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OSI(Open System Interconnection)

When computers were first linked together into networks, moving information between different types of computers was a very difficult task.In the early 1980s, the International Standards Organization (ISO) recognized the need for a standard network model. This would help vendors to create interpretable network devices. The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a reference tool for understanding data communications between any two networked systems.The main idea in OSI is that the process of communication between two end points in a telecommunication network can be divided into layers, with each layer adding its own set of special, related functions. Each of these layers relies on the layers below it to provide supporting capabilities and performs support to the layers above it. Such a model of layered functionality is also called a protocol stack or protocol suite. Each communicating user or program is at a computer equipped with these seven layers of function. So, in a given message between users, there will be a flow of data through each layer at one end down through the layers in that computer and, at the other end, when the message arrives, another flow of data up through the layers in the receiving computer and ultimately to the end user or program. The actual programming and hardware that furnishes these seven layers of function is usually a combination of the computer operating system, applications (such as your Web browser), TCP/IP or alternative transport and network protocols, and the software and hardware that enable you to put a signal on one of the lines attached to your computer. The OSI model divides the complex task of computer-to-computer communications, traditionally called internetworking, into a series of stages known as layers. Layers in the OSI model are ordered from lowest level to highest. Together, these layers comprise the OSI stack.OSI divides telecommunication into seven layers. The layers are in two groups. The upper four layers are used whenever a message passes from or to a user. The lower three layers (up to the network layer) are used when any message passes through the host computer. Messages intended for this computer pass to the upper layers. Messages destined for some other host are not passed up to the upper layers but are forwarded to another host. The main benefits of the OSI model include the following: Helps users understand the big picture of networking Helps users understand how hardware and software elements function together Makes troubleshooting easier by separating networks into manageable pieces Defines terms that networking professionals can use to compare basic functional relationships on different networks Helps users understand new technologies as they are developed Aids in interpreting vendor explanations of product functionality The seven layers of OSI model are: Physical Layer Layer one of the OSI model is the physical layer. The physical layer is concerned with the interface to the transmission medium. At the physical layer, data is transmitted onto the medium (e.g. coaxial cable or optical fiber) as a stream of bits. So, the physical layer is concerned, not with networking protocols, but with the

transmission media on the network. The physical layer defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications for activating, maintaining, and deactivating the physical link between end systems. This layer puts 1's & 0's onto the wire. Characteristics specified by the physical layer include voltage levels timing of voltage changes physical data rates maximum transmission distances physical connectors Devices: Hubs, FDDI Hardware, Fast Ethernet, Token Ring Hardware.

Data Link Layer Layer two of the OSI reference model is the data-link layer. This layer is responsible for providing reliable transit of data across a physical link. The data-link layer is concerned with

Network Layer The Network layer adds the concept of routing above the Data Link layer. It is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of packets possibly across multiple networks. When data arrives at the Network layer, the source and destination addresses contained inside each frame are examine to determine if the data has reached its final destination. If the data has reached the final destination, the Network layer formats the data into packets delivered to the Transport layer. Otherwise, the

Network layer updates the destination address and pushes the frame back down to the lower layers. To support routing, the Network layer maintains logical addresses such as IP addresses for devices on the network. The Network layer also manages the mapping between these logical addresses and physical addresses. In IP networking, this mapping is accomplished through the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).

Devices: IP, IPX, Routers, Routing Protocols (RIP, IGRP, OSPF, BGP etc), ARP, RARP, ICMP.

Transport Layer The transport layer is responsible for source-to-destination (end-to-end) delivery of the entire message. Specific responsibilities of the transport layer include the following:

Session Layer

The main function of the OSI model's session layer is to control "sessions", which are logical connections between network devices. A session consists of a dialog, or data communications conversation, between two presentation entities. Dialogs can be Simplex (one-way) half-duplex (alternate) full-duplex (bi-directional) Simplex conversations are rare on networks. Half-duplex conversations require a good deal of session layer control, because the start and end of each transmission need to be monitored. Most networks are of course capable of full-duplex transmission, but in fact many conversations are in practice half-duplex. Presentation Layer It ensures that information sent by the application layer of one system will be readable by the application layer of another system. Translation: It provides a common format for transmitting data across various systems, so that data can be understood, regardless of the types of machines involved. The presentation layer concerns itself not only with the format and representation of actual user data, but also with data structure used by programs. Therefore, the presentation layer negotiates data transfer syntax for the application layer. Encryption: Another function of the presentation layer is found in the encryption or protection of data offered to transmissions/sessions within the layers. This can be achieved by cryptography. Encryption- the process of scrambling plaintext-e.g. everyday sentences and messages into ciphertext -a language understood by the machine or translator at the receiving end which is then interpreted into plaintext again i.e. decryption. Devices: Encryption EBCDIC and ASCII GIF & JPEG Application Layer The application layer enables the user, whether human or software to access the network. It provides user interfaces and support for services such as e-mail, news groups, web applications, file transfer, remote host, directory services, network management, file services The various services are:

Easy to remember these layers! Please Do Not Touch Shivas Pet Alligator

Based on the requirements, the communications can be of different types: Point- to-point communication: In this type, communication takes place between two end points. For instance, in the case of voice communication using telephones, there is one calling party and one called party. Hence the communication is point-topoint. Point-to-multipoint communication: In this type of communication, there is one sender and multiple recipients. For example, in voice conferencing, one person will be talking but many others can listen. The message from the sender has to be multicast to many others. Broadcasting: In a broadcasting system, there is a central location from which information is sent to many recipients, as in the case of audio or video broadcasting. In a broadcasting system, the listeners are passive, and there is no reverse communication path.