Sunteți pe pagina 1din 2

HOMOLOGUS RECOMBINATION Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar

or identical molecules of DNA. Homologous recombination is conserved across all three domains of life as well as viruses, suggesting that it is a nearly universal biological mechanism. Homologous recombination is most widely used by cells to accurately repair harmful breaks that occur on both strands of DNA, known as double-strand breaks. It also produces new combinations of DNA sequences during meiosis, the process by which eukaryotes make gamete cells, like sperm and egg cells in animals. These new combinations of DNA represent genetic variation in offspring, which in turn enables populations to adapt during the course of evolution. Homologous recombination is also used in horizontal gene transfer to exchange genetic material between different strains and species of bacteria and viruses. After a double-strand break occurs, sections of DNA around the 5' ends of the break are cut away in a process called resection. In the strand invasion, an overhanging 3' end of the broken DNA molecule then "invades" a similar or identical DNA molecule that is not broken. After strand invasion, one or two cross-shaped structures called Holliday junctions connect the two DNA molecules. The type of homologous recombination that occurs in meiosis results in either chromosomal crossover or non-crossover. Homologous recombination that occurs during DNA repair tends to result in non-crossover products, in effect restoring the damaged DNA molecule as it existed before the double-strand break. DNA exchange is initiated by nicks at the same position on the parental DNA molecules. The nicked strands partially unwind and each invades the other molecule by pairing with the complementary unbroken strand. Ligation of the broken strands produces a cross-strand intermediate known as a Holiday junction. At this point, the DNA molecules need to be separated or resolved using one model, the duplexes revolve around their connection point. Another revolution aligns the strands for cutting and resealing to form separate duplexes. The resulting two double-stranded molecules which consist of exchanged segments, are now resolved. Another version of homologus recombination Necessary ingredients Two DNA molecules with similar or almost identical base pair (homologus sequences)

RecA protein which binds to single stranded DNA Single stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) which protects single stranded DNA RecBCD protein that separates double strand (helicase activity) and also degrades nucleotide (exonuclease activity) DNA Ligase that repairs nicked DNA Chi sequence which is recognized by RecBD protein GCTGGTGG DNA polymerase 1 which repairs gaps in DNA. RecBCD binds to the end of one double stranded DNA molecule. ReCBCD helicase activity breaks hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs, unwinding DNA strands. RecBCD 3 to 5 exonuclease activity degrades nucleotides. RecBCD continues to unwind the DNA strand and degrading the nucleotides until ReCBCD passesa a chi site GCTGGTGG . Once RecBCD pases Chi, its exonuclease activity is inhibited. RecBCD helicase activity is still functional producing a region of single stranded DNA. DNA polymerase 1 fills the gap. RecA and single-strand protein coats the single stranded DNA. The RecA-ssDNA filament binds to a double strand homologus DNA strand. RecA unwinds the dsDANa promoting base pairing of the complementary nucleotides. The process is called assimilation. The ssDNA-RecA-DaDNA complex further stimulates unwinding of the dsDNA. Branch migration creates a longer stretch of heteroduplex DNA. Displacement loop is digested, ligase repairs the nicks