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Table 1: Triple Balance, Beaker, and Graduated Cylinder m of empty beaker m of beaker w/ water m of water Vol. of water Trial 1 110.7g 155.6g 44.9g 46ml Trial 2 110.9g 155.7g 44.8g 46ml Trial 3 110.65g 155.9g 45.35g 46ml Trial 4 110.8g 155.6g 44.8g 46ml Trial 5 110.75g 155..5g 44.75g 46ml

Table 2: Pipette, Beaker, and Graduated Cylinder Vol. of water from 10ml graduated cylinder Vol. of water from 5ml pipette Total vol. of water in 100ml graduated cylinder Volume differences % volume differences II. CALCULATIONS Trial 1 20ml _______ 21ml Trial 2 20ml _______ 20ml Trial 3 20ml _______ 21ml Trial 4 20ml _______ 21ml Trial 5 20ml _______ 21ml

III. QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1. Draw and give the function of each of the following laboratory apparatus: a. Test tube - to hold, mix, or heat small quantities of solid or liquid chemicals. b. Test tube holder - holds the test tubes. c. Beaker - container for stirring, mixing and heating liquids. d. Graduated cylinder - used to accurately measure the volume of a liquid. e. Evaporating dish - for the evaporation of solids, supernatant fluids, and excess solvents. f. Crucible tong - used to grasp and take a hot crucible out of a fire or furnace, or to move a crucible from one location to another. g. Pipette - used to transport a measured volume of liquid h. Spatula - for removing chemicals or compounds from small bottles. i. Erlenmeyer flask - for titration. Suitable for heating liquids. j. Funnel - used to channel liquid or fine-grained substances into containers with a small opening. k. Stirring rod - used to mix chemicals and liquids for laboratory purposes. l. Thermometer - a device that measures temperature using a variety of different principles. m. Test tube rack - to hold/support test tubes containing chemicals waiting for further operations n. Wire gauze - used to support a container during heating. 2. Draw the triple beam balance and label the parts.

3. Why should your balance stay zero before you place an object in the pan? How can you adjust your balance in order to obtain a zero reading, that is, the pointer is resting at zero? Adjustment Knob and Scale

The adjustment knob is located on the left hand side of the triple beam balance underneath the pan. The adjustment knob allows you to attain better accuracy when using the triple beam balance. The scale is located on the right hand side of the scale and is labeled with a zero. The scale lets you know when the beams are at their resting position of zero as well as when the correct mass of the object has been found.

POST LAB Experiment 1 DETERMINATION OF DENSITIES I. DATA AND RESULTS A. Water Table 1 Weight of dry 100ml cylinder Volume of liquid Weight of cylinder and liquid Weight of liquid Density of liquid (experimental) Density of liquid (actual) Relative error A. Unknown Liquid Table 2 Weight of dry 100ml cylinder Volume of liquid Weight of cylinder and liquid Weight of liquid Density of liquid Density of liquid (actual) Relative error II. CALCULATIONS Water 148.5g 100ml 246.7g


Liquid 1 21.4g 10ml 29g

Liquid 2 21.4g 10ml 28.65g

III. QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1. What is density? Give the equation and the SI unit used in expressing density values. Density is defined as mass divided by volume. (p = m/V) where is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. The SI unit of kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3). 2. Explain how the density of liquid can be measured. Get the mass of the liquid by subtracting the weight of the container and the weight of the container with the liquid then divide the liquid then divide the mass by the volume to calculate the density. 3. Explain how the density of solid objects can be measured. Get the mass of the object by weighing it and the volume in cubic centimeters with the appropriate formulas then divide the mass by the volume to calculate the density. 4. Some of the possible sources of error in determining the density of water and unknown liquid are the following: a. Dirty balance pan b. Wet graduated cylinder Explain the possible effect of each of the above sources of error on your results.

5. What principle is illustrated when the volume of an object is measured by the displacement method? In your own words, state how this principle can be used to measure the volume of an irregularly shaped solid.

6. What effect will trapped air bubbles on the calculated density of the solid if the volume is measured using Archimedes principle? Explain your answer. Will the measurement be higher or lower than the correct value?

7. A sample of metal alloy has a density of 6.67g/cc. What is its volume if it weighs 650g?

8. An empty graduated cylinder weighs 86.34g. When filled to 80mL with an unknown liquid it weighs 120.25g. What is the density of the unknown liquid?

9. The water level in a graduated cylinder raised from 26.5mL to 31.2mL after a small, irregular-shaped solid was placed in it. The mass of the solid was found to be 20.15g. Calculate its density. Report final answer with the correct number of significant figures.

POST LAB Experiment 2 COMMON LABORATORY OPERATIONS AND TECHNIQUES I. DATA AND RESULTS 1. Compare the measurement of volume of a colorless liquid to that of a colored liquid.

2. Boiling Point of Water: (Show Calculation) C: 94C F: 201.2F K: 367k 3. Identify the apparatus used in the following operations: a. Guides flow of liquid during transfer from one container to another. -Stirring rod. b. Spoons out solid reagents from container. -Spatula. c. Measures volume of liquids. -Graduated cylinder. d. Hold filter paper. -Funnel. e. Holds test tube while heating. -Test tube holder. II. CALCULATIONS

III. QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1. Differentiate between filtration and decantation. Which is more effective?

2. Define evaporation. Evaporation is the process by which the substance is converted from liquid into vapor.

3. What may happen if heal is applied at the bottom of a test tube containing a liquid?

4. Why are unused reagents not returned to the original bottle?

POST LAB Experiment 3 OPERATION OF THE BUNSEN BURNER AND GLASS WORKING I. DATA AND RESULTS Luminous flame Orange 2 Close Black 38.89sec Non-luminous flame Blue 3 Open Transparent 19.55sec Experiments

Basis of Comparison Color of flame Number of cones Nature of air holes Color of the bottom of test tube Time for water to boil Uses Sketch of the Bunsen Burner.

(Label all parts and state the function of each.)

Sketch of a Non-luminous Flame. (Label the parts. Indicate the relative temperatures of each part.)

II. QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1. Discuss the use of the Bunsen burner in the laboratory.

2. What are the two kinds of Bunsen flame? State the condition at which each can be obtained.

3. Based on your observation, which flame is more advantageous to use? Why?

4. Discuss the procedure of cutting a piece of glass tubing in two.

5. Why is a wing top necessary in heating the glass tubing for preparing bends.

6. Why must a glass tubing be fire-polished before it is used.

7. Enumerate some precautionary measures to be observed during glass working.

Safety goggles and aprons must be worn whenever you work in lab. Gloves should be worn whenever you use chemicals that cause skin irritations or need to handle hot equipment. Wear older clothes that cover the maximum amount of skin