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Feb 02, 2009

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2-1 Introduction

In this chapter we will discus how we prove certain theorems by making use

of some undefined terms. The terms point, line and plane are not defined in

geometry. By agreement, we have accepted they do exist but cannot be

defined. But the idea of a point, line and plane can be represented on a sheet

of paper. With the help of these undefined terms, we define the other terms in

geometry. We make use of these defined terms to deduce the hypothesis and

postulates that are further used to prove the theorems. This is how we go

about in making conclusions.

that are true or accepted as true and arrive at true or acceptably true

statements. The process comprises of three steps:

1. General statement.

2. Particular statement.

3. Deduction.

1. General statement:

The general statement made is property of the whole class (or set) of objects,

such as a class of oxen: All oxen have humps (a flashy lump on the back of an

animal such as camel).

2. Particular statement.

The particular statement relates some members of the class to the general

statement. All zebus are oxen.

3. Deduction

statement with each other: All zebus have humps.

states that ‘equal things are equal to each other’.

Thus if A= B and B=K, then A=K

Statement Statement

Now, the general statement is ‘all oxen have humps’. By correlating it with

the particular statements ‘all zebus are oxen’, we conclude that ‘all zebus have

humps’.

From the two statements ‘all oxen have humps’ and ‘all zebus are oxen’ it is

obvious that the set of ‘humps’ is the universal set, set of oxen is its subset and

the set of zebus is the subset of oxen. So, this can be represented in a Venn

diagram.

a. Observation:

If we look at two figures given below, we cannot predict which has a longer

area.

We are not sure about their areas, but they have equal areas. So we conclude

that observation cannot stand as proof.

b. Measurement

example, if we say that the height of a person is 183 cm, then it can be 182 cm

and 9 mm or 183 cm and 1 mm as the last digit is always considered to be

uncertain digit. So, we conclude that measurement does not serve as proof.

c. Experiment

If we have two red balls and two white balls and all are alike, and we pick one

from the bag they are kept in, the probability of a white ball is 2/4 and the

probability of a red ball is also 2/4. But out of four draws, it may be 3 red

balls and 1 white ball, 2 red balls and 2 white balls. All red balls and no white

balls. 1 red ball and 3 white balls. So, we conclude that experimentation

cannot serve as proof.

logical conclusions and is called deductive reasoning in geometry. It will be

clear from the following flow chart.

2-5 Algebraic postulates used in geometry

x −8 = 8− 6

⇒ x −8 = 2

⇒ x = 10

3 4

or + =1

7 7

By, taking the lowest common multiple (LCM) of the above function we have

3 4 3+ 4 7

+ = = = 1 (the whole)

7 7 7 7

4. Identity congruence: Any quantity is always equal to itself. Thus a=a, ara of

a circle is equal to itself etc.

5. If an equal quantity is added to two mutually equal quantities then the

sums are equal

the difference are equal

If A=B and P=Q

7. If two quantities are equal and each is multiplied by equal quantities, then

their products are also equal.

Then AP=BQ

Thus, if the capacity of a can is 5 litre, then the capacity of 4 such cans will be

20 litre.

8. If two equal quantities are divided by equal quantities separately then their

quotient are equal

9. Two equal numbers when raised to like powers remain equal to each other.

If A=B, then ( A) n = ( B ) n

10. Two equal quantities from equal surds with equal roots.

1 1

If A=B, then ( A) n

= ( B) n

If x 4 = 625, then

1

x = (625) 4

1

x = (5 × 5 × 5 × 5) 4

1

x = (54 ) 4

x=5

1. One and only one line can pass through two different given points.

4. One and only one circle can be drawn with any given point as centre and a

given line segment as its radius.

In the above figure 2-7, the only circle ‘O’ can be drawn with O as centre and

OP as its radius.

5. Any geometric figure can be moved in any direction without change in its

size or shape.

Thus, rectangle A has been moved to the new position as shown in figure 2-8

Thus, PS is the only bisector of ∠RPQ .

8. Through any given point on a line, one and only one perpendicular can be

drawn to the line.

9. Through any point outside a given line, one and only one perpendicular

can be drawn to it.

Thus, PQ , is the only perpendicular to AB from the point P outside the AB ,

as shown in figure 2-12.

This is very logical process. It can be explained by taking the statement ‘an

agitated cobra attacks’. The other version of the statement is ‘if a cobra is

agitated, then it attacks’. Now, the subject of the first statement ‘an agitated

cobra attacks’ is ‘an agitated cobra’ and the predicate is ‘attacks’.

In this statement the subject ‘an agitated cobra’ is the hypothesis and the

predicate ‘attacks’ is the conclusion. In the statement ‘if a cobra is agitated,

then it attacks; the subject is ‘if a cobra is agitated’ and the predicate is ‘then it

attacks’, the subject that is, ‘if a cobra is agitated’ is the hypothesis and the

predicate, that is, ‘then it attacks’, is the conclusion. In these statements, ‘if’

and ‘then’ can be ignored. The hypothesis indicates what is given and the

conclusion points to what is to be proved. So ‘if’ statement is the hypothesis

and the ‘then’ statement is what we have to prove.

conclusion and vice-versa. To do so, interchange ‘if’ into ‘then’ and then into

‘if’.

For example, in the statement, ‘if a line is parallel to one side of a triangle,

then it divides the other two sides proportionally; its converse can be

obtained by interchanging the ‘if’ and ‘then’ statements. Hence, its converse

becomes, ‘if a line divides two sides of a triangle proportionally, then it is

parallel to the third side’.

It should be noted carefully that ‘the converse of a true statement needs not be

necessarily true’.

Thus, the statement, ‘the adjacent sides of a rectangle are not equal’ is true.

But is converse needs not be true.

The other point to be noted is that ‘the converse of a definition is always true’.

For example, ‘a quadrilateral is a polygon of four sides’ is the definition of a

quadrilateral. Its converse, ‘a polygon of four sides is called quadrilateral’, is

true. Thus, both the definition and its converse are true.

For proving a theorem, we should divide the given statement of the theorem

into two parts; hypothesis (if) and conclusion then, as explained in article 2-7.

Hypothesis contains what is given to us and conclusion points out to what

has to be proved. To begin with, make a neat diagram and label it with

helpful symbols for equal sides, equal angles, right angles, question marks for

parts to be proved etc. The diagram should be made on the right hand side.

Now, divide the space on the left equally for two columns. In the left column

write the statements and on the right provide the reasons, such as, already

proved theorems, definitions, postulates, etc. It should be noted carefully that

all the statements must refer to the diagram on the right side. Use capital

letters to name the corners of the diagrams, see the figure to understand the

whole procedure.

Prove: Write the given statement. (For example, sum of the angles of a triangle

is equal to 180o

Proof:

Statement Reason

1. 1.

2. 2.

3. 3.

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