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Lec 22,23,24,25 Token Economy In instituational environment, we have rules in place.

Who will record the data and when they will be recording it? U have to pre engage who will be the reinforcing agent. Figure out how many tokens you wanna pay out. Always start off with more tokens. We wanna reinforce token as much possible. Gradual dec the number of token with time. You wanna have a back up reinforcer as well & monitor the frequency of the reinforcer. You wanna keep the store open mostly at the beginning so the conditionary take place. You shud keep track of monitoring cost. You may be able to manage punishing consequence for desirable behavior. Ex. In patient treatment setting, you ll have some punishing component to ur program. If these pple dont do the right behavior, it will be problem for you. So make sure they do positive execution of their duties. Possible confusion: staff new to the program, you think they will catch on just like the other employs. Be aware that it can be an issue. if you use a poker chip from the dollar store, its a problem bcz that pts brother can buy bunch of those and give it to him on his visit. So in order to avoid that problem, we can make a pts box tht is at the nursing station where token is not accessible to them & hence we can keep track. Whenever there is a secretes involve, we see pple being abusing the system. Generalization is v. imp. You replace the tangible token with everyday reinforce. This goes back to social praise. You can eliminate the token in two ways: by just not giving many tokens for diff behavior s or by increasing the instances of behavior to get the token. And or you can have the token dec in the value. Tokens mean less. Decide for your client wht behavior you want to address. Take a baseline for individual clients. You wanna find wht good back up reinforcer is and look for wide array of those reinforcer. You can directly or indirectly figure wht they are like. They shud be durable & counterfeited. Fill ur store : one room open all the time. Decide on your resources, duties of staff and how many staff mem. Think about client as well wht is the best possible schedule of reinforcement and for other clients as well. Decide on token exchange rate Every single day the store is open b/w 2-5. So if you have the store open only at the end of the week, it will be more valuable only at the end of the week. If there are neg behavior then you shud necessarily address them. Ethnical consideration- abuse can take place. Someone has to make the bed four times. Clean up the dishes. And thy get one token this is not gonna work. It is not gonna be fair to the person. In order to make sure it is legitimate, you wanna make a token manual. So it is transparent to others. Application

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The student tends to be distracted and pay attention to things in the room other than the instructional items that are being presented. Describe the token economy you will implement with these students. Solution: first you will identify the behavior that will be reinforced with tokens. You decide that the answering ques correctly and pay attention ( defined as looking at the techer) and the instructional items will be reinforced with tokens. Decide on the schedule of reinforcement. Student will receive one token for each correct answer. You decide to reinforce paying attention on a variable interval schedule (VI 3 mi) You set a timer that will beep on the average every 3 min . Each student who is paying attention when the timer beeps will get a token. Next you decide on the items that you will use as tokens. Although many can be used effectively e.g poker chips. Each student shud have a can infront of them. When they are paying attention, you drop the token. That experience allows that behavior to be foster for a long run. The back up reinforcer are placed in locked room. Give them the opportunity to choose. Exchange rate is determined. We wanna establish by giving more in the beginning. It takes some time to get clematises to contingencies. Chapter 23 Behavioral contract establish a new behavior or kick out a bad behavior for one person or two pple. Once you sign a form, you become more committed. this is public display . it becomes a legel tender. If there is no consequence , then there would be no motivation hence wont work. Identify the target behavior pro or neg Operationally define these variables. Goal setting. State how the behavior is going to be measure We are gonna use scale in doctorss office on Thursday . Describe how long the total treatment is? E.g. 8 weeks at this rate. Doesnt mean it will follow 8 weeks completely. You cant set unachievable goal, bcz that person is not gonna get encouraged & the bar is too high Positive and neg punishment dec neg behavior. E.g we can use cost response. If not lose 2 pound per week, you loose certain about of money or something. Signature at the bottom becomes really imp for future behavior. One party contract : have a contracter manager to help design the program Two party contract: two pple or parties e.g spouces. they are not doing the things that they are suppose be doing. It can specify party A has problem with this. Party B has problem with this. So if mutually you can address them, both will benefit from behavior of the others. Parallel contract: two pple contract with no relationship bwt the behavior of each other. In contract, quid pro quo contract relationship bwt the behavior of each other. One party has effect on the party B behavior. It motivates the other party to do their job. When you negotiate with manager, you have to come up with wht is the reasonable goal? Agree on meaningful contract? In some circumstances money is not appropriate so figure this out. If

one party is not following but the other party breaks down hence this might be negative side of pro quo contract hence in that case use parallel contract. There is a lot of logistic components of this. If you make the contract well known to everybody then this is gonna help u in that program. It provides praise when u succeed. As soon as you specify the rule, that statement becomes an antecedent in itself. Application : Marty example (see book chapter 23) Chapter 24 Somebody become super scared of dogs - how can it be established? Bark in the close proximaty cause arousal. Operant behavior escape in arousal situation. This becomes negative reinforced. Sometimes its an experience in mind. Anxiety is the label for responses. Initially that are NS , but process of event cause it to become CS which elicit CR. Arachnoid phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, generalize anxiety disorder, OCD. PSTD & acute stress disorder- PSTD but for a month. If you pass a month, you dont have PTSD. Deal with anxiety with relaxation training, diaphragmatic breathing, and systematic approach. Individual pays a lot of money to get relaxation training and doesnt take it home so it doesnt generalize. Sometime s a clinician tape the instruction and you listen to that at home. Tons of audio available so u might not need to see them. Progressive muscle relaxation u tense ur muscle all the major muscle group. Attention focusing exercise- focus on image or thoughts that are relaxing e.g river flowing by or a beach. You wanna immerse urself in the relax state. All these three are synergistic with one another. Hypnosis is sometimes used focus on one word & also mediation Behavioral relaxation training- person is taught to assume relaxing posture from how to position ur head, figures, arms, etc. Only two real ways to do this: Systemic sensitization with the doctor a design from fear 0-fear 100. u create this hierarchy for this person. You have relaxation procedure while they are thinking about these things. You reteach to replace the fear with a relaxed procedure. In vivo sensitization- you put person successively expose to the fear only if the person is ok to do it. Bring real life fears Flooding throw the person into the situation. If somebody is able to do it , it is very effective but in a lot of circumstances person is not gonna be going through it. Creat a heiarchy Itemize from low to high fear

Get the list wht is gonna do Teach the person the skill. If the person is not doing it effective, cession will take longer. Clint relaxes before not after then image the first heiarchy will relaxing . if the muscle tenses then do the PMR for that part. Then keep going to the higher hierarchy. In vivo sanitization : Beginning would be the fear right outside the door. Teach relaxation skills Progress the hierarchy You shud praise the person once they accomplish the first step. Chpater 25 CBT- occurs covertly With the right effort or skills, it can be helpful. Behavior excess e.g sleeping too much . For depression, e.g somebody saying neg statement for themselves. Impulsivity- lack of ability to control. Make sure no circular reason occur. Imagining a pos or neg outcome fuel the future behavior. Cognitive restuctureing ur brian is the structure site ; they rearrange ur thought. So they are no longer disfuctioning. Goal is to replace with more fuctional and rational thoughts . sometimes we can talk to ourself . Steps involved: What are the stressing thought? Figure out where thes behavior actually occur. We can look at rhetrocal approach, look all the contingency and why it occur? We can have the person involve in self monitoring so the clinican can see the cause or triggers for that behavior. You get more info from person memory Help the person replace those thoughts. You have to come up with alternative to those statements to keep them with reality. You explain the rationale for that . they are gonna see the alternative way to

understand their experience (but they might not accept it right off the back). It can be invasive sometimes. Eran beck he used series of three questions : where is the evidence? (prove that fact support statement). Are there any alternative explanation? (range of things person will say to themselves). What are the implications? ( looking at original thought, step back me adopting these new things, how does it change things. IT usually motivate them when they think about implication. Somebody can go from neg to more positive. It is basically designed for depression. Relative to other approaches it is v. effective bcz of total cession and effectiveness. Targets are made. The person really needs to be honest. If the person is depression, then he might lie about the exercise or assignment. You can look at every single behavior and how did u feel when u were doing that . what areas of life more distressing than other. E.g at job or at home This takes a lot of take a step back and u evalutate. Self instruction approach ex person is nervous to do a presentation , this approach is more effective. You have to think about practical things than competing thought Coming into the place and going through the things in the mind and this reduce the negative things about the task ( falling down ) Problem solving orientation everybody goes through the world in counter difficulty and they dont know how to make them solvable ? but if u look at all diff experience you can take every diff experience and see what generalize across. The actual process of coming up with the alternative helps. Stress inoculation armouring yourself to cope with stress situation.