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DECEMBER 2, 1937.

The Villiers Hay Maya engine is a neat and smooth-running four. guarded from sudden accelerations by a friction disc clutch. Two magnetos with twenty-four cylinder distributors are driven from the airscrew shaft and placed at the front of the Dagger engines on the reduction-gear cover. The wiring is screened and carried in conduits. A special Napier Claudel Hobson downdraught carburettor is fitted to all models, and the volute and choke tubes are oil-jacketed. Air chutes and baffles are supplied as parts of the engine. (D. Napier and Son. Ltd., Acton, London, W.$.)

Designed for the Weir Autogiro, this small invertedfour Weir engine is uncommon in having an overhead {or, more accurately, underhead) camshaft. pistons, lubrication system and certain other parts. The Niagara V is now announced with several important changes. The effect has been to give a nominal power output equal to the maximum for the "Niagara III without increasing the fuel consumption. Briefly, the bore has been increased from 77 to 81 mm, the compression ratio raised and the cruising engine speed increased from 3,300 r.p.m. to 3,700 r.p.m. To cope with the increased output, several improvements have been made to the design. The valve gear is continuously lubricated, the valve seatings and inserts are stellited, the valve stems and cylinder barrels are nitrided and the heads and barrels have closer finning Inter-cylinder baffles of a new type are used on the Niagara V and the cowling has been improved. After removing exhaust pipes a single cylinder may be removed without disturbing the rest of the engine or cowling. The lubrication system now has an improved pressure relief valve, and a high pressure system for cold starting has been incorporated. A standard feature of the Niagara engines is the automatic hot and cold air intake and carburettor heater. (Pobjoy Airmotors and Aircraft, Ltd., Rochester, Kent.) ROLLS-ROYCE VTOW that full details of the Merlin engines have been *-* released it is possible to describe the construction of the engine which powers many of our high-performance fighters and medium bombers. The Merlin II is, in general layout, like the Kestrel series, but embodies many improvements. Two banks of 12 cylinders are set at 60 deg. and forked connecting rods drive on to a seven-bearing crankshaft. At the front end of the crankshaft is the upturned spur-type reduction gear, half the casing of which is cast with the crankcase upper half. Each cylinder block is a single unit, as in the case of the Kestrels, and two sodium-cooled exhaust valves and two inlet valves are provided for each cylinder. Auxiliary drives are taken from the wheelcase placed at the rear between crankcase and supercharger. These include camshaft drives, drives to magnetosone being placed each sideand drives for starters and the petrol, glycol and oil pumps, etc. The generator pump, two compressors and the rev counter are driven from the camshafts. Oil pumps and filters are in the rear end of the crankcase lower half. The impeller for the high-speed centrifugal blower is driven from the rear end of the crankshaft by a torsionally flexible shaft which provides a spring drive. This shaft smooths out all irregularities in the drive from the crank-

In this drawing can be seen the unusual push-rod and rocker arrangement and cylinder-head finning of the Villiers Hay Maya engine. (Flight copyright drawing.)

A SMALL horizontally opposed twin which has many hours' reliable flying to its credit, the J.A.P. is very neatly designed. Big-ends and main bearings have ball and roller races and the rockers for the two valves in each head run on rollers. A double-gear-type scavenging and pressure pump take oil from a separate finned portion of the crankcase. The Zenith carburettor has an exhaust-heated air intake. Distributors: Aircraft Exchange and Mart, Ltd., 7, Park Lane, London, W.i.

INTRODUCTION of the Niagara III seven-cylinder " radial marked a definite advance in Pobjoy engines, and improvements were made to the reduction gear,