Sunteți pe pagina 1din 22




India has attracted travelers from time immemorial. Tourists travelled from place to place to enjoy natural endowments, and religious and spiritual heritage. This is because of the country`s glorious historical past, its cultural heritage and its varied landscape and terrain that lend natural beauty. Thus the process of travelling aptly termed as tourism started in antiquity. In those days, travel was mainly restricted to the nomads who used to travel sporadically. This process, in the modern times, has gradually evolved into one of the most flourishing industries globally. Tourism and hospitality, due to its diverse of nature and complementarity of service has gradually evolved into a large-scale industry. It contributes approximately over $4 trillion in gross global output. This means travel and tourism is one of the world`s largest industry in terms of size and economic impact. To define tourism and hospitality services, one should take into consideration the sum total of the processes that arise when an individual travel from one destination to another. Travel and tourism as a whole means the business of providing information, transportation, accommodation, catering and other related services to the traveler. Therefore, the hospitality and tourism industry takes into account all the services associated with traveling for business and pleasure. It is multidimensional and multifaceted activity which touches many lives and generates additional activities that help in overall growth of the economy. The hospitality component of the industry provides a wide range of services to both visitors and local residents, including hotels, motels, resorts, restaurants, clubs, casinos and other places. The tourism component of the industry deals mainly with travel, both local and inter-state, include travel agencies, tourism information offices, tour wholesalers, attraction, meetings and conventions and tour guiding. The essential feature of tourism and hospitality is the duration of the stay that the individual traveler undertakes. The duration of the stay should be of temporary

nature, i.e. a tourist is expected to stay for a minimum period of 24 hours and maximum period of six months in the related travel destination. But such activities should not for the purpose of seeking permanent residence and/or employment. Although travelers may also sometimes undertake a brief tour, like a picnic or an outgoing, this process, if it does not involve a night stay it is considered as tourism. Therefore tourism is always considered as a leisure activity which is very often meant for recreation as well as other purposes. Defining tourism and hospitality takes account of three basic steps: 1. The purpose of travel or visit which indicates a particular level of motivation. This motivation is either directed toward spending leisure or fulfilling a business purpose. 2. The element of time is crucial. The minimum duration of stay must be 24 hours. 3. Seasonality and periodicity largely influence the trend. This mainly refers to climatic environment which influences tourism activities. For instance tourism at hilly destinations reaches its peak during the winter season while sea beaches face a tremendous tourist rush during the summer.

Tourism, depending on the nature and function, can be classified into the following areas: RECREATIONAL TOURISM: This is the most common form of tourism and suggests is meant for recreational purpose only. CULTURAL TOURISM: Cultural tourism is conducted to experiences related to newer cultural activities such as the folklore, art, music, etc. ETHNIC TOURISM: This involves contact with unusual or quaint customs in remote areas. RELIGIOUS TOURISM: This involves tourism solely based on religious reasons which largely takes into consideration pilgrimage activities. ENVIORNMENTAL TOURISM: This takes into consideration tourism related to the environmental aspects. ADVENTURE TOURISM: This involves tourists who undertake activities such as mountaineering, trekking and other adventure activities. HISTORICAL TOURISM: This involves visits to heritage locations within or outside the country.

Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. The number of tourists worldwide has been registering phenomenal growth and it is expected that this number would shortly touch 1.5 billion. Tourism contributes about 11% of the world workforce and 10.2% of the global gross domestic product. The dynamic growth of this industry is evident from the fact a new job is added to the sector every 2.5 second. Nature has bestowed Himachal Pradesh with unique beauty and splendor with its lush green valleys, snow covered Himalayan ranges, a serene, peaceful, hospitable and comfortable environment, smiling people and a rich cultural heritage - which tourists would be hard put to find elsewhere. Being in the lap or Himalayas this fact becomes its natural and unique USP with global appeal. The outer fringe of Himachal is formed by the Shiwalik hills, which are characterised by shallow valleys and dense scrub forests. The mid ranges have the majestic Himalayan cedar and the spruces -followed by alpine meadows that intersperse themselves with the snow clad peaks of the Greater Himalaya. Tourism, as we understand it today, in Himachal Pradesh, received recognition only in the 19th century, when the British established their chain of hill stations.

Earlier, Himachal had been a destination for pilgrims only. A fillip to tourism was administered when British declared Shimla as summer capital of India in 1864. Post independence and up -gradation as fledged State in the year 1971 led to more investment in the infrastructure sector leading to opening up of the state. However the biggest explosion in tourism occurred in the mid 80s and 90s with the Kashmir problem when the number of hotels and hotel rooms increased within this period from 350 to present 1710 and 6300 to 36000 respectively with its concomitant chaos and haphazard growth which the State would have done well without. With the wisdom of hind sight the State is now more equipped to deal with the problems of yesteryears and this document attempts to address those very problems. During the year 2004, the tourist arrivals in the state were 6.5 million which is roughly equivalent to the population of the State.( 2.04 lacs were foreigners).In terms of numbers therefore the State has done more than expected. The challenge now is to attract quality tourists and increase the stay of the tourists in the State .We also need to think globally as even the domestic tourists today have a choice unlike in the past. By focusing onquality tourist the State Government also aims at promoting sustainable tourism and encouraging the private sector to develop tourism related infrastructure in the State without disturbing the existing ecology and environment. In order to increase the duration of the stay of the visitors/tourists, a special emphasis is being placed on the development of activity-based tourism and opening up new sub destinations. To promote tourism in the countryside and to lesser-known areas, appropriate infrastructure will be developed within available resources. Himachal was earlier known only for the summer season. Efforts are being made to break the seasonality factor and tourism products have been diversified to attract the tourists in other seasons too. Now Himachal is known as A Destination for All Seasons andAll Reasons. Tourism Policy proposes to increase it to 15% by the year 2020.


(1) To establish Himachal Pradesh as a leading tourist destination in the country and abroad. (2) To make tourism a prime engine for economic development and prosperity of the State and as a major means for providing employment. (3) To encourage a strong and sustainable private sector participation in creation of tourism infrastructure especially through public private partnerships. (4) To promote sustainable tourism, which is not only environmentally compatible but also leads to economic betterment of the rural people. (5) To attract quality tourist and to increase their stay in the State. (6) To safeguard the States natural and manmade heritage. (7) To encourage civil societies & non-governmental organizations for promotion & the conducting of tourism related activities. (8) To position Himachal Pradesh as a one stop destination for adventure tourism.


Himachal Tourism - A SWOT Analysis
An analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT): STRENGTHS: 1. One of the rare places in the world offering five distinct seasons, thus having potential to attract tourist inflow round the year. 2. Political and Social stability. 3. Recognized as a peaceful and hospitable State. 4. Salubrious climate. 5. Pollution free environment. 6. Offers a rare conglomerate of eco-tourism, pilgrimage, adventure, culture, heritage, leisure, wilderness etc. 7. Fairly good infrastructure. 8. High literacy. 9. Rich history and heritage that has something to offer to all. Its Buddhist monasteries, which are of thousand years of old, ancient temples, churches and cemeteries. 10. Special package of incentives for setting up of tourism units. WEAKNESSES: 1. Negligible air and rail link in the State. 2. Inadequate flow of foreign tourists. 3. Non-disbursal of tourists round the year, putting severe strains on civic infrastructure during the peak season. 4. Lack of trained tourist guides at important tourist places and historical tourist sites. 5. Saturation at the established tourists destinations. 6. No new major tourists destination has come up recently. 7. Lack of adequate parking places at important tourist places. 8. Poor marketing of the State abroad and inadequate marketing within the country. 9. Very little budget. 10. Problem of land acquisition. 11. Problem of conversion of forest land.

OPPORTUNITIES: 1. Strong potential for activity based tourism such as white water rafting, Paragliding, trekking, mountaineering, water sports, mountain biking, Car Rallies etc.. 2. A strong base for heritage tourism to attract persons from all walks of society and religious beliefs. 3. To develop an ideal destination for nature lovers by promoting eco-tourism. 4. Create synergy between heritage and pilgrimage tourism. 5. Development of wetlands of the State to attract nature lovers especially bird watchers. 6. Promote the State as an open university and learning centre in mythology, anthropology and ornithology etc. 7. Position it as an ideal destination for the film industry. 8. Himachal has something to offer to persons of all ages, groups, beliefs and interests. There is unlimited scope for development of varied tourist packages. 9. Himachal can become one of the leading adventure destinations in the world. 10. Promote wilderness tourism for lovers and seekers of nature, peace and quiet. 11. Create new destinations in yet unexplored but beautiful areas. This would also ease the burden on established tourist destinations. THREATS: 1. Tremendous strain leading to collapse, at times, of civic amenities at leading tourist destinations during the season. 2. Haphazard growth & construction threatening the environment, especially at the leading tourist destinations. 3. An alarming growth of concrete structures creating a disharmony with the local environment. 4. Unscrupulous commercialization of tourism could erode the social and cultural values. 5. Aggressive competition amongst the leading tourists States and a strong promotion of tourism by other States. 6. Lack of coordinated strategy by the different Government Departments. 7. A large increase in volume and limited increase in value.

Analysis Using Porters Model

An analysis was done using the Porters five forces model, concentrating mainly on the customers. The five forces, according to Michael Porter, which every industry must take care of, are as follows: Customers Competition Suppliers Substitutes New entrants (A) Customers Customers are the most important force to any industry. The industry exists because of them. The industry must therefore try to achieve maximum customer satisfaction. But todays customer is far more difficult to please and even more so in the tourism industry, it being a service. Todays customers have more options to choose from, they are more knowledgeable, more information is available to them, and so on. Hence it is necessary that their needs and preferences are understood so that the tourism industry in Himachal can understand as to where it stands in providing satisfaction to the tourists. The various satisfaction variables could be classified under the following factors or components as follows:

1. Infrastructural factors:
Accommodation Transport Accessibility Shopping facilities Informative

2. Services and Safety factors:

Catering Entertainment Local people Safety

3. Necessities:
Food Water Amenities

4. Cost related factors:

Prices Value for money

5. Natural or unique factors:

Scenery Climate Overall satisfaction. It can be noticed that overall satisfaction is clubbed with variables like scenery and climate thus suggesting that a tourists satisfaction depends largely on a places unique offerings. Here satisfaction of a tourist is related to the prime offerings of Himachal i.e. scenery and climate infrastructural factors, service factors, necessities, cost factors and natural or unique factors.

. (B) Competition
Himachal faces various levels of competition in the tourism industry. Within India itself there is competition from other hill stations like: Darjeeling Nilgiris ( Ooty) Uttaranchal Jammu & Kashmir It also faces competition at a higher level from other tourist spots in India like: Goa Kerala Rajasthan At the international mountain tourism level there are big players like: Switzerland New Zealand Alaska To counteract these various levels of competition, Himachal must find ways to differentiate itself from others with its unique offerings and position itself uniquely in the minds of the people. For this it must build a unique selling proposition (USP). To match international competition it must first benchmark itself with them.

(C) Suppliers
Suppliers in the tourism indicate all the service providers like: Airline industry Railways Travel agents

Locals Hotel industry Government Service, unlike a product, has different characteristics like intangibility, inseparability, variability, perishability, etc. To manage these, the use of the following 3 Ps will come in handy Physical evidence People Place

(D) Substitutes
The substitutes to Himachal tourism are any other options that a person would like to do on a holiday like: Religious gatherings is gaining ground Internet Television Video games Parks These substitutes although do not directly affect tourism, they can still be a deterrent to it. Instead of traveling to far off distances for a holiday, todays man finds easy entertainment from the above. Also the concept of an annual holiday is yet to catch up in India. They must therefore be used to ones own advantage by making them available at the tourist spots.

(E) New Entrants

Each state in India is now beginning to realize the potential of tourism and thus are uniquely positioning themselves like: Temples in Tamil Nadu Wild life in Assam

1. Number of Tourist visited H.P. in previous years
TOURIST ARRIVAL (in lakhs) YEAR 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 INDIAN 69.28 76.72 84.82 93.73 110.37 128.12 TOTAL FOREIGNER 2.08 71.36 2.81 79.53 3.39 88.21 3.77 97.50 4.01 114.38 4.51 132.66 (Source: Tourism Deptt. H.P.)

2. Number of Tourist visited H.P. in 2011 District wise

DISTRICT Bilaspur Chamba Hamirpur Kangra Kinnaur Kullu Lahul-Spiti Mandi Shimla Sirmaur Solan Una INDIAN 962061 786163 554970 161232 384936 2395990 362660 1006418 2485564 748599 673932 819461 TOURIST TOTAL FOREIGNER 86 962147 3253 789416 12 554982 91709 1722941 18742 403678 133707 25296997 59125 421785 10485 1016903 127737 2613301 2712 751311 5780 679712 268 819729 (Source:Tourism Deptt. H.P.)



Pleasant weather which is ideal for the tourists to come for the annual summer holiday to escape the scorching heat of the plains. Scenic beauty of the Himalayas, which draws tourists away from the crowded and polluted towns and cities. Terrain is ideally suited for various adventure activities. Some very well known tourist hill- stations. It can attract tourists all throughout the year. Hospitable people

Inadequacy of transport facilities Funds constraining the development of regions. Inadequacy of information channels. Overcrowding of popular tourist centres. Some places are inaccessible, especially in winter. Inadequacy of marketing. Lack of adequate infrastructural support.

The concept of holidaying is gaining popularity in India among various classes of people. Increased disposable incomes of the Indian middle class. Adventure sports and trekking. Eco- tourism is gaining popularity. Himachal contains many unexplored regions.

Kashmir is being opened up and could divert a large portion of tourists to itself. Various other places in India are providing stiff competition. Environmental factors also impose a threat.


The findings of the study indicated the following with particular reference to Himachal Pradesh. Holidaying is the most common purpose of visit to Himachal Pradesh. This is a fact that must be leveraged to accrue benefits. People who came for religious purposes were mostly from nearby places in North India. Hotels are the most used means of accommodation used by tourists while there are few takers for camping and guest houses. The average duration of stay was found to 5 days which is not too long not too short. Himachal should find means to elongate the stay by providing the necessary offerings. Most of the tourists used bus for reaching Himachal Pradesh. Railways and airways must be provided to facilitate convenience to the tourists in reaching Himachal. Word of mouth was found to be the most effective method of communication in influencing the tourist to choose Himachal as a tourist destination. Other mediums of information also should be used effectively to get across the required message. Holidaying in Himachal is done generally with the company of ones family and relatives. Visiting with friends is also an option. Therefore group travel is more preferred in this region. Tourist traffic is concentrated to few places like Shimla, Kullu, Manali, etc. A large portion of Himachal is yet to be explored. It can be noticed that overall satisfaction is clubbed with variables like scenery and climate thus suggesting that a tourists satisfaction depends largely on a places unique offerings. Here satisfaction of a tourist was related to the prime offerings of Himachal i.e. scenery and climate infrastructural factors, service factors, necessities, cost factors and natural or unique factors. Packaged tours have been used by a very small number of tourists. The satisfaction gained in using them are not so significantly different from not using them. But there were factors like catering, food, etc which were more satisfactory for those who had used a packaged tour. Most of the people felt that Himachal Pradesh had the potential of becoming one of the worlds top tourist destination. Their opinion was based on the fact that Himachal has the natural beauty and climate and if the other facilities could be improved then it certainly could become a top destination.

Peoples expectations in Himachal were generally met with but they depend on the presence of necessities and infrastructural facilities. Himachal is compared more attractive than similar places in India by most people but it is equally or not so attractive when compared to places abroad.

Inconveniences faced by the tourists during the visit to Himachal Pradesh:

Many respondents did not mention any inconveniences, but those that were mentioned were quite common to most of the respondents. Some of the inconveniences faced were: Lack of transport facilities Water shortage in summer months Bad and zig-zag roads High population concentrated in certain places Expensive (especially in the peak periods) High bus fares Lack of proper information available to tourists Land slides Locals and coolies occasionally taking advantage of tourists Lack of shopping facilities catering to the upper segment No diverse culinary (ex: difficult to find catering of South Indian food). Packaged tours should be used. The satisfaction gained in using them are not so significantly different from not using them. But there were factors like catering, food, etc which were more satisfactory for those who had used a packaged tour. Most of the people felt that Himachal Pradesh had the potential of becoming one of the worlds top tourist destination. Their opinion was based on the fact that Himachal has the natural beauty and climate and if the other facilities could be improved then it certainly could become a top destination. Peoples expectations in Himachal were generally met with but they depend on the presence of necessities and infrastructural facilities. Himachal is compared more attractive than similar places in India by most people but it is equally or not so attractive when compared to places abroad.


Himachal must be able to provide hotels to cater to all segments of the society. It must market its camping facilities more and ensure that they are safe to use. Packaged tours also have to be marketed. It must open avenues for business opportunities, could be tourism related itself, and cash on its vast religious backdrop. Railways must be given a boost so that long distance travel becomes easy. Low cost airlines and helicopter services also can be used to reach the inaccessible regions depending on the climatic conditions. Entertainment facilities must be provided in order to ensure a longer stay by the tourists. They must have a unique thing to take back with them. Newer sources of communication like the internet must be used effectively to influence and advertise. Family entertainment facilities must be developed. More playgrounds and parks must be made. Schools can also be targeted for excursions. Create new planned tourist destination spots from the unexplored regions which must be opened up at least in the peak months. Basic infrastructural facilities have to be developed further. Roads need to be improved. Parking space must be provided. Basic necessities must be provided. Water availability has to be catered to. A diverse range of culinary must be provided to cater to the wants of tourists from various places across India and the globe. Shopping facilities need a boost. Shopping malls can be opened up. Information must be available to tourists at all places. Eco-tourism must be developed and promoted. Exploitation of tourists by locals must be minimized. Facilities for higher education must be improved. Local culture and handicrafts must be promoted. Congestion in popular tourist spots must be dispersed. It can attract more movie makers since it is endowed with scenic spots. A film city could also be built for this purpose. Insurance could be available to tourists, especially for adventurers. Private participation in developing tourism must be given a boost. Melas and festivals must be held so as to include the tourists. Rope cars, skiing and other facilities can be provided. Orchards and forests may be promoted as tourist picnic spots.

Himachal emporiums across India must be able to act as agents for promoting Himachal tourism. International cricket matches and other sports could act as marketing agents to tourism. Celebrity endorsements could help to market tourism. More advertising in media, magazines, etc are needed. Guided tours could be improved and promoted. Cleanliness and environmental sustainability must be taken care of. It could endorse vacations for prize winning lotteries. Role of government and travel agents needs to be emphasized. Keeping all the stakeholders in mind, a sustainable strategy is needed. The Tourism Dept. in collaboration with the Dept. of Art, Language and Culture should organize Talent Hunt on the lines of INDIAN IDOL by appropriately naming the event ( Himachal ki shaan.suggestion only) and identify the best artistes of Himachal Pradesh. These best Artistes of Himachal could be exposed to the visiting Tourists in various Hotels. This will not only help in identifying the new talent and enabling them acquiring new means of livelihood, but also help promote our culture


Provision of required information in tourism centers Clean and maintain the environment in certain places Improve roads and transport facilities Shopping complexes Provision for hot water More coverage in the media More parking space Diverse culinary must be available Presence of hotels for the lower segment in peak months Clinics must be provided Non-exploitation by locals Parks and play grounds must be provided Improve higher education facilities Should be well connected and accessible More entertainment facilities for tourists Display of required information Publicize local handicrafts

All the above information is very valuable as it directly provides the attitudes, behaviour, needs, wants, preferences, etc of the tourists, which are very helpful in building marketing strategies to encourage tourism.