x- kfis fhz ntL. mjhtJ,
bgUfYs xbthU fhuia aF rkgL, khF fhzyh.
vLJfhL 3.36

f : 6x - 5x - 25 = 0
2

6x - 5x - 25 = 0 (bfhLfgLsJ)
x- bfG 5. Mfnt, a + b = 5 kW a b = 6 ( 25 ) = 150 vd mik
a, b Matiw fhzyh.

vdnt, a = 15 kW b = 10 vd ilF.
2


Mfnt, 6x - 5x - 25 = 6x - 15x + 10x - 25 = 3x^2x - 5h + 5^2x - 5h


= ^2x - 5h^3x + 5h .
nghJ, 2x - 5 = 0 kW 3x + 5 = 0-UJ fz bgwyh.

vdnt,
x = 5 , x = - 5 .
2
3
5

Mfnt, fz = $- , 5 . .
3 2
vLJfhL 3.37
6
f :
=0

- 2 1
+ 21
7x - 21
x - 6x + 9
x -9
bfhLfgl rkghL Ugo rkghly vd njhWwJ. Mdh,
rkghil RUFnghJ, mJ Ugo rkghlhf khW.

6
1
1
+
7^ x - 3h ^ x - 3h2 ^ x + 3h^ x - 3h

= 0

6 ^ x - 9h - 7 ^ x + 3h + 7 ^ x - 3h
= 0
7^ x - 3h2 ^ x + 3h

x = 16 vgJ Ugo rkghL vgjh, x = 4 kW x= 4 MF.

Mfnt, fz = "- 4, 4 ,

2
6x - 54 - 42 = 0

( x - 16 = 0

vLJfhL 3.38

f :

24 - 10x = 3 - 4x , 3 - 4x > 0
3. afj 107

24 - 10x = 3 - 4x vd jugLsJ.

UwK tfgLj, 24 - 10x = ^3 - 4xh2

16x - 14x - 15 = 0
( 16x - 24x + 10x - 15 = 0
( (8x + 5) (2x - 3) = 0 -UJ x = 3 myJ - 5 vd ilwJ.
2
8
x = 3 v, 3 - 4x = 3 - 4` 3 j 1 0 . vdnt, x = 3 vgJ rkgho ty.
2
2
2
x =- 5 v, 3 - 4x 2 0
8
Mfnt,
fz = $- 5 . .
8
(

Fiu

nknys vLJfho Ugij nghw rkghLfSF fhz


2
2
tU tfgLJj gid gagLj ntL. a = b ( a = b .
Mdh, tfgLJtjh bgwgL a rkgho midJ fS, mr
rkgho fshf UF vd tfgLJ gUJ bgw ayhJ.
vLJfhlhf, x = 5 vw rkghil tfgLdh, x2 = 25 MF.
F x = 5 kW x = 5 Mad thf mikwd. Mdh x = 5 vgJ mr
rkgho ty. thwhd ifgLjgl (extraneous solution)
vdgL.
Mfnt, xU rkgho U wfis tfLJnghJ, bgW W
rkgho f mr rkgho fshFkh vd rghf ntL.
jidna nkny bfhLfgl vLJfhL sFwJ. mnj neu,
tfgLJtjh mr rkgho
vj LglhJ. khwhf, y
bfhLfgl rkgho _yf yhk ntW kf a rkgho
_yfshf bgwgLwd.

g 3.14
fhugLJ Kiw nH bfhLfgl Ugo rkghLfis f.

(i) ^2x + 3h2 - 81 = 0


2

(iv) 3^ x - 6h = x^ x + 7h - 3
x + x + 1 = 34
x+1
x
15
2
(ix) 2^ x + 1h - 5^ x + 1h = 12
(vii)

(ii) 3x - 5x - 12 = 0 (iii) 5 x + 2x - 3 5 = 0
(v) 3x - 8 = 2
(vi) x + 1 = 26
5
x
x
2 2 2
2
2
(viii) a b x - ^a + b h x + 1 = 0
(x) 3^ x - 4h2 - 5^ x - 4h = 12

3.8.2 tf Kiw Ugo rkgho fhQj


(Solution of a quadratic equation by completing square)

2
b 2
b 2
b 2
` x + 2 j = x + bx + ` 2 j - cs fil cW ` 2 j vgJ x- bfG
b 2
gh tf MF. Mfnt, x2 + bx MdJ x + b - tfkhf UgjF ` 2 j
2
2
vw cW kLnk njitgLwJ. Mifah, x + bx vw nfhitl x- bfG

108 10M tF fzF

gh tfij nrjh ilgJ X Ugo nfhit (binomial) tfkhf


mikwJ. thW, U go nfhit xU cWid nrJ mjid KG tfkhf
khWtijna tf (completing square) Kiw vnwh. gF xU Ugo
rkgho it tf Kiw fhQjiy tU iyf milayh.

go 1 x2 - bfG 1 v, go 2-F bry. iyba rkgho U


wfis x2 - bfGth tFf. khf cs midJ cWfis
rkgho xnu w itJbfhf.
go 2 x- bfG ghia tfgL, ij rkgho UwfY TLf.
x2 = t ( x = t myJ x =- t , t $ 0, vD tf_y gid
gagL, bfhLfgl rkgho fhzyh.
vLJfhL 3.39
2

tf Kiw 5x - 6x - 2 = 0-I f.
2

bfhLfgl Ugo rkghL 5x - 6x - 2 = 0


2
(UwK 5 M tFf)

( x - 6 x - 2 = 0
5
5
2


(x- bfG gh 3 )
x - 2` 3 j x = 2
(
5
5
5
2
2
9
2
3
9
3
9

=

(UwK ` j =
-I Tl )
( x - 2` j x +
+
25 5
5
25
5
25
19
3 2

(
` x - 5 j = 25

(U wK tf_y vLf)
x - 3 = ! 19
(
25
5
x = 3 ! 19 = 3 ! 19 .
5
5
5

Mfnt,

fz = ' 3 + 19 , 3 - 19 1 .
5
5

vLJfhL 3.40
2 2
2

tf Kiw rkghil f: a x - 3abx + 2b = 0

2 2

a x - 3abx + 2b =
2
2
( x - 3b x + 2b2 =
a
a
2
2
( x - 2` 3b j x + 9b2 =
2a
4a

Mfnt,

9b - 2b
2
2
4a
a
2

2
( x - 2` 3b j x = - 22b
2a
a

9b - 8b
3b 2
` x - 2a j =
2
4a
x - 3b = ! b
2a
2a
fz = $ b , 2b . .
a a

2
( ` x - 3b j = b 2
2a
4a
( x = 3b ! b
2a

3. afj 109

3.8.3 Nu Kiw _y Ugo rkgho fhQj


(Solution of quadratic equation by formula method)


gF xU Ugo rkgho _yfis fhz gaDs Ugo
Nuij tUngh.
2

ax + bx + c = 0 , a ! 0 , vw Ugo rkghoid vLJ bfhnth.


rkghoid tUkhW vGj,
2

x + b x + c = 0
a
a
2
2
( x + 2` b j x + c = 0
( x + 2` b j x = - c
a
2a
a
2a
2

2
2
2
UwK ` b j = b 2 I Tl, x + 2 ` b j x + ` b j = b 2 - c vd bgwyh.
2a
a
2a
2a
4a
4a

mjhtJ,

vdnt,

fz = ' - b +

b 2
b - 4ac ( x + b = !
` x + 2a j =
2
2a
4a
x = - b !

b - 4ac = ! b2 - 4ac
2
2a
4a

b - 4ac
2a

(1)

b - 4ac , - b - b - 4ac 1 .
2a
2a
rkghL (1)- bfhLfgl Nu Ugo Nu (quadratic formula) vdgL.
nghJ Ugo Nuij gagL y Ugo rkghLfis ngh.

vLJfhL 3.41

Ugo Nuij gagL tU rkghil .
1 + 2 = 4

F x + 1 ! 0 , x + 2 ! 0 kW x + 4 ! 0 .
x+1
x+2
x+4
bfhLfgl rkghL xU Ugo rkghL totik iy vgij mf.
4
1 + 2 =
x+1
x+2
x+4
1 = 2 2 - 1

= 2 ; 2x + 4 - x - 4 E
(
;x 4
x+1
x+2E
^ x + 4h^ x + 2h
+
x
1 = 2

(
8 ^ x + 2h^ x + 4h B
x+1
2


( x + 6x + 8 = 2x + 2x ( x - 4x - 8 = 0 vw xU Ugo rkghoid
(.bgh.k-it gagL nknys rkghil bgwyh)
bgWnwh.

Ugo Nuij gagLj,


4 ! 16 - 4^1 h^- 8h
= 4 ! 48
2
2^1 h

x =

Mfnt,

x = 2 + 2 3 kW 2 - 2 3

vdnt, fz = "2 + 2 3 , 2 - 2 3 , .
110 10M tF fzF

g 3.15
1

tf Kiw tU rkghLfis f .

(i)

(iii) 2x + 5x - 3 = 0

(v) x - ^ 3 + 1h x + 3 = 0

2.



x + 6x - 7 = 0
2

(ii) x + 3x + 1 = 0
2
2
2
(iv) 4x + 4bx - ^a - b h = 0

(vi) 5x + 7 = 3x + 2
x-1
Ugo Nuij gagL tU rkghLfis f.
2

x - 7x + 12 = 0
(iii) x + 1 = 2 1
x
2
2
2
^
h
(v) a x + 1 = x^a + 1h
(vii) x - 1 + x - 3 = 10
x+1
x-4
3
(i)

(ii)

15x - 11x + 2 = 0
2 2

(iv) 3a x - abx - 2b = 0
2
2
2
(vi) 36x - 12ax + ^a - b h = 0
2 2
2
2
2
(viii) a x + ^a - b h x - b = 0

3.8.4 Ugo rkghLfis csla fzFf fhQj


(Solution of problems involving quadratic equations)


gF, brhbwhlfsh mikj Ugo rkghLfis csla
y va fzFfSF kW e mwhl thiyfis tF y
fzFfSF f fhngh. bfhLfgl tuf UJ rkghil
mikJ, d mj fis fhngh. W bfhLfgl fzF
bghUjkhd it nj brnth.
vLJfhL 3.42

xU v kW mj jiy Mat TLj 5 1 v, mj viz
5
fhf.
njitahd v x vd bfhf. F x ! 0 . x- jiy 1 MF.
x

bfhLfgl gjidgo,
2

x + 1 = 5 1 ( x + 1 = 26
x
5
x
5
2

5x - 26x + 5 = 0

5x - 25x - x + 5 = 0

( x = 5 myJ 1 .
5
vdnt, njitahd v 5 myJ 1 MF.

5
vLJfhL 3.43

mjhtJ, ^5x - 1h^ x - 5h = 0

xU Knfhz mogf mj FJauijl 4 br. mf.



Knfhz gu 48 r.br. v, mKnfhz mogfij cauij
fhf.
3. afj

111

Knfhz FJau x br. vf.


Mfnt, Knfhz mogf ( x + 4 ) br..

Knfhz gu = 1 mogf cau


2
gjidgo, 1 ^ x + 4h^ xh = 48
2
2
x + 4x - 96 = 0 ( ^ x + 12h^ x - 8h = 0
(



( x = - 12 myJ 8
Mdh, x = - 12 vd Uf KoahJ.
(Vbd, Knfhz gf s if vzhf UfntL)
vdnt, x = 8 , x + 4 = 12

Mfnt, Knfhz mogf = 12 br. kW cau = 8 br. MF.

vLJfhL 3.44
xU kGJ wgl ntoa neuUJ 30 l jhkjkhf wglJ. 150 .

u cs nrUlij rahd neu brwila mjDila tHfkhd ntfij
kF 25 . mfgLj ntoUjJ v, kG tHfkhd ntfij
fhf.

kG tHfkhd ntf = x ./k.


mffgl ntf = ^ x + 25h ./k.

bkhj u = 150 .. ;

bfhLfgl uij kGJ flf vLJ bfhS tHfkhd neu T1

vLJbfhS neu =

u
ntf

vd, ntfij mfgLajh vLJbfhl neu T2 vd bfhf.

(30 lf = 1 k)
bfhLfgl tufUJ, T1 - T2 = 1 k
2
2

( 150 - 150 = 1 ( 150 ; x + 25 - x E = 1
x
x + 25
2
2
x^ x + 25h

( x2 + 25x - 7500 = 0

thW x = 75 myJ - 100 . Mdh x = - 100 VW bfhsjfjy.


Mfnt kG tHfkhd ntf = 75. / k.

( ^ x + 100h^ x - 75h = 0

g 3.16
1.

xU v kW mj jiy Mat TLj 65 v, mj viz


8
fhf.

2.

uL if vf tff ahr 45. a v tf


MdJ, bga v ehF klF rk v, mj vfis fhf.

112 10M tF fzF

3.

xU trh 100r. gugs xU brtf tot fhf njhlij mikf


Udh. mtl 30 snks Kf Ujjh o kRtiu
njhl ehfhtJ gf ntahf itJ bfhL mfah _W
gfK ntia mikjh. njhl gf msfis fhf.

4.

xU brtf tot y 20 s kW 14 mfy bfhlJ. mij R


btw mikJs uhd mfyKs ghij gu 111 r. v,
ghij mfy vd?

5.

uhd ntf xU bjhl toahdJ (train) 90 . uij fljJ.


mjDila ntf kF 15 . mffgoUjh, gaz br neu 30
lf FiwUF v, bjhl to uhd ntf fhf.

6.

mirtw xU augl ntf kF 15 .. vf. mglF


nuhl ir 30 . u brW, wF v ir U 4 k 30
lf L wgl lF U tjh ntfij fhf.

7.

xU tUlF K, xUt taJ mtUila kf taijngh 8 klF.


jnghJ mtUila taJ, kf ta tfF rk v, mtfSila
jnghija taij fhf.

8.

xU rJuf gyif 64 rk rJuf csd. xbthU rJu gu


6.25 r.br. vf. rJuf gyif ehF gffY btw rJufis
xo 2 br. mfy gilahd Xu csJ v, rJuf gyif gf
sid fhf.

9.

xU ntiyia bra A-F B-ia l 6 ehf Fiwthf njitgLwJ.


UtU nrJ mntiyia brjh mij 4 ehf Kof aY v, B
jna mntiyia vjid ehf Kof aY?

10.

xU u iyaUJ uL bjhl tof xnu neu wgLwd.


Kj to nkF iria neh, ulh to tlF iria neh
gaz brwd. Kj toahdJ ulhtJ toia l kF 5 .
mf ntf brwJ. uL k neuF wF mtF ilnass
bjhiy 50 .. v, xbthU to ruhr ntfid fhf.

3.8.5 Ugo rkgho _yf jik


(Nature of roots of a quadratic equation)

2
ax + bx + c = 0 vD Ugo rkgho _yf x = - b ! b - 4ac vd
2a
mnth.

(i)

b - 4ac > 0 v, U btntwhd bkba _yf csd.


mitf, x = - b +

b - 4ac kW x = - b - b - 4ac .
2a
2a
2

(ii) b - 4ac = 0 v, rkghoF U rkkhd bkba _yf csd.

rk _y x = - b MF.
2a

(iii) b - 4ac < 0 v, b - 4ac xU bkba my. Mifah, Ugo


rkghoF bkba _yf iy.

3. afj

113

_yf jik b - 4ac - kfis rhJsJ. nkY b2 - 4ac - k


2
ax + bx + c = 0 vw Ugo rkgho _yf jikia fhLwJ.

Mfnt, b2 - 4ac MdJ Ugo rkgho jikfho (discriminant) vd


miHfgLwJ. J 3 vw Fah FfgLwJ.
jikfho

_yf jik

3 = b - 4ac
3 >0

bkbaf, rkiy

3 =0

bkbaf, rk

3 <0

_yf bkbaf my, mjhtJ


_yf fgidahdit

vLJfhL 3.45

nH bfhLfgLs Ugo rkghLf _yf jikia Muhf.

(i) x - 11x - 10 = 0

ax + bx + c = 0 - jikfho 3 = b - 4ac .

(i)

F a = 1; b = 11 kW c = 10.

(ii) 4x - 28x + 49 = 0

(iii) 2x + 5x + 5 = 0

vdnt, jikfho 3 = b - 4ac


= ^- 11h2 - 4^1 h^- 10h = 121 + 40 = 161

F, 3 > 0 . Mfnt _yf bkbaf kW rkkwit.

(ii)

F, a = 4, b = 28 kW c = 49.

vdnt, jikfho 3 = b - 4ac

= ^- 28h2 - 4^4h^49h = 0
3 = 0 vgjh _yf bkbafshf rkkhf UF.


(iii)

F, a = 2, b = 5 kW c = 5.

vdnt, jikfho 3 = b - 4ac

= ^5h2 - 4^2h^5h

= 25 40 = 15

F 3 < 0 vgjh, rkghoF bkbafshyhd _yf ilahJ.

vLJfhL 3.46

a kW b Mad bkbaf. nkY c xU jKW v vd mikj
rkghL (a - b + c) x2 + 2 (a - b) x + (a - b - c) = 0 _yf MdJ jKW
vf vd Wf.
114 10M tF fzF

bfhLfgl rkghil Ax + Bx + C = 0 vw to vGJf.


F A = a - b + c, B = 2^a - bh kW C = a - b - c
2

Ax + Bx + C = 0 - jikfho 3= B - 4AC

mjhtJ, B - 4AC = 62^a - bh@2 - 4^a - b + ch^a - b - ch


2

= 4^a - bh2 - 4 6^a - bh + c @6^a - bh - c @


2
= 4^a - bh2 - 4 6^a - bh2 - c @

Mfnt,

3 = 4^a - bh2 - 4^a - bh2 + 4c = 4c , xU KGtf.

vdnt, 3 > 0 kW xU KG tfkhjyh, bfhLfgl rkgho _yf


jKW vf MF.

vLJfhL 3.47
2


x - 2x^1 + 3kh + 7^3 + 2kh = 0 vw rkgho _yf bkbaf kW
rk v k- kfis fhf.
2

bfhLfgl rkghL x - 2x^1 + 3kh + 7^3 + 2kh = 0 .


rkghL (1)-I ax + bx + c = 0 vgJl xl,

a = 1 , b =- 2^3k + 1h , c = 7^3 + 2kh .

(1)

Mfnt, jikfho 3 = b - 4ac = b - 4ac

= ^- 2^3k + 1hh2 - 4^1 h^7h^3 + 2kh


2

= 4^9k + 6k + 1h - 28^3 + 2kh = 4^9k - 8k - 20h


rkgho _yf rk vd bfhLfgLsjh,

3 = 0

( ^k - 2h^9k + 10h = 0
Mfnt, k = 2, - 10 .
9

9k - 8k - 20 = 0

g 3.17
1.

rkghLf _yf jikia Muhf.

(i)

(iv) 3x - 2 6 x + 2 = 0
(iii) 9x + 12x + 4 = 0
2
(vi) ^ x - 2ah^ x - 2bh = 4ab
(v) 3 x - 2 x + 1 = 0
5
3
tU rkghLf _yf bkbaf kW rkkhdit v, k
kfisfLo.
2
2
(ii) 12x + 4kx + 3 = 0
(i) 2x - 10x + k = 0
2
2
(iii) x + 2k^ x - 2h + 5 = 0
(iv) ^k + 1h x - 2^k - 1h x + 1 = 0


2.

x - 8x + 12 = 0
2

(ii)

2x - 3x + 4 = 0
2

3. afj

115

3.

2
2
2
x + 2^a + bh x + 2^a + b h = 0 vw rkgho _yf bkbaf my
vd fhLf.

4.

3p x - 2pqx + q = 0 vw rkgho _yf bkbaf my vd


fhLf.

5.

a , b , c kW d ! 0 vd mikj ^a2 + b2h x2 - 2^ac + bd h x + c2 + d2 = 0


vw rkgho _yf rkbk, a = c vd Wf.
b
d

6.

^ x - ah^ x - bh + ^ x - bh^ x - ch + ^ x - ch^ x - ah = 0 -

2 2

_yf

vbghGJ

bkbaf vW, a = b = c vd yho kLnk m_yf rkkwit


vW Wf.

7.

2 2
2
2
2
2
2
rkghL ^1 + m h x + 2mcx + c - a = 0 - _yf rk v, c = a ^1 + m h

vd Wf.

3.8.6 Ugo rkgho _yfSF bfGfSF ilnas


bjhlf (Relations between roots and coefficients of a quadratic equation)
2

ax + bx + c = 0 vD Ugo rkgho a , b , c Mad bkbaf kW


a ! 0 vf. bfhLfgl rkgho _yf a kW b vf.
Mfnt, a = - b +

b - 4ac
2a

kW b = - b -

vdnt, _yf TLj a + b = - b +

b - 4ac .
2a

_yf bgUfgy,

^
4ach = 4ac
( = b - b 2
2
4a
4a

ab = - b +
2

2
b - 4ac # - b - b - 4ac
2a
2a
2

kh cW
ab = c = 2
a
x - bfG

ax + bx + c = 0 - _yf a, b v,

b - 4ac + - b - b - 4ac
2a
2a
x- bfG
a + b = b =
a
x2 - bfG

_yf TLj, a + b = - b
a
(ii) _yf bgUfgy, ab = c
a

(i)

116 10M tF fzF

_yf bfhLfgLnghJ Ugo rkghil mikj


(Formation of quadratic equation when roots are given)

a kW b vgd xU Ugo rkgho _yf vd bfhf.

Mfnt, ^ x - ah kW ( x - b ) vgd mj fhuf MF.

mjhtJ, x2 (_yf TLj) x + _yf bgUfgy = 0

^ x - ah ( x - b ) = 0

x2 - ^a + b h x + ab = 0

bfhLfgl U _yfis bfhl Ugo rkghLf Ko


vif csd.
vLJfhL 3.48
2


3x - 10x + k = 0 vw rkgho xU _y
fhf. nkY k- kig fhf.

1 v, kbwhU _yij
3

bfhLfgl rkghL 3x - 10x + k = 0 .


U _yf a kw b vf.

a = 1 vgij (1)- ul, b = 3 vd ilwJ.


3
nkY, ab = k , ( k = 3
3
Mfnt, kbwhU _y b = 3 kW k- k = 3.

a + b =

-^- 10h 10
=
3
3

(1)

vLJfhL 3.49
2


ax - 5x + c = 0 vw Ugo rkgho _yf TLj 10 kW
bgUfgy 10 v, a kW c Mat kfis fhf.
2

bfhLfgl rkghL ax - 5x + c = 0 .
5 = 10, ( a = 1

_yf TLj,
a
2
c
_yf bgUF bjhif,
= 10

a
c = 10a = 10 # 1 = 5

(
2
1
vdnt, a =
kW c = 5

2

2
ax + bx + c = 0 - _yf a kW b v, a kW b -fis bfhl
2

2 2

a + b , a b , a - b nghw nfhitfis a + b kW ab Mat kfis


bfhL kL bra Ko.
3. afj

117

Kof
a kW b Matiw bfhl y Kof tUkhW jugLsd.
(i)

a-b =

(ii)
(iii)

(a + b) - 4ab

a + b = 6^a + b h2 - 2ab @
2

a -b =

^ a + b h6 ^a + b h2 - 4ab @ . F a $ b

^a + b h^a - b h =

(iv)

a + b = ^a + b h3 - 3ab^a + b h

(v)

a - b = ^a - b h3 + 3ab^a - b h

(vi)

2
2
2 2
4
4
2
a + b = ^a + b h - 2a b = 6^a + b h2 - 2ab @ - 2^ab h2
2

(vii) a - b = ^a + b h^a - b h^a2 + b 2h

vLJfhL 3.50
2

2x - 3x - 1 = 0 vw rkgho _yf a kW b v, tUtdt
kfis fhf.
2
2
b

(ii) a +

(i) a + b
a
b
2

(iii) a - b , F a > b

2
b
(iv) e a + o
a
b

(v) ca + 1 m` 1 + b j
b a

(vi)

3
b
(vii) a +
a
b

a + b

: bfhLfgl rkghL 2x2 - 3x - 1 = 0 .



a kW b vgd bfhLfgl rkgho _yf vf.
2

(1)

rkghL (1) I ax + bx + c = 0 vgJl xl, a = 2 , b =- 3 , c =- 1 .


-^- 3h 3

=
kW ab =- 1
` a + b = - b =
a
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
1
(i) a + b = ^a + b h2 - 2ab = ` j - 2`- j = 9 + 1 = 13
4
4
2
2
2
3
1
2
2
` 2 j - 2`- 2 j 13
^a + b h2 - 2ab
b
a +b
a
(ii)
=
=
=
# ^- 2h = - 13
+ =
1
4
2
b a
ab
ab
2
(iii) a - b = ^a + b h2 - 4ab , F a > b

2
= ;` 3 j - 4 # `- 1 jE 2 = ` 9 + 2j2 =
4
2
2
1

17
2

27 + 9
3
3
2
2
^a + b h3 - 3ab^a + b h
b
a +b
a
4 = - 45
(iv)
=
= 8
+ =
a
1
4
ab
b
ab
2
^ab + 1h^1 + ab h
(v) ca + 1 m` 1 + b j =
b a
ab
1 2
`1 - 2 j
^1 + ab h2

=
=
= -1
1
2
ab
2
118 10M tF fzF

2 2

2 2

a + b = ^a + b h - 2a b
2
2

= ` 13 j - 2`- 1 j = ` 169 - 1 j = 161 .
16
2
16
4
2
(vi)

(vii)

3
a + b = a + b = 161 - 2 = - 161 .
` 16 j` 1 j
a
8
b
ab

vLJfhL 3.51

7 + 3 kW 7 - 3 Matiw _yfshf bfhl Ugo rkghL
xid mikf.
bfhLfgl _yf 7 + 3 kW 7 - 3 .

_yf TLj = 7 + 3 + 7 - 3 = 14.

_yf bgUfgy = ^7 + 3 h^7 - 3 h = ^7h2 - ^ 3 h = 49 3 = 46.

njitahd rkghL, x2 (_yf TLj) x + (_yf bgUfgy) = 0

Mfnt, njitahd rkghL x - 14x + 46 = 0 MF.

vLjfhL 3.52

a kW b vgd 3x - 4x + 1 = 0 vD rkgho _yf v,


2
2
a kW b Matiw _yfshf bfhl Ugo rkghoid mikf.
a
b

2
3x - 4x + 1 = 0 vD rkgho _yf a, b v, a + b = 4 , ab = 1 .
3
3
njitahd rkghofhd _yf TLj

3

2
b
a +b
= e a + o =
a
b
ab

4 3
1 4
`3j - 3 # 3 # 3

=
=
= 28
1
9
ab
3
2
2
b m
a
c
c
m
nkY, _yf bgUfgy =
= ab = 1
a
3
b
2
2
Mfnt, njitahd rkghL x - 28 x + 1 = 0 (myJ) 9x - 28x + 3 = 0 MF.
9
3
^a + b h3 - 3ab^a + b h

g 3.18
1.

nH bfhLfgLs rkghLf _yf TLj kW bgUfgy


Matiw fhf.

(i)

(iii) 3x - 5x = 0

2.

bfhLfgLs _yfis bfhl Ugo rkghLfis mikf.


(i) 3 , 4
(ii) 3 + 7 , 3 - 7
(iii) 4 + 7 , 4 - 7
2
2

x - 6x + 5 = 0
2

(ii)

kx + rx + pk = 0
2

(iv) 8x - 25 = 0

3. afj

119

3.

3x - 5x + 2 = 0 vw rkgho _yf a, b v, tUtdt


kfis fhf.
2
2
b
b
(iii) a +
(i) a +
(ii) a - b
a
a
b
b
2

4.

a, b vgd 3x - 6x + 4 = 0 vD rkgho _yf v, a + b -


k fhf.

5.

a , b vgd 2x - 3x - 5 = 0- _yf v, a kW b
_yfshf bfhl Ugo rkghL xid mikf.

6.

x - 3x + 2 = 0- _yf a, b v, - a kW - b Matiw _yfshf


bfhl Ugo rkghL xid mikf.
2
a, b vgd x - 3x - 1 = 0- _yf v, 12 kW 12 Matiw
b
a
_yfshf bfhl Ugo rkghL xid mikf.

7.

Matiw

3x - 6x + 1 = 0 vw rkgho _yf a, b v, fhQ _yfis


bfhl rkghLfismikf
2
2
(iii) 2a + b, 2b + a
(i) 1 , 1
(ii)
a b, b a
a b

9.

4x - 3x - 1 = 0 vw rkgho _yf jiyfis _yfshf bfhl

8.

rkghL xid mikf.

10.

3x + kx - 81 = 0 vw rkgho xU _y kbwhU _y tfbk, k-


kig fhf.

11.

2x - ax + 64 = 0 vw rkgho xU _y kbwhU _y UklF v,


a- kig fhf.

12.

5x - px + 1 = 0 vw rkghod _yf a kW b vf. nkY a - b = 1


v, p- kig fhf.

g 3.19
rahd ilia njbjLf.
1.

6x 2y = 3, kx y = 2 vw bjhFF xnubahU cbl,

(A) k = 3

2.

U khf cs nea rkghLf bjhF xUfikahjJ v,


mt tiuglf

(A) x J xW bghUJ
(C) vj Y bto bfhshJ

(B) k ! 3

120 10M tF fzF

(C) k = 4

(D) k ! 4

(B) xU bto bfhS


(D) x-mir btL

3.



x 4y = 8 , 3x 12y =24 vD rkghLf bjhFF


(A) Ko vif f csd
(B) iy
(C) xnubahU kL cL
(D) xU Ufyh myJ yhkY Ufyh.

4.

p^ xh = (k +4) x +13x+3k vD gYWnfhit xU a kbwh


jiyahdh, k- k

(A) 2

(B) 3

(C) 4

(D) 5

5.

f^ xh = 2x + (p + 3) x + 5 vD gYWnfhit U af
TLj abk p- k.

(A) 3

6.

7.

(B) 4

(C) 3

(D) 4

x - 2x + 7 vgij x+4 M tFF nghJ ilF


(A) 28
(B) 29
(C) 30
(D) 31
3

x - 5x + 7x - 4 vgij x1M tFF nghJ ilF <


2

(B) x - 4x + 3 (C) x - 4x - 3

(A) x + 4x + 3

8.

^ x3 + 1h kW x4 - 1 Madt . bgh.t

(A) x - 1

9.

10.

x - 2xy + y kW x - y Madt . bgh.t


(A) 1
(B) x+y
(C) xy
3
3
2
x - a kW (x a) Madt . bgh.k

(A) (x - a ) ^ x + ah

(B) (x - a ) ^ x - ah2

2
2
(C) ^ x - ah2 ^ x + ax + a h

2
2
(D) ^ x + ah2 ^ x + ax + a h

11.

keN vDnghJ a , a

k+3

(D) x - 1

,a

k+5

(D) x - y

Mat . bgh.k

(C) a

(D) a

k+5

(A) a

12.

x + 5x + 6 vD jKW nfhit f RUa tot


2
x -x-6
(A) x - 3
(B) x + 3
(C) x + 2
(D) x - 3
x+3
x-3
x-3
x+2
3
3
a + b kW a - b Mad U jKW nfhitf v, mt
3
3
a-b
a +b
bgUfgy

13.

(B) a

k+6

x + 4x - 3

k+9

(C) x +1

(B) x + 1

(D)

(A) a2 + ab + b2 (B) a2 - ab + b2 (C) a2 - ab - b2 (D) a2 + ab + b2


a - ab + b
a + ab + b
a + ab + b
a - ab - b

14.

x - 25 vgij x + 5 M tFF nghJ ilF <


2
x+3
x -9
(A) (x 5)(x3)
(B) (x 5)(x+3)
(C) (x +5)(x3)
(D) (x +5)(x+3)

3. afj 121

15.

a
cl b
I Tl, ilF a nfhit
b-a
a-b

(A) a + ab + b

16.

49 (x - 2xy + y ) - tf_y
(A) 7 x - y
(B) 7^ x + yh^ x - yh

17.

x + y + z - 2xy + 2yz - 2zx - tf_y


(A) x + y - z
(B) x - y + z
(C) x + y + z

18.

121 x y z (l - m) - tf_y

(A) 11x y z l - m

2 4 4

(B) 11x y z (l - m)

(C) 11x y z l - m

2 4 6

(D) 11x y z (l - m)

19.

ax + bx + c = 0 vw rkgho _yfrk v, c- k
2
2
2
2
(A) b
(B) b
(C) - b
(D) - b
2a
4a
2a
4a


20.

21.

(B) a - ab + b

(C) a + b

(D) a - b

2 2

(C) 7 (x + y)

(D) 7 (x - y)

4 8 6

(D) x - y - z

4 4

2 4

x + 5kx + 16 = 0 vw rkghoF bkba _yf iyba,


(A) k 2 8
(B) k 2 - 8
(C) - 8 1 k 1 8 (D) 0 1 k 1 8
5
5
5
5
5
3 -I xU _ykhf bfhl Ugo rkghL
2

x - 6x - 5 = 0
2
x - 5x - 6 = 0

(B)
(D)

(A)
(C)

22.

x - bx + c = 0 kW x + bx - a = 0 Ma rkghLf bghJthd _y
(A) c + a
(B) c - a
(C) c + b
(D) a + b
2b
2b
2a
2c

x + 6x - 5 = 0
2
x - 5x + 6 = 0

23.

a=
Y 0, vd mikj rkghL ax + bx + c = 0 - _yf a kW b v,
tUtdtW vJ bkay?

2
2
(A) a + b = b -22ac
a
(C) a + b = b
a

(B) ab = c
a
1
1
(D)
+ =- b
a
c
b

24.

ax2 + bx + c = 0 vw Ugo rkgho _yf a kW b v,


1 kW 1 Madtiw _yfshf bfhl UgorkghL
a
b

(A) ax2 + bx + c = 0

(B) bx2 + ax + c = 0

(C) cx2 + bx + a = 0

(D) cx2 + ax + b = 0

25.

b = a + c vf. ax2 + bx + c = 0 vw rkgho _yf rk v,


(A) a = c

(B) a = c
(C) a = 2c
(D) a = 2c

122 10M tF fzF

id bfhf

x kW y Ma khf cs nea rkghLfis bfhl KoW


fz vgJ mj khf cs nea rkghLf bjhF vdgL.
bjhFigna xUfik rkghLf vngh.
U khf xiw Kj a rkghL bjhFF fhgJ
f Kiw vdgL.

a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 , a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 vw rkghL bjhFig f,
FWF bgUF Kiwia gagLj f cjahfs mF gl

x
b1

y
c1

1
a1

b1

a2
b2
c2
b2
p(k) = 0 v, p(x) vw gYWnfhitF bkba k MdJ xU a
MF.
p(x) = ax2 + bx + c vw Ugo gYWnfhit bfGf kW
afSF ilnaahd mogil bjhlf,

x- bfG
af TLj = - b = 2
a
x - bfG

af bgUfgy = c =
a

kh cW

x2 - bfG

(i) gYWnfhit p^ xh -F, x = a MdJ xU a v, v kLnk


p^ah = 0 MF.

(ii) x - a MdJ p^ xh -F xU fhu v, v kLnk p^ah = 0 MF.

uL myJ mjF nkgl afj nfhitf . bgh. t. vgJ


bfhLfgl xbthU nfhitia yhk tFf Toa fbga
goia bfhl nfhit MF.

uL myJ mjF nkgl afj nfhitf . bgh. k. vgJ


bfhLfgl xbthU nfhitdhY tFgl Toa f Fiwj
goia bfhl nfhit MF.

VnjD uL gYWnfhitf .bgh.t kW .bgh.k. Mat


bgUfgy, mU gYWnfhitf bgUfgyDF rk.

a ! R vgJ xU if bkba vf. a- tf_ykhdJ b = a vDkhW


mik bkba b MF.

a- tf_yid

a myJ

a vd

Ffyh.
3. afj 123

ax + bx + c = 0 vgJ kh x- cs xU Ugo rkgho bghJ tot


MF. F a, b kW c vgd bkbaf nkY a ! 0 .

xU Ugo rkghil (i) fhugLj Kiw (ii) tf Kiw

(iii) Nuij gagLJ Kiw Ma Kiwf f Ko.


b - 4ac $ 0 v, ax + bx + c = 0 vD Ugo rkgho _yf


-b !

2
b - 4ac MF.
2a

ax + bx + c = 0 vD UgorkghoF
2

(i) b - 4ac 2 0 v, U btntwhd bkba _yf csd

(ii) b - 4ac = 0 v, U rkkhd bkba_yf csd

(iii) b - 4ac 1 0 v, bkahd _yf iy.

cfSF bjkh?
bgkho W njw (Fermats last theorem) :

x n + y n = z n vD nfhitF n 2 2 vD nghJ KGf iy.


ciknyna f wj Ugzij eh fL oJ nl. Mdh,
Ugzij KGikahf vGL msF j jh l yhk,
f Fiwthd gFna csJ vd bgkh vGdh. 1994- Mnya
fja mP MU it (Andrew Wiles) vgt jF fhQ
tiu 300 MLfshf njwF fhzKoaiy. caiyg
khztdhf UF nghJ, efu iya (City Library) j fzid
MU it bjJ bfhlh vgJ xU wghd brahF.

124 10M tF fzF

4
mKf

mf mik
mf tiff
mf Tl,
fj kW bgUf
m rkghLf

n# n#hr btl
(James Joseph Sylvester)
(1814-1897)
yhJ


m nfhghL, khwh
nfhghL, va nfhghL
kW nr fja Ma
tF btl mogil
bfhiffis mjh. bfhL
fgl xU ml gkhw
braToa midJ m
fis fljh. nkY,
discriminant mjhtJ jik
fho Kjyhd gy fja
fiy
brhfis
mKf
gLdh.


1880- Mo yl
uha brhiro,
ma
rhjidfhd f caa Ujhd
fh gjfij (Copley Medal)
tUF tHaJ. tik
1901- Mo fj Mfis
CFF bghUL t
idthf btl gjf
vD Uij WaJ.

mf
Number, place, and combination - the three intersecting but distinct spheres of
thought to which all mathematical ideas admit of being referred .- Sylvester

4.1 mKf

j maha m (Matrix) vw Kakhd
fj fUJ g fwnth. F mfis
mKfgL, mj afj mogilfis fngh.

18 kW 19 M whLf mf
flagL xU fj fUjhf tsailjJ.
Kj, toa cUtf cUkhw kW nea
rkghLf f Madt fhuzkhfnt,
mf ga fUJ tsailjJ. jnghJ
fja cs Kakhd fUf xwhf
mf sFwd. gy vfis bfhl tiria
xnu bghUshf fU, mjF xU FL, mjifa
FpLfis bfhL fzFfis f RUa to
brl ttif brtjh, mf gaDsitahf
Uwd. thW bgwgL fja
RUbfGjhd mf xU a kW tikahdJ
MF. m gy eilKiw fzFfis f cjwJ.

1850- n# n#hr btl vgt, vf
tir mikF Matrix (m) vw brhiy mKf
gLdh. Matrix vgJ fUtiwia FF y
bkh brhyhF. MyY nj bghU jh.
VjhtJ xiw VgLJ myJ cUthF l vw
bghU Tl Matrix vD brh gagLjgLwJ.
x kW y-f mikj fhQ nea

rkghLf bjhFid fUJnth.
(1)

3x - 2y = 4

(2)
2x + 5y = 9

f Kiwia (jid fha f Kiw
vd Flyh) gagL, j (2, 1)
vgij ekh v bgwKo. j f Kiw,
khfis gagLjhk eh bfGfis kL
gagLJnwh. nkfl nea rkghLfSF
m afjij gagL, mnj f Kiw
it v fhzyh.
125

4.2 mfis mikj (Formation of matrices)



mf vthW mikwd
vLJfhLfis fUJnth.

vgij

mJ

bfhs

fl


Fkhl 10 ngdhf csd. j tuij (10) vd vGjyh. milF
( )-F cs v Fkhl cs ngdhf vifia FF.

Fkhl 10 ngdhf kW 7 bgf csd vf. j tuij
(10 7) vd vGjyh. milF ( )-F cs Kj v Fkhl cs ngdhf
vifia FF. mLj v, bgf vifia FF.

tU tufis fUJnth. Fkh kW mtUila egf uhR kW
nfh MnahlKs ngdh kW bgf tu :


Fkhl 10 ngdhfS 7 bgfS


uhRl 8 ngdhfS 4 bgfS
nfhl 6 ngdhfS 5 bgfS csd.

tUkhW tiw tirgL mltiz to vGjyh.

ngdhf

bgf

Fkh

10

uhR
nfh

8
6

4
5

nknys bghUf vifid brtf tir tUkhW


vGjyh. Ys
vf Kiwna m_t ngdh kW bgf
vifia FLwd.
10
7 ! Kj iu
(i)
4 p! ulh iu
f 8
6
5 ! _wh iu

ulh
Kj
u
u

nj tuij kbwhU KiwY flthW mltizgLjyh.

ngdhf
bgf

uhR
8
4

nfh
6
5

tiw brtf to tirahf tUkhW Flyh.

(ii)

Fkh
10
7

10
8
7
4
Kj 2-
u u

126 10M tF fzF

6 ! Kj iu
m
5 ! ulh iu
3-
u


nknys (i)- Kj FJ tirYs vf Kiwna Fkh, uhR,
nfhlKs ngdhf vif, ulh FJ tirYs vf
Kiwna mtflKs bgf vif Fwd.

mnjngh, (ii)- Kj iliy tirYs vf Kiwna Fkh, uhR,
nfh MnahlKs ngdhf vif, ulh iliy tir vf
mtflKs bgf vif Fwd.

nkny tjthW, vfis brtf to tirgL fhLjiy m
(MATRIX) vnwh,

tiuaiw
xU milFF brtf mik iufY, ufY tirahf
vfis bfhl mik, m (MATRIX) vdgL.


mfis A, B, X, Y,g nghw My bga vGJfis bfhL Fngh.
xbthU mY cs vf mj cWf (entries myJ elements) vdgL.
xbthU iliy tir m xU iu (row) vdgL. xbthU FJ
tir mt xU u (column) vdgL.
2
1
0 -1
1 2 3

A=c
9 H kW C = f 0 p vgd
m , B = >3 - 8
4 5 6
1
1
5 -1

mfSfhd y vLJfhLfshF.

4.2.1 m bghJ tot (General form of a matrix)



m iufis, n ufis bfhl m A- bghJtot
J a a ... a ... a N
1j
1n O
K 11 12
K a21 a22 ... a2j ... a2n O

A=K
h
h h h ... h O
K
O
K a a ... a ... a O
m
m
mj
mn
1
2
L
P

F a11, a12, a13, g, amn vgd m cWfshF.



j mia A = 6 aij @

m#n

myJ A = ^aijh

m#n

vW vGjyh.

F i = 1, 2, 3, ... , m kW j = 1, 2, 3, ... , n.
nkY, m A = ^aijh - a vgJ iMtJ iu kW jMtJ u rF
m#n

ij

lYs cWghF.
4 5 3
vLJfhlhf A = f6 2 1 p v, a23 = 1. mjhtJ, cW 1-MdJ ulhtJ
7 8 9

iu kW _whtJ u UF.
njngh, a11 = 4 , a12 = 5 , a13 = 3 , a21 = 6 , a22 = 2 , a31 = 7 , a32 = 8 kW a33 = 9 .

4.2.2 m tir (m) gkhz (Order or dimension of a matrix)


A vw xU m m iufS n ufS U, m A- tir m # n
MF. (ij m by n vd gof)
4. mf 127

cjhuzkhf,

1 2 3
m vw m 2 iufS 3 ufS csd.
4 5 6
vdnt, m A- tir 2 # 3 MF.

A=c


m # n tir bfhl m, Kj vGJ m vgJ iuf
vifia kW ulhtJ vGJ n vgJ uf vif
FF.

4.3

mf tiff (Types of matrices)

nghJ mf y tiffis fngh.

(i)

iu m (Row matrix)
xU m xnubahU iu Ujh, mt
mia iu btl (row vector) vd Twyh.

iu m vdgL. iu

vLJfhlhf, A = ^5 3 4 1h kW B = ( 3 0 5 ) vgd iu mf.


t tirf Kiwna 1 # 4 kW 1 # 3 MF.
bghJthf, A = ^aijh

1#n

(ii)

u m (Column matrix)
xU m xnubahU u Ujh, mt u m vdgL. u mia
u btl (column vector) vd Twyh.
1
0
vLJfhlhf, A = c m kW B = f 2 p vgd u mf. t
2
tirf Kiwna 2 # 1 kW 3 # 1 MF. 5
bghJthf, A = 6 aij @

m#1

(iii)

vgJ 1 # n tirs iu m MF.

vgJ tir m # 1 bfhl u m MF

rJu m (Square matrix)


X m iuf vifahdJ uf vifF rkkhf
U mt rJu m vdgL.
3 0 2
1 2
vLJfhlhf, A = c
m kW B = f 1 5 - 7 p vgd rJu mf.
3 4
7 6 1
t tirf Kiwna 2 kW 3 MF.
bghJthf,

A = 6 aij @

m#m

vgJ m tirs xU rJu mahF. F

a11, a22 , a33, g, amm vgd rJu m A- Kjik _iy l cWf (principal
or leading diagonal elements) vdgL.

(iv)

_iy l m (Diagonal matrix)


xU rJu m Kjik _iylF nkny nH cs midJ
cWfS af v, mt _iy l m vdgL.

128 10M tF fzF

vLJfhlhf,
3 0 0
5 0

A=c
m kW B = f 0 0 0 p vgd Kiwna 2 kW 3 tirila _iy
0 2
0 0 1
l mfshF. bghJthf, A = 6 aij @
vgJ _iyl m v, i ! j vwthW
m#m

cs midJ i, j -fSF aij = 0 MF.


_iyl mf Kjik _iy l cWf y cWf
afshf Ufyh.

(v)
ir m (Scalar matrix)

xU _iyl m, Kjik _iy l cWf midJ rkkhf
ayhj khahf U mj m, ir m vdgL. vLJfhlhf,
7 0 0
5 0

A=c
m kW B = f 0 7 0 p vgd Kiwna 2 kW 3 tirfis
0 5
0 0 7
bfhl ir mfshF.
0, i ! j vDnghJ

bghJthf,
xU ir m v, aij = )
A = 6 aij @
m#m
k, i = j vDnghJ
F k vgJ xU ir. mjhtJ, k xU kh.
(vi) myF m (Unit matrix)

xU ir m Kjik _iy l cWf xbthW 1 v,
mj m myF m vdgL. n tirila myF mia I n vd Ffyh.
vLJfhlhf,
1 0 0
1 0
I2 = c
m kW I3 = f 0 1 0 p vgd Kiwna 2 kW 3 tirila myF mf.
0 1
0 0 1
1, i = j vDnghJ
bghJthf, rJu m A = ^aijh
vgJ myF m v aij = )0, i ! j vDnghJ
n#n


mf bgUfiy bghUJ myF mia rk m (identity matrix)
vd Flyh. vyh myF mfS ir mfshF. Mdh, xU
ir m myF mahf Uf ntoaJ iy. vf 1 vthW
bragLwnjh mnjngh mf myF m bragLwJ.

(vii) a m (Null matrix or Zero-matrix)



xU mYs xbthU cW a v, mj m a m
vdgL. j mia O vdFfyh. vLJfhlhf,
0 0 0
0 0

O=c
m kW O = c
m vgd Kiwna 2 # 3 kW 2 # 2 tir
0 0 0
0 0
bfhl a mf MF.

(i) a m xU rJu mahf Uf ntoa mtaiy. (ii) vf


a vthW bragLwnjh, mnjngh mf a m bragLwJ.
(iii) xU ml mnj tirs a mia Todhnyh myJ fjhnyh
mj m khwhJ.
4. mf 129

(viii) iu u khW m (Transpose of a matrix)



tiuaiw : A vw m iufis ufshf, ufis iufsfh
khw ilF m A- iu u khW m vdgL. A- iu u khW mia
T
A (A transpose vdgof) vd Fngh. vLJfhlhf,
1 3
1 2 5
T


A=c
m v, A = f 2 4 p
3 4 6
5 6

bghJthf, A = 6 aij @
. F i = 1, 2, 3, g, m kW j = 1, 2, 3, g , n v,
m#n

A = 8 b B . F bij = a ji, i = 1, 2, g, n kW j = 1, 2, g, m .
ij n # m
T

vLJfhL 4.1
mltiz 5 ehf caj

(H) btgiy kW Fiwj (L) btgiy
(ghuo) jugLsd.

5 ehf caj kW Fiwj
btgiyfis m tot Kiwna
Kj iu caj btgiyia, 2-M iu Fiwj btgiyia Fgjhf
mikf. mf btgiy cila ehis fhf.
bfhLfgl tufis bfhL m to tUkhW vGjyh.

br

bt
88 90 86 84 85

H 88
90 86 84 85 . mjhtJ, A = e
o
A= c
m
54 56 53 52 52
L 54
56 53 52 52
m Kj iu cs tufgo mf btgiy (H) cs eh
brthHik MF.
vLJfhL 4.2

ehF cz bghUf xbthY cs bfhG rJ,
fhnghiAonu kW uj rJ Mt msf (uh) flthW
mltizgLjgLsJ.

bghU 1

bghU 2

bghU 3

bghU 4

bfhG rJ

10

fhnghiAonu

15

uj rJ

nkfl tufis 3 # 4 kW 4 # 3 mfshf vGJf.

njitahd 3 # 4 tir bfhl mia tUkhW vGjyh.


5 0 1 10

A = f 0 15 6 9 p. F uf cz bghUfis Fwd.
7 1 2 8
vdnt, xbthU uY xbthU cz bghU cs _W cz
rJf msfis FwJ.
130 10M tF fzF

J 5 0 7N
K
O
0 15 1 O
K
nkY, njitahd 4 # 3 tir m B =
K 1 6 2 O MF.
K
O
L10 9 8 P
Ys xbthU iu xbthU cz bghUYs _W cz
rJf msfis FwJ.

vLJfhL 4.3

J1 4 8 N
K
O
6 2 5O
K
v, (i) m tir (ii) a13 kW a42 cWf
A = 6 aij @ = K
3 7 0O
K
O
L9 - 2 - 1 P
(iii) 2 vw cW mikJs iy Madtiw fhf.

(i) m A- 4 iufS 3 ufS csd. vdnt A- tir 4 # 3 .



(ii) a13 vw cW Kj iu 3-MtJ u csJ. vdnt a13 = 8.

a42 vw cW 4-MtJ iu 2-MtJ u csJ. vdnt a42 =- 2

(iii) cW 2 vgJ 2-MtJ iu kW 2-MtJ u csJ. mjhtJ a22 = 2.

vLJfhL 4.4


aij = 2i - 3j vw cWfis bfhl, tir 2 # 3 cs m A = 6 aij @ -id
mikf.
a12 = 2 (1) - 3 (2) = 4
bghJthf 2 # 3 tirs m

a
a
a
A = e a11 a12 a13 o vw to UF.
21
22
23

aij = 2i - 3j , i = 1, 2 kW j = 1, 2, 3 vdbfhLfgLsjh

a11 = 2 (1) - 3 (1) = - 1 = 1 , a12 = 2 (1) - 3 (2) = 4 ,

a13 = 2 (1) - 3 (3) = 7

a21 = 2 (2) - 3 = 1 ,

a23 = 2 (2) - 9 = 5

Mfnt, njitahd m A = c

vLJfhL 4.5
8
5

A=e
1 -3

a22 = 2 (2) - 3 (2) = 2 ,


1 4 7
m MF.
1 2 5

2
T
T T
o v, A kW (A ) Matiw fhf.
4

8
5 2
T
o . A- iu u khW m (transpose) A vgJ A-
1 -3 4
iufis ufshf, ufis iufshf kh vGj ilF.
8
1
T
T T
vdnt,
A = f 5 - 3 p. njngh (A ) mahdJ,
2
4
T
m A - iufis ufshf, ufis iufshf khw ilF.
8
5 2
T T
Mfnt, (A ) = e
o.
1 -3 4

A = e

4. mf 131

T T


nkfl vLJfhoUJ, (A ) = A vd ma KowJ. vj xU m
T T
T
T
B-F (B ) = B vgJ cik. nkY vj xU kh k-F (kA) = kA MF.
g 4.1

1.

xU bghGJ nghF isahL fh flz j tUkhW.


thu ehf flz
(`)
400
200
300

taJ tnjh
Wt
_j Fokf

LKiw ehf flz


(`)
500
250
400

taJ tnjh, Wt kW _jFokfDfhd flz jfSfhd


mfis vGJf. nkY mt tirfis vGJf.

2.

xU efu 6 nkiy gf, 8 caiy gf kW 13 bjhlf


gf csd. j tufis 3 # 1 kW 1 # 3 tirfis bfhl
mfshf Ff.

3.

tU mf tirfis fhf.
7
3 -2
1 -1 5
(i) e
o (ii) f 8 p (iii) f 6 - 1
3 4
-2
9
2
4

4.

J 1
K
-2
p (iv) ^3 4 5h (v) KK 9
K
L 6
8 cWf bfhl xU mF vtif tirf Uf aY?

5.

30 cWf bfhl mF vtif tirf Uf aY?

6.

tUtdtiw bfhL 2 # 2 tirila m A = 6 aij @ -ia fhf


7.

8.

9.

10.

6
1
5

2N
O
3O
7O
O
4P

i-j
i+j
tUtdtiw bfhL 3 # 2 tiria bfhl m A = 6 a @-id fhf.
ij
(i) aij = ij

(ii) aij = 2i - j

(i) aij = i
j

(ii) aij =

(iii) aij =

(i - 2j)

2

(iii) aij =

2i - 3j
2

1 -1 3 2
A = f 5 - 4 7 4 p v, (i) m tiria fhf. (ii) a24 kW a32
6 0 9 8
Ma cWfis vGJf (iii) cW 7 mikJs iu kW uiy fhf.
2
A=f4
5
1
A=f2
3

3
1
0

p v, A- iu u khW mia fhf.

2 3
4 -5
-5 6

p v, (A

132 10M tF fzF

T T

) = A vgjid rghf.

4.4

mf jhd braf (Operation on matrices)


gF mf rkjik, xU mia xU irah bgUf,
mf Tl, mf fj kW mf bgUf Matiw
fhngh.

(i) mf rkjik (Equality of matrices)


U mf A = 6 aij @

m#n

kW B = 6 bij @

m#n

vgd rkbk,

(i) mit rktir csdthf,

(ii) A kW B mf xj cWf midJ rkkhf UF.


mjhtJ, midJ i, j-fSF aij = bij vd UF.

6 3
6 0 1
vLJfhlhf, mf f 0 9 p kW c
m rkiy. Vbd,
3 9 5
1 5
mtf tirf rkiy.
1 2
1 8
nkY, c
m!c
m . Vbd, y xj cWf rkkhf iy.
8 5
2 5

vLJfhL 4.6

3 5 z
x 5 4
m=c
m v, x, y kW z Madt kfis fhf.
5 y 1
5 9 1

bfhLfgLs mf rk. Mfnt, xj cWf rkkhf Uf ntL.


xj cWfis xLnghJ, ekF x = 3, y = 9 kW z = 4 vd ilF.
vLJfhL 4.7
6 - 2x
y
fh : c m = e
o
31 + 4y
3x

mf rkkhf Ugjh, xj cWf rkkhf UF. xj cWfis


xL nghJ,
y = 6 - 2x ; 3x = 31 + 4y vd ilF.

y = 6 2x vgij 3x = 31 + 4y ul, 3x = 31 + 4 (6 - 2x)


3x = 31 + 24 - 8x vd ilF. UJ x = 5 MF.
x = 5 v, y = 6 - 2 (5) = - 4 .

Mfnt,

x = 5 kW y =- 4 .

(ii) xU mia irah bgUFj (Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar)


tiuaiw

m A = 6 aij @

m#n

a m B = 6 bij @

kW k vgJ xU ir (bkba) Mad jugLsd.

m#n

I vyh i, j-fSF bij = kaij vd tiuaWjh, m B-ia

m A- ir bgUf vngh.
4. mf 133


Mfnt, m A-Ys xbthU cWig ir k M bgUfilgJ
m B MF. nkY, B = kA vd vGjyh. jifa bgUfiyna eh ir
bgUf vnwh.
vLJfhlhf, A = c a b c m kW k xU bkba v,
d e f
a b c
ka kb kc

kA = k c
m=c
m.
d e f
kd ke kf
vLJfhL 4.8
4
-1 2

A=e
o v, 3A-I fhf
3 6 -5

m A- xbthU cWig 3 M bgUf ilF m 3A MF.


4
3 (- 1) 3 (2)
3 (4)
6
12
-1 2
-3

3A = 3 e
o = e
o=e
o
3 6 -5
3 (3)
3 (6)
3 (- 5)
9 18 - 15
(iii) mf Tl (Addition of matrices)

fj kW ma ghlf 3 khztfS, 3 khzfS bgw
kbgfis Kiwna tU mf A kW B Mad fhLwd.

fj

ma
khztf
45 72 81
51 80 90 khztf

A=c
B =c
m
m
30 90 65 khzf
42 85 70 khzf

xbthU khztD U ghlfY bgw bkhj kbgfis fhz xj

cWfis Tl ntL.
45 72 81
51 80 90

A+B =c
m+c
m
30 90 65
42 85 70

=e

45 + 51
30 + 42

72 + 80
90 + 85

81 + 90
96
o =c
65 + 70
72

152
175

171
m
135


Kj khzt fjY maY nrJ bkhj 96 kbgf
bgWwh. mnjngh _whtJ khz fjY maY nrJ bkhj 135
kbgf bgWwh vgij Wahf bgwgl m fhLwJ.


Mfnt, xnu tirs U mf TLj, bfhLfgLs U mf
xj cWf TLjf bfhl xU mahF.
tiuaiw

A = 6 aij @

m#n

kW B = 6 bij @

m#n

Mad rk tir bfhl U mfshdh,

A kW B Madt TLj m C = 6 cij @ v, midJ i kW


mxn
j-fSF cij = aij + bij MF.


mf Tl bra, vf Tliy nghynt mikJsJ vd
mayh. A kW B mf TLj A+B vd FfgL. btntW tir
bfhl mf TLjiy tiuaWf ayhJ.
134 10M tF fzF

vLJfhL 4.9
8 3 2
1 -1

A=c
m kW B = c
m v, A+B UFkhdh, mjid fhf.
5 9 1
3
0
m A- tir 2 # 3 kW B- tir 2 # 2 . mf tir btntwhf
Ugjh, A kW B Madtiw Tl ayhJ.
vLJfhL 4.10
5 6 -2 3
3 -1 4 7

A=c
m kW B = c
m v, A + B I fhf.
1 0 4 2
2 8 2 3
mf A kW B- tirf rkkhf 2 # 4 vd Ugjh, A + B-I fhz
aY.
5 6 -2 3
3 -1 4 7

A + B = c
m+c
m
1 0 4 2
2 8 2 3
5+3
1+2
8 5
vdnt, A + B = c
3 8

=e

6-1 -2+4
0+8
4+2
2 10
m
6 5

3+7
8 5 2 10
m
o =c
2+3
3 8 6 5

(iv) v m (Negative of a matrix)


m A = 6 aij @mxn - v m - A vd FfgLwJ. nkY, - A = (- 1) A
vd tiuaWfgLwJ. mjhtJ, midJ i kW j-fSF bij =- aij
mik.
vwthW - A = 6 bij @
mxn

(v) mf fj (Subtraction of matrices)



kW B = 6 bij @
vgd xnu tirs U mf v,
A = 6 aij @
m#n

m#n

mitf fj A - B = A + (- 1) B vd tiuaWfgLwJ.

mjhtJ, A - B = 6 cij @ v, midJ i kW j-fSF cij = aij - bij MF.

vLJfhL 4.11

vil Fiwfhd cz fLghL l bjhlf 4 khztf
kW 4 khzf vil (.. ) Kiwna m A- Kj iu kW ulh
iuahf bfhLfgLsJ. j cz fLghL lF mtfSila
vil m B- bfhLfgLsJ.
32 35 27 41 khztf
35 40 28 45 khztf
kW B = c
m
A=c
m
40 30 34 27 khzf
42 38 41 30 khzf
khztf kW khzfSila Fiwfgl vil msid m fhf.

vil Fiw m

35
42
3
=c
2

A-B =c

40
38
5 1
8 7

28 45
32 35 27 41
m-c
m
41 30
40 30 34 27
4
m.
3
4. mf 135

4.5 mf Tl gf (Properties of matrix addition)


(i)

mf Tl gkhW g cilaJ (Matrix addition is commutative)

A kW B Mad xnu tirila U mf v, A+B = B+A MF.

(ii)

mf Tl nr g cilaJ (Matrix addition is associative)


A, B kW C Mad xnu tirila _W mf v,
A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C

(iii)

Tl rk (Additive identity)

mf Tl a mahdJ Tl rkahF. mjhtJ, m # n vw


tirila m A v, A + O = O + A = A MF. F O vgJ m # n vw
tirila a mahF.

(iv)

m TlYfhd nekhW (Additive inverse)


m B MdJ A vw mF TlYfhd nekhW m v, A + B = B + A = O .
nkY, A + (- A) = (- A) + A = O vgjh - A vgJ A- TlYfhd
nekhW vdgL.

F
xU m TlYfhd nekhW m mj v m MF. nkY, xU mF
TlYfhd nekhW m xnw xW jh (unique) UF.

g 4.2
1.

tU mrkghoUJ x, y kW z-f kfis fhf.


5x + 2
y-4
12 - 8
m
e
o=c
0
4z + 6
0
2

2x + y
5
m v, x kW y-f fis fhf.
o=c
x - 3y
13

2.

3.

2 3
1 5
A=e
o-e
o v, A- Tl nekhW mia fhf.
7 -1
-9 5

4.

A=c

3 2
8 -1
m kW B = c
m v, C = 2A + B vw mia fhf.
5 1
4 3

5.

A=e

4 -2
8 2
o kW B = e
o v, 6A - 3B vw mia fhf.
5 -9
-1 -3

6.

2
10
-1
m+ b c
m=c
m v, a kW b Madt kfis fhf.
3
1
5
2 -2
2 3
2X + 3Y = c
m kW 3X + 2Y = e
o v, X kW Y Ma
5
4 0
-1
mfis fhf.

7.

8.

ac

2
2x
-9
f : e x2 o + 3 e
m.
o=c
4
-y
y

136 10M tF fzF

9.

10.

11.

3 2
1 -2
0 0
m, B = c
m kW O = c
m v, tUtdtiw
5 1
2 3
0 0
rghf : (i) A + B = B + A (ii) A + (- A) = O = (- A) + A .
A=c

4 1 2
2 0 4
A = f 1 - 2 3 p, B = f 6 2 8
0 3 2
2 4 6

1 2 -3
p kW C = f 5 0 2
1 -1 1
v, A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C vgjid rghf.

xU dQ FGk jdJ gidfhf thF dQ bghUfis


ffhF bghUL jdJ _W gid Tlf gid bragL
bghGJnghF rhjdf ga tufis g brjJ. uL thuf
eilbgw gid tuf tU mltid FlgLsd.

thu I

thu II

fil I
fil II
fil III
fil I
fil II
fil III

T.V.
30
40
25
25
32
22

DVD
15
20
18
12
10
15

Videogames
12
15
10
8
10
8

CD Players
10
15
12
6
12
10

mf Tliy gagL uL thuf gid bragl


rhjdf TLjiy fhf.

12.

xU r FsF xU ehSfhd EiH flz tUkhW

xU ehSfhd EiH flz ( ` )


cWd
gf 2 kF K

Wt
20

bgat
30

gf 2 kF

30

40

gf 2 kF K

25

35

gf 2 kF

40

50

cWd myhjt

cWd myhjtfSF VgL TLj flzij FF mia fhf.

4.6 mf bgUf (Multiplication of matrices)



br vgt 3 ngdhfis 2 bgfis thf Uwh vf. dh
vgtUF 4 ngdhfS, 5 bgfS njitgLwJ. xU ngdh kW xU bg
Mat iy Kiwna ` 10 kW ` 5 v, xbthUtUF bghUfis thf
njitgL bjhif vts?

3 # 10 + 2 # 5 = 40 . vdnt, brF ` 40 njit.


4 # 10 + 5 # 5 = 65 . vdnt, dhF ` 65 njit.
4. mf 137


mf bgUfiy gagL nkfl njitgL bjhiffis fhzyh.
nkfl jftfis tUkhW vGjyh.
njitgL bjhif ( ` )

njitahdit
iy ( ` )
br 3 2
3 # 10 + 2 # 5
40
10

c
m
c m
m
e
o=c
dh 4 5
4
10
5
5
65
5
# + #

kbwhU fil xU ngdh kW xU bg iyf Kiwna
`8 kW `4 vdbfhnth. nghJ brF dhF njitgL
bjhiff (`-) Kiwna 3 # 8 + 2 # 4 = 32 kW 4 # 8 + 5 # 4 = 52 MF.
nkfl jftfis tUkhW vGjyh.

njitahdit

iy ( ` )

njitgL bjhif ( ` )

br 3 2
3#8+2#4
8
32
c
m
c m
m
e
o=c
dh 4 5
4#8+5#4
4
52

UtU uL filfY jfSF njitgL ngdhf kW
bgfis thF jftfis tUkhW fhzyh.

njitahdit
iy ( ` )
njitgL bjhif ( ` )
br 3 2
3 # 10 + 2 # 5 3 # 8 + 2 # 4
10 8
40 32
c
m
c
m
m
e
o=c
dh 4 5
4 # 10 + 5 # 5 4 # 8 + 5 # 4
5 4
65 52


nknys vLJfhoUJ, Kj m uf vif ulhtJ
m iuf vifF rkkhf U, uL mf bgUfiy
fhz aY. nkY, U mf bgUfgy cs cWf ilf, Kj
m iu cs xbthU cWig Kiwna ulhtJ m u cs
xbthU cWl bgU Tl ntL.

vLJfhlhf,

2 -1
3 -9
m kW B = c
m v, bgUfgy m AB- ia fhz
3 4
5 7
aY. bgUfgy m
2 -1
3 -9

AB = c
mc
m -I fhz tU gof sFnth.
3 4
5 7

A=c

go 1 : A m Kj iu cWfis Kiwna B m Kj u cWfsh


bgU, bgUfgyfis TLf. To tU kid AB- Kj iu
kW Kj u vGJf.

2
c
3

2 (3) + (- 1) 5
-1 3 -9
m c
m=e
4 5
7

go 2: go 1- cs bgUf Kiwia g A- Kj iuYs cWfis


Kiwna B- ulh uYs cWfsh bgUFf. bgUfgyf
TLjiy, AB- Kj iuYs ulh u vGJf.

2
c
3

-1 3
m c
4 5

2 (3) + (- 1) 5
-9
m=e
7

138 10M tF fzF

2 (- 9) + (- 1) 7

go 3: mnj Kiwia g A- ulhtJ iuYs cWfis B- Kj


uYs cWfsh bgUFf. bgUfgyf TL bjhifia AB-
ulhtJ iu Kj u vGJf.

2
c
3

2 (3) + (- 1) 5
-9
m=e
3 (3) + 4 (5)
7

-1 3
m c
4 5

2 (- 9) + (- 1) 7

go 4: AB- ulh iuF, ulh uYF nj Kiwia gagLJf.


2 (3) + (- 1) 5
2 (- 9) + (- 1) 7
2
1 3
9
c - m c - m = e
o
3 (- 9) + 4 (7)
3 (3) + 4 (5)
3
4 5
7
go 5: bgwgl v kfis RU m AB-id fhf.

2 (3) + (- 1) 5
e
3 (3) + 4 (5)

tiuaiw

A = 6 aij @

m#n

2 (- 9) + (- 1) 7
1
o=c
3 (- 9) + 4 (7)
29

kW B = 6 bij @

n#p

- 25
m
1

v, U mf bgUfgy m

AB tiuaWfgLwJ. nkY AB- tir m # p MF. ik tU


gl sfgLsJ.

Am # n

xnu v

n# p

bgUfgy m AB- tir m # p

vLJfhL 4.12
tUtdtF mf bgUfgy tiuaWfgLsjh vd

khf. mthW tiuaWfgo, bgU tU m tiria fhf.

(i) A2 # 5 kW B5 # 4

(ii) A1 # 3 kW B4 # 3

(i) A- uf vif, B- iuf vif rkkhf Ugjh


bgUfgy m AB tiuaWfgLwJ.

nkY, AB- tir 2 # 4 MF.

(ii)

F A- tir 1 # 3 kW B- tir 4 # 3


m A- uf vif B- iuf vif rkkhf
iy vgjh, U mf bgUfiy tiuaWf ayhJ.
vLJfhL 4.13

fhf : c

x
3 2
8
m c m=c m
y
4 5
13

x
3 2
8
m c m=c m
y
4 5
13

3x + 2y
8
m
o=c
4x + 5y
13
4. mf 139

UwK xj cWfis xL nghJ,


3x + 2y = 8
kW

4x + 5y = 13
( 3x + 2y - 8 = 0
kW 4x + 5y - 13 = 0.

FWF bgUf Kiw rkghLfis ngh.


x
y
1

2
8
3
2

5
13
4
5
y
x
x = y = 1
1
=
=

(
(
7
14
15 - 8
7
- 32 + 39
- 26 + 40

Mfnt,
x = 2 kW y = 1

vLJfhL 4.14
a b
1 0
2

A=c
m kW I2 = c
m v, A - (a + d) A = (bc - ad) I2 vd Wf.
c d
0 1
m A MdJ xU rJu m vgjh A2 tiuaWfgLwJ.
2

vdnt, A = A # A
2
a b
a b
a + bc
ab + bd
= c

mc
m=e
2o
c d
c d
ac + cd
bc + d
a b
jnghJ,

(a + d) A = (a + d) c
m
c d
2
a + ad
ab + bd



=e
2 o
ac + cd
ad + d

(1) kW (2) MaitfUJ,
2
2
2
a
bc
ab + bd
a + ad

A - (a + d) A = e +
o
e
2
ac + cd
bc + d
ac + cd

(1)

(2)

ab + bd
2 o
ad + d

bc - ad
0
1 0
m
o = (bc - ad) c
0
bc - ad
0 1
2
vdnt, A - (a + d) A = (bc - ad) I2

=e

4.7 mf bgUf gf (Properties of matrix multiplication)


bkbafSfhd bgUf gf y Kakhd gf, mf
bgUfgy bkahf UfhJ. mjifa y gfshtd :


(i) bghJthf AB ! BA .nkY, AB fhz Kojh BA fhz Ko vW Tw ayhJ.

(ii) A myJ B a mahf yhkUjhY AB = 0 Mf Ufyh.

mjhtJ, AB = 0 v, A = 0 myJ B = 0 vd fUj ayhJ.

(iii) A xU a kw m kW AB = AC vg B = C vnghJ fUj ayhJ.
0 0
1 2
5 6
1 0
vLJfhlhf, A = c
m, B = c
m,C = c
m kW D = c
m Ma
0 1
3 4
3 4
0 0
mfUJ tUtdtiw mayh.

(i) AB ! BA (ii) A kW D a mf my. Mdh, AD = 0

(iii) AB = AC, Mdh B ! C.


m bgUf y gfis tU vLJfhLf _y fhngh.
140 10M tF fzF

(i)
bghJthf mf bgUf gkhW g cilajy
(Matrix multiplication is not commutative in general)


A kW B vgd U mf. AB kW BA Mad tiuaWfgLsd
v AB = BA-thf Uf ntoamtaiy.
vLJfhL 4.15
8 -7
9 -3 2

A = f - 2 4 p kW B = e
o v, AB kW BA Ma
6 -1 -5
0 3
mfis fhf. (mitf U)
m A- tir 3 # 2 kW B- tir 2 # 3 . vdnt AB kW BA-
bgUfgyf tiuaWfgLsJ.
8 -7
9 -3 2

jnghJ, AB = f - 2
4 pe
o
6 -1 -5
0
3
72 - 42 - 24 + 7
30 - 17 51
16 + 35

6-4
2 - 24 p
= f - 18 + 24
- 4 - 20 p = f 6
0 + 18
18 - 3 - 15
0-3
0 - 15
8 -7
9 -3 2
78 - 69
thnw, BA = e
o f -2 4 p = e
o . (F AB ! BA vgij
6 -1 -5
50 - 61
0 3
ftf)

xnu tir bfhl _iy l mf bgUf gkhW g cL.


nkY myF m, mnj tirs vjbthU rJu mlD bgUfiy
bghUJ gkhW g bfhoUF.
(ii)
vnghJ m bgUf nr g cilaJ

(Matrix multiplication is always associative)

A, B kW C vgd VnjD _W mf, UwfYs bgUfgyf
tiuaWfgo, (AB)C = A(BC) vgJ bkahF.
(iii)

mf bgUfyhdJ, Tl gL g cilaJ
(Matrix multiplication is distributive over addition)


A, B kW C vgd VnjD _W mf v, tUtdt
UwfYs bgUfgyf tiuaWfgLnghJ,

(i) A (B + C) = AB + AC

(ii) (A + B) C = AC + BC .

vLJfhL 4.16
3 2
1 1
-2 5
A=e
m kW C = e
o, B = c
o
6 7
-1 4
-5 3
vgij rghf.

v,

A (B + C) = AB + AC

4. mf 141

-2
B+C =c
6
3
A (B + C) = e
-1

1 1
5
-1 6
m+e
m
o =c
7
1 10
-5 3
2 -1 6
- 1 38
m =c
m
oc
4
1 10
5 34

3 2 -2 5
3 2
1 1
AB + AC = e
m+e
oc
oe
o
6 7
-1 4
-1 4 -5 3
15 + 14
3 - 10
3+6
- 6 + 12

o+e
o
=e
2 + 24
- 5 + 28
- 1 - 20 - 1 + 12
6 29
-7 9

=c
m+e
o
26 23
- 21 11
- 1 38

m
=c
5 34

(1) kW (2) MatUJ, A (B + C) = AB + AC

(1)

(2)

(iv) mf bgUfYfhd rk m (Multiplicative identity)



vj xU viz 1 M bgUFnghJ, mnj v ilF. g bfhl
v 1-I nghy mf afjY jifa gid bfhl mid
mKfgLJnth.

n tir bfhl rJu m A-F AI = IA = A vgJ bkahF. F I vgJ
n tir bfhl myF mahF. vdnt, I vgJ bgUf rk (identity matrix under
multiplication) vdgL.
vLJfhL 4.17
1 3
o v, AI = IA = A vgij rghf. F I vgJ tir 2
9 -6
bfhl myF m.

A=e

1+0
1
3
1 0
m=e
oc
9+0
9 -6
0 1

0+3
1
3
o= e
o=A
0-6
9 -6

1+0
1
3
1 0
me
o=e
0+9
9 -6
0 1
vdnt, AI = IA = A .

3+0
1
3
o= e
o=A
0-6
9 -6

AI = e

IA = c

(v)
m bgUf nekhW (Multiplicative inverse of a Matrix)

n tir bfhl rJu m A kW mnj n tir bfhl kbwhU rJu m
B Ma U mf AB = BA = I , I vgJ n tir bfhl myF m, vwthW
-1
U, B vgJ A- bgUf nekhW m vdgL. A- nekhW mia A
vd FfgLwJ.

2 3
m nghw xU y rJu mfSF bgUf nekhW iy.
4 6
(ii) B vgJ A- bgUf nekhW mahdh,
vgJ B- bgUf
nekhW MF.
(iii) mf bgUf nekhW xUik jik (uniqueness) cilaJ.
(i) c

142 10M tF fzF

vLJfhL 4.18
2 -5
3 5

c
m kW e
o Mad m bgUfiy bghUJ xWbfhW
3
1 2
-1
nekhW m vd Wf.
6-5
2 -5
3 5
me
o=e
2-2
3
1 2
-1

1 0
- 15 + 15
m=I
o=c
0 1
-5 + 6

6-5
2 -5
3 5
m=e
e
oc
3
1 2
-3 + 3
-1

10 - 10
1 0
m=I
o=c
0 1
-5 + 6

jnghJ, c
nkY,

vdnt, bfhLfgl mf mbgUf xWbfhW nekhW

mfshf mikwd.

(vi)

iu u khW m -Uif (Reversal law for transpose of matrices)

A kW B vgd U mf kW AB tiuaWfgLsJ v,
T
T T
(AB) = B A .
vLJfhL 4.19
-2
T
T T
A = f 4 p kW B = ^ 1 3 - 6 h vw mfSF (AB) = B A vgij
5
rghf.
12
-2
-2 - 6
jnghJ, AB = f 4 p ^1 3 - 6h = f 4 12 - 24 p
5
5 15 - 30
2
4
5

Mfnt , ^ ABhT = f- 6
(1)
12
15 p
12 - 24 - 30

1
thnw, B A = f 3 p ^- 2 4 5 h
-6
T

4
5
-2
= f- 6
12
15
12 - 24 - 30

p
T

(2)

(1) kW (2) MatUJ (AB) = B A vgJ rghfglJ.


g 4.3

1.

tUtdtW xbthY mf bgUf gy tiuaWfgLsjh


vd khf. mthU, bgUfgy tiria vGJf.

(i) AB, F A = 6 aij @

4x 3

(iii) MN, F M = 6 mij @

, B = 6 bij @

3x 1

3x 2

, N = 6 nij @

1 x5

(ii) PQ, F P = 6 pij @

4x 3

(iv) RS, F R = 6 rij @

2x2

, Q = 6 qij @

4x 3

, S = 6 sij @

2x2

4. mf 143

2.


3.

tUtdtF mf bgUf tiuaWfgLkhdh, mtiw fhf.


5
3 -2
4 1
(i) ^ 2 - 1h c m
(ii) c
m c
m
4
5
1
2 7
4 2
2
9 -3
6
(iii) e
(iv) e
o f- 6 7 p
o^ 2 - 7 h
4 -1
0
-3
-2 1
xU gH ahgh jDila fil gHfis gid brwh. M, khgH
kW MuR Mat xbth gid iy Kiwna ` 20, ` 10 kW
` 5 MF. 3 ehf gidahF gHf viff tuf nH
jugLsd.
eh
1
2
3

M
50
40
60

khgH
60
70
40

MuR
30
20
10

xbthU ehY ilj bkhj gid bjhifia FL xU mia


vGJf. UJ gHf gid ilj bkhj bjhifia fzLf.

4.

x 0
1 2
x 0
mc
m=c
m v, x kW y-f kfis fhf.
0 y
9 0
3 3
x
5 3
-5
A=c
m , X = c m kW C = e
o kW AX = C v, x kW y-f
y
7 5
- 11
kfis fhf.
1 -1
2
A=c
m v, A - 4A + 5I2 = O vd Wf.
2 3
3 2
3 0
A=c
m kW B = c
m v, AB kW BA Matiw fhf. mit
4 0
3 2
rkkhf UFkh?
0
-1 2 1
A=c
,
B
1
m
= f p kW C = ^2 1h v, (AB) C = A (BC) vgij
1 2 3
2
rghf.

5.
6.
7.

8.

2 -1
5 2
T
T T
m kW B = e
o v, (AB) = B A vgij rghf.
7 3
-1 1

9.

A=c

10.

3 -2
5 2
m kW B = e
o vw mf xWbfhW bgUf
7
5
7 3
nekhW m vd Wf.

11.

f : ^ x

12.

A=e

13.

3 3
8 7
2 -3
m, B = c
m kW C = c
m v, (A + B) C kW AC + BC
7 6
0 9
4 6
vw mfis fhf. nkY, (A + B) C = AC + BC vgJ bkahFkh?

A=c

1 0
x
1h e
o c m = ^ 0 h.
5
-2 -3

1 -4
-1 6
2
2
2
o kW B = e
o v, (A + B) ! A + 2AB + B vd Wf.
3 -2
-2 3

A=c

144 10M tF fzF

g 4.4
rahd ilia njbjLf.
1.

tUtdtW vjTW bkahdjy?

(A) ir mahdJ xU rJu mahF.

(B) _iy l mahdJ xU rJu mahF.

(C) ir mahdJ xU _iy l mahF.

(D) _iy l mahdJ xU ir mahF.

2.

A = 6 aij @

m#n

(A) m 1 n

3.

(A) 2 , 7

4.

3x + 7
y+1

vgJ xU rJu m v,

(C) m = 1

(B) m 2 n
5
1
o=e
2 - 3x
8

(D) m = n

y-2
o v, x kW y-f kf Kiwna
8

(B) - 1 , 7
3
-1
A = ^ 1 - 2 3 h kW B = f 2
-3

(C) - 1 , - 2
3
3

(D) 2 , 7

v, A + B =

0
(b) f 0 p
0
(d) tiuaWfgliy

(a) ^0 0 0h

(c) ^ - 14 h

5.

xU m tir 2 # 3 v, mt cs cWf vif

(a)
8
c
x
(a)

6.

5
(b) 6
(c) 2
4
2 1
m = 4c
m v, x- k
8
1 2
1
(b) 2
(c) 1
4

(d) 3

(d) 4

A- tir 3 # 4 kW B- tir 4 # 3 v, BA- tir


(b) 4 # 4
(c) 4 # 3
(d) tiuaWfgliy
(a) 3 # 3
1 1
A #c
m = ^ 1 2 h v, A- tir
0 2
(d) 3 # 2
(b) 2 # 2
(c) 1 # 2
(a) 2 # 1

9.

A kW B vgd rJu mf. nkY AB = I kW BA = I v, B vgJ

(A) myF m
(C) A- bgUf nekhW m

10.

x
1 2
2
m c m = c m v, x kW y-f kf Kiwna
y
2 1
4
(d) 1 , 1
(a) 2 , 0
(b) 0 , 2
(c) 0 , - 2

7.

8.

(B) a m
(D) - A

4. mf 145

1 -2
o kW A + B = O v, B =
-3 4

11.

A=e

(a) e

12.

A=e

(a) c

13.

A- tir m # n kW B- tir p # q vf. nkY, A kW B Madt


TLj fhz aYbk,
(B) n = q
(C) n = p
(D) m = p, n = q
(A) m = p

1 -2
o
-3 4

(b) e

-1 2
o
3 -4

(c) e

-1 -2
o
-3 -4

(d) c

1 0
m
0 1

(c) e

-4 2
o
-6 3

(d) e

4 -2
o
6 -3

4 -2
o v, A2 =
6 -3

16 4
m
36 9

(b) e

8 -4
o
12 - 6

2
a 3
5
m e o = c m v, a- k
1 2 -1
0
(A) 8
(B) 4
(C) 2

15.

A=e

(A) 1 + a + bc = 0

(C) 1 - a - bc = 0

16.

A = 6 aij @

(A) c

17.

(A) - 1, 0, 0, - 1

18.

A=c

7 2
-1 0
m kW A + B = e
o v, m B =
2 -4
1 3

(A) c

1 0
m
0 1

14.

19.

20.

(D) 11

a b
o kW A2 = I v,
c -a
2

(B) 1 - a + bc = 0

(D) 1 + a - bc = 0

2#2

kW aij = i + j v, A =

1 2
m
3 4

(B) c

2 3
m
3 4

(C) c

2 3
m
4 5

(D) c

4 5
m
6 7

1 0
a b
-1 0
mc
m=e
o v, a, b, c kW d Madt kf Kiwna
0 -1
c d
0 1
(B) 1, 0, 0, 1

(B) e

(C) - 1, 0, 1, 0

6 2
o
3 -1

(C) e

-8 - 2
o
1 -7

(d) 1, 0, 0, 0

(D) e

8 2
o
-1 7

2
^ 5 x 1 h f - 1 p = ^ 20 h v, x- k
3
(C) 1
(D) 0
(A) 7
(B) - 7
7
A kW B vgd xnu tirila rJu mf v, flitf vJ
bkahF?
T

(a) (AB) = A B (b) (A B) = A B


146 10M tF fzF

(c) (AB) T = BA (d) (AB) = B A

zz
zz
zz
zz
zz
zz

id bfhf
xU m vgJ brtf to mikfgl vf mikghF.
xU m m iufS n ufS csJ v, mj tir m # n MF.

m = 1 v, A = 6 aij @
n = 1 v, A = 6 aij @

m#n

m#n

m = n v, A = 6 aij @

vgJ xU iu mahF.
vgJ xU u mahF.

vgJ xU rJu mahF.


i ! j vDnghJ, aij = 0 v, A = 6 aij @n # n xU _iy l mahF.
m#n

i = j vDnghJ aij = k kW i ! j vDnghJ aij = 0 v, A = 6 a @


xU
ij n # n
ir mahF. (k vgJ akw xU kh).






i = j vDnghJ aij = 1 kW i ! j vDnghJ aij = 0 v, A = 6 aij @ vgJ xU


myF mahF.

xU m vyh cWfS af v, mj m a m vdgL.

A kW B mf xnu tir bfhljhf mt xj cWf rkkhf


U, mf A kW B rkkhF.
uL mf tirf rkkhf U mj mfis Tlnth
(m) ffnth aY.
mf Tl gkhW g cilaJ. mjhtJ A kW B mf xnu
tir bfhlitahf U A + B = B + A .
mf Tl nr g cilaJ. mjhtJ, A, B kW C mf xnu
tir csitahf U (A + B) + C = A + (B + C),
m A- tir m # n kW B- tir n # p v, bgUfgy m AB
tiuaWfgL. nkY mj tir m # p MF.

bghJthf mf bgUf gkhW g cilajy. mjhtJ, AB ! BA .

mf bgUf nr g cilaJ. mjhtJ, (AB)C = A(BC) MF.


(UwK tiuaWfgo)

(A ) = A, (A + B) = A + B kW (AB) = B A .

T T


AB = BA = I v, mf A kW B Mad xWbfhW bgUf nekhW
vdgL.
AB = O v, A = O Mfnth myJ B = O Mfnth Uf ntoa mtaiy.
vdnt, akyhj U mf bgUfgy, a mahf Ufyh.

cfSF bjkh?
KjKj, 2003 M ML tHfgl grhd mbg gR' (Abel Prize)
1 a mbkf lhyfis bfhlJ. J xU rtnjr UjhF. ehnt
ma mfhldh xbthU ML ehnt eho muruh xW myJ
xWF nkgl fja tYefSF gR tHfgLwJ.
brid wJ, mbkfh thG S.R. thr tuj mtfSF
2007- mbg gR tHfglJ. fjfa Fghf mf yff
csitfis xizJ mt cUtha fUaYfhf mbg gR
tHfglJ.
4. mf 147

5
mKf
Nu
Knfhz kW

ehfu gu
nenfhLf

a o bgkh
(Pierre De Fermat)
(1601-1665)

uh
17M who
KgF thj U
Ka fja mPf
bu blfho kW
bgkh
Mt.
gFKiw
toa
mog i l
b f h i f f i s , tis
nfhLf fbga kW
fa Mabjhiy fis bgkh fljh.
t Mabjhiy toa
Fljf gfhdh.
blfho f bgw
``yh nah vD
btLtjF
Kng,
1636- ifu to
gFKiw toa a o
bgkho Ka Mf
btlgld.

Mabjhiy toa
No human investigation can be called real science if it cannot be
demonstrated mathematically - Leonardo de Vinci

5.1 mKf

Mabjhiy toa (Coordinate Geometry) myJ
gFKiw toa (Analytical Geometry) vgJ mR bjhiy
Kiw, afj kW gFa Madtiw
gagL toaiy fgjhF. J afj
Kofis toa thyhf ff JizwJ.

Mabjhiy
toayhdJ
afjij
toaiy izF ghykhf mikJsJ. a
fjij gagL toaiy fF Kiwid
uRjJt nkij fja mPUkhd bu
blfho (Rene Descartes) mKfgLdh. blfho
Mabjhiyfis mKfgLa _y mt
fjF msga gfhsh. J toaiy
fg uia VgLaJ. t 1637 - yh
nah (La Gemetry) vw iy btlh.
toa fzFfis afj rkghLfshf kh,
vjha d toa Kiw mt fis
flh. mnj fhyfl uR fj nkij a o
bgkh (Pierre De Fermat) vghU Mabjhiy toaiy
cUth mij btL fjF bgU
gfhdh. 1692 by (Gottfried Wilhelm Von
Leibnitz) vw b#kha fj nkij, ilaR u
(abscissa) kW FjR u (ordinate) Ma ed
brhfis Mabjhiy toa mKfgLdh.
nfhy Knu gy (Nicholas Murray Butler)
TWgo, blfho gFKiw totfj, l
kW byg Mnah Efj Mad
ajF fj Kiwfshf tiljd.


xgjh tF, Mabjhiy toa
mogil fUJfshd mRf, js, js
fis Fj, UfSF ilnas
bjhiyid fhz nghwtiw eh fWnsh.
j maha Nu, Knfhz kW
ehfu gu, nenfho rh kW rkghL
Matiw fngh.
148

5.2 Nu (Section Formula)



tU fzid Muhnth. A kW B vgd U efufis FfL.
A-UJ 60 . Hnf d 30 . tlnf brwh B-I milayh. xU
bjhiyng FGk P vw l X miygu nfhuij Wtjhf bfhnth.
P vw l A, B Matiw izF nfhil 1 : 2 vw j cwkhf
wJ vf. mj miygu nfhu mika cs P vw lij vthW mtJ
vgij fhngh.

A-I Mahf bfhnth. P^ x, yh kW B vw
fUJ x-mRF brFJ nfhLfis
tiuf. mit x-mir rF f Kiwna C,
D vf. nkY P-UJ, BD I E- btLkhW xU
brFJ nfhL tiuf.
jnghJ AP : PB = 1 : 2 vd bfhLfgLsJ

T PAC kW TBPE vgd tobthj Knfhzf.


(maha 6, 6.3I fhf)


Mjyh, AC = PC = AP = 1
PE BE
PB
2
AC = 1
PC =
mjhtJ,
PE
BE
2
y
x = 1
=
(
(
60 - x
2
30 - y

2x = 60 - x

x = 20.

gl. 5.1

1
2
1
2

2y = 30 - y
y = 10.

Mfnt, mj miygu nfhu P^20, 10h vD l mikJsJ.

nkfl fzif khahf bfhL Nuij tUngh.

A (x1, y1) kW B^ x2, y2h vgd btntwhd U f vf.


P^ x, yh MdJ, AB- I cwkhf l : m vw j gjhf bfhnth.
mjhtJ, AP = l vf. gl 5.2-UJ, eh tUtdtiw bgwyh.
PB m

AF = CD = OD - OC = x - x1

PG = DE = OE - OD = x2 - x

B(x2,y2)

nkY, PF = PD - FD = y - y1

BG = BE - GE = y2 - y

y)

,
(x

(maha 6, 6.3I fhf)

vdnt,

AF = PF = AP = l
PG
BG
PB
m

A(
x

,y

T AFP kW TPGB Mad tobthj


Knfhzf MF.

F
D

gl. 5.2

5. Mabjhiy toa 149

Mfnt, AF =
PG
x - x1
=
(
x2 - x

l kW
m
l
m

( mx - mx1 = lx2 - lx

PF = l
BG
m
y - y1
= l
(
y2 - y
m
( my - my1 = ly2 - ly

lx + mx = lx2 + mx1
x =

lx2 + mx1
l+m

ly + my = ly2 + my1

y =

ly2 + my1
l+m

A^ x1 , y1h , B^ x2 , y2h vw Ufis izF nfhLJil cwkhf


l : m vw j F
lx + mx1 ly2 + my1
m MF.
Pc 2
,
l+m
l+m
j Nuij Nu (Section formula) vg.

jugl _W fS xnu nenfho mikjh kLnk
Nuij gagLj ntL vgJ bjthwJ.
Kof
(i)

(ii)

A^ x1 , y1h kW B^ x2 , y2h Ma U fis izF nfhL Jil P vw


btwkhf l : m vw j jh, m P c lx2 - mx1 , ly2 - my1 m
l-m
l-m
MF. F l Fiw vzhf (negative sign) UF.
m
AB- eL (Midpoint of AB)
M vgJ AB- eL v, M MdJ AB-I cwkhf 1:1 vw j
F.
vdnt, l = 1, m = 1 vgij Nu ul, AB- eL
x + x1 y2 + y1
m vd ilF.

Mc 2
,
2
2
A^ x1, y1h kW B^ x2 , y2 h vw fis izF nfhL Jo
x + x2 y1 + y2
m MF.
eL c 1
,
2
2

(iii) Knfhz eLnfhL ika (Centroid of a triangle)

TABC - Kid f A^ x1, y1h , B^ x2, y2h , C^ x3, y3h vf.


AD, BE, CF vgd TABC - eLnfhLf (medians) vf.
Knfhz eLnfhL ika vgJ
eLnfhLf rF ahF.

G(x , y) vgJ TABC eLnfhL ika vf.


x + x3 y2 + y3
m MF.
BC- eL D c 2
,
2
2
150 10M tF fj

F
G
1
B

gl. 5.3


Knfhz ggo, eLnfhL ika G MdJ eLnfhL AD- I
cwkhf 2 : 1 vw j F.

` Nugo, eLnfhL ika


^ x2 + x3h
^ y2 + y3h
2
1
x
2
+ 1^ y1h p
+
^
h
1
f
2
2

G(x , y) = G
,
2+1
2+1
x + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3
m
= G c 1
,
3
3
Mfnt, ^ x1 , y1h , ^ x2 , y2h kW ^ x3 , y3h Ma fis cfshf bfhl
x + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3
m.
Knfhz eLnfhL ika c 1
,
3
3

vLJfhL 5.1
^3, 0h , ^- 1 , 4h Ma fis izF nfhL Jo eLia fhf.

^ x1, y1h , ^ x2, y2h vw fis izF nfhL Jo eL


x + x2 y1 + y2
m
M(x , y) = M c 1
,
M(x, y)
2
2
gl. 5.4

` ^3, 0h , ^- 1 , 4h vw fis


izF nfhL Jo eL
M(x , y ) = M` 3 - 1 , 0 + 4 j = M^1, 2h .
2
2
vLJfhL 5.2

(3 , 5), (8 , 10) Ma fis izF nfhL Jil cwkhf 2 : 3 vw
j F ia fhf.
2
A^3 , 5h , B^8 , 10h Ma fis
izF nfhL Jil cwkhf
2 : 3 vw j F P(x,y)
vf.
lx + mx1 ly2 + my1
m

Nu go, P(x , y) = P c 2
,
l+m
l+m

F, x1 = 3, y1 = 5, x2 = 8 , y2 = 10 kW l = 2, m = 3

Mfnt,

P(x , y) = P c

3
gl. 5.5

2^8 h + 3^3 h 2^10h + 3^5h


,
m = P(5, 7)
2+3
2+3

vLJfhL 5.3

A(3, 5) kW B(4, 9) Ma fis izF nfhL Jil P(2 , 3)
vw cwkhf vj j F?
bfhLfgLs f : A^- 3 , 5h , B^4 , - 9h .

P (- 2 , 3) vw AB-I l : m vw j cwkhf wJ vf.


5. Mabjhiy toa 151

lx2 + mx1 ly2 + my1


m = P(2, 3)
,
l+m
l+m
F, x1 =- 3, y1 = 5, x2 = 4, y2 =- 9 .
Nugo, P c

(1)

l^4h + m^- 3h l^- 9h + m^5h


,
m = (2, 3)
l+m
l+m
l
m

x-mR bjhiyfis UwK rkgLj
B(4,-9)
A(-3,5)
P (-2,3)
4l - 3m = - 2 ( 6l = m

l+m
gl. 5.6
l
1

=
m
6

mjhtJ,
l : m = 1 : 6

vdnt, P vw AB -I cwkhf 1 : 6 vw j wJ.
F
(i) nkfl vLJfho, y-mR bjhiyfis rkgL jij
fhzyh.
(ii) bjhlila _W fS xnu nenfho Ujh kLnk,
x-mR bjhiyfis rk brJ bgW jK, y-mR
bjhiyfis rk brJ bgW jK xnu jkhf UF.
(iii) nfhL Jil xU cwkhf l : m vw j jh, l vgJ
m
if vzhf UF.
(iv) nfhL Jil xU btwkhf l : m vw j jh, l
m
vgJ xU Fiw vzhf UF.
(1) ( c

vLJfhL 5.4

^4, - 1h , ^- 2, - 3h Ma fis izF nfhL Jil _W rk
ghffshf F fis fhf.
A(4,1), B(2,3) vgd bfhLfgl f vf.
P(x,y), Q(a,b) vgd AB-I Krk TL f vf. vdnt AP = PQ = QB

mjhtJ, P vw AB-I 1 : 2 vw

j cwkhf wJ.

Q vw AB-I 2 : 1 j wJ

Nugo,

Pc

A(4, 1)

A(4, 1)

1^- 2h + 2^4h 1^- 3h + 2^- 1h


,
m kW
1+2
1+2
2^- 2h + 1^4h 2^- 3h + 1^- 1h
,
m
2+1
2+1

A(4, 1)

gl. 5.7

gl. 5.8

Qc

( P (x, y) = P` - 2 + 8 , - 3 - 2 j kW Q (a, b) = Q` - 4 + 4 , - 6 - 1 j
3
3
3
3
= P`2 , - 5 j
kW = Q `0, - 7 j .
3
3
F, Q vgJ PB- ika kW P vgJ AQ- ika vd mayh.

152 10M tF fj

gl. 5.9

vLJfhL 5.5

A(4, - 6), B(3,- 2) kW C(5, 2) Matiw cfshf bfhl Knfhz
eLnfhL ika fhf.
^ x1, y1h, ^ x2, y2h kW ^ x3, y3h Ma fis cfshf bfhl Knfhz
eLnfhL ika G(x, y) vf.
A(4,-6)

x1 + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3
m.
,
3
3
F, (x1 , y1) = (4, - 6) ,

vdnt, G(x , y) = G c

^ x2, y2h = (3, - 2), (x3, y3) = (5 , 2)

vdnt, ^4, - 6h, ^3 , - 2h kW (5, 2) Matiw

cfshf cila Knfhz eLnfhL ika

G(x , y) = G` 4 + 3 + 5 , - 6 - 2 + 2 j
3
3

= G^4, - 2h .

B(3,-2)

C(5,2)

gl. 5.10

vLJfhL 5.6
^7, 3h, ^6, 1h, ^8, 2h kW ^ p, 4h vgd X izfu tirgo mikj

cf v, p- kig fhf.

izfu cf A^7, 3h , B^6, 1h , C^8, 2h kW D^ p, 4h vf.


X izfu _iy lf xiwbahW Urk TL vgij eh
mnth.
vdnt, _iy lf AC kW BD Madt eLf x J
xW bghUJwd. mjhtJ AC kW BD-f eLf rkkhf UF.

vdnt,

7 8 , 3 + 2 =
` +
2
2 j
6+p 5
, m =
c
2 2

6+p 1+4
,
m
2
2
15 5
` 2 ,2j

x-mR bjhiyfis UwK rkgLj,


6+p
= 15

2
2
p = 9

vdnt,

D(p,4)

gl. 5.11

vLJfhL 5.7

A(4 , 0), B(0 , 6) Ma fis izF nfhL Jo eL C kW
O vgJ M v, C MdJ 3 OAB- cfUJ rk bjhiy mik vd
fhLf.
5. Mabjhiy toa 153

AB- eL C` 4 + 0 , 0 + 6 j = C^2, 3h
2
2

P (x1, y1) kW Q (x2, y2) Ma U fSF
ilnas bjhiy =

B (0,6)

(x1 - x2) + (y1 - y2) .

vdnt, O^0, 0h kW C^2, 3h Ma U fSF

OC =

gl. 5.12

ilnas bjhiy,

A(4,0)

^2 - 0h2 + ^3 - 0h2 =

13

nkY, A^4, 0h , C^2, 3h Ma fSF ilnas bjhiy

AC =

^2 - 4h2 + ^3 - 0h2 =

4 + 9 = 13

B ^0, 6h , C^2, 3h Ma fSF ilnas bjhiy

BC =

^2 - 0h2 + ^3 - 6h2 =

4 + 9 = 13

vdnt, OC = AC = BC

Mfnt, C vw 3 OAB - vyh cfUJ rk bjhiy csJ.

F
xU brnfhz Knfhz fz ika, mKnfhz
RWtlikakhf (circumcentre) mik.

g 5.1
1.

tU fis izF nfhL JLf eLfis fhf.

(i) ^1, - 1h , ^- 5, 3h

(ii) ^0, 0h , ^0, 4h

2.

tU fis Kidfshf bfhl Knfhzf eLnfhL


ikafis fhf.

(i) ^1, 3h,^2, 7h kW ^12 , - 16h

3.

xU tl ika (- 6, 4). mtl xU l xU Kid, M


v, kbwhU Kidia fhf.

4.

(1, 3)- I eLnfhL ikakhf bfhl Knfhz U Kidf


(- 7, 6) kW (8, 5) v, Knfhz _whtJ Kidia fhf.

5.

Nuij gagL, A(1,0), B(5,3), C(2,7) kW D(2, 4) vw tir


vLJbfhsgl f xU izfu cfshF vd Wf.

6.

(3, 4) kW (6, 2) Ma fis izF nfhL Joid btwkhf


3 : 2 vw j F mR bjhiyfis fhf.

7.

(3, 5) kW (4, 9) Ma fis izF nfhL Joid cwkhf


1 : 6 vw j F mR bjhiyfis fhf.

8.

A (6,5), B (6, 4) vgd U f vf. nfhLJL AB- nk


AP = 2 AB vwthW mikJs P-ia fhf.
9

154 10M tF fj

(ii) ^3, - 5h,^- 7, 4h kW ^10, - 2h

9.

A(2, 2) kW B(7, 4) vw fis izF nfhL Jil _W rk


ghffshf F fis fhf.

10.

A(4, 0) kW B(0, 6) vw fis izF nfhL Jil ehF


rkghffshf F fis fhf.

11.

(6, 4) kW (1, 7) vw fis izF nfhL Joid x-mR F


jij fhf.

12.

(5, 1) kW (2, 3) vw fis izF nfhL Joid y-mR F


jij kW F ia fhf.

13.

xU Knfhz Kidf (1, 1), (0, 4) kW (5, 3) v, mKnfhz


eLnfhLf (medians) sfis fzl.

5.3 Knfhz gu (Area of a Triangle)



xU Knfhz y msf bfhLfglh mj guig fhQ Kiwia
K tFf fWnsh. bghGJ xU Knfhz Kid f mjhtJ
c f bfhLfglh mj guig fhngh.
y

TABC - c f A^ x1, y1h, B^ x2, y2h

kW C^ x3, y3h vf.

A(x1,y1)
C(x3,y3)

AD, BE kW CF Matiw x-mRF


brFjhf tiua.

y2

y1

y3

x2

gl 5.13-UJ,

ED = x1 - x2 , DF = x3 - x1 , EF = x3 - x2 .

Knfhz ABC- gugs

= rtf ABED- gu + rtf ADFC- gu rtf BEFC- gu

= 1 ^ BE + ADh ED + 1 ^ AD + CF h DF - 1 ^ BE + CF h EF
2
2
2
= 1 ^ y2 + y1h^ x1 - x2h + 1 ^ y1 + y3h^ x3 - x1h - 1 ^ y2 + y3h^ x3 - x2h
2
2
2
= 1 " x1 y2 - x2 y2 + x1y1 - x2 y1 + x3 y1 - x1 y1 + x3 y3 - x1 y3 - x3 y2 + x2 y2 - x3 y3 + x2 y3}
2
vdnt, TABC - gu = 1 " x1 ^ y2 - y3h + x2 ^ y3 - y1h + x3 ^ y1 - y2h, r.myFf
2

E
x1

x3
gl. 5.13

Mfnt, A^ x1, y1h , B^ x2, y2h kW C^ x3, y3h Matiw Kidfshf bfhl

TABC - gu 1 " x1 ^ y2 - y3h + x2 ^ y3 - y1h + x3 ^ y1 - y2h, r.myFf.


2

5. Mabjhiy toa 155

F

Knfhz cfis flthW vG guid fzlyh.
1 x y - x y + x y - x y + x y - x y r.myFf.


1 3
2 3
2 1
3 1
3 2,
2" 1 2


myJ 1 $(x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1) - ^ x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3h. r.myFf.
2

tU gl sf _y nkfl Nuij f v bgwyh.


TABC - Kidf A^ x1 , y1h , B^ x2, y2 h kW C^ x3, y3h vf. c fis
fofhu Knshl v irgo tirgL bfhs ntL. mitfis
tUkhW vGj.
x
x2
x3
x1
1 ) 1
y2
y3
y1 3
2 y1
nkUJ Hhf cs _iy l bgUf gyfis (dark arrows) Tl.

UJ nkyhf cs _iy l bgUf gyfis (dotted arrows) Tl. Kj
bgwgl Tl gyUJ ulh Tl gyid ff.

thW, 1 $(x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1) - ^ x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3h. vgij bgwyh.
2
F
xU Knfhz guid fhz tU gofis gwyh.

(i) xU cj gl bfhLfgLs fis Ff.


(ii) fofhu Knshl v ir (counter clockwise) mikgo Kid
fis tir gL bfhf. iyba, Nu Fiw viz
gughf jU.
(iii) TABC - gu = 1 $(x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1) - ^ x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3h. vw Nuij
2
gagL Knfhz guig fhz.

5.4 xnu nenfhoyik _W f (Collinearity of three points)



xU js _W myJ mjF nkgl f xnu nenfho mikjh,
mit xU nfhlik f (Collinear points) MF. A^ x1, y1h, B^ x2, y2h kW C^ x3 , y3h
Ma f VnjD xU kw U fis izF nfhoJ
mikjh, mit xU nfhlik fshF (Collinear points).


A^ x1, y1h, B^ x2, y2h kW C^ x3 , y3h vgd xU nfhlik f vf. f
xnu nfho miktjh xU Knfhzij mikfhJ. vdnt, 3 ABC - gu
akhF.
1 x y +x y +x y - x y +x y +x y = 0

mjhtJ,
^ 2 1
2 3
3 1h
3 2
1 3h,
2 "^ 1 2

x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1 = x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3
(

j kWjiy cikahF. jfhd %gzij v fhzyh.

vdnt, 3 ABC - gu a v, v kLnk A, B, C vw f xU



nfhliktdthF.
156 10M tF fj

5.5 ehfu gu (Area of a quadrilateral)


A^ x1, y1h , B^ x2 , y2h, C^ x3, y3h kW D^ x4 , y4h vgd

ehfu ABCD- Kid f vf.

ehfu ABCD- gu

A(x1,y1)

C(x3,y3)

= TABD - gu + TBCD - gu

gl. 5.14
= 1 "^ x1 y2 + x2 y4 + x4 y1h - ^ x2 y1 + x4 y2 + x1 y4h,
2

+ 1 "(x2 y3 + x3 y4 + x4 y2) - ^ x3 y2 + x4 y3 + x2 y4h,
2

ehfu ABCD- gu

= 1 "^ x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y4 + x4 y1h - ^ x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x4 y3 + x1 y4h,


2
1 x - x y - y - x - x y - y r. myFf
^ 2
3h^ 2
4h
4h^ 1
3h,
2 "^ 1

(myJ)

nkfl Nuij tU glsf _y v id bfhsyh.

A^ x1, y1h , B^ x2 , y2h, C^ x3, y3h kW D^ x4 , y4h vw fis fofhu Knshl


v ir mikkhW vLJbfhL mtiw tUkhW vGJf.

1 ) x1
2 y1

x2
y2

x3
y3

x4
y4

x1
.
y1 3

(Knfhz guig fhz gagLa mnj Kiwia gagLj)


vdnt, ehfu gu

= 1 "^ x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y4 + x4 y1h - ^ x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x4 y3 + x1 y4h, r. myFf.
2

vLJfhL 5.8

(1, 2), (- 3 , 4) kW (- 5 ,- 6) Matiw Kidfshf
bfhl Knfhz guig fhf.
cj gl fis Ff. tiw
fofhu Knshl v ir mikgo tirahf
vLJ bfhs.

Knfhz Kidf A(1 , 2), B(- 3 , 4), C (5, 6) vf.

3 ABC- gu

= 1 $(x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1) - ^ x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3h.


2

= 1 "^4 + 18 - 10h - ^- 6 - 20 - 6h,


2
= 1 "12 + 32 , = 22 r. myFf
2

gl. 5.15

1
F : 1 )
2 2

-3
4

-5
-6

1
3
2

5. Mabjhiy toa 157

vLJfhL 5.9
A(6 ,7), B(4 , 1) kW C(a , 9) Matiw Kidfshf bfhl TABC -
gu 68 r. myFf v, a- kig fhf.
3 ABC- gu

1 "^6 + 36 + 7ah - ^- 28 + a - 54h, = 68


2
( ^42 + 7ah - ^a - 82h = 136

( 6a = 12

6
F : 1 )
2 7

-4
1

a
-9

6
3
7

` a=2

vLJfhL 5.10

A(2 , 3), B(4 , 0) kW C(6, - 3) Ma f xnu nenfho mikJsd
vd %.
DABC - gu
2
4
= 1 "^0 - 12 + 18h - ^12 + 0 - 6h,
F: 1 )
2 3
2
0
1
= "6 - 6 , = 0.
2
vdnt, bfhLfgl f xnu nenfho mikJsd.

6
-3

2
3
3

vLJfhL 5.11
^a , 0h , ^0, bh Ma fis izF nenfhL Jo nk

y
mikJs VnjD xU P^ x , yh v, x + = 1 vd Wf. F a kW b ! 0 .
a b
^ x , yh , ^a , 0h , ^0, bh vgd xU nenfho mik fshF.

Mfnt, fis Kidfshf bfhl Knfhz gu akhF.


0
x
a
a
ab bx ay = 0

F: 1 '
(
1
2 0
b
y
0
bx + ay = ab
(

F a kW b ! 0 . vdnt, UwK ab M tFf,


x + y = 1.

a b

vLJfhL 5.12


(- 4, - 2), (- 3, - 5), (3, - 2) kW (2, 3) Ma
fis Kidfshf bfhl ehfu guig
fhf.
)

cj gl fis Fngh. wF
fofhu

Knshl

ir

2
,

mik A(

158 10M tF fj

O
C(3, 2)

tif A(4, 2), B(3, 5), C(3, 2) kW D(2, 3)


Matiw Kidfshf vLJ bfhnth.

D(2, 3)

B(3, 5)

gl. 5.16

ehfu ABCD- gu
= 1 "^ x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y4 + x4 y1h - ^ x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x4 y3 + x1 y4h,
2
-4
-3
= 1 "^20 + 6 + 9 - 4h - ^6 - 15 - 4 - 12h, ; 1 )
2 -2
2
-5
= 1 "31 + 25 , = 28 r.myFf.
2

3
-2

2
3

-4
3
-2

g 5.2
1.

fl fis Kidfshf bfhl Knfhzf gufis fhf.

(i) (0, 0), (3, 0) kW (0, 2)


(iii) (-4, -5), (4, 5) kW (-1, -6)

2.

tir mikj Knfhz KidfS mit mikF Knfhz


gugsfS nH bfhLfgLsd. xbthY a- kig fhf.
cf


gu (rJu myFf)

(ii) (5, 2), (3, -5) kW (-5, -1)

(i) (0 , 0) , (4, a) kW (6, 4)

17

(ii) (a, a), (4, 5) kW (6,-1)

(iii) (a, -3), (3, a) kW (-1,5)

12

3.

tU f xnu nenfho mik fsh vd Muhf.

4.

bfhLfgoUF f xU nfhliktd v, xbthY k-

(i) (4, 3), (1, 2) kW (-2, 1)


(iii) `- 3 , 3j ,(6, -2) kW (-3, 4)
2

(ii)

(-2, -2), (-6, -2) kW (-2, 2)

kig fhf.

(i) (k, -1), (2, 1) kW (4, 5)

(ii)

(iii) ^k, kh, ^2, 3h kW ^4, - 1h

5.


tUtdtiw Kidfshf bfhl ehfuf gugsfis fhf.

6.

^h, 0h, (a, b) kW ^0, kh vgd xU nenfho mik f v,

^2, - 5h, ^3, - 4 h kW ^9, kh

(i) ^6, 9h, ^7, 4h, ^4, 2h kW ^3, 7h


(ii) ^- 3, 4h, ^- 5, - 6h, ^4, - 1h kW ^1, 2h
(iii) ^- 4, 5h, ^0, 7h, ^5, - 5h kW ^- 4, - 2h
Knfhz gufhd Nuij gagL a + b = 1 vd Wf.
h k
F h kW k ! 0 .

7.

xU Knfhz Kidf ^0, - 1h, ^2, 1h kW ^0, 3h v, j gff


eLfis izJ cUthF Knfhz gugsit fhf.
nkY, a Knfhz gugsF, bfhLfgl Knfhz
gugsF cs jij fhf.
5. Mabjhiy toa 159

5.6 nenfhLf (Straight lines)


y

5.6.1 rh nfhz (Angle of Inclination)



if x-mF nenfhL l-F ilna mikj nfhz
nenfhL l- rh nfhz (Angle of Inclination) vdgL.
(nfhzid fofhu Knshl v ir msf ntL.)

gl. 5.17

Fiu

l vw nenfho rh nfhz i v,

(i) 0c # i # 180c
(ii) iliy nenfhLfSF i = 0c myJ i = 180c MF. nkY

neFJ nfhLfSF i = 90% MF.
(iii) bjhlf x-m J mikJs xU nfhL, x-m cs A-ia
bghUJ fofhu v ir RHW W x-mRl bghUdh,
nfho Mug rh nfhz 0c kW W rh nfhz 180c MF.
(iv) x-mF brFjhd nenfhLfis neFJ nfhLf vngh. mthW
brFjhf mikahj nenfhLfis neFjw nenfhLf vngh.
5.6.2 nenfho rh (Slope of a straight line)
tiuaiw

neFjw nenfhL (Non-vertical line) l- rh nfhz i v,


tani vgJ mnfho rh MF. ij m vd Fngh. vdnt,
%
%
nenfho rh (Slope of straight line), m = tan i , 0 # i # 180 , i ! 90c, MF.
Fiu

(i) x-mR myJ x-mF izahd nenfhLf rh akhF.


(ii) tan 900 I tiuaWf ayhJ vgjh y-mR myJ y-mF izahd
nenfhLf rhit tiuaiw bra ayhJ. Mfnt, xU nenfho
rh vd Tdh, mnfhoid xU neFjw nenfhL vd fUj
ntL.
(iii) i xU FWnfhzbk, rh if vzhf UF.
i xU nfhzbk, rh Fiw vzhf UF.

5.6.3 xU nenfho mikJs U f bfhLfglh mnfho rh


(Slope of a straight line when any two points on the line are given)
A^ x1, y1 h kW B^ x2, y2h Ma U f nenfhL l - J mikJsd
%

vf. nfho rh nfhz i v, 0 # i # 180 kW i ! 90c MF.

nenfhL AB MdJ x-mir C- btlL.

nenfhL l - rh m = tan i
160 10M tF fj

(1)

x-mF brFjhf AD kW BE tiuf.

Y
l

A-UJ BE-F AF vw brFJ nfhL


tiuf.

)
,y 2
2
x
(

glUJ,

BF = BE - EF = BE - AD = y2 - y1
nkY +DCA = +FAB = i

brnfhz TABF -

(1) kW (2)-UJ rh m =

C
x1

y1
D

y2

F
X

E
gl. 5.18

x2

y - y1
x1 ! x2 v, tan i = BF = 2
AF
x2 - x1

A(

AF = DE = OE - OD = x2 - x1

y 1)
x 1,

(2)

y2 - y1
vd ilwJ.
x2 - x1

^ x1, y1h kW ^ x2, y2h vw fis izF nenfho

rh, m =

y2 - y1
y - y2
. F i ! 90c vgjh x1 ! x2 MF.
= 1
x2 - x1
x1 - x2


^ x1, y1h kW ^ x2, y2h vw fis izF nenfho rhid
tUkhW fUjyh.
y-Mabjhiyf ahr
y - y1
=
.
rh m = 2
x-Mabjhiyf ahr
x2 - x1

5.6.4 rhf neFjw iz nfhLfSfhd gjid


(Condition for parallel lines in terms of their slopes)

l1 kW l2 vw iznfhLf rh nfhzf

y
l1

l2

i1 kW i2 vf. t rhf m1 kW m2 vf.


l1 kW l2 vgd iz nfhLf vgjh, rh


nfhzf i1 kW i2 rkkhwd.

i1

i2

gl. 5.19

vdnt, tan i1 = tan i2 ( m1 = m2 . Mfnt,

U neFjw nenfhLf iz v, mt rhf rk.

j kWjiy cikahF. mjhtJ, U nenfhLf rhf rkbk,


mnfhLf izahF myJ mnfhLf xnu nenfho bghUJ.

5. Mabjhiy toa 161

5.6.5 rhf neFjw brFJ nfhLfSFa gjid


(Condition for perpendicular lines in terms of their slopes )

l1 kW l2 Ma neFjw brFJ nfhLf

l2

Kiwna A^ x1, y1h kW B^ x2, y2h Ma f


tna brwd vngh. mitf btL

B(x2, y2)

C^ x3, y3h vf.

l1
A(x1, y1)
C(x3, y3)

nkY, m 1 kW m 2 vgd Kiwna l 1, l 2 Ma


nenfhLf rhf vf.

gl. 5.20

y - y1
nenfhL l1 - rh m1 = 3
x3 - x1

nenfhL l2 - rh m2 =

brnfhz 3 ABC- AB = AC + BC

y3 - y2
x3 - x2
2

( ^ x2 - x1h2 + ^ y2 - y1h2 = ^ x3 - x1h2 + ^ y3 - y1h2 + ^ x3 - x2h2 + ^ y3 - y2h2


( ^ x2 - x3 + x3 - x1h2 + ^ y2 - y3 + y3 - y1h2 = ^ x3 - x1h2 + ^ y3 - y1h2 + ^ x3 - x2h2 + ^ y3 - y2h2
2

( ` x2 - x3) + (x3 - x1j + 2^ x2 - x3) (x3 - x1h + (y2 - y3) + (y3 - y1) + 2 (y2 - y3) (y3 - y1)
= ^ x3 - x1h2 + ^ y3 - y1h2 + ^ x3 - x2h2 + ^ y3 - y2h2
( 2^ x2 - x3) (x3 - x1h + 2 (y2 - y3) (y3 - y1) = 0

^ y2 - y3h^ y3 - y1h = - ^ x2 - x3h^ x3 - x1h

y3 - y1 y3 - y2
oe
o
x3 - x1 x3 - x2 =- 1

m1 m2 =- 1 or m1 =- 1
m2

Mfnt, m1 kW m2 Matiw rhfshf bfhl neFjw U



nenfhLf xWF xW brFJ v, m1m2 = 1 MF.
kWjiyahf, m1m2 = 1 v, muL nenfhLfS xWF xW

brFjhdit.

F
x-mR kW y-mR Mad xWF xW brFjhd nenfhLf MF.

x-m rh a kW y-m rh tiuaiw bragliy vgjh,


m1 m2 =- 1 vw gjid x, y-mRfSF bghUjhJ.
162 10M tF fj

vLJfhL 5.13
nenfho rh 1 v, mnfho rh nfhz fhf.
3
i vgJ nenfho rh nfhzbk, j rh

m = tan i , 0c # i # 180c kW i ! 90c MF.

` tan i = 1
3

( i = 30c

vLJfhL 5.14

nenfho rh nfhz 45c v, mnfho rhit fhf.

rh nfhz i v, nenfho rh m = tan i


vdnt, m = tan 45c

m = 1.

vLJfhL 5.15

(3, 2) kW (1, 4) Ma fis izF nenfho rhit fhf.

^ x1 , y1h kW ^ x2 , y2h Ma fis izF nenfho rh


y - y1

MF.
m= 2
x2 - x1

vdnt, (3 , -2) kW (-1 , 4) Ma fis izF nenfho rh

m=

4+2 = -3 .
2
-1 - 3

vLJfhL 5.16
nenfho rhid gagL, A(5, - 2), B(4, - 1) kW C(1, 2) Mad

xnu nenfho mikj f vd Wf.

^ x1, y1h kW ^ x2, y2h vw fis izF nenfho rh


y - y1
MF.

m= 2
x2 - x1

vdnt, A^5, - 2h kW B^4, - 1h Ma fis izF nenfho rh

m1 = - 1 + 2 = 1
4-5

nkY, B(4,1) kW C(1, 2) Ma fis izF nenfho rh

m2 = 2 + 1 = 1
1-4

vdnt, AB vw nenfho rh = BC vw nenfho rh.

nkY, B vgJ bghJ .

Mfnt, A, B, C Ma f xnu nenfho mikJsd.


5. Mabjhiy toa 163

vLJfhL 5.17

(- 2, - 1), (4, 0), (3, 3) kW (- 3, 2) Ma fis tirahf vLJ
bfhL rhid gagL mit X izfuij mikF vd fhLf.
A(- 2 , - 1), B(4 , 0), C(3 , 3) kW D(- 3 , 2)

vgd bfhLfgl f vf.

AB- rh = 0 + 1
4+2

= 1
6

Y
C(3, 3)

)
D(3, 2

2-3 = 1
6
-3 - 3
vdnt, AB- rh = CD- rh

vdnt, gf AB MdJ gf CD-F izahF.

CD- rh =

X
B(4, 0)

O
A(2, 1)

gl. 5.21

(1)

BC- rh = 3 - 0 = - 3
3-4

2 + 1 =- 3
-3 + 2
vdnt, BC- rh = AD- rh

mjhtJ, gf BC MdJ gf AD-F izahF.

(1), (2)-fUJ ehfu ABCD- v gff izahf csd.

Mfnt, ABCD vgJ izfu MF.

AD- rh =

(2)

vLJfhL 5.18

A(1 , 2), B(-4 , 5) kW C(0 , 1) Mad 3 ABC- Kidf. Knfhz
xbthU KidUJ mj v gfF tiuagL FJnfhLf
(altitudes) rhfis fhf.
AD, BE, CF vgd 3 ABC- FJnfhLf vf.

vdnt, BC- rh = 1 - 5 = - 1
0+4

FJnfhL AD MdJ gf BC F brFJ MF.

vdnt, AD- rh = 1

nkY, AC- rh = 1 - 2 = 1
0-1

Mfnt, BE- rh = - 1

nkY, AB- rh =

5 - 2 =- 3
5
-4 - 1
Mfnt, CF- rh = 5

3

164 10M tF fj

gl. 5.22

(a

m1 m2 = - 1)

(a

BE = AC )

(a

CF = AB )

g 5.3
1.

tU rhfis bfhl nenfhLf rh nfhzfis fhf.

(i) 1

2.

tU rh nfhzfis bfhl nenfhLf rhfis fhf.

(i) 30c

3.

bfhLfgl f tna brY nenfho rhfis fhf.

(iii) ^1 + 3 , 2h , ^3 + 3 , 4h

4.

bfhLfgl f t brY nenfhLf rh nfhzfis


fhf.

(i) ^1 , 2h , ^2 , 3h

5.

M tahf, ^0 , - 4h kW (8 , 0) Ma fis izF


nfhLJo eL tahf brY nfho rhit fhf.

6.

rJu ABCD- gf AB MdJ x-mRF izahf csJ v,


tUtdtiw fhf.
(i) AB- rh
(ii) BC- rh
(iii) _iyl AC- rh

(ii)

(iii) 0

(ii) 60c

(i) (3 , - 2), (7 , 2)

(iii) 90c
(ii) (2 , - 4) kW M

(ii) ^3 , 3 h , ^0 , 0h

(iii) (a , b), (- a , - b)

7.

rkgf Knfhz ABC- gf BC MdJ x-mF iz v, AB kW BC


Mat rhfis fhf.

8.

rhid gagL, fl f xnu nenfho mik vd


Wf.
(i) (2 , 3), (3 , - 1) kW (4 , - 5)
(ii) (4 , 1), (- 2 , - 3) kW (- 5 , - 5)
(iii) (4 , 4), (- 2 , 6) kW (1 , 5)

9.
1 0 .

(a, 1), (1, 2) kW (0, b+1) vgd xnu nenfho mik f v,


1 + 1 = 1 vd Wf.
a b
A(2, 3), B(a, 5) Ma fis izF nenfhL kW C(0, 5), D(2, 1)
Ma fis izF nenfhL Mad iz nfhLf v, a-
kig fhf.

11.

A(0, 5), B(4, 2) vw fis izF nenfhlhdJ, C(- 1, - 2), D(5, b) Ma


fis izF nenfhoF brFJ v, b- kig fhf.

12.

3 ABC- Kidf A(1, 8), B(- 2, 4), C(8, - 5). nkY, M, N vgd Kiwna AB,
AC t eLf v, MN- rhit fhf. ij bfhL MN
kW BC Ma nenfhLf iz vd fhLf.

13.

(6, 7), (2, - 9) kW (- 4, 1) Mad xU Knfhz Kidf v,


Knfhz eLnfhLf rhfis fhf.

14.

A(- 5, 7), B(- 4, - 5) kW C(4, 5) Mad 3 ABC- Kidf v,


Knfhz FJauf rhfis fhf.
5. Mabjhiy toa 165

15.

rhid gagL (1, 2), (2 , 2), (4 , 3) kW (1, 3) vgd mnj tir


X izfuij mikF vd Wf.

16.

ABCD vw ehfu Kidf Kiwna A(2 ,4), B(5 , 1), C(6 , 4) kW


D(1, 1) v, j v gff iz vd fhLf.

5.6.6 nenfho rkghL (Equation of a straight line)



L vgJ js cs xU nenfhL vf. x, y vD khf mikj xUgo
rkghL px + qy + r = 0 -I fUJf. L- cs vj xU x Ma bjhiy kW
y Ma bjhiy Matwh rkghL iw bragL vf. rkghoid
iw br x, y- kf, L- nk mikj xU Mabjhiyfshf
mik. vdnt, px + qy + r = 0 MdJ xU nenfhL rkghL vdgLwJ.
thW nenfhL L-I afj rkgho thyhf tngh. js L vw
nenfhL tU tiff xwhf mik.
(i) iliy nfhL (Horizontal line)

(ii) neFJ nfhL (Vertical line)

(iii) iliyahfnth kW neFjhfnth mikahj nfhL



(Neither vertical nor Horizontal)
(i)

iliy nfhL (Horizontal line)

L vgJ xU iliy nfhL vf.


bghGJ L MdJ x- mrhfnth myJ x- mR myhj xU iliy
nfhlhfnth mik.

tif (m) L vgJ x-mir FF vf. js cs (x, y) vw L- nk


Ujh, Ujh kLnk y = 0 kW x VnjD xU bkbazhF.
vdnt, y = 0 vw rkghL x-mir FF. Mfnt, x-mR vw
nenfho rkghL y = 0 MF.
tif (M) x-mR myhj VnjD xU iliy nfhL L
vf. vdnt, L MdJ x-mRF izahF.

(x, y) vw y- mR bjhiy
xU khahf, x vgJ VnjD xU
bkbazhf mikjh, mikjh
kLnk nenfhL L- J m mik.
Mfnt, x- mRF izahd nenfho
rkghL y = k (k xU kh) MF.

y=k

y=0

y = k

Ll

gl. 5.23

k > 0 v, L MdJ x-mF nkwK, k < 0 v, L MdJ x-mF


wK mik. nkY, k = 0 v, L vgJ x-mrhF.

166 10M tF fj

neFJ nfhL (Vertical Line)


L vgJ xU neFJ nfhL vf. Mfnt, L MdJ y-mR myJ y-mR
myhj neFJ nfhlhF.
L

tif (M) L vgJ y-mR myhj neFJ nfhL v,


L MdJ y-mRF izahf mik.

x=c

x = c

tif (m) L vgJ y-mR v, js cs (x, y) vw Ll


ahdJ L- J mikjh, mikjh kLnk
x = 0 kW y MdJ VnjD xU bkbazhF.
vdnt, rkghL x = 0 vgJ y-mid FF.

Mjyh, y-m rkghL x = 0 MF.

x=0

(ii)

gl. 5.24

(x, y) vw x-mR bjhiy xU khahf, y-mR bjhiy


xU bkbazhf mikjh, mikjh kLnk m L- J
mik. vdnt, y-mRF izahd nenfho rkghL x = c MF.
(c xU khahF ). F,

c > 0 v, L MdJ y-m tygf mik.

c < 0 v, nfhL L MdJ, y-m lgf mik.

c = 0 v, L vgJ y-mrhF.

(iii) iliyahfnth kW neFjhfnth mikahj nenfhL



(Neither Horizontal nor Vertical)

L vgJ iliyahfnth kW neFjhfnth iy vf. iy


nenfhL L-I xU rkghlh vthW Flyh?

i vgJ mnfho rh nfhz vf. nfhz i -, L- Js xU


bjjh L- rkghil fhz aY.
neFjw nenfho rh m- kid tUkhW fhzyh.

(i)

rh nfhz i bfhLfglh, m = tan i

(ii) L- J mikj U f ^ x1 , y1h , ^ x2 , y2h


y - y1
bfhLfglh, m = 2
x2 - x1
(iii) L vgJ iliy nenfhL v, v kLnk m = 0 MF.
L vgJ neFjw nenfhL v, mj rkghil tU mikf
fhzyh:

(m) rh- mik (Slope-Point form)

(M) uL f mik (Two-Points form)

() rh-btLJL mik (Slope-Intercept form)

(<) btLJL mik (Intercept form)


5. Mabjhiy toa 167

(m) rh- mik (Slope-Point form)

L- rh m vf. kW Q^ x1 , y1h vgJ L- J


mikj xU vf.

P(x, y)
Q(x1, y1)

P^ x , yh vgJ L- J mikj Q it ju VnjD


xU vf.
y - y1
bghGJ m =
+ m^ x - x1h = y - y1
x - x1

gl. 5.25

vdnt, rh m cila kW ^ x1 , y1h vw tna brY nenfho


rkghL

y - y1 = m^ x - x1h ,

6 (x, y) ! L

(1)

Fiu

(i) x, y Ma khf mikj xUgo rkghL (1)-I L- J mikj VnjD xU


x-mR bjhiy kW y-mR bjhiy Mad iw brwd.
nkY, rkghil iw br x, y-f kf nenfhL L- J
mikj xU mRbjhiyfshF. vdnt, rkghL (1) MdJ
nenfhL L- rkghL vwiHfgLwJ.
(ii) L- f y-mRbjhiy VgL khWj, x-mRbjhiy VgL
khWjYF ne j mik vgij rkghL (1) fhLwJ. j
jrk kh m vgJ nenfho rhthF.
(M) uL f mik (Two-Points form)

y
L

^ x1 , y1h , ^ x2 , y2h Mad neFjw nenfhL


L- J mikj U btntW f vf.

A(x1, y1)
P(x,y)

vdnt, x2 ! x1 MF.

L- rkghoid mikf, Kj L- rhit


fhngh. mj wF (1) I gagLJnth.

L- rh

B(x2, y2)

x
gl. 5.26

y2 - y1
, F x2 ! x1 .
x2 - x1
y - y1
rkghL (1)-UJ, y - y1 = e 2
o x - x1h
x2 - x1 ^
y - y1
x - x1
=
(
y2 - y1
x2 - x1
y - y1
x - x1
Mfnt, nenfhL L- rkghL
=
, 6 (x, y) ! L
y2 - y1 x2 - x1

m =

(2)

F

L- rkghil bgw ^ x1 , y1h vw F gyhf ^ x2 , y2h vw ia
gagLjyh.
168 10M tF fj

() rh-btLJL mik (Slope-Intercept form)

L vw nenfho rh m kW y-btLJL
c vf.

y-btLJL c vgjh, ^0 , ch vw L-
J mik.

(o,c)
c

rkghL (1)- ^ x1 , y1h = ^0 , ch vd ul,

y c = m(x 0)
( y = mx + c , 6 (x, y) ! L
Mfnt,

O
gl. 5.27

(3)

y = mx + c vgJ rh-btLJL mik nenfho

rkghlhF.

(<) btLJL mik (Intercept form)

L MdJ x, y- mRf VgLJ


akyhj btLJLf Kiwna a, b vf.

nenfhL

vdnt, nfhL x- mir A(a, 0) vw Y,

B(0, b)
b

y-mir B(0, b) vw Y btLwJ.



Mfnt, AB- rh m =- b .
a
(1)- go,
y 0 = - b (x - a)
a
(
ay = - bx + ab

A(a, 0)

gl. 5.28

bx + ay = ab
y

UwK ab M tFf x + = 1
( a ! 0, b ! 0 )
a b
vdnt, x- btLJL a kW y- btLJL b bfhl nenfho
rkghL
x + y = 1,
(4)

6 (x, y) ! L
a b
F
(i) nenfhL L- rh m kW x-btLJL d v, nenfho
rkghL y = m^ x - d h .
(ii) y = mx , m ! 0 vw nenfhL M t brY.
(F x kW y-btLJLf uL afshF)
(iii) (1), (2), (4) Ma rkghLfis RU, rh-btLJL mikghd
(3)- csthW jUfyh.
(iv) (1), (2), (3), (4) Ma rkghLfis px + qy + r = 0 vw to vGj
aY. L- jikj ^ x , yh vw midJ fSF J bghUJ.
rkghL nenfho bghJ tot rkghlhF.
5. Mabjhiy toa 169

vLJfhL 5.19

^3, - 4h vw t brW x-mRF


izahf kW y-mRF izahf
cs nenfhLf Kiwna L kW Ll vf.

Ll

x=3


^3, - 4h vw t brY kW Ma
mRfSF
izahf
mikj
nenfhLf
rkghLfis fhf.

O
y = 4

(3, -4)

L- vyh f y-mRbjhiy 4 MF.


gl. 5.29

vdnt, nenfhL L- rkghL y =- 4

thnw, Ll Js vyh f x-mR bjhiy 3 MF.

vdnt, Ll - rkghL x = 3

vLJfhL 5.20

rh nfhz 45c kW y- btLJL
nenfho rkghil fhf.

2
5

Matiw bfhl

njitahd nenfho rh m = tan i



= tan 45c = 1

y- btLJL c = 2
5

rh-btLJL mik cs nenfho rkghL

y = mx + c

(
y = x + 2
5
5
x
2
+

(
y =
5

vdnt, njitahd nenfho rkghL 5x - 5y + 2 = 0 MF.

vLJfhL 5.21

^- 2, 3h vw t brtJ, rh 1
3
rkghil fhf.

cilaJkhd nenfho

bfhLfgLsit : rh m = 1 , xU ^ x1 , y1h = ^- 2, 3h
3

rh- mik cs nenfho rkghL


y - y1 = m^ x - x1h

y - 3 = 1 ^ x + 2h
3
njitahd nenfho rkghL x - 3y + 11 = 0 MF.
(

170 10M tF fj

vLJfhL 5.22

^- 1, 1h , ^2, - 4h Ma f t brY nenfho rkghil
fhf.
A^ x1 , y1h , B^ x2 , y2h vgd bfhLfgLs f vf.

F x1 =- 1 , y1 = 1 kW x2 = 2 , y2 =- 4 .

uL f-mik nenfho rkghL


y - y1
x - x1

=
y2 - y1
x2 - x1

y-1
= x+1
2+1
-4 - 1
3y - 3 = - 5x - 5

njitahd nenfho rkghL 5x + 3y + 2 = 0 MF.

vLJfhL 5.23

A(2, 1), B(-2, 3), C(4, 5) vgd 3 ABC- cf. c A-UJ tiuagL
eLnfho (median) rkghil fhf.
Knfhz X Kidia, mj v gf
eLia izF nfhL eLnfhlhF.

BC- eL D vf.

Mfnt, BC- eL D` - 2 + 4 , 3 + 5 j = D(1, 4)


2
2
eLnfhL AD rkghL
y-1
= x - 2
( a (x1, y1) = (2, 1) , (x2, y2) = (1, 4) )
4-1
1-2
B (2,3)
y-1
x
2
=

3
-1
vdnt, njitahd eLnfho rkghL 3x + y - 7 = 0.

vLJfhL 5.24

xU nenfho x-btLJL
mnfho rkghil fhf.

2
3

A (2,1)

C(4,5)

D
gl. 5.30

kW y-btLJL

3
4

v,

bfhLfgLsit : nenfho x-btLJL a = 2


3


y-btLJL b = 3
4

btLJL mik nenfho rkghL
x + y = 1 ( x + y = 1 ( 3x + 4y = 1

2
3
2
3
a b
3
4
vdnt, njitahd rkghL 9x + 8y - 6 = 0 MF.

5. Mabjhiy toa 171

vLJfhL 5.25

(6, - 2) vD t brtJ kW btLJLf TLj 5
bfhlJkhd nenfhLf rkghLfis fhf.
njitahd nenfhLf x-btLJL a kW y-btLJL b vf.

vdnt, a + b = 5

(bfhLfgLsJ)

b = 5-a

btLJL mik nenfho rkghL


x + y = 1 ( x + y = 1

a b
a 5-a
^5 - ah x + ay

= 1
(
a^5 - ah
^5 - ah x + ay = a^5 - ah

(1)

nfhL (6,- 2) vw t brtjh,

(1) (

^5 - ah 6 + a (- 2) = a^5 - ah

a2 - 13a + 30 = 0.

vdnt,

^a - 3h^a - 10h = 0

a = 3 myJ a = 10

a = 3 v,

(1) ( ^5 - 3h x + 3y = 3^5 - 3h

2x + 3y - 6 = 0

(2)

a = 10 v, (1) ( ^5 - 10h x + 10y = 10^5 - 10h

- 5x + 10y = - 50
x - 2y - 10 = 0.

(3)

njitahd nenfhLf rkghLf 2x + 3y = 6 kW x - 2y - 10 = 0.

g 5.4
1.

x-mUJ 5 myFf bjhiy csJ x-mRF izahdJkhd


nenfhLf rkghLfis fhf.

2.

(-5,-2)

vw

brtJ

MamRfSF

izahdJkhd

nenfhLf rkghLfis fhf.

3.

nH bfhLfgLs tufSF nenfhLf rkghLfis fhf.

(i)

(ii) rhnfhz 600 , y-btLJL 3.

rh -3;

y-btLJL 4.

172 10M tF fj

4.

xU nenfhL y-mir MF nkyhf 3 myFf u btLwJ


kW tan i = 1 (i vgJ nenfho rh nfhz ) v, mj
2
nenfho rkghil fhf.

5.

tU nenfhLf rh kW y btLJL Madtiw fhf.

6.

tU tufSF, nenfhLf rkghLfis fhf.

(i) rh -4 ; (1, 2) vw t brwJ.


(ii) rh 2 ; (5, -4) vw t brwJ.
3


7.

(i) y = x + 1

(ii) 5x = 3y (iii) 4x - 2y + 1 = 0

(iv) 10x + 15y + 6 = 0

rh nfhz 300 bfhl kW (4, 2), (3, 1) Ma fis izF


nenfhL Jo eL t brY nenfho rkghil fhf.

8.

tU f t brY nenfho rkghil fhf.

(i) (-2, 5), (3, 6)

9.

P(1, -3), Q(-2, 5), R(-3, 4) Ma Kidfis bfhl 3 PQR- Kid R-UJ
tiuagL eLnfho rkghil fhf.

10.

nenfho rkghL fhQ Kiwia gagL, tU f xnu


nenfho mik vd fhLf.

(i) (4, 2), (7, 5), (9, 7)

11.

nH bfhLfgLs x, y-btLJLfis bfhl nenfhLf


rkghLfis fhf.

(i) 2, 3

12.

nH bfhLfgLs nenfhLf rkghLfUJ x, y-btL


JLfis fhf.
(ii) 2x - y + 16 = 0
(iii) 3x + 10y + 4 = 0
(i) 5x + 3y - 15 = 0

(ii) (0, -6), (-8, 2)

(ii) - 1 , 3
3 2

(ii) (1, 4), (3, -2), (-3, 16)

(iii) 2 , - 3
5
4

13.

(3, 4) vw t brtJ, btLJLf j 3 : 2 vd csJkhd


nenfho rkghil fhf.

14.

(2, 2) vw t brtJ, btLJLf TLj 9 Mf bfhl


nenfhLf rkghLfis fhf.

15.

(5, -3) vw tahf brY, ms rkkhf, Mdh F btntwhf


cs btL JLfis bfhl nenfho rkghoid fhf.

16.

(9, -1) vw t brtJ x-btLJlhdJ, y-btLJo


msit ngh KklF bfhlJkhd nenfho rkghil fhf.
5. Mabjhiy toa 173

17.

xU nenfhL MamRfis A kW B Ma f btLwJ. AB-


eL (3, 2) v, AB- rkghil fhf.

18.

x-btLJlhdJ y-btLJo msit l 5 myFf mfkhf


bfhl xU nenfhlhdJ (22, -6) vw t brwJ v,
mnfho rkghil fhf.

19.

ABCD vw rhrJu U Kidf A(3, 6) kW C(-1, 2) v, mj _iy


l BD tahf brY nenfho rkghil fhf.

20.

A(-2, 6), B (3, -4) Ma fis izF nenfhL Jil P vw


cwkhf 2 : 3 vw j wJ. P tahf brY
rh 3 cila, nenfho rkghil fhf.
2

5.7 nenfhL rkgho bghJ mik


(General Form of Equation of a straight line)

gntW totf mikj nenfhLf rkghLfis ax + by + c = 0 ,
(a , b , c vgd a ! 0 myJ b ! 0 vd bfhl bkba khf)
vw bghJ mikF khwyh vd Vfdnt FLnsh. nghJ
tUtdtiw fhngh.

(i) ax + by + c = 0 vw nenfho rh kW y-btLJL.

(ii) ax + by + c = 0 vw nfhoF izahd nenfho rkghL.

(iii) ax + by + c = 0 vw nfhoF brFjhd nenfho rkghL.

(iv) U btL nenfhLf rF .

(i)

ax + by + c = 0 vw nenfho rh kW y-btLJL
(The slope and y-intercept of the straight line ax + by + c = 0 )
ax + by + c = 0 vgij y =- a x - c , b ! 0 vd kh mikfyh. (1)
b
b
(1) - I rh-btLJL mik cs y = mx + k vw rkghLl xl,
rh m = - a , y-btLJL = - c MF.
b
b

rh m =

(ii)

ax + by + c = 0 vw nfhoF izahd nenfho rkghL


(Equation of a line parallel to the line ax + by + c = 0 )

ax + by + c = 0 vw rkghoUJ,
kh cW
x- bfG
, y-btLJL =
vd bgWnwh.
y- bfG
y- bfG

U nenfhLf rhf rk v, v kLnk mit izahF. vdnt,

ax + by + c = 0 vw nfhoF izahd nfhLf rkghL ax + by + k = 0


vw to mik. J k- midJ kfSF bghUJ.
174 10M tF fj

(iii)

ax + by + c = 0 vw nenfhoF brFjhd nfho rkghL


(Equation of a line perpendicular to the line ax + by + c = 0 )
MamRfSF izahf mikahj U nenfhLf xWbfhW
brFJ v, v kLnk mt rhf bgUfgy 1 MF.

ax + by + c = 0 vw nfhoF brFjhf mik vyh


nenfhLf rkghL bx - ay + k = 0 , k xU kh MF.

vdnt,

a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 ; a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 vw U nenfhLf
(i) a1 = b1 v, v kLnk izahf mik.
a2
b2
(ii) a1 a2 + b1 b2 = 0 v, v kLnk brFjhf mik.

F nenfhLf rkghLf bfGf akwit.

(iv) U btL nfhLf btL


(The point of intersection of two intersecting straight lines)

U nenfhLf izahf iyba, mit xU bto
bfhS. m uL nfhLf J mik. vdnt, mitf
U rkghLfis g _y btL ia fhzyh.

vLJfhL 5.26

3x + 2y - 12 = 0 , 6x + 4y + 8 = 0 Ma nenfhLf iz vd Wf.
3x + 2y - 12 = 0 - rh m1 =

x- bfG
=-3
y- bfG
2

thnw, 6x + 4y + 8 = 0 - rh m2 = - 6 = - 3
4
2
` m1 = m2 . Mfnt, U nenfhLfS izahF.

vLJfhL 5.27
x + 2y + 1 = 0 , 2x - y + 5 = 0 Ma nenfhLf xWF xW brFjhdit
vd Wf.
x- bfG
x + 2y + 1 = 0 - rh m1 =
= -1
y- bfG
2


x- bfG
= -2 = 2
y- bfG
-1
vdnt, rhf bgUf gy m1 m2 = - 1 # 2 = 1
2
Mfnt, U nenfhLf xWbfhW brFjhdit.
2x - y + 5 = 0 - rh m2 =

vLJfhL 5.28

x - 8y + 13 = 0 vw nfhoF izahdJ (2, 5) vw t brtJkhd
nenfho rkghil fhf.
5. Mabjhiy toa 175

x - 8y + 13 = 0 vw nenfhoF izahd
x - 8y + k = 0 . J (2, 5) vw t brtjh,

2 - 8 (5) + k = 0 ( k = 38.

nenfho

tot

njitahd nenfho rkghL x - 8y + 38 = 0 MF.

vLJfhL 5.29

3 ABC - Kidf A(2, 1), B(6, 1), C(4, 11) vf. A-UJ tiuagL
FJnfho rkghil fhf.
BC- rh = 11 + 1 = 6
4-6
AD vgJ BC-F brFJ. vdnt AD- rh = 1
6
` AD- rkghL y - y1 = m^ x - x1h

y - 1 = 1 ^ x - 2h ( 6y - 6 = x - 2
6

gl. 5.31

` njitahd nenfho rkghL x - 6y + 4 = 0 MF.

g 5.5
1.

tU nenfhLf rhfis fhf.

2.

x + 2y + 1 = 0 , 3x + 6y + 2 = 0 Ma nenfhLf iz vd Wf.

3.

3x - 5y + 7 = 0 , 15x + 9y + 4 = 0 Ma nenfhLf xWF xW brFJ


vd Wf.
y
= x - p kW ax + 5 = 3y vgd iz v, a - kig fhf.
2
5x - 2y - 9 = 0 , ay + 2x - 11 = 0 Ma nenfhLf xWF xW brFJ
v, a - kig fhf.

4.
5.

(i) 3x + 4y - 6 = 0

(ii) y = 7x + 6

(iii) 4x = 5y + 3 .

6.

8px + ^2 - 3ph y + 1 = 0 , px + 8y - 7 = 0 Mad brFJ nenfhLf v,


p - kfis fhf.

7.

^h, 3h , (4, 1) Ma fis izF nenfhL, 7x - 9y - 19 = 0 vw

nenfhL brFjhf bto bfhwd v, h - kig fhf.

8.

3x - y + 7 = 0 vw nenfhoF izahdJ (1, - 2) vw t


brtJkhd nenfho rkghil fhf.

9.

x - 2y + 3 = 0 vw nenfhoF brFjhdJ (1, - 2) vw t


brtJkhd nenfho rkghil fhf.

10.

(3, 4), (- 1, 2) vw fis izF nenfhLJo ika


FJnfho (perpendicular bisector) rkghil fhf.

176 10M tF fj

11.

2x + y - 3 = 0 , 5x + y - 6 = 0 Ma nenfhLf rF tahf,
(1, 2), (2, 1) Ma fis izF nenfhoF izahf cs
nenfho rkghil fhf.

12.

5x - 6y = 1 , 3x + 2y + 5 = 0 Ma nenfhLf rF tahf,
3x - 5y + 11 = 0 vw nenfhoF brFjhf mik nenfho
rkghil fhf.

13.

3x - y + 9 = 0 , x + 2y = 4 Ma nenfhLf btL l, 2x + y - 4 = 0 ,
x - 2y + 3 = 0 Ma nenfhLf btL ia izF nenfho
rkghil fhf.

14.

3 ABC- Kidf A(2, - 4), B(3, 3), C(- 1, 5) v, B-UJ tiuagL


FJnfhL t brY nenfho rkghil fhf.

15.

3 ABC- Kidf A(- 4,4 ), B(8 ,4), C(8,10) v, A-UJ tiuagL


eLnfhL t brY nenfho rkghil fhf.

16.

MUJ 3x + 2y = 13 vw nenfhoF tiuagL brFJ


nfho moia (foot of the perpendicular) fhf.

17.

xU tl U lf rkghLf x + 2y = 7 , 2x + y = 8 kW
tl J mikJs xU (0, - 2) v, tl Muij fhf.

18.

2x - 3y + 4 = 0 , x - 2y + 3 = 0 Ma nenfhLf rF ia,
(3, - 2), (- 5, 8) M a f i s i z F n e n f h L J o
eLia, izF nfhLJo rkghil fhf.

19.

Urkgf Knfhz 3PQR- PQ = PR kW mogf QR vgJ x-m J


mikwJ vf. nkY, Kid P MdJ y-m J mikwJ. PQ- rkghL
2x - 3y + 9 = 0 v, PR tahf brY nenfho rkghil fhf.
g 5.6

rahd ilia njbjLf.


1.

2.

3.

^a, - bh , ^3a, 5bh Ma fis izF nenfhL Jo eL

(a) ^- a, 2bh
(b) ^2a, 4bh
(c) ^2a, 2bh
(d) ^- a, - 3bh
A^1, - 3h , B^- 3, 9h Ma fis izF nenfhL Jil 1:3 vw
j F P
(a) ^2, 1h
(b) ^0, 0h
(c) ` 5 , 2j
(d) ^1, - 2h
3
A^3, 4h , B^14, - 3h Matiw izF nenfhLJL x-mir P
rwJ v, mnfhLJil P F j
(a) 4 : 3
(b) 3 : 4
(c) 2 : 3
(d) 4 : 1
5. Mabjhiy toa 177

4.

(2, 5), (2, 12), (10, 1) Ma fis Kidfshf bfhl Knfhz


eLnfhL ika (centroid)
(a) ^6, 6h
(b) ^4, 4h
(c) ^3, 3h
(d) ^2, 2h

5.

^1, 2h , ^4, 6h , ^ x, 6h , ^3, 2h vgd tir X izfu Kidf v,

x - k
(a) 6

6.

(b) 2

(c) 1

(d) 3

(0,0), ^2, 0h , ^0, 2h Ma fsh mik Knfhz gu


(a) 1 r. myFf
(B) 2 r. myFf (C) 4 r. myFf (D) 8 r. myFf

7.

^1, 1h , ^0, 1h , ^0, 0h , ^1, 0h Ma fsh mik ehfu gu

(A) 3 r. myFf

8.

x-mRF izahd nenfho rh nfhz


9.

(c) 45c
(d) 90c
(a) 0c
(b) 60c
^3, - 2h , ^- 1, ah Ma fis izF nenfho rh - 3 v,
2
a - k
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 4

10.

^- 2, 6h , ^4, 8h Ma fis izF nenfhoF brFjhd

(B) 2 r. myFf

(C) 4 r. myFf

(D) 1 r. myFf

11.

nenfho rh
(a) 1
(b) 3
(c) - 3
(d) - 1
3
3
9x - y - 2 = 0 , 2x + y - 9 = 0 Ma nenfhLf rF
(A) ^- 1, 7h
(B) ^7, 1h
(C) ^1, 7h
(D) ^- 1, - 7h

12.

4x + 3y - 12 = 0 vw nenfhL y-mir btL


(A) ^3, 0h
(B) ^0, 4h
(C) ^3, 4h

(D) ^0, - 4h

13.

7y - 2x = 11 vw nenfho rh
(a) - 7
(b) 7
2
2

(d) - 2
7

(c) 2
7

(2 , 7) vw t brtJ, x-mF izahdJkhd nenfho


rkghL
(b) x =- 7
(c) y =- 7
(d) y = 2
(a) x = 2

15.

2x - 3y + 6 = 0 vw nenfho x, y-btLJLf Kiwna

(a) 2, 3

16.

xU tl ika (- 6, 4). xU l xU Kid (- 12, 8) v, mj

14.

(b) 3, 2

(c) - 3, 2

(d) 3, - 2

kW Kid

(a) (- 18, 12)


178 10M tF fj

(b) (- 9, 6)

(c) (- 3, 2)

(d) (0, 0)

17.

M t brtJ 2x + 3y - 7 = 0 vw nfhoF brFJkhd


nenfho rkghL

(a) 2x + 3y = 0

18.

y-mF izahdJ ^- 2, 5h vw t brtJkhd nenfho


rkghL
(b) x + 2 = 0
(c) y + 5 = 0
(d) y - 5 = 0
(a) x - 2 = 0

19.

(2, 5), (4, 6), ^a, ah Ma f xnu nenfho mikwd v, a- k


(d) 8
(a) - 8
(b) 4
(c) - 4

20.

y = 2x + k vw nenfhL (1, 2) vw t brwJ v, k- k


(a) 0
(b) 4
(c) 5
(d) - 3

(b) 3x - 2y = 0

(c) y + 5 = 0

(d) y - 5 = 0

21.

rh 3 Mf, y btLJL - 4 Mf cs nenfho rkghL

22.

y = 0 kW x =- 4 Ma nenfhLf btL
(a) ^0, - 4h
(b) ^- 4, 0h
(c) ^0, 4h

23.

3x + 6y + 7 = 0 kW 2x + ky = 5 Ma nenfhLf brFjhdit v, k-
k
(A) 1
(B) 1
(C) 2
(D) 1
2

(a) 3x - y - 4 = 0
(c) 3x - y + 4 = 0

(b) 3x + y - 4 = 0
(d) 3x + y + 4 = 0
(d) ^4, 0h

id bfhf
P (x1, y1) , Q^ x2, y2h Ma fSF ilnas bjhiy

^ x2 - x1h2 + ^ y2 - y1h2

A^ x1, y1h , B^ x2, y2h Ma fis izF nenfhL Joid cwkhf


lx2 + mx1 ly2 + my1
m MF.
,
l+m
l+m
js A^ x1, y1h , B^ x2, y2h Ma fis izF nenfhL Joid
lx - mx1 ly2 - my1
m MF.
btwkhf l : m vw j F Q c 2
,
l-m
l-m
l : m vw j F P c

^ x1, y1h , ^ x2, y2h Ma fis izF nenfhLJo eL


x + x2 y1 + y2
c 1
m.

,
2
2
^ x1, y1h , ^ x2, y2h ^ x3, y3h Ma fis cfshf bfhl Knfhz gu
= 1 / x1 (y2 - y3) = 1 " x1 ^ y2 - y3h + x2 ^ y3 - y1h + x3 ^ y1 - y2h,
2
2

= 1 "^ x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1h - ^ x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3h, .
2
5. Mabjhiy toa 179

A^ x1, y1h , B^ x2, y2h , C^ x3, y3h Ma _W f xnu nenfho mika


gjid
(i) x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1 = x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3

(myJ)

(ii) AB- rh = AC- rh (m) BC- rh.

xU nenfhL if x-mRl i ms nfhz clhdh, mnfho


rh m = tan i MF.

^ x1, y1h , ^ x2, y2h Ma fis izF neFjw nenfho rh

m=

y2 - y1
y y
= 1- 2.
x2 - x1
x1 - x2

x- bfG
= -a, b ! 0
y- bfG
b

ax + by + c = 0 vw nenfho rh m =

iliy nfho rh akhF. neFJ nfho rhit


tiuaWf ayhJ.

U nfhLf rhf rkkhf Ujh, Ujh kLnk mit izahF.

neFjw U nenfhLf rhf bgUf gy - 1 (mjhtJ,

m1 m2 = - 1) Mf Ujh, Ujh kLnk mit brFJ nfhLfshF.


nenfho rkghLf

t. v
1.
x-mR
2.
y-mR

nenfhL

rkghL
y=0
x=0

3.

x-mF iz

y=k

4.

y-mF iz

x=k

5.

ax+by+c =0 F iz

ax + by + k = 0

6.
1.

ax+by+c =0 F brFJ
bfhLfglit
M t brY nenfhL

bx ay +k = 0
rkghL
y = mx

2.

rh m kW y-btLJL c

3.

rh m kW xU (x1 , y1)

y y1 = m(xx1)

4.

(x1 , y1), (x2 , y2) Ma U f t


brY nenfhL

y - y1
x - x1
=
y2 - y1
x2 - x1

5.

x-btLJL a kW
y- btLJL b

180 10M tF fj

y = mx + c

x+ y =1
a b