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# STATISTICS: 1ST QUARTER REVIEWER STATISTICS is an art and science of collecting, organizing, presenting, analysing and interpreting a given

n data. GREAT MEN WHO MADE IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION TO STATISTICS 1. JOHN GRAUNT made the Bills of mortality 2. KARL FRIEDRICH GAUSS use statistical methods in predicting planetary positions 3. ADOLPHE QUETELET the father of modern statistics, developed the concept of average man 4. KARL PEARSON made important formulas concerning relationships 5. SIR RONALD FISHER developed the F Tool 6. GEORGE GALLUP instrumental in making statistical polling FIELDS OF STATISTICS 1. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS concerned with the methods of collecting, organizing and presenting data. - the average of the scores of the students - the best cell phone brand according to consumers ranking - the number of students who failed in statistics 2. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS concerned with inferring and drawing conclusions about the population based from the sample. - the forecasted economic growth of economy in 2015 - the significant difference between scores in statistics and mathematics - the Philippine archipelago will suffer more rain in the next few months - the effectiveness of the new brand of medicine in treating cancer

CONSTANTS AND VARIABLES 1. CONSTANT refer to the fundamental qualities that do not change in value. 2. VARIABLES are quantities that may take anyone of a specified set of values. 3. QUALITATIVE VARIABLE (CATEGORICAL) are non-measurable characteristics that cannot assume numerical values. Example: gender, position in the company, brand, school, educational attainment, civil status 4. QUANTITATIVE VARIABLE (NUMERICAL) are quantities that can be counted, measured and calculated with the use of mathematical formulas. - DISCRETE uses counting or whole numbers Example: number of students, number of books in the library, number of years in service. - CONTINUOUS uses number in between (decimals), measurements Example: height of a building, temperature of the coffee, IQ, grades SCALES OF MEASUREMENT 1. NOMINAL SCALE uses numbers as code to categorical variables 2. ORDINAL SCALE used for ranking 3. INTERVAL SCALE has no absolute zero 4. RATIO SCALE has an absolute zero METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA 1. DIRECT or INTERVIEW METHOD a person to person interaction between an interviewer and the interviewee 2. INDIRECT or QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD an alternative method for interview method which utilizes questionnaires to obtain written responses 3. REGISTRATION METHOD lets respondents fill out forms for recording purposes 4. OBSERVATION METHOD scientific method of observation that uses senses to measure or obtain data. 5. EXPERIMENTATION METHOD used to determine cause-and-effect relationship

POPULATION collection of all objects, events or individuals under study SAMPLE portion of the population SAMPLING the process of collecting the sample from the given population RANDOM SAMPLING - (fair sampling) a sampling technique in which each member in the population has an equal chance of being selected NON-RANDOM SAMPLING (biased sampling) is a method of collecting sample wherein not all members of the population are given an equal amount of being selected SAMPLING TECHNIQUES - RANDOM SAMPLING TECHNIQUES 1. LOTTERY OR FISHBOWL METHOD 2. SYSTEMATIC RANDOM SAMPLING 3. STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING 4. CLUSTER SAMPLING 5. MULTI STAGE SAMPLING - NON-RANDOM SAMPLING TECHNIQUES 1. PURPOSIVE SAMPLING 2. QUOTA SAMPLING 3. CONVENIENCE SAMPLING ORGANIZATION AND PRESENTATION OF DATA 1. TEXTUAL combines text and numerical facts 2. TABULAR statistical tables are used 3. GRAPHICAL most effective means of presenting data, because relationships are seen clearly using creative figures. Refer to page 41 for examples of data presentation

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION is a tabulation or grouping of data into categories showing the number of observation in each group or categories. PARTS OF THE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 1. CLASS LIMITS/INTERVAL groupings or categories defined by lower and upper limits 2. CLASS SIZE/ CLASS WIDTH width of each class interval 3. CLASS BOUNDARY numbers used to separate class without gaps created by class limits 4. CLASS MARK midpoints of the lower and upper class limits 5. FREQUENCY number of observations 6. LESS THAN CUMMULATIVE FREQUENCY obtained by adding frequencies successively from the lowest to the highest interval 7. MORE THAN CUMMULATIVE FREQUENCY - obtained by adding frequencies successively from the highest to the lowest interval 8. RELATIVE FREQUENCY the frequency divided by the total frequency

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE Class Interval 1 12 13 24 25 36 37 48 49 60 Class Boundaries LB 0.5 12.5 24.5 36.5 48.5 UB 12.5 24.5 36.5 48.5 60.5 Class Size 12 12 12 12 12 Class Mark 6.5 18.5 30.5 42.5 54.5 f 12 18 25 6 4 <cf 12 30 55 61 65 >cf 65 53 35 10 4 rf 18.46% 27.69% 38.46% 9.23% 6.15%