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Brain Teasures

by Abhijit kumar jha

Q.1

Q.2

Q.3

Q.4

Q.5

Q.6

If the roots of the equation [1/(x + p)] + [1/(x + q)] = 1/r are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign,

show

If

2x 4 + 4x 3 sin A sin B - x 2 (cos 2A + cos 2B) + 4x cos A cos B - 2. Then find the other factor.

that p + q = 2r & that the product of the roots is equal to (1/2) (p 2 + q 2 ).

x 2 - x cos (A + B) + 1 is a factor of the expression,

, are the roots of the equation K (x 2 ñ x) + x + 5 = 0. If K 1 & K 2 are the two values of K for which the roots , are connected by the relation (/) + (/) = 4/5. Find the value of (K 1 /K 2 ) + (K 2 /K 1 ).

If the quadratic equations, x 2 + bx + c = 0 and bx 2 + cx + 1 = 0 have a common root then prove that

either

b + c + 1 = 0

or

b 2 + c 2 + 1 = b c + b + c.

If the roots of the equation

  p

2

2

1

q

x

2

p(1

q)x

q(q

1)

p

2

2

= 0 are equal then show that

p 2 = 4q.

If one root of the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 be the square of the other, prove that

b 3 + a 2 c + ac 2 = 3abc.

Q.7

Find the range of values of a, such that f (x) =

ax

2

2

(

a

1

)

x

9

a

4

x

2

8

x

32

is always negative.

Q.8

Find a quadratic equation whose sum and product of the roots are the values of the expressions

(cosec 10 ñ

3 sec10 ) and (0.5 cosec10 ñ 2 sin70 ) respectively.Also express the roots of this

0,

 

2

.

Q.9

6x

Findtheleastvalueof 5x

2

22x

21

2

18x

17

forall real values of x,usingthetheoryof quadraticequations.

Q.10

Q.11

Q.12(a) If , arethe roots of thequadraticequation ax 2 +bx+c = 0 then which of thefollowing expressions in

Find the least value of (2p 2 + 1)x 2 + 2(4p 2 ñ 1)x + 4(2p 2 + 1) for real values of p and x.

If be a root of the equation 4x 2 + 2x ñ 1 = 0 then prove that 43 ñ 3is the other root.

,willdenotethesymmetric functionsof roots. Give properreasoning.(i)

(ii) f (, ) = 2 +  2

f (, ) = 2 ñ

(iii)

f (, ) = ln

(iv)

f (, ) = cos (ñ)

(b) If , are the roots of the equation x 2 ñ px + q = 0, then find the quadratic equation the roots of which are (2  2 ) (3  3 ) & 3 2 + 2 3 .

c = 0 & ,   are the roots of ax 2 + bx + c= 0, show that

Q.13

If , are the roots of ax 2 + bx +

,

are the roots of

b

a

b  

a

1

x

2

x

b

c

b  

c

1

= 0

.

Q.14

Q.15

If

( ) ( ) ( + ) ( + ) = q 2 p 2 .

Show that if p , q , r & s are real numbers & pr = 2 (q + s) , then at least one of the equations

x 2 + qx + 1 = 0, show that

,

are the roots

of

x 2 ñ px + 1 = 0

& ,

are

the

roots of

Brain Teasures

by Abhijit kumar jha

Q.16

Q.17

Q.18

Q.19

Q.20

x 2 + px + q = 0, x 2 + r x + s = 0 has real roots.

= 0 has two real roots,

one between a/3 & 2a/3 and the other between ñ 2b/3 & ñ b/3.

If the roots of x 2 ax + b = 0 are real & differ by a quantity which is less than c (c > 0), prove that b lies between (1/4) (a 2 c 2 ) & (1/4)a 2 .

At what values of 'a' doall the zeroes of the function , f (x) = (a 2)x 2 + 2ax + a + 3 lie on the interval (2, 1)?

If one root ofthe quadratic equation ax +bx + c =0 is equal tothe n th power of the other, then show that (ac n ) 1/(n+1) + (a n c) 1/(n+1) + b = 0.

If p, q, r and s are distinct and different from 2, show that if the points with co-ordinates

If a & b are positive numbers, prove that the equation

1

1

1

x

x

a

x

b

Q.21

Q.22

Q.23

Q.24

Q.25

Q.26

  p 4

  p

2

p

3

5

,

p

2

 

,    

q 4

q

2

q

3

5

,

q

2

 

,    

r 4

r

2

,

r

3

5

r

2

s

  and

  s 4

  s

3

5

2

,

s

2

 

 

are collinear then

pqrs = 5 (p + q + r + s) + 2 (pqr + qrs + rsp + spq).

The quadratic equation x 2 + px + q = 0 where p and q are integers has rational roots. Prove that the roots areall integral.

If the quadratic equations x 2 + bx + ca = 0 & x 2 + cx + ab = 0 have a common root, prove that the equation containing their other root is x 2 + ax + bc = 0.

If , are the roots that / , /are the

If

3 32 + 5 2 ,

If each pair of the following three equations x 2 + p 1 x + q 1 = 0 , x 2 + p 2 x + q 2 = 0 & x 2 + p 3 x + q 3 = 0 has exactly one root common , prove that;

(p 1 + p 2 + p 3 ) 2 = 4 [p 1 p 2 + p 2 p 3 + p 3 p 1 q 1 q 2 q 3 ].

Show that the function z = 2x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 2x + 2y + 2 is not smaller than ñ 3.

of x 2 + px + q = 0 & x 2n + p n x n + q n = 0 where n is an even integer, show

roots of

x n + 1 + (x + 1) n = 0.

, are the roots of the equation x 2 2x + 3 = 0 obtain the equation whose roots are

3  2 + + 5.

Q.27

Find all real numbers x such that,

x

1

x

1

2

+

1

1

x

1

2

= x.

Q.28

Q.29

Q.30

Find the values of ëaí for which 3 < [(x 2 + ax 2)/(x 2 + x + 1)] < 2 is valid for all real x.

Find the minimum value of

    1    x 6    x   x 6  1 6    2 x    x   1   3  x 3  1 x  x 3

for x > 0.

Find the product of the real roots of the equation,

x 2 + 18x + 30 = 2

x

2

18x

45

Brain Teasures

by Abhijit kumar jha

Q.1

(a)

(c) x 3 + 1+ x 2 x 2 = 0

(e) For a 0, determine all real roots of the equation x 2 2 ax a 3a 2 = 0.

Solve the following where x R.

(x 1)x 2 4x + 3+ 2 x 2 + 3x 5 = 0

(b)

(d)

3x 2 4x + 2= 5x 4

2 x+2  2 x+1 1= 2 x+1 + 1

Q.2

Q.3

Q.4

Q.5

Q.6

Q.7

Q.8

Q.9

Let a, b, c, d be distinct real numbers and a and b are the roots of quadratic equation x 2 ñ 2cx ñ 5d = 0. If c and d are the roots of the quadratic equation x 2 ñ 2ax ñ 5b = 0 then find the numerical value of a + b + c + d.

beanyrational number,where a, b, c, p and

q are integer. Prove that

Let f (x) = ax 2 +bx + c =0 has an irrational root r. If u =

p

q

1

q

2

| f (u) |.

Let a, b, c be real. If ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has two real roots & , where < 1 & > 1 then show that 1 + c/a + b/a.

If , are the roots of the equation, x 2 2 x a 2 + 1 = 0 and , are the roots of the equation, x 2 2 (a + 1) x + a (a 1) = 0 such that ,  (, ) then find the values of 'a'.

Two roots of a biquadratic x 4 ñ 18x 3 + kx 2 + 200x ñ 1984 = 0 have their product equal to (ñ 32). Find the value of k.

If by eleminating x between the equation x + ax + b = 0 & xy + l (x + y) + m = 0, a quadratic in y is formed whose roots are the same as those of the original quadratic in x. Then prove either

a = 2l

&

b = m

or

b + m = al.

If x

be real, prove that

2

x

2

x cos

1

x

2

2

x cos

1

lies between

sin

2

2

sin

2

2

and

cos

2

2

cos

2

.

2

Solve the equations, ax 2 + bxy + cy 2 = bx 2 + cxy + ay 2 = d.

Q.10

Q.11

Q.12

Q.13

Q.14

Q.15

Q.16

Findthevaluesof Ksothatthequadratic equation x 2 +2 (K 1) x +K+5=0 has atleastonepositive root.

2 i hasonlyonesolution.

Findthevaluesof'b'forwhichtheequation 2

log

1

d

bbx glog x x

28

5

12

4

25

Find all the values of theparameter 'a'for which both roots of thequadratic equation x 2 ñ ax + 2 = 0 belong to the interval ( 0 , 3 ).

Find all the values of theparameters cforwhichtheinequalityhas atleast onesolution.

1

log

2

F

G

H

2

x

2

2

x

7

2

I

J

K

log

2

c

cx

2

c

h

.

Find the values of K for which the equation x 4 + (1 2 K) x 2 + K 2 1 = 0 ;

(a) has no real solution

Find allthe values oftheparameter 'a'for whichtheinequality a.9 x + 4(añ1)3 x + a ñ 1 > 0 is satisfied for all real values of x.

Find the completeset of real values of ëaí for which both roots ofthe quadratic equation

(b) has one real solution

( a 2 ñ 6a + 5) x 2 ñ a

2 
2a

x + (6a ñ a 2 ñ 8) = 0 lie on either side of the origin.

Brain Teasures

by Abhijit kumar jha

Q.17

Q.18

Q.19

Q.20

If g (x) = x 3 + px 2 + qx + r where p, q and r are integers. If g (0) and g (ñ1) are both odd, then prove that the equation g (x) =0 cannot have three integral roots.

Find all numbers p for each of which the least value of the quadratic trinomial 4x 2 ñ 4px + p 2 ñ 2p + 2 on the interval 0 x 2 is equal to 3.

Let P (x) = x 2 + bx + c, where b and c are integer. If P (x) is a factor of both x 4 + 6x 2 + 25 and 3x 4 †+†4x 2 + 28x + 5, find the value of P(1).

Let x beapositive real. Findthe maximum possiblevalueoftheexpression

y =

2
4
x
 
2
x
4
x

.

EXERCISEñI

Q.2

2x 2 + 2x cos (A - B) - 2

Q.3 254

Q.7

a

F G H  

,

1 I

2 K

J

Q.8

Q.12

  

12

5

12

x 2 ñ 4x + 1 = 0 ; = tan

(a)

; = tan

Q.9

1

Q.10

minimumvalue3whenx =1andp=0

(ii) and (iv) ; (b) x 2 p(p 4 5p 2 q + 5q 2 ) x + p 2 q 2 (p 2 4q) (p 2 q) = 0

{2} (5, 6]

 ,

4

1

Q.30

20

Q.18

Q.29 y min = 6

Q.24

x 2 3 x + 2 = 0

Q.27

x =

5
1

2

EXERCISEñII

Q.28

2 < a < 1

Q.1

Q.2

Q.9

 (a) x = 1; (b) 30

x = 2 or 5; (c)

Q.5 a

1

x = 1 or 1;

4 , 1

Q.6

(d)

x 1 or

k = 86

x = 3;

(e) x = (1

2 ) a or (

6  1) a
11

3

x 2 = y 2 = d/(a+b+c)

; x/(c a) = y/(a b) = K where K a (a + b + c ab bc ca) = d

14

)

{ }

4

L I K J Q 12.

M

N

14

3

,

2

2

a

Q 10. K  1

Q 11. (,

Q.13

Q 16.

Q.19

(0, 8]

(ñ, ñ 2] [ 0, 1) (2, 4) (5, )

P (1) = 4

Q 14. (a)

K < 1 or K > 5/4

(b)

K = 1

Q18.

a = 1 ñ

Q 20.

2 2 1 where x =

2
Q 15.
[1,)
2
or
5 +
10