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Annotated Bibliography Dorothy Schlueter WR13300 2 November 2012 Overview Paragraph:

My research essay is focusing on the agricultural differences of two regions of America, Appalachia, Ohio and Orange County, California, and the relationship to homelessness in these areas. The following are the research questions I have been pursuing: -To what extent can more attention to agriculture fix homelessness. -How does lack of agriculture in urban areas affect citizens? Increase percentages of homeless? -Does homelessness exist in agricultural communities? -In what ways does homelessness shape community? Accepted or rejected? The answer of the first question is intended to be the basis of my argument. I am very intrigued by the connection between mental disorders and homelessness. Many mental disorders have been treated in rural environments, with animals. This could be a solution for a certain percentage of homelessness. I have come across many articles discussing drug issues with youth and welfare issues with the elderly. Medical attention is a large issue in Applachia. Also, as I explore the topic of homelessness I am discovering more research on social attitudes and reactions in rural environments. This is very crucial because how a rural community could handle homeless people would be very different than an urban environment. Hence, agriculture could potential have a solution to offer to the pressing social concern of homelessness in America. MLA Entries and Annotations: Edwards, Mark Evan, Melissa Torgerson, and Jennifer Sattem. Paradoxes Of Providing Rural Social Services: The Case Of Homeless Youth. Rural Sociology 74.3 (2009): 330-355. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. The authors are on a mission to dispel the myth of the happy rural town. They are writing form the Oregon State University. The main idea of their research is how rural areas react to situations in certain ways due to the context and environment. This research is very significant to my paper because it addresses the issue of homelessness in rural environments. It even mentions a line about how rural inhabitants would be shocked to hear or see homelessness in their community and I would be one of those inhabitants. It is an issue though, and according to this article a growing one. One of its supporting arguments is that this is an issue that has been around for a while but never publicly recognized. The author says, *t+he presence of rural homeless people in America is nothing new, as evidenced in literary characters such as John Steinbecks twentieth-century dispossessed Joad family or Mark Twains nineteenth century vagabond Huck Finn (331). I think this is an interesting angle to look at. Are these homeless

youth runaways or orphans? What is their background and how do they end up in this situation. Is the environment of substance abuse that has developed in rural areas the cause? Harris, Scott. My Orange County. California Journal 32.6 (2001): 12. Academic Search Premier. Web 25 Oct. 2012. This article is the authors reflection on growing up in Santa Ana, California. He seems to be writing to the people of Santa Ana and of neighboring communities who have preconceived notions of Santa Ana. I really like this article because it gives me an idea of the culture and diversity of the region. He compares the rich, white, Republican areas of OC to the diverse, urban area he grew up in. He constantly talks about the melting pot that is his community. This is a large contrast to the population of Appalachia. In his article he said, Its always Santa Ana first (My Orange County). This quote is significant because it reminds me of my roommate who is also from California. Her family has the same mentality. Its always Team Bryski No matter what Team Bryski is always the first priority. Henderson, Debra A., and Ann R. Tickamyer. Lost in Appalachia: The Unexpected Impact Of Welfare Reforms On Older Women In Rural Communities. Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare 35.3 (2008): 153-171. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. Debra Henderson and Ann Tickamyer have done study on Appalachian women with health issues. They are writing to the public and those in power. They desire to raise awareness for these people who live in isolated parts of society and at a lower quality of life than expected from the United States. The authors discuss the ageism of the area, and difficulty of getting a job. I believe that this is going to be a very valuable source in context with the research supplied about the effects of welfare reforms on homelessness. Its interesting that instead of losing their home they are just forced to live a very cheap, unhealthy lifestyle which leads to more expensive health issues in the future. Health care for which they cannot afford. LaLone, Mary B. Running The Family Farm: Accommodation And Adaptation In An Appalachian Region. Journal Of Appalachian Studies 14.1/2 (2008): 62-98. Academic Search Premier. Web 23 Oct. 2012. Her audience seems to be a scholarly one as she is writing in a Journal. I say that shes writing to educate and correct peoples perspectives of farming and Appalachia. She stressed the size of the farms heavily in the beginning. Size of the farms and amount of them plays a role in the identity and attitudes of the community. A family farm environment is much different than a large impersonal corporate farm. That is what really defines a rural environment as opposed to an urban one. The percentage of people you know in your area is a defining characteristic. Also, how the farming community interacts with the rest of the community. This article provides good background research of Appalachia culture. She focuses on smaller details of the Appalachian family that may or may not play a role in my paper. This is good info to have

because it focused specifically on Appalachian rural communities as opposed to any general rural community. Lee, Sei-Young. "Pathways to Homelessness: Self-Perceived Rationales of Homelessness and Associations among Experiences in Childhood and Adulthood." University of Southern California, 2009. United States -- California: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT). Web. 2 Nov. 2012. This paper is a dissertation done by a Philosophy student at the University of Southern California. He is writing to a scholarly audience as this is done for his doctorate degree. Also, It is important to note that the region that his case structure focused on was Los Angeles County. The majority of the paper is very experimental. The entire dissertation is 192 pages, the author explains many of his experiments in detail. He really stressed how this topic had been explored from one direction and that his research was different angle than the norm. Rather than looking at the effects of homelessness he researched the causes of homelessness. This is very useful to my paper. In order to make a connection to the agriculture of the region you have to understand the causes and effects of homelessness. Michael L. Hecht, et al. The Rural Context Of Illicit Substance Offers: A Study Of Appalachian Rural Adolescents. Journal Of Adolescent Research 27.4 (2012): 523-550. Academic Search Premier. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. This study focuses on drugs and adolescents in the rural Appalachian environment. They first expand upon how many studies have been done in urban environments, and how those results just cannot be applied to these kids due to the strong difference in environment. They mention that teen substance abuse is one of the largest problems in the America and I believe this report is part of a larger effort to reduce this issue. This also ties into the issue of homelessness as substance abuse was cited as a cause of homelessness. The article was very interesting and relatable. The main reasoning behind why kids participate in these activities was because their community was not providing adequate recreational activities. As a person who grew up in that environment this is so true. Also, these adolescents received these substances from their parents at public parties. It would be interesting to investigate what is the statistics of adult homeless people who participated in drugs during their younger years or who at least grew up in that environment.