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# Stress and Strain

Slide 1

## Introduction to Normal Stress

Stress = Force per unit area

F = A

Slide 2

## Introduction to Normal Stress contd

If the stress varies over the cross-section, we can write the stress at a point as
= lim
A0

F A

We assume the force F is evenly distributed over the cross-section of the bar. In reality F = resultant force over the end of the bar.

dA = F
A

Slide 3

Sign convention

>0 <0

## Tensile (member is in tension) Compressive (member is in compression)

Tensile

Units (force/area) English: lb/in2 = psi kip/in2 = ksi SI: N/m2 = Pa (Pascal) kN/m kPa kN/ 2 = kP MPa, GPa, etc.

Compressive

Slide 4

## Introduction to Normal Stress contd

Homogenous: material is the same throughout the bar Cross-section: section perpendicular to longitudinal axis of bar p p g
A

Prismatic

Non-Prismatic

Slide 5

## Definitions and Assumptions - contd

Uniaxial bar: a bar with only one axis Normal Stress (): stress acting perpendicular to the cross-section. Deformation of the bar is uniform throughout. (Uniaxial Stress State) Stress is measured far from the point of application application. Loads must act through the centroid of the cross-section.

## Lets expand these last two assumptions p p

Slide 6 Stress and Strain

## Definitions and Assumptions - contd

The uniform stress state does not apply near the ends of the bar. Assume the distribution of normal stresses in an axially loaded y member is uniform, except in the immediate vicinity of the points of application of the loads.

Uniform Stress

Saint-Venants Principle
Slide 7 Stress and Strain

## Definitions and Assumptions - contd

How do we know all loads must act through the centroid of the cross-section? cross section? Let us represent P, the resultant force, by a uniform stress over the cross-section ( th t they are statically t th ti (so that th t ti ll equivalent).

Slide 8

Moments due to :
M x = ydA
A

M y = xdA
A

## Set Mx x= Mxx and Myy = Myy M =M M =M

1 1 y = ydA = ydA PA AA 1 1 x = xdA = xdA PA AA
Right hand rule

Slide 9

## Stress and Strain

Example Problem 1
Boom AB with a 30x50-mm rectangular cross section, rod BC with a 20-mm-diameter circular cross section. Calculate forces AB and BC.

Slide 10

## Stress and Strain

Procedure 0a. Given/Wanted + Sketch 0b. Plan Coordinate System Free Body Diagram Equilibrium Equations (Statics) Count number of unknowns and equations S l ti Solution Check your solution !! Note: N t Use variables instead of numbers Units!
Slide 11 Stress and Strain

Slide 12

## Stress and Strain

Example Problem 2
Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together at B and loaded as shown. Determine the average normal stress at the midsection of (a) rod AB and (b) rod BC. BC

40 kips

Slide 13

Slide 14

## What is Shearing Stress?

Last time we talked about normal stress (), which acts perpendicular to the cross-section. Shear stress () acts tangential to the surface of a material element. f t i l l t
Normal stress results in a volume change.

Slide 15

## Where Do Shearing Stresses Occur?

Shearing stresses are commonly found in bolts, pins, and rivets.
Bolt is in single shear

## Free Body Diagram of Bolt

Force P results in shearing stress Force F results in b i stress F lt i bearing t (will discuss later)

Slide 16

## Shear Stress Defined

We do not assume is uniform over the cross-section, because this is not the case. Therefore, is the average shear stress.

P F ave = A = A
Th maximum value of may b considerably greater The i l f be id bl t than ave, which is important for design purposes.

Slide 17

Double Shear

ave =

P F = 2= A A 2A

Slide 18

## Stress and Strain

Bearing Stress
Bearing stress is a normal stress, not a shearing stress. Bearing t B i stress i i th members th t a bolt connects (not is in the b that b lt t ( t in the bolt itself), along a bearing surface. Thus,

P b = Ab

Slide 19

P P b = = Ab td

Slide 20

## Stress and Strain

Example Problem 1
Determine (a) the average shearing stress in the pin at B, (b) the average bearing stress at B in member BD, and (c) the average bearing t b i stress at B i member ABC t in b ABC.

## Each pin has 16 mm diameter

Member ABC has rectangular crosssection 10x50 mm Each vertical member has rectangular crosssection 8x36 mm

Slide 21

Slide 22

## Stress and Strain

Example Problem 2
A load P=10 kips is applied to a rod supported as shown by a plate with a 0.6 in. diameter hole. Determine the shear stress in the disk and the plate.
1.6 in 0.4 in 0.25 in 0.6 in

Disk

Plate Rod

Slide 23

Slide 24

## Stress on an Oblique Plane

What have we learned so far?
Axial forces in a two-force member cause normal stresses.

Slide 25

## Stress on an Oblique Plane - contd

However, axial forces cause both normal and shearing , g stresses on planes which are not perpendicular to the axis. This is also the case for transverse forces exerted on a bolt or pin.

Slide 26

## Stress on an Oblique Plane - contd

Consider an inclined section of a uniaxial bar.

The resultant force in the axial direction must equal P to satisfy equilibrium. equilibrium The force can be resolved into components perpendicular to the section, F, section F and parallel to the section V section, V.

F = P cos
The area of the section is

V = P sin

A0 = A cos A = A0 / cos
Slide 27 Stress and Strain

## Stress on an Oblique Plane - contd

We can formulate the average normal stress on the section as

## V P sin P = = sin cos A A0 / cos A0

Thus, a normal f Th l force applied t a b on an i li d section li d to bar inclined ti produces a combination of shear and normal stresses.

Slide 28

## Stress on an Oblique Plane - contd

Since and are functions of sine and cosine, we know the maximum and minimum values will occur at = 00, 450, and 900.
=
=
P cos 2 A0

P sin cos A0

Slide 29

## At =900 At =450 At =00

=0 =P/2A0 (max) =0

Slide 30

## Stress on an Oblique Plane - contd

Sign convention for p g positive normal and shear stresses:

Slide 31

## Stress and Strain

Design Considerations
From a design perspective, it is important to know the g g largest load which a material can hold before failing. This load is called the ultimate load, Pu. The stress equations are the same as before with P=Pu. Ultimate normal stress is denoted as u and ultimate shear stress is denoted as u.

Slide 32

## Design Considerations - contd

Often the allowable load is considerably smaller than the ultimate load. It is a common design practice to use factor of safety.
F .S . = ultimate load allowable load F .S . = ultimate stress allowable stress

The two equations above are identical when a linear relationship exists between the load and the stress. In real-world engineering application, however, this relationship ceases to be linear as the load approaches its ultimate value value.

Slide 33

## Stress and Strain

Example Problem 1
Two wooden members are joined by the simple glued scarf splice shown below. Knowing that the maximum allowable shearing stress in the glued splice is 75 psi psi, determine the largest axial load P that can be safely applied. 5.5 in

3.5 in

Slide 34

Slide 35

## Stress and Strain

Example Problem 2
Knowing the ultimate load for cable BD is 25 kips and a factor of safety of 3.2 with respect to cable failure is required, required determine the magnitude of the largest force P which can be safely applied to member ABC.

15 in

18 in
Slide 36

12 in

Slide 37

## Introduction to Normal Strain

Normal strain () is defined as the deformation per unit length of a member under axial loading.

Normal strain is dimensionless but can be expressed in several ways. Lets say L = 100 mm and = 0.01 mm.
= 0.01 mm / 100 mm = 1 x 10-4 or 100 x 10-6 = 100 (read as 100 microstrain) = 1 x 10-4 in/in (if using English units) = 1 x 10-4 * 100 = 0.01%

## Normal strain is also called extensional strain

Slide 38

Thermal Strain
Changes in temperature produce expansion or compression, which cause strain.

T = T
= coefficient of thermal expansion T = change in temperature Sign convention: expansion is positive (+), contraction is negative (-)

For a bar that is completely free to deform (one or both ends free):

T = T L = (T ) L
In this case, there is thermal strain but no thermal stress!

Slide 39

## Mechanical Properties of Materials

We want to develop a method of analysis that is characteristic of the properties of materials ( and ) rather than the dimensions or load ( and P) of a particular specimen. specimen Why? & are truly material properties P & are specimen properties

Slide 40

## Mechanical Properties of Materials - contd

Stress and strain can be measured, so we want to develop a relationship between the two for a given material. material How do we calculate the elongation of a bar due to loading? l di ? Apply force P Calculate = P/A Use material relation = f() to calculate Calculate = L Will expand on
this in a moment

Slide 41

Stress-Strain Diagram
Material behavior is generally represented by a stress-strain diagram, which is obtained by conducting a tensile test on a specimen of material.

Slide 42

## Stress-Strain Diagram - contd

Stress-strain diagrams of various materials vary widely. Different tensile tests conducted on the same material may yield different results depending on test conditions (temperature, loading speed, etc.). Divide materials into two broad categories: Ductile material - Material that undergoes large permanent strains before failure (e.g. steel, aluminum) Brittle material - Material that fails with little elongation after yield stress (e.g. glass, ceramics, concrete)

Lets examine the stress-strain diagram for a typical ductile material (low-carbon steel) region by region.

Slide 43

## Stress-Strain Diagram - contd

Linear region
Stress-strain response is linear Slope = Modulus of Elasticity (Youngs modulus) = E E has units of force per unit area (same as ) stress) We get a relation between stress and strain known as Hookes Law. H k L

= E

## Stress-Strain Diagram - contd

Yielding region
Begins at yield stress Y Sl Slope rapidly d idl decreases until it is horizontal or near horizontal Large strain increase increase, small stress increase Strain is permanent

Slide 45

## Stress-Strain Diagram contd

Strain Hardening
After undergoing large deformations, deformations the metal has changed its crystalline structure. The material has increased resistance to applied stress (it appears to be harder).

Slide 46

## Stress-Strain Diagram - contd

Necking
The maximum supported stress value is called the ultimate stress, u. Loading beyond u results in decreased load supported and eventually rupture.

Slide 47

## Stress-Strain Diagram - contd

Why does the stress appear to drop during necking? If we measure the true area the graph looks like: area,
true stress The difference is in the area: true stress takes t t t k into account the decreased crosssection area. Thus, at the same stress level, the load drops.
x

Slide 48

Offset Method
For some materials (e.g. aluminum) there is not a clear yield stress. We can use the offset method to determine Y. Choose the offset (0.002 is shown here). Draw a line with slope E, through the point (0.002, 0). Y is given by the intersection of this line with the stress-strain curve.

Slide 49

## Elastic vs. Plastic

A material is said to behave elastically if the strain caused by the application of load disappear when the load is removed it returns to g its original state. The largest value of stress for which the material behaves elastically is called the elastic limit (essentially the same as Y in materials with a well-defined yield point). Once the yield stress has been obtained, when the load is removed, the stress and strain decrease linearly but do not return to their original state. This indicates plastic deformation. When a material does not have a well-defined yield point, the elastic limit can be closely approximated using the offset method.

Slide 50