Sunteți pe pagina 1din 65

CAPACITOR IN AC CIRCUIT
BASIC PRINCIPLE:The capacitor is connected with a variable frequency voltage source. The impedance and phase displacement is measured in terms of frequency and capacitance.

RELATED PHYSICS:CAPACITANCE: It is the capacity or aptitude of the body to hold the electrical charge. Capacitance has always a positive value. Its S.I unit is coulomb per volt and farad. To calculate the capacitance we use the following formula; C = Q/v
KIRCHHOFFS LAWS Kirchhoffs Voltage law:
It is stated as the sum of all voltage drops around any loop in any circuit is zero mathematically

v
i=1

=0

Here n is the total number of voltage measured. Conservation of energy is the base of this Kirchhoffs voltage law. It also applicable when there is resistance in the circuit.

## Current Kirchhoffs law:

It is stated as The algebraic sum of currents in a network of a conductor meeting at a point is zero
n

Mathematically;

I
k =1

=0

Where n is total number of branches in which current flow. Kirchhoffs current law is based on conservation of charges which are equal to product of current and time. Maxwells equation: Maxwell equations are the four partial differential equations which normally use to describe the electric and magnetic field. 1 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD These equations are derived by a famous mathematician James Clerk Maxwell. Normally, the equation of Gauss law, Gauss law for magnetism, faraday law of induction and ampere law collectively known as Maxwell equations.

AC IMPEDANCE:Impedance describes the opposition to sinusoidal alternating voltage. It describes the phases and amplitudes of voltages and current.

PHASE DISPLACEMENT:It is curve obtained in plotting the graph of phase difference between frequencies of wave, is called phase displacement.

TASK OF EXPERIMENTS:Determine the frequency while resistance and coil are connected is series both have same impedance. Calculate the capacitance of capacitor. Find the total impedance of capacitor in both series and parallel combination. Study the phase displacement as a function of frequency between the terminal voltage and terminal current as a function of frequency.

REQUIRED APPARATUS:
Capacitor in plug-in box, 1 uF / 250 V (1 Capacitor in plug-in box, 2.2 uF / 250 V ) (1) Resistor in plug-in box 47 Ohms (1) Resistor in plug-in box 100 Ohms (1) Resistor in plug-in box 220 Ohms (1) Connection box (1) Difference amplifier (1) Function generator (1) Digital counter, 4 decades (1) Oscilloscope, 20 MHz, 2 channels (1) 2 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD Multi-meter (1) Screened cable, BNC, l = 750 mm (2) Connecting cord, l = 100 mm, red (3) and l = 500 mm, red (5)

## THEORATICAL BACKGROUND:The circuit diagram of capacitor in AC circuit is shown be

Fig.4.1 circuit diagram of resistor and capacitor in AC circuit. The sum of voltage drop at individually on both capacitor and resistor will be equal to terminal voltage as expressed by given relation; In this relation, Q is the charge on the plate of capacitor and I is the current in the given circuit The graph shown below expressed the values of Xc with f and tells that impedance increases with the frequency source.

3 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD Fig-4.2 Left: The impedance of capacitor decrease linearly with increasing frequency. Right: Impedances as a function of capacitance at constant frequency (f=10 KHz). The phase displacement graph is shown below;

Fig-4.3 phase displacement ( ) between terminal voltage and total current for capacitor as a function of frequency.

## EXPERIMENTAL SETUP, PROCEDURE AND MEASUREMENTS:

We use oscilloscope instead of voltmeter and ammeter. It is so because oscilloscope measures the phase relation but voltmeter and ammeter measures only root mean square values. Current can be measured by measuring the voltage across the resistor. The voltage drop measured directly from oscilloscope and current can be calculated by given relation; We can also measure phase difference by comparing the terminal voltage and current which is passing through resistor by using the given circuit: First of all we just find the value of AC supply at which

## Fig 4.5 circuit diagram of phase displacement

4 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD The impedance of capacitor will become equal to resistor resistance. The given circuit illustrates the circuit diagram of that procedure.

Fig 4.6 circuit diagram at which R = Xc Frequency will be varied until the voltage drop and at capacitor and resistor meet. Note the values and compare them with the actual values of capacitor Table 4.1 showing the values of frequency and capacitor Sr Resistors Correspondin Capacitanc Actual .# resistance R 1 2 3 4 5 6 = Ohm 50 100 220 50 100 220 g impedance e C= 1 2fX c Capacitanc e C 1 1 1 2 2 2 0.2 0.12 0.13 0.1 0.02 2.1 Xc Frequency f kHz 38.88 18.06 0.833 15.94 0.781 0.350 Difference C C

## Fig 4.7 graph between R and C

5 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD For the determination of capacitance of capacitor, given circuit will be used;

Fig 4.7 circuit diagram to determine the capacitance of capacitor for series and parallel combination. The table is given to record the values of capacitance; Table 4.2 showing the total capacitance of capacitor in series and parallel combinations Sr. #
Combination
Impedance frequency F Hz At XC 50 1 2 Parallel Series 358 5 557 8 100 183 4 275 4 220 249 1198 Exp(AVG ) 1.5 3 Cal. 2.1 3.4

Capacitance

The phase displacement measured from the oscilloscope by examining the sinusoidal waves. As we increase the frequency, phase displacement increases. It can also be measured directly from the screen of oscilloscope by adjusting the waves in such a way that y axis of screen cuts the waves crest at the middle.

6 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD The given table shows the value of phase displacement with different capacitors; Table 4.3 showing the values of phase displacements with different capacitors. Sr.#.
Input (kHz) Span (uF) 180/ Span Difference Phase angle frequency

0.282 0.789 1.388 1.990 2.678 3.141 3.546 4.232 35 32 5.142 6.5 8 6.5 41.14 36.7 36 5 6.5 32.5 25 7.2 3.6 37 4.86 4.5 32.5 5.53 3.5 28.5 23.5 6.315 7.65 2.5 2

## Fig 4.8 Graph between and frequency

COIL IN AC CIRCUIT
BASIC PRINCIPLE:
When a coil is put in a circuit, its impedance, its inductance and phase displacement can be studied by using a source of voltage with variable frequency. 7 LAB REPORT

RELATED PHYSICS:
KIRCHHOFFS LAWS Kirchhoffs Voltage law:
It is stated as the sum of all voltage drops around any loop in any circuit is zero mathematically

v
i=1

=0

Here n is the total number of voltage measured. Conservation of energy is the base of this Kirchhoffs voltage law. It also applicable when there is resistance in the circuit.

## Current Kirchhoffs law:

It is stated as The algebraic sum of currents in a network of a conductor meeting at a point is zero Mathematically;

I
k =1

=0

Where n is total number of branches in which current flow. Kirchhoffs current law is based on conservation of charges which are equal to product of current and time. Maxwells equation: Maxwell equations are the four partial differential equations which normally use to describe the electric and magnetic field. These equations are derived by a famous mathematician James Clerk Maxwell. Normally, the equation of Gauss law, Gauss law for magnetism, faraday law of induction and ampere law collectively known as Maxwell equations.

Inductance:
The property of an electric circuit by virtue of which any change in the magnetic flux linked with it, induces an electromotive force in it, is called inductance. 8 LAB REPORT

Electrical impedance:
Impedance describes the opposition to sinusoidal alternating voltage. It describes the phases and amplitudes of voltages and current.

Determine the frequency while resistance and coil are connected is series both have same impedance. Calculated the values of XL and L Determine the LEQ for two coils connected in series and parallel. Study the phase displacement as a function of frequency between the terminal voltage and VR

Required Apparatus:
Coil, 300 turns1 Coil, 600 turn 1 Resistor in plug-in box 50 Ohms 1 Resistor in plug-in box 100 Ohms 1 Resistor in plug-in box 200 Ohms 1 Connection box 1 Difference amplifier 1 Function generator 1 Digital counter, 4 decades 1 Oscilloscope, 20 MHz, 2 channels 1 Screened cable, BNC, l 750 mm 2 Connecting cord, 100 mm, red3 Connecting cord, 500 mm, red5 Connecting cord, 500 mm, blue 4

## 5- Theoretical Back ground:

Magnetic flux through the area of coil changes when emf changes through the loop. This creates inductance in the coil. The phenomenon Inductance is described by the American physicist Joseph Henry. Mathematically inductance can be represented by; L = L di / dt The circuit diagram of coil in an AC circuit is shown below; In this diagram, resistor and inductor are connected in series. The voltage drop Of these components can be expressed as:

9 LAB REPORT

The expected phase displacements and Impedance graphs as function of frequencies Are shown below:

and

Fig:

10 LAB REPORT

## Experimental setup, procedure and measurements:

We use oscilloscope instead of voltmeter and ammeter. It is so because oscilloscope measures the phase relation but voltmeter and ammeter measures only root mean square values. Current can be measured by measuring the voltage across the resistor. For knowing the impedance of a coli as a function of frequency, the coil should be connected with resistor in series combination. We will vary the frequency until there will be same voltage drop across coil and resistor. Then values of resistance and impedance will be equal.

The phase displacement will also measure in this experiment. But remember that channel B in the given circuit is only measure the total voltage not voltage at coil. The observed measurements and results are given below; Table 3.1 showing the values of calculated inductance and difference between actual inductance when resistance is varied through 9 and 2 mH coils respectively. Sr.# Resistance frequency(Hz) Inductanc XL e mH 1 2 3 4 5 6 50 100 200 50 100 200 8300 1640 3210 3630 7109 1430 9.59 9.7 9.9 2.1 2.2 2.2 Actual inductanc e mH 9 9 9 2 2 2 Difference mH 0.59 0.7 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.2

11 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD Table 3.2 showing the values of calculated inductance and difference between actual inductance when resistance is varied while 2 coils of 9mH and 2mH respectively, are connected in parallel. Sr.# Resistance frequency(Hz) Combined Actual Difference XL Inductance inductance mH mH of both coils mH 50 4530 1.7 0.61 1.09 100 200 9250 18130 11 11

1 2 3

Table 3.3 showing the values of calculated inductance and difference between actual inductance when resistance is varied while 2 coils are connected in series of 9mH and 2mH respectively.

Sr. #

Resistance

1 2 3

50 100 200

## Actual Difference inductance mH of both coils (mH) 11 1 11 11 1.1 1

12 LAB REPORT

3000 2500 2000 XL 1500 1000 500 0 0 100 R 200 300 Graph between Frequency and resistance

Fig.3.1 showing the variation between frequency and resistance when plotted on a graph. Table 3.3 Determining the Phase Difference

## Frequency KHz 11.08 10.73 28.65 55.11 82.20

Span 16 15 23 26 28

## 80 60 XL 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 phase difference 80 100

Phase displacement

Fig.3.2 showing the graph between frequency and phase differe 13 LAB REPORT

TRANSFORMER
A transformer is an electrical device to change a given alternating electromotive force into a larger or smaller electromotive force through inductively coupled conductors.

BASIC PRINCIPLE:
The transformer is based on two principles: first, that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism), and, second that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil.

## Related Physics of Transformer:

Electromagnetic Induction
Induction of a electric current or electromotive force by passing a metal wire through a magnetic flux called Electromagnetic Induction. Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism that relate the transformers operating principle, inductors, and many types of electrical motors and generators. Michael Faraday first found that the electromotive force (EMF) generate around a closed path is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux through any surface bounded by that path. In practice, this means that when the magnetic flux through a surface bounded by the conductor changes in any closed circuit an electric current will be induced in this circuit In mathematical form, Faraday's law states that:

where is the electromotive force B is the magnetic flux For the special case of a coil of wire, composed of N loops with the same area, the equation becomes 14 LAB REPORT

A corollary of Faraday's Law, together with Ampre's law and Ohm's law is Lenz's law: The EMF induced in a conducting coil of N loops is equal nto the ve of time rate of change of megnatic flux that is always oppose the change which cause the current.

Magnetic flux
Magnetic flux (most often denoted as m), is a measure of the amount of magnetic field passing through a given surface (such as a conducting coil). The SI unit of magnetic flux is the weber (in derived units: volt-seconds). The CGS unit is the maxwell. The magnetic flux through a given surface is proportional to the number of magnetic field lines that pass through the surface. This is the net number, i.e. the number passing through in one direction, minus the number passing through in the other direction. For a uniform magnetic field B passing through a perpendicular area the magnetic flux is given by the product of the magnetic field and the area element. The magnetic flux for a uniform B at any angle to a surface is defined by a dot product of the magnetic field and the area element vector.

15 LAB REPORT

A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction. If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (Vp), and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows.

If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow, electrical power is transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. Ideally, the transformer is perfectly efficient; all the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the magnetic field and into the secondary circuit. If this condition is met, the incoming electric power must equal the outgoing power.

## giving the ideal transformer equation

16 LAB REPORT

The secondary voltage on the open circuited transformer is determined as a function 1. of the number of turns in the primary coil, 2. of the number of turns in the secondary coil, 3. of the primary voltage. The short-circuit current on the secondary side is determined as a function 4. of the number of turns in the primary coil, 5. of the number of turns in the secondary coil, 6. of the primary current. With the transformer loaded, the primary current is determined as a function 7. of the secondary current, 8. of the number of turns in the secondary coil, 9. of the number of turns in the primary coil.

EQUIPMENT:
Coil, 140 turns, 6 tappings Clamping device Iron core, U-shaped, laminated Iron core, short, laminated Multitap transf., 14VAC/12VDC, 5A Two-way switch, double pole Rheostat, 10 Ohm, 5.7 A Digital multimeter Connecting cord, 500 mm, red Connecting cord, 500 mm, blue 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 6 6

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND:
A transformer makes use of Faraday's law and the ferromagnetic properties of an iron core. Transformer is use to raise or low the electrical voltages. It of course cannot increase power so that if the voltage is raised, the current is proportionally lowered and vice versa. In this way, electrical transformers are a passive device which transforms alternating current (otherwise known as "AC") electric energy from one circuit into another through electromagnetic induction. An electrical transformer normally consists of a ferromagnetic core and two or more coils called "windings". A changing current in the primary winding creates an alternating magnetic field in the core. In turn, the core multiplies this field and couples the most of the flux through the secondary transformer windings. This in turn induces alternating voltage (or emf) in each of the secondary coils. 17 LAB REPORT

When an electric current passes through a long, hollow coil of wire there will be a strong magnetic field inside the coil and a weaker field outside it. The lines of the magnetic field pattern run through the coil, spread out from the end, and go round the outside and in at the other end.

These are not real lines like the ones you draw with a pencil. They are lines that we imagine, as in the sketch, to show the pattern of the magnetic field: the direction in which a sample of iron would be magnetised by the field. Where the field is strongest, the lines are most closely crowded. With a hollow coil the lines form complete rings. If there is an iron core in the coil it becomes magnetised, and seems to make the field become much stronger while the current is on.

The iron core of a transformer is normally a complete ring with two coils wound on it. One is connected to a source of electrical power and is called the 'primary coil'; the other supplies the power to a load and is called the 'secondary coil'. The magnetisation due to the current in the primary coil runs all the way round the ring. The primary and secondary coils can be wound anywhere on the ring, because the iron carries the changes in magnetisation from one coil to the other. There is no electrical connection between the two coils. However they are connected by the magnetic field in the iron core. 18 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD When there is a steady current in the primary there is no effect in the secondary, but there is an effect in the secondary if the current in the primary is changing. A changing current in the primary induces an e.m.f. in the secondary. If the secondary is connected to a circuit then there is a current flow. A step-down transformer of 1,200 turns on the primary coil connected to 240 V a.c. will produce 2 V a.c. across a 10-turn secondary (provided the energy losses are minimal) and so light a 2 V lamp. A step-up transformer with 1,000 turns on the primary fed by 200 V a.c. and a 10,000-turn secondary will give a voltage of 2,000 V a.c. The iron core is itself a crude secondary (like a coil of one turn) and changes of primary current induce little circular voltages in the core. Iron is a conductor and if the iron core were solid, the induced voltages would drive wasteful secondary currents in it (called 'eddy currents'). So the core is made of very thin sheets clamped together, with the face of each sheet coated to make it a poor conductor. The edges of the sheets can be seen by looking at the edges of a transformer core.

19 LAB REPORT

Is 2 .5 2 Is 1 .5 1 0 .5 0 0 0 .5 1 Ip 1 .5 2 2 .5 Is

Is
0.55 0.63 0.7 0.77 0.85 0.95 1.13 1.28 1.39 1.57 1.79 1.94 2.16

0.6 0.66 0.72 0.78 0.84 0.92 1.07 1.19 1.28 1.43 1.61 1.73 1.91

Ip
0.43 0.5 0.55 0.59 0.66 0.74 0.81 0.9 0.96 1.02 1.07 1.14 1.2 1.24

Is
0.39 0.47 0.53 0.57 0.64 0.72 0.8 0.89 0.95 1.01 1.06 1.13 1.2 1.24

20 LAB REPORT

## Vs 0.25 0.2 Vs 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 50 Ns 100 150 Vs

Ns
14 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 126 140

Vs
0.23 0.16 0.12 0.09 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03

Ns
Is 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 50 Np 100 150 Is Is

Is
0.16 0.33 0.5 0.66 0.82 0.98 1.11 1.24 1.35 1.44

21 LAB REPORT

## Ns 150 100 Ns Ns 50 0 0 0.2 0.4 Ip 0.6 0.8

Ip
0.21 0.22 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.42 0.48 0.55 0.61 0.67

Ns
14 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 126 140

## Np 150 100 Np Np 50 0 0 0.5 1 Ip 1.5 2

Ip
1.47 1.42 1.34 1.25 1.15 1.04 0.94 0.84 0.75 0.67

Np
14 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 126 140

22 LAB REPORT

Np
14 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 126 140

Is
0.13 0.28 0.4 0.55 0.68 0.82 0.94 1.05 1.15 1.24
1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 50

Is

Is

Is

100 Np

150

Ip
0.59 0.63 0.66 0.76 0.84 0.97 1.03 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.45 1.6 1.77 1.98 2.12 2.24 2.41 2.54

Is
0.68 0.74 0.77 0.88 0.99 1.14 1.2 1.29 1.42 1.53 1.71 1.89 2.09 2.34 2.52 2.66 Ns 2.86 14 3.02 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 126 140

i.e ; Ip changes

Is
7.51 5.34 3.96 3.11 2.55 2.16 1.88 1.66 1.48 1.34

23

LAB REPORT

Is 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 Ns 100 150

Is

Is

RLC CIRCUIT
Principle:
The current and voltage of parallel and series-tuned circuits are investigated as a function of frequency. Q-factor and band-width are determined.

## Related Topics of RLC Circuits:

1. Resistance

24 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD 2. Reactance 3. Capacitance 4. Inductance 5. Coil 6. Q factor 7. Band-width 8. Half Power Points 9. Impedance

1. Resistance:
It can be defined as the ability of an object to stop or resist the flow of electrical current. An object resists electrical current because of a collision between atoms and electrons which stops the electrons to flow. This is due to the conversion of electrical energy into heat energy and light energy. The resistor can be seen in this figure.

An object having resistance that is directly proportional to the resistivity and the length of the rod and the cross sectional area of that rod is inversely proportional to the resistance. In 1827 George Ohm discovered the behavior of resistance. He mentioned a relation between the resistance and the electrical current. Then the SI unit of resistance was
R= L A

kept on his name that is ohm and it is denoted by . The relation is written here: V=IR where V is the voltage. Current and the voltage are in phase.

25 LAB REPORT

2. Reactance:
It is defined as the measure of the opposition of capacitance and inductance to current. It can be denoted by X. It is varied with the change in frequency of the electrical signal. It is also measured in ohms and denoted by . There are two types of reactance: 1. Capacitive reactance

X C=
2. Inductive reactance

1 C

X L = L
3. Capacitance:
In electromagnetism and electronics, capacitance is the ability of a body to hold an electrical charge. Capacitance is also a measure of the amount of electrical energy stored (or separated) for a given electric potential. A common form of energy storage device is a parallel plate capacitor. The capacitor can be seen in this figure.

In a parallel plate capacitor, capacitance is directly proportional to thesurface area of the conductor plates and inversely proportional to the separation distance between the plates. If the charge on the plates are +Q and -Q, and V gives the voltage between the plates.The SI unit of capacitance is the farad.(1 farad is 1 coulomb per volt).

4. Inductance:
Inductance is the property of an electrical circuit causing voltage to be generated proportional to the rate of change in current in a circuit. This property is also called self inductance to discriminate it from mutual inductance, describing the voltage induced in one electrical circuit by the rate of change of the electrical current in another circuit. The SI units of it is Weber per ampere (also known as Henry). This is a linear relation between voltage and current akin to Ohm's law, but with an extra time derivative.

26 LAB REPORT

. The simplest solutions of this equation are a constant current with no voltage or a current changing linearly in time with a constant voltage. The term inductance was coined by Oliver Heaviside in February 1886. It is customary to use the symbol L for inductance, possibly in hon-our of the physicist Heinrich Lenz.The SI unit of inductance is the henry (H), named after American scientist and magnetic researcher Joseph Henry. (1 H =1 Wb/A).

5. Coil:
A coil is a series of loops. A coiled coil is a structure where the coil itself is in turn also looping, these objects are used commonly and are very important.Some of their functions may be in bikes,cars, trains and planes. Often used in conjunction with a thread. Some different coils can be seen in the below figure. (coils having different shapes )

6. Q Factor:
The common definition of Q for a series or parallel RLC circuits is = The figure also describing this factor as:

27 LAB REPORT

The is the resonant frequency, is also a frequency at the half power point above resonance while is the frequency at the half power point below resonance.

7. Band-width:
LC circuit is resonant at one frequency and it is only true for the maximum resonance effect. But the remaining frequencies which are close to resonance are effective too.

## For Series Resonance:

Those frequencies which are just below or above the resonance produce increase current. But this remains little less than the value at resonance.

## For Parallel Resonance:

Those frequencies which are close to resonance can provide a high impedance although a little less than the maximum. So, any resonant frequency that has an associated band of frequencies provide resonant effect. In fact it is practically possible to have an RLC circuit with a resonant effect for only one frequency. The width of the resonant band for the frequencies centered around resonance is called the band-width of the tuned circuit.

## 8. Half Power Points:

The 70.70 % from the relative current values corresponds to 50 % in power and the square of 0.707 equals 0.50, so the band-width between the frequencies having 70.70 % respond in current is band-width in terms of half power points.

9. Impedance:
28 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD Impedance is denoted by Z. It is defined as the measure of the overall opposition of a circuit to current. It can also be describe as: How much the circuit impedes the flow of current. It is like a resistance but it also takes into account the effect of capacitance as well as inductance. Impedance is measured in ohms and it is symbolized by . For series RLC circuit: For parallel RLC circuit:
Z =[ R2+ ( X L X C ) 2 ] 1/ Z=[ 1/ R2+ (1/ X L X C )2 ]

1. Determination of frequency of AC supply at which impedence of coil is equal to resistance of resistor in series or parallel with it? 2. Inductance of coil? 3. Total impedance of circuit in parallel or in series?

Required Apparatus:
1. Resistor (100 ,500 ,1000 ; all 25 watt) 2. Capacitor (0.01 F) 3. Inductor (200 mH) 4. Resistance Box 5. Connecting Wires 6. Audio Oscillator 7. Micro Ammeter 8. Two Multimeter

## Theoretical Background of a Series RLC Circuit:

Virtual instruments contains three main components. (1) the front panel, the block diagram, and icon of connector pane. The user interacts with program through the front panel and we build the front panel with controls and indicators, which are the interactive input and output terminals of virtual instruments. Graphical source code called a block diagram. The connector pane 29 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD defines the inputs and outputs you can wire to the virtual instruments so you can use it as a sub virtual instruments.

## Resonant RLC circuit:s

We have a series RLC circuit composed of an inductor L, a capacitor C, and a small resistor R. The inductor has its own resistance from the coil winding. A series RLC circuit exhibit a peak of the current when the driving frequency is equal to the resonance frequency of circuit.

## The magnitude of the total impedance of the RLC circuit:

Z= R2 + ( 2 fL tot

## 2 1 ) 2 fC where Rtotal =RS + RL

Ar very low frequencies, the capacitor acts like an open circuit. Thus the total impedance Z goes to infinity and there is no current flowing through the circuit and hence no voltage across the series resistor . In the opposite limit of very high frequencies the inductor acts like an open circuit. Again there is no current in the circuit and hence no voltage across the series resistor . At the resonance frequency the reactant of the capacitor X cancels the reactance of the inductor leaving only the small resistance of and the resistance of the coil windings .

30 LAB REPORT

UO Now a large current flows through the circuit of magnitude Rtotal and a large maximum voltage U max = U O RS Rtotal

now appears across the series resistor , namely and the resonance frequency is found by setting yielding .

When we had measured the peak voltage at the resonance frequency . We can also measure the two frequencies where the voltage across our series resistor is only 70.70 % of . One frequency will be somewhat lower than the resonance frequency which we will denote as while the second frequency will be somewhat higher than the resonance frequency and we will denote as . f hi The Q of the RLC circuit is defined as .
Q= fO f hi f low

## RLC Series Circuit:

A capacitor is an electrical device that can store energy in the electrical field between a pair of conductors called plates. If the angular frequency of an AC signal applied from the function generator is (which is equal to 2f). The impedance Z of a RLC series circuit is thus:
Z =R+ i ( L 1 ) C

where R is the resistance in of the resistor, L is the inductance in H of the inductor and C is the capacitance in F of the capacitor. The current passing through the circuit is equal to:
I= VO R+ i ( L 1 ) C

31 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD There are two kinds of characteristics of amplitude and of phase. We need to study for the RLC circuit. The amplitude of I equals to

I=

VO

1 2 R + ( L ) C
2

Surely, when the frequency f equals to the resonant frequency then we get.
VO thus it can be just to R . The phase of I is determined by

f O=

1 2 LC

=a rc ta n (

L1/C ) R

We can conclude from the above two equations that the amplitude |I| reaches a maximum value while the phase becomes zero when the frequency f equals to the resonant frequency . Also, we can find that the phase of I is negative (capacitance) if f is less than and is positive (inductance) if f is greater than . See the figure of RLC series circuit, Fig. (RLC Circuit with Voltage source)

## RLC Parallel Circuit:

Let us consider the circuit in which the current voltage relations are: 32 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD -for R: Vr V I L and are in phase -for L: V and I L are out of phase V leads current by -for C: Vc and I C are out of phase leads V by Now consider that I = I r + I c Il Where I is a vector with components I R and magnitude of I is
I=I = ( I R+ ( I C I L ) )
2 2

Ir =

V V V , Ic = . Il = Xc Xl R

## 2 2 By rearranging. we get; I =V / 1/ (1/ R + ( C 1/ L) )

By comparing it with I=V/R, then we get; I=V/Z The phase angle is tan ()=( I C I L )/ I R =(V / X C V / X L )/ V / R = arctan ( C1 / L) R Hence the instantaneous value of current is I = I sin (t-) then the voltage will be; v = V sin (t-) we have now;

33 LAB REPORT

V m=

I 1 + (C ) 2 L R

## Experimental Procedure and Measurements:

1. Select a suitable combination of R, L and C. 2. Taking R in the range of 100 -1000. 3. Taking L in the range of 100 mH- 500 mH. 4. Taking C in the range of 0.001 F-0.1 F. 5. Connecting the circuit as shown in the figure. 6. Set the oscillator output at a low voltage saying 1 volt. 7. Set the oscillator frequency equal to the calculated resonance frequency. 8. Set the multimeter current range to 10 mA AC. 9. Switch on the oscillator and observe the current flowing in the circuit. It can be verified by slightly adjusting the oscillator frequency. Adjust the range of multimeter if required. 10. Bringing the oscillator frequency to a value below the resonance frequency. 11. Increasing the frequency in a regularly manner say 500 to a value about the same value as it was noted. 12. Making sure that the output voltage of the oscillator remains the same for all frequencies. 13. Recording two more sets of observations for different values of resistance. 14. Plotting current values with the frequency for each set and obtaining the curves. 15. For small value of R peak current is high and is low for large values of R. 16. Resonance frequency is same for all curves. In this method the frequency variation is very large and the curve should be plotted between (I) and (log f). 17. In the end determining the band-width and quality factor for each curve.

34 LAB REPORT

## FOR R-L-C SERIES

f 0 30 80 120 180 240 320 380 450 520 610 700 760 860 950 1050 1150 1300 1400 1500 1600 1800 2100 2500 3000 3800 5000 7200 9000 13000 15000 20000 31000 70000

I 0 0.7 1 1.25 2 2.5 3.75 5 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 11.25 12.5 13.75 15 16.25 17.5 17.5 17.4 16.25 15 13.75 12.5 11.25 10 8.75 7.5 6.25 5 3.75 2.5 1.25 2.5

20 15 10 5 0 1 10 1 0 0 f 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 01 0 0 0 0 0 I
I

35 LAB REPORT

And then ,

## XL 2 f 2000 L= 2 (7900) L = 0.0403 1 fr = 2 LC L= 1 2 0.0403(10 10 9 ) f r = 512 Hz fr =

PARALLEL

FOR RL-C

36 LAB REPORT

frequency 100 160 220 280 320 380 425 475 500 560 600 650 675 710 770 850 955 1060 1150 1260 1490 1670 1850 2050 2300 2500 2800 2950 3400 3900 4250 4700 5400 6900 8900 15000

current 25 23.75 22.5 21.25 20 18.75 17.5 16.25 15 14.375 13.75 13.125 12.5 11.875 11.25 10 8.75 7.5 6.25 5 3.75 2.5 3.75 5 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 11.25 12.5 13.75 15 17.5 20 22.5 25

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 10

curent

S e rie s 1

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 01 0 0 0 0 fre q u e n c y 0

## COULMBS LAW / IMAGE CHARGE

37 LAB REPORT

Basics Principle:
A small electrically charged ball is positioned at a certain distance in front of metal plate lying at earth potential. The surface charge on the plate due to electrostatic induction together with the charge ball forms an electric field analogous to that which exists between two oppositely charged points garges. The electrostatic force acting on the ball can be measured with the sensitive torsion dynamometer.

Equipment:
Plate capacitor, 283 283 mm 1 Insulating stem 2 Conductor ball, d 40 mm 2 Conductor spheres, w. suspension 1 Torsion dynamometer, 0.01 N 1 Weight holder f.slotted weights 1

1. Determination of the impedance of a coil as a function of frequency. 2. Determination of the inductance of a coil. 3. Determination of the phase displacement between terminal voltage and current as a function of the frequency of in the circuit. 4. Determination of the total impedance of the coils connected in parallel and series.

RELATED TOPICS
Electric Field:
38 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD Force per unit charge that would be experienced by a stationary point charge at a given location in the field is called electric field. This electrics field exerts a force on other electrically charged objects. The strength of the field at a given point as defined as the force that would be exerted on a positive test charge of 1 coulomb placed at that point, the direction of field is given by the direction of the force. Using Coulomb's law we get the vector of the electric field produced by a point charge q With the magnitude This field does not depend upon the test charge q and depends only on the charge producing this field and the distance where it is measured. Electric field can be defined graphically by means of the electric field lines, as shown in the fig.

=s.E Where s is an insignificant arbitrary scale parameter the same for all points. Thus the electric field is equal to the electric force per unit charge. Therefore the unit of the electric field is =

Electrostatic Induction:
Electrostatic induction is a method in which an electrically charged object can be used to create an electrical charge in a second object without contact between the two objects. Electrostatic induction is redistribution of electrical charge in a object caused by the influence of nearby charge. Electrostatic generators, such as the Wimshurst machine, the Van de Graff generator and the electrophorus, use this principle. Electrostatic induction should not be confused with electromagnetic induction; both are often referred to as induction. Induction effect occurs in dielectric objects and is responsible for the attraction of small light nonconductive objects like scraps of paper to static electric charges. In nonconductors the electrons are bound to atoms and are not to free to move about the objects. Therefore they can move a little within the atoms.

Electrostatic Potential:
39 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD Electrical potential is the potential energy per unit charge associated with a static electric field, also called the electrostatic potential or the electric potential. Technically, it is the potential associated with the conservative electric field E that occurs when the magnetic field is time invariant. It is measured in volts and is a Lorentz scalar quantity. The difference in electrical potential between two points is known as voltage. In the case of coulomb force a direct demonstration can be made to show that it is a conservative force. Since force is directly proportional to the electric field.

Dielectric Strength:
Dielectric strength is measure of the electrical strength of the material as an insulator. Dielectric strength is defined as the maximum voltage required to produce dielectric breakdown through the material. Dielectric strength is expressed in volt per unit thickness. The higher the dielectric strength of the material the batter as the insulator. The dielectric strength of the material is determined by the maximum AC voltage per unit thickness that the material can handle before breakdown occurs. The test consists of placing a sample of material between two neoprene disks coated with silicone grease to prevent flashover. A dielectric potential is then placed across the sample and is increased at a specified rate until breakdown occurs.

Dielectric Displacement:
Dielectric displacement is charge per surface area. When an electrical charge acts on a dielectric material it stresses and polarizes the molecules in material. The material remains in an electrically stressed state when the charge is removed. Dielectric displacement current is charge displacement without charge transport. Displacement current doesnt involve the motion of charges but involves the formation of electric dipoles which create an effect similar to the movement of charges. The cyclical reversals of these dipoles gives rise to magnetic effects which in turn gives rise to displacement currents. This alternating electromagnetic cycle persists until it is absorbed somewhere in time and space. The common equation of the dielectric displacement is given by Dielectric displacement = electric field strength x permittivity And the unit of the dielectric displacement is Coulombs per meter squared.

Theoretical Background:
40 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD The French engineer Charles Coulomb investigated the quantitative relation of forces between charged objects during the 1780's. Using a torsion balance device, created by Coulomb himself, he could determine how an electric force varies as a function of the magnitude of the charges and the distance between them. Coulomb used little spheres with different charges whose exact value he did not know, but the experiment allowed him to test the relation between the charges. Coulomb realized that if a charged sphere touches another identical not charged sphere, the charge will be shared in equal parts symmetrically. Thus, he had the way to generate charges equal to , , etc., from the original charge. Keeping the distance constant between the charges he noticed that if the charge of one of the spheres was duplicated, the force was also duplicated; and if the charge in both spheres was duplicated, the force was increased to four times its original value. When he varied the distance between the charges, he found the force decreased in relation to the square of the distance; that is, if the distance was duplicated, the force decreased to the fourth part of the original value. In that way Coulomb demonstrated that the electric force between two stationary charged particles is: 1. Inversely proportional to the square of the distance r between the particles and is directed along the line that joins them. 2. Proportional to the product of the charges q1 and q2. 3. Attracted if the charges have opposite electrical sign and repulsed if the charges have equal sign. Coulombs Law can be expressed in the form of an equation. The validity of Coulomb's Law has been verified with modern devices that have detected that the exponent 2 has an exactitude of one part in 1016. Ke is a constant known as the Coulomb 's constant, which in the International System units has the value Ke = 8.987x109 Nm2/C2. The International System unit for charge is the Coulomb. The smallest known charge in nature is the charge of an electron or proton, which has an absolute value of e = 1.60219x10-19 C. Thus, a 1 Coulomb charge is approximately equal to a charge of 6.24x1018 (= 1C/e) electrons or protons. We should notice that the force is a vectorial quantity, that is, has magnitude and direction. Coulomb 's Law expressed in vectorial form for the electric force F12 exerted by a charge q1 over a second charge q2 is 41 LAB REPORT

As every force obeys Newton's third Law, the electric force exerted by q2 over q1 is equal in magnitude to the force exerted by q1 over q2 and in the opposite direction, that is F21= - F12. If q1 and q2 have the same sign, F12 takes the direction of r. If q1 and q2 have opposite sign, the product q1q2 is negative and F12 points opposite to r. When two or more charges are present, the force between any pair of them is given by the above equation. Hence, the resultant force on any of them is equal to the vectorial sum of the forces exerted by the different individual charges. For example, with three charges, the resultant force exerted by particles 2 and 3 over 1 is F1 = F21 + F3

42 LAB REPORT

Sr 01 02 03

Q 14 14.4 14.6

Q2

0.282

0.32

43 LAB REPORT

Sr 01 02 03

d 6 6 6

F1 1.09 1.05 1

Q 12.4 14.6 15

44 LAB REPORT

Sr 01 02 03

Q 13 13.2 13.4

## Q2 o = 16 d 2 F (13)2 o = 1011 16 (5.5)2 (0.17) o = 6.73 1012 As / V

Q2 182 180 178 176 174 172 170 168 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14

Q2

## Relationship b/w electrostatic force Fand the square of the charge Q

45 LAB REPORT

Wheatstone Bridge
BASIC PRINCIPLE
Wheatstone bridge is used to find the unknown resistance of resisters and wire by connecting the circuit in series and parallel manner. The total resistance of the circuit connect in series or parallel are measured.

1. First find the unknown resistance. 2. Secondly to find the total resistance of resistors connected in Series. 3. Thirdly find the total resistance of resistors connected in Parallel. 4. Fourthly find the resistance of a wire.

Required Apparatus
1. Resistance board Metal 2. Slide wire measuring bridge 3. Connection box 4. Carbon resistor 1 W, 10 Ohm 5. Carbon resistor 1 W, 100 Ohm 6. Carbon resistor 1 W, 150 Ohm 7. Carbon resistor 1 W, 330 Ohm 8. Carbon resistor 1 W, 680 Ohm 9. Carbon resistor 1 W, 1 KOhm 10. Carbon resistor 1 W, 4.7 KOhm 11. Carbon resistor 1 W, 10 KOhm 12. Carbon resistor 1 W, 15 KOhm 13. Carbon resistor 1 W, 82 KOhm 14. Carbon resistor 1 W, 100 KOhm 15. Power supply 5V/1A 16. Digital Multimeter 17. Connection cord l = 500mm/Red (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (2)

46 LAB REPORT

Related Physics
a. Conductor, b. Voltage, c. Circuit, d. Resistance, e. Parallel and series connections. f. Kirchhoffs laws, . Conductor:
A conductor is an object or a substance that allow the electricity through it with some resistance. A good example is a copper wire while other examples are nanotubes.A conductor is made by a materiel which contain movable negative electrical charges called electron. Positive charges can also be movable in the form of the atom in the diode or in the form of ion in electrolyte in a battery.

Voltage:
The voltage in between two points is in real the electric force that is use to derive the electric current between these points. In the case of static electric fields, the voltage between two points is equal to the electrical potential difference between those points. Electric potential is the energy required to move a unit electric charge to a particular place in a static electric field. V=IR

Circuit:
A circuit is an electrical network in which different electrical component such as resistor like bulb, capacitor, inductor, battery etc are interconnected in series or parallel loops. A number of electrical laws are apply to design a circuit

This is the circuit diagram of wheatstone bridge which is made by apply kirchoff laws.

Resistance:
47 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD The property of a component which restricts the flow of electric current in circuit. Energy is used as the voltage across the component drives the current through it. Resistance is measured in ohms, the symbol for ohm is an omega . 1 is quite small for electronics so resistances are often given in k and M . 1 k = 1000 1 M = 1000000 . Combined resistance in series: R = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 +... Combined resistance in case of parallel: 1/Req=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+..

## Parallel and series connections

There are two ways in which components are connected in circuit. Namely series and parallel: In series combination components are connected in such a way that current through each component remain same while voltage divide according to the resistance.i.e,

In parallel combination components are connected one above the other in which voltage remain same through each component.i.e,

48 LAB REPORT

Kirchhoffs laws:
In 1845 a german physicist gustav kirchhoff first describe two basic law in electricity and megnatism. Which play a central role in Physics and electrical engineering.These laws known as kirchhoff laws. It is two laws one is kirrchhoff voltage law and the other is the kirchhoff current law. The laws were generalized from the work of Georg Ohm. The laws can also be derived from Maxwells equations.

## Kirchhoff current law:

Kirchhoff current is also called the kirchhoff point rule or kirchhoff junction rule or kirchhoff nodel rule or kirchhoff first rule. In this rule law of conservation of charge is hold. This law state that in any circuit the current following into the circuit is must be equal to the current following out of the circuit .

OR in any circuit the algebric sum of all current meeting at a point is must be equal to zero.

Note that the current entering a node is the negative of the current leaving the node.

i.e

49 LAB REPORT

## Kirchhoff Voltage law:

This law is also called kirchhoff second law or kirchhoff loop rule or kirchhoff mesh rule. This rule is on the basis of law of conservation of energy. This law stats that The sum of voltage changes in a closed loop must be equal to zero

OR The algebraic sum of the products of the resistances of the conductors and the currents in them in a closed loop is equal to the total Voltage available in that loop.

This law holds true even when resistance which causes dissipation of energy is present in a circuit. The validity of this law in this case can be understood if one realizes that a charge in fact doesn't go back to its starting point, due to dissipation of energy.

Theoritical Background
Bridge circuits are designed to allow the determination of the value of an unknown circuit element such as a resistor, capacitor, or an inductor. The circuit diagram for a typical bridge . The bridge elements are connected between junctions AC, BC, AD, and BD. V represents either an AC or DC voltage source and G represents a null detecting device such as a galvanometer, a voltmeter, or an oscilloscope Generally, one or more of the circuit elements in the bridge can be varied until the potential difference between junctions C and D (VCD) is zero. When this situation exists, the bridge is said to be balanced or is "nulled." The following relationships then hold for the voltages in the main branches.

50 LAB REPORT

V AC = V AD , and V BC = V BD .

(1) (2)

When (1) is divided by (2) and rearranged, the voltage across any branch can be found in terms of the voltages across the remaining three. For example, the voltage between Junctions A and D is V V AD = V BD AC V AD . (3)

The Wheatstone bridge is shown schematically 'n Figure 2. The coils of wire whose resistance is to be, determined is connected between junctions A and D, and a known value of resistance is connected between B and D. A potentiometer is connected between A and B with a tap at point C. The position of the tap can be altered by adjusting the dial on the potentiometer and, thereby, changing the resistances, R AC and R BC, on either side of point C. These changes then vary the voltage V AC and V BC

When the bridge is in the null condition (3) holds and a current I, flows from A to D to B, and a current I2 flows from A to C to B. Knowing that the voltage across a resistor is IR (Ohm's Law), equation (3) can be expressed as R AD = RBD
RAC . R BC

51 LAB REPORT

The value of RAC is the reading on the potentiometerdial, R, and the value of R BC is 10 - R. Equation (4) can now be written as
R AD = R BD R . 10 R

(5)

This is the working equation for the Wheatstone bridge. The resistivity of the coil of wire with resistance RAD can now be determined. For a wire with a uniform cross-sectional area, the resistance is R AD = When this expression is rearranged,

(6)

where p is the resistivity, L,4Dis the length of the coil of wire, and A is its cross-sectional area. When the cross-sectional area is expressed in terms of its diameter, d, the expression for its resistivity Is

52 LAB REPORT

Practical Calculation:
SINGLE RESISTANCE
Sr 1 2 3 4 5 6 R() (known) 330 330 330 330 330 330 L1 m 230 670 750 122 934 26 L2 m 770 330 250 878 66 974 Rx=L1/L2*R () 98 670 990 45.5 4670 8.9 Actual R() 100 680 1000 47 4700 10 Difference () 2 10 10 1.5 30 1.1

## Determination of resistors connected in circuit using wheatstone bridge

RESISTANCE IN SERIES
Sr 1 R(known ) () 330 L1 (m) 835 L2 (m) 165 Rx=L1/L2*R () 1670 Actual () 1680 Difference () 10

53 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD 2 3 4 5 330 330 330 330 700 754 766 945 240 246 234 55 1045 1011 1080 5670 1047 1010 1100 5680 2 1 20 10

## Determination of resistors connected in series using wheatstone bridge

RESISTANCE IN PARALLEL
R(known ) () 330 1 2 3 4 330 330 330 L1 (m) 26 210 86 207 L2 (m) 974 790 914 793 Rx=L1/L2*R () 8.98 87.70 31.05 86.14 Actual () 9.8 87.17 31.97 87.17 Difference () 0.2 0.63 0.91 1.03

Sr

54 LAB REPORT

## Determination of resistance of wires of various radii using wheatstone bridge

Sr R(known ) () 10 10 10 10 10 L1 (m) 57 203 114 113 35 L2 (m) 943 797 886 887 965 Rx=L1/L2*R () 0.604 2.547 1.286 1.274 0.3627 Radius 1.00 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.5

1 2 3 4 5

## Internal Resistance and matching Voltage

Basic Principle:
The voltage sources having two terminal voltage and current depend on the load i.e on the eternal resistance. The terminal voltage is determined as a function of the current and from this no voltage of the source and internal resistance are determined and power graph is plotted.

55 LAB REPORT

Related Physics:
Voltage source, electromotive force, terminal voltage, no-load operation, short circuit, Ohm law, Kirchhoff laws, power matching.

Voltage source
The sources which can produces constant voltage across a battery or a combination of batteries like A.C,D.C and chemical batteries called voltage source. In electric circuit theory, an ideal voltage source is a circuit element where the voltage across it is independent of the current through it. A voltage source is provide energy in the form of electric force these voltage source are Dry cell, A.C and D.C generator solar cell terbine etc. In analysis, a voltage source supplies a constant DC or AC potential between its terminals for any current flow through it. AC voltage source has voltage across its output in the form of sine wave such as

V(t)=vsin(t)
ELECTROMTIVE FORCE(e.m.f)
Any device that maintain the potential difference between two points in a electrical circuits is called source of emf or voltage source and the potential to maintain between these sources is called emf., electromotive force,, eletromotances "that which tends to cause current (actual electrons and ions) to flow.

TERMINAL VOLTAGE:
The voltage obtaind from +ve anode and ve cathode across the combination of batteries like A.C,D.C and cell battery is called terminal voltage. Because any battery has an internal resistance ri its terminal voltage VT drops when current is drawn from it;

56 LAB REPORT

Kirchoff law,s:
In 1845 a german physicist gustav kirchhoff first describe two basic law in electricity and megnatism. Which play a central role in Physics and electrical engineering.These laws known as kirchhoff laws.It is two laws one is kirrchhoff voltage law and the other is the kirchhoff current law. The laws were generalized from the work of Georg Ohm. The laws can also be derived from Maxwells equations.

## Kirchhoff current law:

Kirchhoff current is also called the kirchhoff point rule or kirchhoff junction rule or kirchhoff nodel rule or kirchhoff first rule. In this rule law of conservation of charge is hold. This law state that in any circuit the current following into the circuit is must be equal to the current following out of the circuit meeting at a point is must be equal to zero. .OR in any circuit the algebric sum of all current

Note that the current entering a node is the negative of the current leaving the node.

i.e

## Kirchhoff Voltage law:

This law is also called kirchhoff second law or kirchhoff loop rule or kirchhoff mesh rule. This rule is on the basis of law of conservation of energy. 57 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD This law stats that The sum of voltage changes in a closed loop must be equal to zero

OR The algebraic sum of the products of the resistances of the conductors and the currents in them in
a closed loop is equal to the total Voltage available in that loop.

This law holds true even when resistance which causes dissipation of energy is present in a circuit. The validity of this law in this case can be understood if one realizes that a charge in fact doesn't go back to its starting point, due to dissipation of energy

Ohm law:
Ohm's law states that Current is directly proportional to applied voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance.Ohm's Law defines the relationships between (P) power, (E) voltage, (I) current, and (R) resistance. One ohm is the resistance value through which one volt will maintain a current of one ampere. Mathematicaly, V=IR R=V/I

Short circuit:
A short circuit is very low-resistance connection between two points of an electrical circuit . Due to very low resistance very large amount of current will pass through the circuit which may damage the circuit. A common type of short circuit occurs when the positive and negative terminals of a battery are connected together with a low-resistance conductor, like a wire. With low resistance in the connection, a high current exists, causing the cell to deliver a large amount of energy in a short time. 58 LAB REPORT

Equipment:
Battery box (06030.21) Flat cell battery, 9 V( 07496.10 ) Flat battery, 4.5 V( 07496.01) Power supply 5 V DC/0.3 A (11076.93) Rheostat, 10 Ohm, 5.7 A( 06110.02) Rheostat, 100 Ohm, 1.8 A( 06114.02) Digital multimeter (07134.00) Double sockets, 1 pair, red a. black( 07264.00 ) Connecting cord, 500 mm, red (07361.01) Connecting cord, 500 mm, blue (07361.04) 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2

1. To measure the terminal voltage Ut of a number of voltage source as a function of the current, varying the external resistance Re, and to calculate the no-load voltage U0 and the internal resistanceRi. 1.1 Slimline battery 1.2 Power supply 1.2.1 Alternating voltage output 1.2.2 Direct voltage output 2. To measure directly the no-load voltage of the slimline battery (with no external resistance) and its internal resistance (by power matching, Ri = Re). 3. To determine the power diagram from the relationship between terminal voltage and current, as illustrated by the simline battery.

## Set-up and procedure:

1. Connect a variable resistor Re to the voltage source as shown in Fig. And use the rheostat of 1001/2 ohm or 10ohm for to measure the higher current.In this way the current I vary in 0.1A steps for the slimine battery andin 0.05A steps for power supply. . Measure the terminal voltage Ut with the voltmeter 2. measure the no load voltage directly external resistance.then load the voltage source with an external resistor. Set Re so that Ut =Uo/2 In this case the internal resistance is Ri = Re. Measure Re with the resistance measuring multimeter.

## Theory and Evaluation:

The battery is used to drive a current through a resistor. A digital voltmeter measures the emf of the battery and the pd across the resistor when the current flows.If the ideal voltage source with 59 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD no load voltage Uo and internal resistance Ri connected in series then real voltage source can be represented in the equivalent circuit diagram. If the voltage sources like AC,DC and Chamical cell battries are connected in an external resistance Re then according to Ohm law; Uo I = Ri + Re The terminal voltage can be represented as Ut = Uo RtI The variation of line with a linear portion in according to the above equation

Slimline Battery Uo= 4.66 V Ri= 1.47 Ohm sUo= 0.03 V sRe= 0.02 Ohm

Power supply A.Voltage Uo= 6.948 V Ri= 1.55 Ohm sUo=0.005 V sRe=0.01 Ohm

The Relationship between Terminal Voltage Ut and current I: The terminal voltage Ut and current I have a linear relationship such as: Ut = Uo RtI External resistance determine the ratio of terminal voltage and current at the working point. Re = Ut I

60 LAB REPORT

GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD No Load: No load is also called matching voltage in this load Re is infinit such as: Re = There is no current flowing and neither voltage drop over Ri. In this case:
Ut = Uo

Short Circuit: This circuit is also called current matching.In this case: Re = 0 The short circuit defines the current as follows; It = Power Matching: Power matching is also called resistance matching. It can be describe as:
Ro = Rt

Uo Ri

In this case:
Current Voltage 0.3 2.62 0.31 2.61 0.35 2.58 0.37 2.57 0.4 2.54 0.49 2.48 0.63 2.39 0.73 2.31 0.86 2.23 1.06 2.1 1.16 2.04 1.28 1.95 1.44 1.85 1.82 1.61 2.31 1.25 2.54 REPORT 1.09 LAB 3.2 0.63 3.81 0.17 3.9 0.06

Ut =

Uo 2

## And also it describe current as follows: It = Io 2

Practical calculation:
For Dry cell

61

Vo lta ge

## 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 1 2 I 3 4

Vo ltag e

For Dc supply

LAB

Current Voltage 0.91 5.08 1 5.07 1.12 5.05 FOR AC SUPPLY 1.38 5.08 2.1 4.97 Current Voltage 2.76 4.9 0.07 6.41 3.87 4.79 0.1 6.42 7.05 4.47 0.14 6.41 9.73 3.7 0.16 6.4 11.35 1.89 0.18 6.4 12.49 0.37 0.21 6.39 0.23 6.38 0.27 6.38 0.32 6.37 0.37 6.38 0.45 6.37 0.52 6.36 0.81 6.32 0.87 6.31 0.99 6.3 1.26 6.26 1.83 6.2 2.1 6.17 2.99 6.07 3.34 6.02 4.32 5.91 5.11 5.81 6.26 5.64 REPORT 7.56 5.4 11.35 4.93 19.11 3.81

Voltage

6 4 V 2 0 0 5 I 10 15
Voltage

FOR AC SUPPLY

62

V oltage

8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 I 15 20 25 vV
V oltage

## Power graph and matching voltage

63 LAB REPORT

I 0.3 0.31 0.35 0.37 0.4 0.49 0.63 0.73 0.86 1.06 1.16 1.28 1.44 1.82 2.31 2.54 3.2 3.81 3.9

V 2.62 2.61 2.58 2.57 2.54 2.48 2.39 2.31 2.23 2.1 2.04 1.95 1.85 1.61 1.25 1.09 0.63 0.17 0.06

Re 8.73333 3 8.41935 5 7.37142 9 6.94594 6 6.35 5.06122 4 3.79365 1 3.16438 4 2.59302 3 1.98113 2 1.75862 1 1.52343 8 1.28472 2 0.88461 5 0.54112 6 0.42913 4 0.19687 5 0.04461 9 0.01538 5

I/Is 0.05940 6 0.06138 6 0.06930 7 0.07326 7 0.07920 8 0.09703 0.12475 2 0.14455 4 0.17029 7 0.20990 1 0.22970 3 0.25346 5 0.28514 9 0.36039 6 0.45742 6 0.50297 0.63366 3 0.75445 5 0.77227 7

Vt/Vo 0.73389 4 0.73109 2 0.72268 9 0.71988 8 0.71148 5 0.69467 8 0.66946 8 0.64705 9 0.62465 0.58823 5 0.57142 9 0.54621 8 0.51820 7 0.45098 0.35014 0.30532 2 0.17647 1 0.04761 9 0.01680 7

Re/Ri 12.3538 7 11.9097 3 10.4273 7 9.82549 8 8.98249 3 7.15943 5 5.36636 9 4.47622 9 3.66800 2 2.80244 2 2.48768 5 2.15500 3 1.81732 4 1.25134 7 0.76545 8 0.60703 8 0.27849 3 0.06311 7 0.02176 3

Pe/Po 0.04359 8 0.04487 9 0.05008 7 0.05274 4 0.05635 5 0.06740 4 0.08351 8 0.09353 5 0.10637 6 0.12347 1 0.13125 9 0.13844 7 0.14776 6 0.16253 2 0.16016 3 0.15356 8 0.11182 3 0.03592 6 0.01297 9

Pe=I2Re 0.786 0.8091 0.903 0.9509 1.016 1.2152 1.5057 1.6863 1.9178 2.226 2.3664 2.496 2.664 2.9302 2.8875 2.7686 2.016 0.6477 0.234

Vo 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57 3.57

Ri 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1 0.70693 1

Is 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05

Po=VoIs 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285 18.0285

64 LAB REPORT