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LEC 2 CHAPTER 1 BM= behavior modification Prod=product/producing Pple=people Cond=condition Inc=increase Exp=experiment Pt=patient Ex=example b/w=between Behavior according

to book author we think of only human intervention. Behavior is what we can see objectively and can see in third person perspective. Could be an activity e.g. granular, muscular, and nervous. We can use fMRI to see the change in behavior Behavior can be seen as every sense of dimension IT is an activity and thus not STATIC, its not a label or state (label is great for saying what somebody might be doing but it will not be same as what a person is doing when his/her behavior is excess or deficient). Ex : somebody could be angry. angry is label. If it is associated with a sibling, it is an activity. Behavior is a process not a product. It can have effect on environment - physical and social. Putting switch on/off is a physical change while police and court actions related to a crime involve social element. Jake the runner- see duration, frequency and intensity to inc exercise behavior Duration- treadmill how long exercising Frequency- measuring 3 times per week Intensity- level 8 out of 20 on a treadmill or heart rate recorder records average level of heart rate Behavior is lawful functional relationship in behavior and environment, there is a direct relationship. It is very scientific and it is quantitative, we can intervene and improve life of pple. Behavior can be overt or covert- we will be looking at overt (visible to others) behavior for most part of the course Behavior can be observed, can be seen in third party perspective or by individual himself

Two branches of behavior: analyze and modify behavior. Behavior deficient e.g not studying enough for a course Behavior excessive e.g nail biting Behavior modification contain basic behavior principles Compare to other psychology, we want to understand current phenomenon. Another school of psychology doesnt adhere to current environment-> Freudarian (based on events on past). In reality BM psychologist says that everything is quantifiable, if not then its not a behavior. We can be accurate with the implementation of intervention. Flashlight down on an environment: ABC phenomenon -> antecedence, behavior and consequences. ABC -> going to be used throughout the course. Jimmy diagnose with autism, engage in certain type of behavior. You if not taken this class would think about it differently. But as soon as u has understanding, we will see jimmy as this vulnerable individual whose behavior can be changed by finding a possible relationship that can be extracted. We can then intervene a positive change. BM can be mostly used for children and adolescent with disabilities We measure behavior before (baseline) the treatment, during the treatment and after the treatment. We can affect somebody positively, but we wanna see if there is a long lasting effect . No emphasis on the past, memories are faulty We reject the underline causes of behavior- we can come up with all sort of inferences. Id, ego, and superego these are the constructs made by Freud. This is explanatory fiction. We are affected by other pple changes upon us. BM allows understanding from a full perspective. Movies clockwork orange & King speech are example of BM Misconception about BM is that it relies on punishment. We try to change a behavior by method of reinforcement, not to say that punishment is not used but it is last applicable approach used as a treatment. Another misconception is it just ignores the symptoms and focus on behavior change. But this is not true, BM also treat the symptoms. Extrinsic motivation- doing something for external reward (opposite to intrinsic motivation). Misconception is that BM takes away the natural inclination of doing a behavior by external reward but thats not true, the intrinsic motivation is not removed from the picture at all but in fact has a positive effect.

When treatment is done appropriately, pple are not part of those extrinsic motivations @ the end of treatment. It does NOT take away natural human element and limited to inanimate objects. Some pple might argue it does. BM is used in so many diff areas. Four key pple: Ivan Pavlov- neurologist that found condition reflexes. His research involves looking @ gastric function. He attach saliva pouch to dogs mouth. He found u can get the behavior to occur e.g dog was salivated before food was put in front when the experimenter entered the room, this is mostly likely occurring unconsciously. WE need to understand with clear scrutiny. He described it as condition reflexes; nowadays we call it responding conditions or classical conditioning. Thorndike- he was an amazing contributor to psychology, he outlines the law of effect (behavior that prod favorable effect on environment is going to be repeated in future) . This might seems simple but he was the first one to come up with this statement and an exp to prove that. He came up with operant conditioning (consequence that is inflicted upon the individual based upon the action they do). Responding condition is just inherent to situation. Operant cond is emendable to intervention. Ex. Cat doesnt want to be in a box. Thorndike has a lever attach to the surface of box and pressing it makes the cat able to leave. He made the cat hungry and place food outside the box. Cat goes in box and sees a dangling level and will care about that lever when that part of environment will change the consequence. John B Watson- he became quite dissatisfied with Freud approach of psychology. Behavior is only controlled by environment, he neglected the conscious mind. He said from objective perspective a validated form of psychology, we have to focus on very clear definition. Stimulus response psychology- in environment a response has taken place and then a given individual respond back. Ex. Albert , a little child. You could instill fear in a child. Albert could play with toys in his vicinity, whenever he touches a particular object Watson strikes a gun behind his head. This exp we wont be having today due to ethical issues. He showed that u can teach a fear. He said fear is not innate, not inherited. He showed that u can get Albert to be fearful at a stimulus. He strikes a gun every time white rat is near Albert. Albert became so fearful that he cant stand a single thing that is white / furry. Watson is also called father of behaviorism. B.F.Skinner- he made a clear distinguish b/w responding cond and operant cond. He describes various principles of operant behavior. He is considered father of BM . He made a fowl doing three 60s. Lever involve pellet coming out of it. Fowl is more likely gonna pull the level than doing nothing in the box since he is getting reinforcement. Behavior shud be just specific to environment. Fear base disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety can be treated by BM.

Rehabilitation polm program helped Mathew to learn to remember taking meds and it made a big changed in his life. Community psychology- change from a social perspective. Try to curb maladaptive behavior e.g. asking pple not to littler or recycle Business industry a business that want to inc the productivity, we use this to improve performance. Self management- try to imp ur own behavior e.g exercising, smoking, drinking, studying etc Sports BM is used in games like golf. A psychologist approve the players performance and the treatment can extend to many recreational games Proflective approach funding charities impact behavior of pple e.g anti smoking commercial CHAPTER 2 Indirect assessment- interview, questionnaire & getting information from a source and making conclusion from that. Direct assessment -Observation in a vivo and in the moment. IF you have all the resources, you are gonna use direct assessment and objectively measure. The most effective behavior is indirect to use before we use direct approach. E.g child who has disruptive behavior. We may interview the parents or teacher to get them to complete questionnaire. Sometimes these approaches are faulty to memory. Indirect are not as accurate as direct are but they do play a role. Ex. Stuart tends to engage in behavior that is disruptive. Disruptive is a label and is not an activity or behavior. We can find disruptive behavior e.g putting hands up in the class without a question to annoy teacher. Treatment requires close proximity e.g we want to be close to individual to see when a behavior take place and when it not. 99% of times behavior is recorded by an individual properly educated e.g teacher, teacher aid unless its a self management. Indirect assessment in this case: how as a BM psychologist get involve in situation with stuart? Take help of teacher. You are going to interview parents or teacher to see the nature of problem. Who is the agent and if possible what is provoking his behavior to occur on the first ( parents and teachers may not know this)? We always have to have consent. If pt is minor, then parents or any of his guardian. We might be interested in having a contrived environment. Benefit is that the factors that affect the behavior can be manipulated. What factors are involved in behavior occurring in the first place? You can change those factors without electrons zap, meds, and pharmaceutical.

Structured observation- observer coordinates. E.g Clinical play room -you intervene to see how stuart response. Let things proceed as they would. Methods of recording behavior: Continuous- measure frequency, duration, latency, and intensity. Latency- time b/w given stimulus and onset of behavior. Teacher placing a demand on stuart and waiting to make a response. We can measure the compliance of responses as indices of behavior deficient. % of opportunities- environmental opportunities that stuart gets and sees its effect. # of Teacher requests and # of stuart responses. Indices of his compliance behavior. Tangible behavior e.g stuart completing math problems in work book. we are not looking at behavior taking place but looking at product (homework) Interval recording i) Partial recording stuart yelling occurring in half minutes out of 1 minute interval. Doesnt matter how many times a behavior occurred in half a minute, just one chq mark if it has occurred. ii) Whole recording we want to measure behavior for entire interval of time. Frequency within interval recording frequency within consecutive interval of time. Most accurate approach. (How many times a behavior has occurred in an interval) Time sample recording very pragmatic, often time used. Observation period behavior measured for only a portion of interval. E.g. when timer goes off, if stuart is disruptive then teacher records it. You dont care about any other instance during the interval when behavior was disruptive. It does not require much of resources of third party. Limitation is only that you are recording for just that particular moment.