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Registration Number: Name: Paper No.: 1 Human Resource Development Response Sheet No.

: 1 Question: 1 How do you identify training and development needs of an organisation?

Answer 3: The first step of the process of training and development is identification of the organizational needs for trained manpower, both present and future. Basically some questions can be used in this step. a) What specifically must an employee learn in order to be more productive? b) Where is training needed? c) Who needs to be trained? The productiveness of an employee is the important factor for the employer, because the income or profit of the organization and employer is depends on the employees productiveness. Begin by assessing the current status of the company; how it does, what it does best and the abilities of your employees to do these tasks. This analysis will provide some benchmarks against which the effectiveness of a training program can be evaluated. The organization or an employer should know where it wants to be in its long-range strategic plan and organizational need is a training program to take the organization from current situation to developed upped step. Secondly, consider whether the organization is financially committed to support the training efforts. If not, any attempt to develop a solid training program will fail. Next, determine exactly where training is needed. It is foolish to implement a companywide training effort without concentrating resources where they are needed most. An internal audit will help point out areas that may benefit from training. Also, a skills inventory can help determine the skills possessed by the employees in general. This inventory will help the organization determine what skills are available now and what skills are needed for future development. In summary, the analysis should focus on the total organization and should identify where training is needed and where it will work within the organization. When the organization has a clear idea to where training is needed, concentrate on the content of the program. Analyze the characteristics of the job based on its description, the written description of what the employee actually does. Training based on job descriptions should go into detail about how the job is performed base on a task-by-task. Actually doing the job will enable you to get a better feel for what is done.

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Individual employees can be evaluated by comparing their current skill levels or performance to the organization's performance standards or anticipated needs. Any discrepancy between actual and anticipated skill levels identifies a training need. All above details and descriptions will helps to find the gap between standard or expected performances and the actual performances. In simply, Training and development need= standard (expected) performance - actual performance

Question: 2 How do you design and conduct a specific training programme? The design and implementation of training is done by the trainer, but it will also involve others such as direct trainers, training institutions, departments and most importantly trainees. The design of training is a vital part of the Systematic Approach to Training. TRAINING DESIGN PROCESS STEP 1: Awareness of need The trainer is made aware of the potential need for some form of training in variety of ways. STEP 2: Consult with client Whenever the training function is informed of stated training need, other than when it is obtained by the training manager who should have all details available. The first step is to go back to the client for a diagnostic probing interview to obtain as many details as possible. Trainer can then interpret a general statement of need and questions as exactly what, who, over what period is and is asked until the trainer is satisfied that sufficient information is held to provide the training intended. STEP 3: Specify symptoms New requirement training the symptoms are that function X is required and therefore, the people concerned do not have skills X. Training for existing functions, which are not performed effectively, requires a diagnosis of the symptoms, which show what is going wrong. STEP 4: Analyze training needs Armed with the knowledge that there is training need for which the symptoms new or existing have been determined; a final analysis of the training needs is undertaken. Required skill- Existing Skill = Training Need STEP 5: Define existing capabilities of proposed audience and define selection criteriaThe course content should meet the needs of a median participant and include material, which would hopefully be of use to those participants above and below the median. Selection Criteria keeps participants close to median to make material relevant to each participant.

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STEP 6: Select program objectives and define specific learning objectives Classify different types and levels of learning are: Knowledge: Simple access to information. Skill : The ability to use the learning Attitude: What we believe, our disposition towards knowledge and skills. Types and levels of learning in mind when selecting program objectives; the specific learning objectives are more detailed statements of what a participant should know or should believe at the end of the course.

STEP 7: Build curriculum (content and sequence) The curriculum is the course calendar and it specifies the content and sequence of the subject matter. Initially, a calendar is developed, noting the topics of discussion for each session. A final curriculum is prepared at the end of the course, topics are grouped by seminar and complete reference information is included on the material covered. STEP 8: Select methods and materials There are various methodologies available to group leaders like lectures, discussions, cases, exercises, field trips, programmed teaching , packaging , role playing, workshops, games and post work or project workshop. Methods and materials should be chosen to maximize learning for the participant subject matter and type of learning described STEP 9: Conduct training This is implementation phase. The first seven steps have been involved with defining and preparing the program. New materials should be tested before they are used in the class. STEP 10: Decide the evaluation methods The minimum requirements for evaluation process: 1. Statement for Learning Requirement 2. Level of skill of learners before training. 3. Methods to assess process during training. 4. Methods of validating training at the end of the event. 5. Long term approach to ensure learning is transferred to the job STEP 11: Produce the evaluation instruments Full considerations must be given to the most effective formats for the processes to be assessed. Example - For soft or subjective training it is necessary to design and use more subjective form of assessment.

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STEP 12: End of course validation and action planningThe end of course validation must be linked to the objectives and related to the test etc, made at the start of the event. In this way the extent and level of change can be assessed. The assessment can be in the form of tests, observed actions, testing activities or realistic questionnaires.

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