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Chapters 13, 14, and 15 form a conventional unit on money and banking. These chapters provide the foundation for the discussion of modern monetary theory and for the discussion and analysis of the monetarist and competing theories that follow. Chapter 13 introduces the student to the U.S. financial system. The chapter first covers the nature and functions of money and then discusses the Federal Reserve Systems definition of the money supply. Next, the chapter addresses the question of what backs money by looking at the value of money, money and prices, and the management of the money supply. The demand for money is then covered, and it is followed by an introduction and discussion of the money market. Finally, there is a rather comprehensive description of the U.S. financial system, which focuses on the features and functions of the Federal Reserve System and recent developments in the U.S. financial system.

The entire chapter has been updated and streamlined with revised discussion of the structure and role of the Federal Reserve System. There are minor revisions to the End-of-Chapter Questions. A Consider This box titled Are Credit Cards Money? has been added. In the previous edition this appeared in the websites Analogies, Anecdotes, and Insights section. The Last Word, The Global Greenback, has been updated.

After completing this chapter, students should be able to 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. List and explain the three functions of money. Define the money supply, M1 and near-monies, M2, and M3. State three reasons why currency and checkable deposits are money and why they have value. Identify two types of demand for money and the main determinant of each. Describe the relationship between GDP and the interest rate and each type of money demand. Explain what is meant by equilibrium in the money market and the equilibrium rate of interest. Explain the relationship between bond prices and the money market. Describe the structure of the U.S. banking system. Explain why Federal Reserve Banks are central, quasi-public, and bankers banks. Describe seven functions of the Federal Reserve System and point out which role is the most important. Summarize and evaluate the arguments for and against the Federal Reserve System remaining an independent institution. Describe the conditions that have caused the loss of market share of banks and thrifts to pension funds, insurance companies, mutual funds, and securities-related firms. Identify three major changes continuing to occur in the financial services industry.
196 Money and Banking 14. Define and identify terms and concepts listed at the end of the chapter.


1. 2. Definitions of the money supply are arbitrary, and this should be stressed. The definition of M1 changes over time as different instruments become acceptable as money. Most students are fascinated by money and will find trivia on the subject interesting. If you would like to share some of that, consider using the following Concept Illustration that appeared on the website of the previous edition.

Concept Illustration U.S. paper currency Trivia can be interesting! Did you know these facts about U.S. currency (Federal Reserve Notes)?1 The Bureau of Engraving and Printing, a Division of the United States Treasury, prints Federal Reserve Notes in denominations of $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. Since 1946, no $500, $1,000, $5,000, and $10,000 denominations have been printed. Regional Federal Reserve Banks issue the currency and are identified by coding on the face of each bill: A1 = Boston; B2 = New York; C3 = Philadelphia; D4 = Cleveland; E5 = Richmond; F6 = Atlanta; G7 = Chicago; H8 = St. Louis; I9 = Minneapolis; J10 = Kansas City; K11 = Dallas; L12 = San Francisco. The newly designed bills have several security features, some of which are readily visible. Examples: (1) A watermark depicts the same person as the portrait and is visible from both sides when held up to a light. (2) The same technique reveals a vertical security thread containing USA in the strip. (3) The numeral in the lower right corner looks bright green when examined head on, but shifts to dark green when the bill is held at an angle. The circle on the right side of the back of the $1 bill contains symbolism representing the 13 original states. The burst of light above the eagles head contains 13 stars. The right claws hold an olive branch with 13 leaves and the left claws hold 13 arrows. (The eagles head is turned toward the olive branch.) The shield has 13 stripes. The ribbon held in the eagles beak contains the Latin motto: E Pluribus Unum, which has 13 letters and means out of many, one. The unfinished pyramid in the left circle on the back of the $1 bill symbolizes striving toward growth and perfection. The eye inside the triangle represents the eternal eye of God. The Roman numerals at the base of the pyramid are 1776, the founding year of the United States. The average life of the $1 bill is 18 months. The $50 and $100 billshandled less oftenhave average lives of 5 and 8 years, respectively. Beginning in 1934 all U.S. paper currency was inscribed with The United States of America Will Pay to the Bearer on Demand One [Five, Ten, etc.] Dollar [s] in Lawful Money. In 1964 the inscription was replaced with This Note is Legal Tender for Debts, Public and Private. The Federal Reserve estimates that only 3/100ths of 1 percent of total currency in circulation is counterfeited. Authorities seize about 75 percent of all counterfeited money before it is circulated. If you accept a counterfeit bill, you are stuck with the loss. Dont try to pass a known counterfeit bill to someone else, or you can be fined up to $5,000. As long as you present what is clearly more than one-half a bill, a bank will accept it for deposit or replace it. The bank then sends the bill to a Federal Reserve Bank, which destroys it and issues another bill in its place.
Source: Federal Reserve System, Fundamental Facts about U. S. Money, 1998.


The Federal Reserve Banks publish a number of excellent low-cost or free educational materials. A comprehensive guide to these, along with ordering information, is found in Public Information Materials, available from the Federal Reserve Bank in your district. It could be ordered from any district, or from the New York Federal Reserve Bank, 33 Liberty Street, New York, NY 10045. Address your requests to the Public Information Department of the district bank that you write. The Federal Reserve Bulletin contains a wealth of financial and

Money and Banking economic statistics. Write The Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System, Washington, D.C. 20551 for subscription information or check their website given in the first web-based question. 4. As an in-class exercise, have the students collectively identify some or all of the Federal Reserve districts by finding the bank of issue on bills they have in their possession. On older currency notes the issuing bank is shown in the circle on the left side of the face of the bill. On the newer style of notes the name of the issuing Federal Reserve Bank does not appear on the bill, but the district number and corresponding letter of the alphabet do appear toward the upper left-hand corner (e.g., L12 denotes the San Francisco district). See if all twelve are represented among the bills present in your classroom. Students may be curious why the name of the issuing bank no longer appears on the bill; it is one of the many anticounterfeiting measures appearing on the new style bills. The next generation of bills, introduced with the $20 bill in late 2002, adds more color variety and additional anticounterfeiting features. There is a lot of ignorance among the general population as to what gives money its value. An interesting experiment is to have students create their own money and attempt to spend it in the community. When their currency is refused in transactions, have students ask the vendors why it is refused and record the responses for later classroom discussion. This would, of course, have to be monitored closely. It is not illegal to create your own currency so long as you are not attempting to recreate or pass it off as legal tender. Student currency would have to look sufficiently different from genuine U.S. currency. Ask students to give examples of each one of the functions of money and point out that in some contemporary countries, inflation has undermined these functions. In these countries, people often prefer U.S. dollars instead of their own currencies because their currencies dont store value or work for long as a unit of account since prices change rapidly. Discuss the use of barter as an alternative means of exchange in places like Russia and Ukraine. Ask students to relate examples of barter exchanges they have made. Note the conditions required for barter. Give students an opportunity to explain why barter exchanges are inconvenient. The Federal Reserve banks, including their branches, offer guided tours of their facilities, and many of the district banks also have exhibits in their public lobby areas. It is definitely a good field trip if you have the opportunity to take your students. If not, the banks public information department may be willing to schedule a presentation at your institution.







1. It is hard for students to believe that nothing intrinsic backs the money supply. Make sure they realize that the gold in Fort Knox (or elsewhere) has no function in terms of the value of our money. Returning to the gold standard continues to be advocated by some. It is a good topic for debate. Point out to the students that the phrase central bank refers to the Federal Reserve System and the Board of Governors. This system acts as our Central Bank, whereas other countries have a single institution as their central bank. Another common error that students make is to equate money with income. Focus on the distinction between the amount of money in ones possession and ones income. This helps students to understand that money and income are not synonyms. For example, you could ask them to estimate how much M1 money they have at the moment in currency and checking. If they are typical, this will be much less than their annual income. In other words, the students average money supply is less than the students income. The concept of velocity is introduced



198 Money and Banking later, but it could be mentioned at this point as a way of helping students to contrast the money supply with income concepts. 4. If you want students to understand why interest rates on bonds vary as described in Money Market section, you must explain carefully. If bond price : rate relationship is not important for you, focus only on money : rate relationships. See question 9 at end of chapter for practice on relating bond prices to interest rates.

I. Functions of Money A. Medium of exchange: Money can be used for buying and selling goods and services. B. Unit of account: Prices are quoted in dollars and cents. C. Store of value: Money allows us to transfer purchasing power from present to future. It is the most liquid (spendable) of all assets, a convenient way to store wealth. II. Supply of Money A. Narrow definition of money: M1 includes currency and checkable deposits (see Table 13-1). 1. Currency (coins + paper money) held by public. a. Is token money, which means its intrinsic value is less than actual value. The metal in a dime is worth less than 10. b. All paper currency consists of Federal Reserve Notes issued by the Federal Reserve. 2. Checkable deposits are included in M1, since they can be spent almost as readily as currency and can easily be changed into currency. a. Commercial banks are a main source of checkable deposits for households and businesses. b. Thrift institutions (savings and loans, credit unions, mutual savings banks) also have checkable deposits. 3. Qualification: Currency and checkable deposits held by the federal government, Federal Reserve, or other financial institutions are not included in M1. B. Money Definition: M2 = M1 + some near-monies which include (See Table 13-1) 1. Savings deposits and money market deposit accounts. 2. Certificates of deposit (time accounts) less than $100,000. 3. Money market mutual fund balances, which can be redeemed by phone calls, checks, or through the Internet. C. Money Definition: M3 = M2 + large certificates of deposit (time accounts) of $100,000 or more (See Table 13-1) D. Which definitions are used? M1 will be used in this text, but M2 is watched closely by the Federal Reserve in determining monetary policy. 1. M2 and M3 are important because they can easily be changed into M1 types of money and influence peoples spending of income. 2. The ease of shifting between M1, M2, and M3 complicates the task of controlling the spendable money supply. 3. The definition becomes important when authorities attempt to measure and control the money supply.

Money and Banking E. CONSIDER THIS Are Credit Cards Money? Credit cards are not money, but their use involves short-term loans; their convenience allows you to keep M1 balances low because you need less for daily purchases. III. What backs the money supply? A. The governments ability to keep its value stable provides the backing. B. Money is debt; paper money is a debt of Federal Reserve Banks and checkable deposits are liabilities of banks and thrifts because depositors own them. C. The value of money arises not from anything intrinsic, but its value in exchange for goods and services. 1. It is acceptable as a medium of exchange. 2. Currency is legal tender or fiat money. In general, it must be accepted in repayment of debt, but that doesnt mean that private firms and government are mandated to accept cash; alternative means of payment may be required. (Note that checks are not legal tender but, in fact, are generally acceptable in exchange for goods, services, and resources. Legal cases have essentially determined that pennies are not legal tender.) 3. The relative scarcity of money compared to goods and services will allow money to retain its purchasing power. D. Moneys purchasing power determines its value. Higher prices mean less purchasing power. (Key Question #6) E. Excessive inflation may make money worthless and unacceptable. An extreme example of this was German hyperinflation after World War I, which made the mark worth less than 1 billionth of its former value within a four-year period. 1. Worthless money leads to the use of other currencies that are more stable. 2. Worthless money may lead to barter exchange system. F. Maintaining the value of money 1. The government tries to keep supply stable with appropriate fiscal policy. 2. Monetary policy tries to keep money relatively scarce to maintain its purchasing power, while expanding enough to allow the economy to grow. IV. The Demand for Money: Two Components A. Transactions demand, Dt, is money kept for purchases and will vary directly with GDP (Figure 13-1a). B. Asset demand, Da, is money kept as a store of value for later use. Asset demand varies inversely with the interest rate, since that is the price of holding idle money (Figure 13-1b). C. Total demand will equal quantities of money demanded for assets plus that for transactions (Figure 13-1c). V. The Money Market: Interaction of Money Supply and Demand A. Key Graph 13-1c illustrates the money market. It combines demand with supply of money. B. Figure 13-2 illustrates how equilibrium changes with a shift in the supply of money. C. If the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied, people sell assets like bonds to get money. This causes bond supply to rise, bond prices to fall, and a higher market rate of interest.

200 Money and Banking D. If the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded, people reduce money holdings by buying other assets, like bonds. Bond prices rise, and lower market rates of interest result (see example in text). E. Monetary authorities can shift supply to affect interest rates, which in turn affect investment and consumption and aggregate demand and, ultimately, output, employment, and prices. (Key Question #7) F. Try Quick Quiz 13-2. VI. The Federal Reserve and the Banking System A. The Federal Reserve System (the Fed) was established by Congress in 1913 and holds power over the money and banking system. 1. Figure 13-3 gives the framework of the Fed and its relationship to the public. 2. The central controlling authority for the system is the Board of Governors, which has seven members appointed by the President for staggered 14-year terms. Its power means the system operates like a central bank. 3. The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) includes the seven governors plus five regional Federal Reserve Bank presidents whose terms alternate. They set policy on buying and selling of government bonds, the most important type of monetary policy, and meet several times each year. 4. The system has twelve districts, each with its own district bank and two or three branch banks. They help implement Fed policy and are advisory. (See Figure 13-4) a. Each is quasi-public: It is owned by member banks but controlled by the governments Federal Reserve Board, and any profits go to the U.S. Treasury. b. They act as bankers banks by accepting reserve deposits and making loans to banks and other financial institutions. In making loans, the Federal Reserve is the lender of last resort, meaning that the Fed is available to lend money should other avenues (e.g., other commercial banks) not be available. 3. About 7,800 commercial banks existed in 2003. They are privately owned and consist of state banks (three-fourths of the total) and large national banks (chartered by the Federal government). 4. Thrift institutions consist of savings and loan associations, credit unions, and mutual savings banks. They are regulated by the Treasury Dept. Office of Thrift Supervision, but they may use services of the Fed and keep reserves on deposit at the Fed. See Figure 13-4. Of the approximately 11,800 thrift institutions, 10,300 are credit unions. 5. Global Perspective 13-1 gives the worlds twelve largest financial institutions. B. Functions of the Fed and money supply. 1. The Fed issues Federal Reserve Notes, the paper currency used in the U.S. monetary system. 2. The Fed sets reserve requirements and holds the reserves of banks and thrifts not held as vault cash. 3. The Fed may lend money to banks and thrifts, charging them an interest rate called the discount rate. 4. The Fed provides a check collection service for banks (checks are also cleared locally or by private clearing firms). 5. The Fed acts as the fiscal agent for the Federal government.

Money and Banking 6. The Fed supervises member banks. 7. Monetary policy and control of the money supply is the major function of the Fed. C. Federal Reserve independence is important but is also controversial from time to time. Advocates of independence fear that more political ties would cause the Fed to follow expansionary policies and create too much inflation, leading to an unstable currency such as exists in some other countries (see Last Word for this chapter). VII. Recent Developments in Money and Banking A. Relative decline of banks and thrifts: Several other types of firms offer financial services. B. Consolidation among banks and thrifts: Because of failures and mergers, there are fewer banks and thrifts today. Since 1990, there has been a decline of 5000 banks. C. Convergence of services provided has made financial institutions more similar: See text on new laws of 1996 and 1999 that made many changes possible. D. Globalization of financial markets: Significant integration of world financial markets is occurring and recent advances in computer and communications technology suggest the trend is likely to accelerate. E. Electronic transactions: Internet buying and selling, electronic cash, and smart cards are examples. 1. In the future, nearly all payments could be made with a personal computer or smart card. 2. Unlike currency, E-cash is issued by private firms rather than by government. To control the money supply the Fed will need to find ways to control the total amount of E-cash, including that created through Internet loans. VIII. LAST WORD: The Global Greenback A. Two-thirds of all U.S. currency is circulating abroad. 1. Russia holds about $40 billion because the dollar value is stable. 2. Argentina holds $7 billion and fixes its own peso exchange rate to dollar reserves. B. The U.S. profits when dollars stay overseas: It costs us 4 to print each dollar and to get the dollar; foreigners must sell Americans $1 worth of products. Americans gain 96 over cost of printing the dollar. Its like someone buying a travelers check and never cashing it. C. Black markets and illegal activity overseas are usually also conducted in dollars because they are such a stable form of currency. D. Overall, the global greenback is a positive economic force. It is a reliable medium of exchange, measure, and store of value that facilitates transactions everywhere, and there is little danger that all the dollars will return to U.S.


13.1 What are the three basic functions of money? Describe how rapid inflation can undermine moneys ability to perform each of the three functions.

Money is used as a medium of exchange for goods and services, as a unit of account for expressing price, and as a store of value. People will only accept money in exchange for goods and services and for the work they perform if they can be reasonably certain that the medium of exchangemoneywill retain its value until they are ready to spend it. In runaway inflations of the thousands or tens of thousands of percent a year, people revert to barter.
202 Money and Banking Again, drastic inflation greatly reduces moneys use as a measure of value, for it is impossible to adjust instantaneously all prices strictly in line with their relative values. Thus, opportunities are afforded to speculators to profit at the expense of the less sophisticated who, eventually, will learn to distrust moneys usefulness as a measure of value. Finally, and most obviously, moneys usefulness as a store of value is destroyed in a drastic inflation. The rule of 70 is instructive here. By dividing the absolute inflation rate into 70, one can estimate how long it takes ones dollar savings to lose half their purchasing power. At 7 percent inflation, the dollar will be worth half as much in ten years. 13.2 Which two of the following financial institutions offer checkable deposits included within the M1 money supply: mutual fund companies, insurance companies, commercial banks, securities firms, thrift institutions? Which of the following is not included in either M1 or M2: currency held by the public; checkable deposits, money market mutual fund balances; small (less than $100,000) time deposits; currency held by banks; savings deposits?

Commercial banks and thrift institutions offer checkable deposits. Currency held by banks is not counted in either M1 or M2. 13-3 Explain and evaluate the following statements: a. The invention of money is one of the great achievements of humankind, for without it the enrichment that comes from broadening trade would have been impossible. b. Money is whatever society says it is. c. In most economies of the world, the debts of government and commercial banks are used as money. d. People often say they would like to have more money, but what they usually mean is that they would like to have more goods and services. e. When the price of everything goes up, it is not because everything is worth more but because the currency is worth less. f. Any central bank can create money; the trick is to create just enough of it. (a) Without money, trade must occur through barter. Barter requires the double coincidence of wants, the requirement that a seller find a buyer who not only desires what the seller has to offer but also has to offer what the buyer desires. A wheat farmer desiring milk must find a dairy farmer desiring wheat or, at least, a merchant in the middle trading in both wheat and milk. Maybe one can imagine a merchant owning both a grain elevator and refrigerated milk holding tanks. But suppose the wheat farmer desires a new suit or a new combine? So far all we have been talking about is local trade. Suppose the dairy farmer desires oriental spices, to use an example from the beginning of trade after the ending of the Dark Ages in Europe. The dairy farmer could hardly ship the milk to the Orient, so a buyer must be found in Europe who desires milk and who has something our dairy farmer can trade for oriental spices. And how are the terms of trade to be determined in the absence of money? Is a quart of milk worth an ounce of pepper? Or how much of what the dairy farmer got locally for milk is worth an ounce of pepper? As one can see, without a measure of value the complications are enormous. (b) Money must be acceptable in exchange. That is its fundamental requirement. A person will accept payment in whatever is called money only if that person knows that the money can subsequently be used in exchange for something else. If the money is easily, cheaply predicable by a monetary authority, it will only be acceptable if the conviction exists that the authority will keep the rate of increase below the hyperinflationary level. If the money is a commodity such as cigarettes in a prisoner-of-war camp, the commodity will be acceptable as money not only because of its intrinsic value, but also, again, because there is no fear of the

Money and Banking supply suddenly increasing to a hyperinflationary level. Note that checks are our primary medium of exchange, although they have not been deemed legal tender by government. (c) All accounts (saving and checking) in the commercial banks are money owed by these banks to their customers, who own these deposits. Since checks drawn on checking accounts are accepted as money (since they demand payment out of these checking accounts), it follows that the debts of the commercial banks are used as moneys. Paper money is merely the circulating debt of the government. (d) People often use the term money when they are referring to wealth or income. Wealth refers to accumulated assets, measured at a point in time. Money is an asset, and can be used as a store of value. However, holding wealth in the form of money provides no creature comforts, nor does it return much additional income (before interest was paid on checking balances, the return was zero). Money is also a unit of account, a means of measurement, literally a yardstick that is used for comparison purposes. When people say they want more money, they are saying they want to be richerto have more things. (e) The equation is accurate. The great advantage of paper money is that its supply does not rely on the chance discovery or laborious production of whatever commodity is used as money. The cost of printing paper money is trivial compared to the values that can be printed on it. However, the very convenience and ease of producing paper money can be their downfall or the downfall of the economies that use it. Since it can be produced without limit at virtually no cost, sometimes it is. Hyperinflation and economic breakdown may result. However, this is not a fault of paper money in itself: Colonial Pennsylvania issued paper money completely unbacked by gold and silver for forty-four years, from 1723 to 1767, without any inflation at all. (f) The most important function of the Federal Reserve is to manage the nations money supply and thus interest rates. This involves making an amount of money available that is consistent with high and rising levels of output and employment and a relatively constant price level. 13-4 (Key Question) What are the components of the M1 money supply? What is the largest component? Which of the components is legal tender? Why is the face value of a coin greater than its intrinsic value? What near-monies are included in M2 money supply? What distinguishes the M2 and M3 money supplies? M1 = currency (in circulation) + checkable deposits. The largest component of M1 is currency (52 percent), and it is the only part that is legal tender. If the face value of a coin were not greater than its intrinsic (metallic) value, people would remove coins from circulation and sell them for their metallic content. M2 = M1 + noncheckable savings deposits + money market deposit accounts + small time deposits + money market mutual fund balances. M3 = M2 + large time deposits (those of $100,000 or more). Near-monies are components of M2 and M3 not included in M1. M3 is distinguished from M2 by large time deposits (certificates of deposits). 13-5 What backs the money supply in the United States? What determines the value (domestic purchasing power) of money? How does the value of money relate to the price level? Who in the U.S. is responsible for maintaining moneys value? There is no concrete backing to the money supply in the United States. Paper money, which has no intrinsic value, has value only because people are willing to accept it in exchange for goods and services, including their labor services as employees. And people are willing to accept paper as money because they know that everyone else is also willing to do so. If the monetary authorities were issuing new banknotes at a rate far in excess of available output, the acceptability of paper money would diminish. People would start to worry about whether the banknotes would be worth much after they received them. Checks are part of the money supply and are not legal tender, but people accept them willingly from people believed trustworthy. The value or purchasing power of money is inversely related to the price level.
204 Money and Banking The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the Fed) is responsible for managing the United States money supply so that money retains its value. 13-6 (Key Question) Suppose the price level and value of the dollar in year 1 are 1.0 and $1.00, respectively. If the price level rises to 1.25 in year 2, what is the new value of the dollar? If instead the price level had fallen to .50, what would have been the value of the dollar? What generalization can you draw from your answer? In the first case, the value of the dollar (in year 2, relative to year 1) is $.80 (= 1/1.25); in the second case the value is $2 (= 1/.50). Generalization: The price level and the value of the dollar are inversely related. 13-7 (Key Question) What is the basic determinant of (a) the transactions demand and (b) the asset demand for money? Explain how these two demands can be combined graphically to determine total money demand. How is the equilibrium interest rate in the money market determined? How might (a) the expanded use of credit cards, (b) a shortening of worker pay periods, and (c) an increase in nominal GDP each independently affect the transactions demand for money, and the equilibrium interest rate? (a) The level of nominal GDP. The higher this level, the greater the amount of money demanded for transactions. (b) The interest rate. The higher the interest rate, the smaller the amount of money demanded as an asset. On a graph measuring the interest rate vertically and the amount of money demanded horizontally, the two demands for the money curves can be summed horizontally to get the total demand for money. This total demand shows the total amount of money demanded at each interest rate. The equilibrium interest rate is determined at the intersection of the total demand for money curve and the supply of money curve. (a) Expanded use of credit cards: transaction demand for money declines; total demand for money declines; interest rate falls. (b) Shortening of worker pay periods: transaction demand for money declines; total demand for money declines; interest rate falls. (c) Increase in nominal GDP: transaction demand for money increases; total demand for money increases; interest rate rises. 13-8 Assume that the following data characterize a hypothetical economy: money supply = $200 billion; quantity of money demanded for transactions = $150 billion; quantity of money demanded as an asset = $10 billion at 12 percent interest, increasing by $10 billion for each 2-percentage-point fall in the interest rate. a. What is the equilibrium interest rate? Explain. b. At the equilibrium interest rate, what are the quantity of money supplied, the total quantity of money demanded, the amount of money demanded for transactions, and the amount of money demanded as an asset? (a) The equilibrium interest rate is 4% where the quantity of money supplied is equal to the total quantity demanded. (b) At the equilibrium interest rate the quantity of money supplied is 200 and the asset demand for money is 50, the transactions demand for money is 150 and the total quantity of money demanded is 200. 13-9 Suppose a bond with no expiration date has a face value of $10,000 and annually pays a fixed amount on interest of $800. Compute and enter in the spaces provided either the interest rate that the bond would yield to a bond buyer at each of the bond prices listed or the bond price at each of the interest yields shown. What generalization can be drawn from the completed table?


Money and Banking Bond Price ($) 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 13,000 Interest rate (%) 10.0 8.9 8.0 7.3 6.2

Generalization: Bond price and interest rate are inversely related. 13-10 Assume that the money market is initially in equilibrium and that the money supply is then increased. Explain the adjustments toward a new equilibrium interest rate. Will bond prices be higher at the new equilibrium rate of interest? What effects would you expect that interest-rate change to have on the levels of output, employment, and prices? Answer the same questions for a decrease in the money supply. Assuming there is no initial change in GDP, there will be no change in the transactions demand for money. Therefore, the entire increase in the money supply will initially go toward the purchase of financial assets that people prefer to the holding of noninterest-bearing cash. Assuming that these purchases are entirely for bonds (some undoubtedly will be, anyway), the increased demand for bonds will drive their price up and the rate of return on them down; that is, the interest rate in the market will drop. The lower interest rate will encourage investment and interest-rate-sensitive consumer buying, that is, for big-ticket items, such as cars. Output and employment will rise and so will prices, unless the economy is in a deep recession in the Keynesian range of the AS curve. The increase in output (in GDP) will increase the transactions demand for money and, thus, the total demand for money. This will tend to force interest rates back up, but not all the way back to where they were before the money supply was increased. If the money supply is decreased, everything works in reverse. The quantity of money demanded exceeds the quantity supplied at the previous equilibrium interest rate. To get the money they desire, people will sell some of their financial assets, some of which, at least, will be bonds. The increased supply of bonds in the market will drive down their price. This means the rate of return on them will rise; the market rate of interest rises. This will lead to a decrease in investment and interest-sensitive consumer purchases. Output and employment will drop, leading to a decrease in the transactions demand for money and, thus, to a decrease in the total demand for money. This will tend to lower the interest rate, but not all the way back to where it was before the money supply decreased. Prices likely will not decrease, because of the ratchet effect, unless the economy is in a very deep recession; in which case the monetary authorities, having learned something from 1929-33, would not have decreased the money supply. 13-11 How is the chairperson of the Federal Reserve Board selected? Describe the relationship between the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the 12 Federal Reserve Banks. What is the composition and purpose of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)? The members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve are selected by the U.S. President and confirmed by the Senate. The seven board members have long terms14 yearsand are staggered so that one member is replaced every 2 years. The president selects the chairperson and vice-chairperson of the board from among the members, and they serve 4-year terms. Several entities assist the Board of Governors in determining banking and monetary policy. The Federal Open Market Committee is the most important, voting on the Feds monetary policy and directing the purchase or sale of government securities. Five of the presidents of the Federal Reserve Banks have voting rights on the FOMC each year, rotating the membership among the 12 banks, except for the president of the New York Fed who has a permanent voting seat.
206 Money and Banking 13-2 What is meant when economists say that the Federal Reserve Banks are central banks, quasipublic banks, and bankers banks? What are the seven basic functions of the Federal Reserve System? The 12 Federal Reserve Banks are central banks whose policies are coordinated by the Board of Governors. They are quasipublic banks, meaning that they are a blend of private ownership and public control. They are also bankers banks in that they perform essentially the same functions for banks and thrifts as those institutions perform for the public. The Federal Reserve performs 7 basic functions. 1. The Fed issues Federal Reserve Notes, the paper currency used in the U.S. monetary system. 2. The Fed sets reserve requirements and holds the mandated reserves that are not held as vault cash. 3. The Fed lends money to banks and thrifts. 4. The Fed provides for check collection. 5. The Fed acts as fiscal agent for the Federal government. 6. The Fed supervises the operation of all U.S. banks. 7. Finally, and most importantly, the Fed has responsibility for regulating the supply of money, and this in turn enables it to affect interest rates. 13-13 Following are two hypothetical ways in which the Federal Reserve Board might be appointed. Would you favor either of these two methods over the present method? Why or why not? a. Upon taking office, the U.S. President appoints 7 people to the Federal Reserve Board, including a chair. Each appointee must be confirmed by a majority vote of the Senate, and each serves the same 4-year term as the president. b. Congress selects 7 members from its ranks (4 from the House of Representatives and 3 from the Senate) to serve at its pleasure as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. In the opinion of most economists, the Fed should be protected from political pressures so that it can effectively control the money supply and maintain price stability. Option (a) would create a Board of Governors that sat at the pleasure of the president, placing the monetary policy of the country in the hands of the executive branch. Option (b) would place the BOG under the control of Congress. Neither of the options would maintain the independence needed for effective monetary policy. 13-14 What are the major categories of firms that make up the U.S. financial services industry? Did the bank and thrift share of the financial services market rise, fall, or stay the same between 1980 and 2002? Are there more or fewer banks today than a decade ago? Why are the lines between the categories of financial firms becoming more blurred than in the past? The major categories of firms that make up the U.S. financial services industry include: commercial banks, thrifts, insurance companies, mutual fund companies, pension funds, and securities related firms. Commercial banks and thrifts have declined in market share substantially since 1980. In response they have offered a variety of new services, purchased or merged with other institutions, and pushed Congress for regulatory reform. 13-15 In what way are electronic money and smart cards potentially related? Do you think electronic money and smart cards will dominate transactions sometime within the next 20 years? Why or why not? Electronic money is simply an entry in an electronic file stored in a computer. The internet and the widespread availability of personal computers have made it possible for individuals to use E-cash instead of checks or currency in making transactions. E-cash is loaded into the account through

Money and Banking Internet payments, or other asset transfer. It can then be withdrawn or used through the Internet to make a variety of payments. Smart cards are like credit cards with prepaid balances. Each time it is used for a transaction, the value of the card account is decreased by the price of the purchase. Smart card balances can be replenished by adding new prepayments to the account. Both also represent a new form of money outside the narrower definitions of M1, and as such are outside the current control of monetary authorities. Increased usage of electronic cash and smart cards is certain to take place. 13-16 (Last Word) Over the years, the Federal Reserve Banks have printed many billions of dollars more in currency than American households, businesses, and financial institutions now hold. Where is this missing money? Why is it there? This missing money is outside of the country. It originally left the country to pay for imports of goods and services purchased by Americans from producers abroad. Now it is in circulation outside the country, especially in countries whose currencies are not very stable. For example, it is estimated that Russians hold about $40 billion worth of U.S. dollars. Transactions are conducted in dollars inside Russia, because Russians fear that when they accept the Russian ruble, it may lose its value very quickly. The same is true in other countries with high rates of inflation. The dollar is also used in international transactions, both legal and illegal, where it is acceptable because of its stability.