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Lingling Fan, Senior Member, IEEE, Rajesh Kavasseri, Senior Member, IEEE, Haiping Yin, Chanxia Zhu, Minqiang Hu

AbstractUnbalanced stator conditions cause rotor current harmonics and torque pulsations in Doubly-Fed Induction Generators (DFIG) which are used widely in wind energy systems. From a hardware perspective, current control techniques to minimize the rotor current harmonics include rotor-side converter injected voltage compensation and grid-side converter compensation. From a software perspective, the current controllers either adopt synchronous reference frame for controller design or adopt positive synchronous (qd+ ) and negative synchronous reference frames (qd ) to decompose the harmonics in rotor currents and control them separately. This paper develops a proportional resonance (PR) control strategy in the stationary reference frame () to minimize rotor current harmonics and torque pulsations. The main advantages of the proposed method are (i) only one transformation (abc/) is required and (ii) harmonic lters are not required. The proposed control strategy is compared with the proportional integral (PI) control strategy in qd+ and qd and the proportional integral and resonant (PIR) control strategy in qd+ . Simulations performed in Matlab/Simulink are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Index TermsWind Generation, Doubly Fed Induction Generator, harmonics, unbalance, proportional resonance

is

DFIG

P g + jQ g To Grid

vs vr Wind Turbine ir

C1

Fig. 1.

I. I NTRODUCTION OUBLY Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs) are widely used in wind generation. The conguration of a grid-tied DFIG wind turbine system is shown in Fig. 1. The possibility of getting a constant frequency AC output from a DFIG while driven by a variable speed prime mover improves the efcacy of energy harvest from wind [1]. Unlike a squirrelcage induction generator, which has its rotor short circuited, a DFIG has its rotor terminals accessible. The rotor of a DFIG is fed by a variable-frequency (fr ), variable magnitude three-phase voltage generated by a PWM converter. This AC voltage injected into the rotor circuit will generate a ux with a frequency fr if the rotor is standing still. When the rotor is rotating at a speed fm , the net ux linkage will have a frequency fr + fm . When the wind speed changes, the rotor speed fm will change and in order to have the net ux linkage at a frequency 60 Hz, the rotor injection frequency should also be adjusted. Unbalanced stator conditions in DFIGs give rise to rotor current harmonics and torque pulsations which can cause excessive shaft stress and winding losses. From a hardware perspective, current control techniques to minimize the rotor

L. Fan, R. Kavasseri, H. Yin and C. Zhu are with the dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105. Email: Lingling.Fan@ndsu.edu, Rajesh.Kavasseri@ndsu.edu. M. Hu is with the school of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing China 210098. Email: mqhu@seu.edu.cn.

current harmonics include rotor-side converter injected voltage compensation [2] and grid-side converter compensation [3]. From a software perspective, the current controllers either adopt synchronous reference frame for controller design [4] or more sophisticated, adopt synchronous (qd+ )and negative synchronous reference frame (qd )to decompose the harmonics in rotor currents and control them separately [5]. A similar approach is used in [3] to extract the negative sequence currents to the load in qd reference frame, and then adopt PI controllers to compensate the negative sequence current from grid-side converters. The rst approach in [2] and [6] uses only one reference frame qd+ and ultimately dealing with 2e frequency harmonics. In [2], the controller design requires careful tuning. While in [6], proportional integral and resonant controllers are adopted to eliminate the 2e frequency harmonics. The second approach in [5] and [3] requires two reference frames and lters to trap high frequency harmonics. More recently, for generalized grid converters, reference frame is used and proportional resonance controller is adopted [7]. While Proportional Resonance (PR) controllers have been widely used in converter control (can be considered as ac PI controllers [8]), their use for harmonic mitigation in DFIGs has not been explored. PR controllers have two advantages over other proposed techniques in that only one transformation is needed and lters are not required. In this paper, a PR control strategy will be developed for the rotor-side converters to suppress harmonics and minimize torque pulsations. The rest of the paper is organized as follows.

In Section II, an analysis of the harmonics in rotor currents and electromagnetic torque during unbalanced stator condition is presented. Section III presents the PI control strategy using two reference frames (qd+ , qd ), PIR control strategy in synchronous reference frame qd+ and PR control strategy using reference frame. Simulation results performed with Matlab/Simulink are given in Section IV to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Section V concludes the paper. II. H ARMONIC A NALYSIS F OR THE U NBALANCED S TATOR C ONDITION The purpose of the analysis is to analyze the DFIG operation under unbalanced stator conditions and the following assumptions are made. 1) Rotor voltage injections are sinusoidal and the magnitude of the injected voltage is constant during the stator unbalance. 2) An inverter with sine PWM is used to generate sine waveforms for the rotor injection. With slip control, the synthesized ac voltage will have a frequency fr = fs fm where fs = 60 Hz. With sine PWM, the lowest order harmonics will be at several kHz which is easily ltered out. 3) The stator side voltage frequency is 60 Hz. During the unbalance, the voltage magnitudes of the three phases may not be the same. and the relative phase angles between the three voltages may not be 1200 . There are two steps in the analysis. The rst step is to identify the harmonic component in the rotor currents and the electromagnetic torque and the second step is to estimate the magnitude of each harmonic component. Using symmetric component theory, the voltage phasors can be decomposed into a positive sequence, a negative sequence and a zero sequence component. The calculation of harmonic components in the rotor current and electromagnetic torque are based on the sequence decomposition as explained below. A. Harmonics Components in the Rotor Currents For an induction machine, the following rule holds true: r +m = s , that is, the sum of the rotor injection frequency and the rotor shaft electrical speed equals to the stator variable frequency. For the positive sequence voltage set with frequency s applied to the stator side, the resulting rotor currents or ux linkage have a frequency r = s m = ss . The negative sequence voltage set can be seen as a three-phase balanced set with a negative frequency s . Thus the induced ux linkage in rotor circuit and the rotor currents have a frequency of s m = (2 s)s . The torque, in positive sequence set variables, is a constant at steady-state. However, in negative sequence set, the torque has (2 s)s . B. Harmonic Components of Electromagnetic Torque Under unbalanced stator condition, the stator current has two components: positive sequence Is+ and negative sequence component Is . The rotor current also has two components:

positive sequence Ir+ and negative sequence components Ir . The electromagnetic torque is produced by the interaction between the stator ux linkage and the rotor linkage, or the stator current and the rotor current. For interactions betwen the stator and rotor mmfs of the same sequence (+, +) or (-, -), the torque appears as a dc (steady) component. For interactions between stator and rotor mmfs of the opposite sequence (+, -) or (-, +), the torque appears as a pulsating component with frequency 2e . Thus, the resultant torque can be decomposed into four components: Te = Te1 + Te2 + Te3 + Te4 (1)

where Te1 is due to the interaction of Is+ and Ir+ , Te2 is s and Ir , Te3 is due to the due to the interaction of I interaction of Is+ and Ir , and Te4 is due to the interaction s and Ir+ . Te1 and Te2 are due to the interaction of the of I same harmonic order currents or mmfs. Hence these two are dc components. Te3 and Te4 are pulsating components with frequency of 2e . This can also be justied by expressing the torque in terms of the stator current induced mmf space vector Fs and the rotor current induced mmf space vector Fr [9]: Te = P 0 Dl Fs Fr sin sr 2 2 g (2)

where P is the number of poles, 0 is the air gap permeability, D is the average diameter of the air gap, l is the length of the conductor and g is the length of the air gap, Fs and Fr are the peak values of stator- and rotor-mmf waves and sr is the angle between the two space vectors. When the two mmf space vectors have the same rotating speed, sr is a constant and the torque is smooth. The positive sequence stator mmf has a rotating speed of e . The positive sequence rotor current has a frequency of r and the rotor is rotating at a speed of m . The resulting rotor mmf in air gap has a speed of e (r + m ) as well. Hence Te1 is a dc component. The negative sequence stator mmf and the negative sequence rotor mmf have the same speed e . Hence Te2 is a dc component. On the other hand, the positive stator mmf and the negative rotor mmf has an angle of 2e t + sr0 . Hence the torque produced Te3 has a pulsating frequency of 2e . Using the same analogy, Te4 has a pulsating frequency of 2e as well. III. C ONTROL S TRATEGIES The positive sequence three-phase voltages will induce a slip frequency se in the rotor circuits. The negative sequence voltage set can be seen as a three-phase balanced set with a negative frequency s . Thus the induced ux linkage in rotor circuit and the rotor currents have a frequency of s m = (2 s)s . Observed from the synchronously rotating reference frame, the rst component has a frequency of e r se = 0, i.e., a dc component and the second component has a frequency of e r + (2 s)e = 2e , i.e., 120 Hz. Using the same analogy, the frequency components in the rotor current observed from the clockwise synchronously rotating reference

frame and the stationary reference frame can be determined. Table I shows the components in the three reference frames. To extract the harmonic components in the rotor current, both a synchronously rotating reference frame and a clockwise synchronously rotating reference frame (Fig. 2) will be used.

TABLE I ROTOR CURRENT COMPONENTS OBSERVED IN VARIOUS REFERENCE

FRAMES

shown in Fig. 4. Positive- and negative sequence components in the rotor currents are extracted through qd+ and qd reference frame transformation. Low pass lters are use to get the dc components in each reference frame. The control purpose is to use a PI controller and let the negative sequence current component track the reference point - zero. This control scheme is used in [5]. B. PIR controllers in dq + reference frames

Positive Negative

stationary se (2 s)e

e 0 2e

e 2e 0

e e

In the synchronous reference frame, the positive-, negativesequence rotor currents will be observed as dc and ac with 2e frequency. It will be reasonable to use a PI controller to bring the dc component of the rotor current to the reference value. For the ac component of 2e frequency, in order to eliminate it, or bring the ac component to the reference value with zero magnitude, a PR controller with resonance frequency of 2e will be used. Hence, the control diagram is shown in Fig. 5. This control scheme is used in [6]. C. Proposed PR controllers in reference frame

-2 e

- e

a axis

synchronously )

d axis ( synchronously

rotating)

Fig. 2.

The rotor currents in both reference frames will have a dc component and a high frequency component. Low pass lters have to be used to extract the dc components which corresponds to the magnitudes of the two harmonic components. The scheme for extracting the dc components is shown in Fig. 3.

i e qr

low pass filter

A PR control scheme is proposed in this paper. In stationary reference frame, the positive- and negative- sequence rotor currents will be observed as components of e and e frequency. Hence there only exists one frequency in reference frame. The PR controllers function as ac PI controllers to track the ac reference points. Different than the previous PI control scheme, only one controller for each axis will be used. The control scheme is shown in Fig. 6. The main advantages of the proposed method are (i) only one transformation (abc/) is required and (ii) harmonic lters are not required. IV. C ASE S TUDIES Matlab/Simulink model of a 3HP DFIG (parameters are shown in Appendix) is developed by the authors [10] and will be used to test the proposed control strategies. The stator voltage RMS value is 230 V. At t = 1 second, phase A voltage drops to 70.7 V. At t = 1.5 second, phase A voltage recovers to the nominal value. Three case studies are simulated: 1) without negative sequence compensation subject to unbalanced stator voltage. The simulation results are shown in Figs. 7-8. 2) with PI control strategy. The simulation results are shown in Figs. 9-11. 3) with PIR control strategy. The simulation results are shown in Figs. 12-13. 4) with PR control strategy. The simulation results are shown in Figs. 14-16. Fig. 7 shows that under balanced stator voltage condition, the torque is a constant. The phase A stator current has a frequency of 60 Hz and a magnitude about 1.4 pu. The phase A rotor current has a frequency of 3.5 Hz and a magnitude about 0.5 pu. During the unbalanced stator condition, the torque now has a pulsating component with a frequency of 2e . The magnitude of the stator current increases to more than 7 pu. The magnitude of the rotor current increases to 3 pu and there

i e + qr i e + dr i e -qr

i e dr

low pass filter

i e qr - ji e dr

e j2e t

i e -dr

Fig. 3.

A third-order butterworth low-pass lter is used in the extracting strategy. Since the ac components have a frequency of 120 Hz, the bandwidth of the lter is set to be 100 rad/s. The transfer function of the butterworth lter is expressed: G(s) = where 0 = 100 rad/s. A. PI controllers in dq + and dq reference frames The control scheme using two reference frames: qd+ and qd to minimize the negative sequence rotor harmonics is

3 0 (s + 0 )3

(3)

Fig. 4.

+

kP +

ki1 k s + 2 i2 s s + ( 2 e ) 2

vqr qd/abc

idr +

kP +

ki 1 k s + 2 i2 s s + (2 e ) 2

PIR

vdr

m

Fig. 5.

idr*

i * i -

kP +

ki s s + ( e ) 2

2

var

/

i -

abc

vbr vcr

kP +

+

i * m

Fig. 6. Proposed Proportional resonant (PR) control scheme.

ki s 2 s + ( e ) 2

PR

are two frequency components in the rotor current, one at the slip frequency around 3.5 Hz and the other near 120 Hz. In Fig. 8, the abc rotor currents are transformed into the synchronous reference frame qd+ and the negative synchronous reference frame qd . It shows that under balanced stator condition, the rotor currents are seen as constants in qd+ while in qd they are pulsating currents with a frequency of 120 Hz. During unbalanced stator condition, the rotor currents

are shown to have a dc component and a 120 Hz pulsating component in both reference frames. The magnitude of the pulsating component in ie or ie is seen equivalent to the dc qr dr component in ie or ie . Hence, by applying a low pass lter, qr dr the dc components in ie and ie corresponding to ie qdr qdr+ and qdr ie can be extracted. qdr With the positive and negative components extracted and reecting in qd+ and qd reference frames as dc variables,

torque (pu)

0 2 4 10 5

torque (pu)

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

ias (pu)

as

(pu)

0 5

10 4 2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

iar (pu)

2 4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 time (sec) 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

ar

i (pu)

2 4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 time (sec) 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Fig. 7. Dynamic responses of torque, stator current ias and rotor current iar without negative sequence compensation.

5 ie (pu) 0

Fig. 9. Dynamic responses of torque, stator current ias and rotor current iar with PI control strategy.

4 iqr (pu) 2 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

qr

5 5 ie (pu)

2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 idr (pu) 5 0

dr

5 4 ie (pu) 2 0

5 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 iqr (pu) 5 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

qr

2 2

5 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 idr (pu) 2 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

ie (pu)

0 2 4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 time (sec) 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

dr

2 4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 time (sec) 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Fig. 8. Dynamic responses of rotor currents in qd+ and qd reference frames without negative sequence compensation.

Fig. 10. Dynamic responses of rotor currents in qd+ and qd reference frames with PI control strategy.

PI controllers can be applied to force these components to desired values. To eliminate the rotor current harmonics, the reference values of the negative sequence rotor currents ie qr and ie are set to be zeros. The simulation results with the dr PI control in two reference frames are shown in Figs. 9-11. It is found that applying the control strategy, during unbalanced stator condition, the high frequency pulsating components in torque and rotor currents are reduced signicantly. The control function is realized physically by injecting a negative sequence component in the rotor voltages shown in Fig. 11. The similar control function can be realized through PIR control strategy in the synchronous reference frame. The simulation results are shown in Figs. 12-13. For the proposed PR control strategy, reference frame is adopted. During unbalanced stator condition, the rotor currents only have one frequency component - 60 Hz. PR controllers

work as ac PI controller, i.e., they are effective to bring the rotor currents to the referenced sinusoidal waveforms. The reference signals are no longer constants as in the synchronous reference frame, rather, they are transferred into reference frame and are sinusoidal waveforms of 60 Hz. The simulation results are shown in Figs. 14-16. The control objective - to minimize the rotor current harmonics - is achieved. V. C ONCLUSION In this paper, a novel control strategy to minimize rotor current harmonics due to unbalanced stator condition is developed and tested. Analysis of the harmonics in rotor currents during unbalanced stator condition is rst given. Stationary reference frame () is adopted and proportional resonance (PR) control strategy is developed. The proposed control strategy is compared with the PI control strategy in qd+ and

vqr (pu)

0.2 0.4 0

0.2 0.4

vqr (pu)

0.2 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

0.2 0.4

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

0.5

vdr (pu)

vdr (pu)

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 time (sec)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Fig. 11. Dynamic responses of the injected rotor voltages in qd+ reference frame with PI control strategy.

2

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 time (sec)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Fig. 13. Dynamic responses of rotor voltages in qd+ reference frames with PIR control strategy.

torque (pu)

0 5

torque (pu)

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

ias (pu)

10 4 2

iar (pu)

(pu) i

as

0 5

2 4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 time (sec) 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

10 4

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

i (pu)

Fig. 12. Dynamic responses of torque, stator current ias and rotor current iar with PIR control strategy.

2

ar

qd . Simulations performed in Matlab/Simulink are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. The main advantages of the proposed method are (i) only one transformation (abc/) is required and (ii) harmonic lters are not required. A PPENDIX The 3HP induction machine parameters are listed in Table II. R EFERENCES

[1] S. Muller, M. Deicke, and R. W. D. Doncker, Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind turbine, IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., pp. 2633, May/June 2002. [2] N. Mohan, First Course on Power Electronics. MNPERE Prentice Hall, 2005. [3] R. Pena, R. Cardenas, and E. Escobar, Control system for unbalanced operation of stand-alone doubly fed induction generators, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 22, no. 2, 2007.

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 time (sec)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Fig. 14. Dynamic responses of torque, stator current ias and rotor current iar with PR control strategy.

TABLE II I NDUCTION MACHINE PARAMETERS Rs () Xls () XM () Xlr () rr () J(kg.m2 ) 0.435 0.754 26.13 0.754 0.816 0.089

2 5 ie (pu) 0

dr

Lingling Fan is an assistant professor in Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering, North Dakota State University. She received the BS, MS degrees in electrical engineering from Southeast University, Nanjing, China, in 1994 and 1997, respectively. She received Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from West Virginia University in 2001. Before joining NDSU, Dr. Fan was with Midwest ISO, St. Paul, Minnesota. Her research interests include modeling and control of renewable energy systems, power system reliability and economics.

qr

5 5 ie (pu) 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

qr

5 2 ie (pu) 0 2 4

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

dr

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 time (sec)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Fig. 15. Dynamic responses of rotor currents in qd+ and qd reference frames with PR control strategy.

0.6 0.4

vqr (pu)

0.2 0

Rajesh Kavasseri received his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Washington State University, Pullman, WA in 2002. He is currently an associate professor in North Dakota State University. Dr. Kavasseris research areas are power system dynamics and control, nonlinear system, algebraic geometry application in power system analysis.

0.2 0.4

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

0.5

vdr (pu)

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 time (sec)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Fig. 16. Dynamic responses of the injected rotor voltages in qd+ reference frame with PR control strategy.

[4] T. K. A. Brekken and N. Mohan, Control of a doubly fed induction wind generator under unbalanced grid voltage conditions, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 22, pp. 129135, March 2007. [5] L. Xu and Y. Wang, Dynamic modeling and control of dg-based wind turbines under unbalanced network conditions, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 314323, February 2007. [6] J. Hu and Y. He, Modeling and enhanced control of DFIG under unbalanced grid voltage conditions, Eletric Power Systems Research, 2008, doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2008.06.017. [7] , Modeling and control of grid-connected voltage-sourced converters under generalized unbalanced operation conditions, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 903913, Sep. 2008. [8] R. Teodorescu, F. Blaabjerg, M. Liserre, and P. Loh, Proportionalresonant controllers and lters for grid-connected voltage-source converters, IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., vol. 153, no. 5, pp. 750762, Sep. 2006. [9] A. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, and A. Kusko, Electric Machinery. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1971. [10] Z. Miao and L. Fan, The art of modeling high-order induction generators in wind generation applications, Simulation and Modelling Practice and Theory, vol. 6, no. 9.

Minqiang Hu received his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan China in 1990. He is currently a full professor in School of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China. His research areas include electric machine modeling and simulation, protection and control and substation power quality monitoring.

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