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CUPRINS Adriana Aura Spnu Adriana Neofit Mircea Ion Ene Kinetoterapia n geriatrie............................................................1 Geriatric kinesiotherapy.............................................................

3 Optimizarea planificrii educrii i dezvoltrii psihomotricitii sportivilor judoka de 10 - 11 ani.................................................6 Planing optimization of education and development of psychomotricity for judoka 10-11 years sportsmen..11 Corelaia dintre capacitatea de reglare a parametrilor dinamici i pregtirea fizic a juctorilor de handbal..................................16 The correlation between the capacity of regulating the dynamic parameter and the physical training of the handball players ....20 Dans si identitate de gen tsift (e)-teli dance n farassa, kappadokia...............................................................................23 Dance and gender identity the tsift(e)-teli dance in farassa, kappadokia...............................28 Judo, comunicare i lucru n echip.....33 Judo, communication and team working.................................36 Studiu comparativ privind creterea i dezvoltarea fizic a copiilor de vrst colar att din mediul urban ct i din mediul rural n corelaie cu factorii de mediu i socioeconomici..38 Comparative reaserch on growth and phisical development of the school age children both in urban and in rural areas and the correlation between environmental factors and social factors economic..42 Aspecte imagistice ale complicaiilor rahidiene postoperatorii ..................................................................................................45 Imaging aspects of postoperative spinal complications49 Abordare kinetic i nutriional a obezitii. (studiu)...........52 Kinetic and nutritional approach of the obesity. (study)...57

Eugen Batiurea

Hariton A. Haritonidis, Vasiliki K. Tyrovola

Mircea Ion Ene Oana Srbu

Rodica Marinescu

Viorica Lefter Oana Andreea Cibu

Prezentarea cadrelor. F.E.F.S Galai: BATIUREA EUGEN ................................6

KINETOTERAPIA N GERIATRIE Kinetoterapeut: AURA-ADRIANA SPNU aariana_a@yahoo.com Cuvinte cheie: geriatrie, kinetoterapie. Rezumat: Articolul prezint afeciunile pacientului vrstnic i rolul pe care l are kinetoterapia n recuperarea acestuia. Traumatismele, procesele inflamatorii i degenerative, deficienele de postur, afeciunile neurologice, cardio-vasculare, respiratorii, problemele de greutate reprezint cteva din problemele importante ale pacientului vrstnic la care kinetoterapia are soluii att pe termen scurt ct i pe termen lung. Kinetoterapia geriatric poate fi considerat o disciplin particular n cadrul kinetoterapiei i acest fapt se datoreaz modalitilor de aplicare i adaptare prin care se urmrete redobndirea unor funcii afectate de boal, de sechelele unei boli i reintegrarea pacientului vrstnic n societate. n cadrul procesului fiziologic de mbtrnire se constat o scdere a capacitii de adaptare la nivelul funciilor diferitelor aparate i sisteme, astfel vrstnicul fiind predispus la afeciuni cardiovasculare, traumatice, respiratorii, psiho-afective, neurologice, reumatologice, oftalmologice, afeciuni ORL, probleme de greutate dar i deficiene de postur. Kinetoterapia poate s intervin profilactic - atunci cnd se cunosc particularitile genetice i metabolice n vederea ntrzierii apariie unor afeciuni, pentru a tonifia musculatura, a menine amplitudinea articular i a evita producerea traumatismelor la nivelul diferiletor articulaii sau la articulaiile cele mai solicitate i terapeutic - atunci cnd apar traumatismele, procesele inflamatorii i degenerative, deficienele posturale i afeciunile neurologice. O problem extem de important (deoarece implic apariia n timp a altor afeciuni sau le pot accentua pe cele existente) se refer la deficienele posturale. Conceptul de postur nu se refer doar la static, ci el se identific cu concepte precum echilibru raportat la mediu ambiant, stress-ul exercitat asupra corpului n diferite aciuni ale acestuia. Factorii care determin apariia deficienelor posturale sunt: predispoziii individuale (musculare, articulare, osoase, ale tendoanelor i ligamentelor, ale viscerelor), alterri morfo-funcionale dar i aciunea mediului asupra individului. Controlul posturii este considerat a fi capacitatea adaptativ a sistemului neuromotor dependent de integrarea informaiilor care vin de la receptori. Posturologia permite specialitilor (oftalmologi, antropologi, ORL-iti, neurologi, psihologi, ortopezi, fizioterapeui i kinetoterapeui) interpretri comune a deficienelor posturale. Modificarea minim a posturii raportat la mediu este perceput (de retin n special, de bolta plantar i de muchii membrului inferior) transmis SNC(Sistem Nervos Central) care emite rspunsul corespunztor (organizarea i stabilizarea micrii). Dereglarea unuia sau mai multor receptori ai sistemului postural presupune trimiterea mai multor date eronate SNC. Rspunsuri multidiscipliare in cont de: cunoaterea ansamblului de procese neurofiziologice i vestibulare, elemente de statica i dinamica mersului cu analiza pasului, amprenta plantar, disturbatori posturali, organism, o relaxare general dar i o reechilibrare lent a funciei motorii i neurovegetative. O alt problem a pacientului vrstnic este tendina de ngrare care merge pn la obezitate. Aceast problem se datoreaz sedentarismului - care poate fi favorizat de mbtrnirea fiziologic sau de cea timpurie dar i a lipsei unor activiti zilnice organizate 1

sau unor afeciuni ale aparatului locomotor, afeciuni cardiovasculare, afeciuni respiratorii dar i ca urmarea a unei stri depresive. Pacienii supraponderali sau sedentari sunt predispui la probleme osteo-articulare, dezechilibre musculare i toleran sczut la efort, HTA, insuficien cardiac, insuficien respiratorie, diabet, litiaz biliar, afeciuni psiho-afective, boli reumatologicei astfel se creeaz un cerc vicios. Traumatismele, bolile reumatismale i cele neurologice sunt cele mai frecvente afeciuni ntlnite la pacientul vrstnic. Imobilizarea prelungit datorat unui traumatism (inclusiv cranio-cerebrale), durerii accentuate, hemiplegii, tumori cerebrale, boala Parkinson, scleroz multipl(SM) are efecte negative asupra circulaiei de ntoarcere, astfel prin staz venoas apare edemul interstiial, imobilizarea articulaiilor determin apariia unui proces inflamator sinovial, aderarea sinovialei la cartilajul articular i dezvoltarea redorii articulare. Imobilizarea prelungit conduce transformarea esutului fibro-grsos care invadeaz articulaia n esut fibros i determin blocarea articulaiei. n cazul hemiplegiei vasculare cerebrale ischemice, n perioada 6-24 luni de la debut, mai mult de un sfert dintre pacieni dezvolt sindrom algoneurodistrofic predominant la membrul superior. Simptomele algoneurodistrofice sunt: edem, tulburri vasomotorii i trofice locale i regionale, modificri ale structurii osoase din zona afectat i durere, toate acestea conducnd la impoten funcional. n ceea ce privete modificrile structurii osoase n cadrul algoneurodistrofiei rspunztoare este osteoporoza localizat. SM este o boal cronic n care sistuaia se nrutete progresiv, nici o alt boal neurologic nu prezint att de multe zone afectate. Kinetoterapia n acest caz are un rol deosebit de important pentru calitatea vieii. n cadrul acestei boli obiectivul principal este ntreinerea pe o perioad ct mai lung a independenei funcionale, corectarea deformaiilor instalate, meninerea mobilitii, prevenirea atrofiilor, meninerea troficitii esuturilor moi i conservarea capacitii de deplasare. Kinetoterapia n cadrul tratamentului bolii Parkinson influeneaz pozitiv starea psihic a pacientului, i permite i l motiveaz s efectueze activiti pe care nu le putea efectua. Exerciiile vizeaz activitatea muscular i articular. ntreinerea respiratorie este un aspect foarte important, iar programul va fi individualizat i corespunztor etapei n care se afl pacientul. n cadrul procesului de recuperare a bolnavului vrstnic, obiectivul principal al kinetoterapiei este prevenirea apariiei complicaiilor urmat de: obinerea transferurilor, mobilizare, obinerea unei amplitudinii de micare articular sau conservarea acesteia (n limite funcionale), tonifiere muscular, for i rezisten muscular, obinerea coordonrii i a controlului motor, precum i rectigarea echilibrului, reluarea mersului (numai n condiiile n care ortostatismul este stabil) cu scopul de a obine i menine ct mai mult timp autonomia bolnavului. Obiectivele generale n recuperarea pacientului vrstnic constau n consilierea acestuia cu privire la: - acceptarea procesului de mbtrnire i s disting aspectele normale de cele patologice; - controlarea procesului de mbtrnire, prin intervenie proprie sau a familiei; - soluionarea problemelor patologice. - abordarea global - structurarea programului pe etape - evaluare a rezultatelor pe etape - continuitatea - participarea pacientului dar i a familiei acestuia Regulile de baz care se impun n recuperarea pacientului vrstnic sunt urmtoarele:

- cunoaterea exact a bolii de care sufer pacientul precum i a strii structurilor anatomice care urmeaz s fie mobilizate; - alegerea poziiei bolnavului n obinerea condiiilor de relaxare maxim i dnd posibilitatea pacientului s urmreasc micarea efectuat pasiv; - efectuarea mobilizrii pasive numai pe axele fiziologice de micare; - asocierea elementelor de facilitare cu micarea pasiv; - dac exist spasticitate, terapeutul va evita s menin timp ndelungat mna pe grupele musculare spastice; - fiecare articulaie va fi mobilizat individual; - se interzice mobilizarea unei articulaii prin intermediul alteia; - se va evita provocarea durerii prin mobilizare, cand amplitudinea articular este foarte redus; - fora, viteza, durata, frecvena vor fi permanent adecvate etapei n care se afl pacientul i obiectivului vizat Mijloacele de intervenie vor fi adaptate n permanen necesitilor pacientului vrstnic Comunicarea dintre kinetoterapeut i pacient este un aspect deosebit de important, astfel c se va explica pacientului n ce const programul, care sunt beneficiile acestuia iar comenzile verbale vor fi rostite clar i tare. Fiecare bolnav vrstnic avnd necesiti diferite de deplasare, n funcie de perioada zilei, temperatur, oboseal, distan, se va recomanda utilizarea dispozitivelor ortetice speciale (crj, baston, cadru, orteze), n vederea obinerii unui consum energetic minim. Kinetoterapia n geriatrie reuete s dea pacientului autonomie, dar aceasta ntotdeauna va depinde de tipul bolii, timpul trecut de la instalarea acesteia i pn la debutul tratamentului, sechele i nu n ultimul rnd de afeciuni asociate. BIBLIOGRAFIE 1. Albu, C-tin.; Vlad, T.,L.; Albu, Adriana , Kinetoterapia pasiv, Editura Polirom, Iai, 2004. Bucureti, 1981. 2. Cesarani, A., La postura ed il sistema dell'equilibrio Alti del II congresso di posturologia, Fiuggi, giugno, 1998. 3. Enoka, R., M., Neuromechanics basis of kinesiology. Human kinetics, S.U.A., 1994. 4. Kiss, I., Fiziokinetoterapia i recuperarea medical n afeciunile aparatului locomotor, Editura Medical, Bucureti, 2002. 5.Scalia, Osteopatia e kinesiologia applicata, Ed. Marrapesse, Roma, 1999. 6. Sbenghe, T., Recuperarea medical a sechelelor posttraumatice ale membrelor, Editura Medical, Bucureti, 1981.

GERIATRIC KINESIOTHERAPY Kinetoterapeut: AURA-ADRIANA SPNU aariana_a@yahoo.com Key words: geriatrics, kinesiotherapy. Abstract: The article depicts certain pathologies of elderly patients, as well as the part played by kinesiotherapy in their recovery. The traumas, degenerative and inflammatory processes, posture deficiencies, neurologic, cardio-vascular, respiratory pathologies and the

weight problems are only a few of the major issues the elderly patients are confronted with, issues for which kinesiotherapy offers both long-term and short-term solutions.

Geriatric kinesiotherapy may be regarded as a specific kinesiotherapy field, this being due to the manners of adaptation and application of certain procedures aiming at recovering various disease or sequelae-affected functions, and restoring the elderly patients to their normal health state. During the physiologic aging process, a certain decrease in the adapting capacity of various systems functions can be noted, consequently the elderly patients being increasingly exposed to cardio-vascular, traumatic, respiratory, psycho-affective, neurologic, rheumatic, ophthalmic and hearing conditions, weight problems, and also posture deficiencies. The kinesiotherapy approach may be prophylactic when the genetic and metabolic distinctive features are known, in order to delay the occurrence of certain diseases, to invigorate the muscular system, maintain the amplitude of the joints, especially the intensively-used ones, and therapeutic when traumas, degenerative inflammatory processes, posture deficiencies and neurologic pathologies occur. A problem of the utmost importance (as, in time, it involves the occurrence of certain pathologies that may accentuate other pre-existent ones) concerns the posture deficiencies. The posture concept is not to be regarded solely from the static point of view, as it also involved concepts such as the equilibrium with regard to the surrounding environment and the pressure applied to the body in various actions and movements. The factors determining the occurrence of posture deficiencies are: individual predispositions (muscular, joint, bone, tendon, ligament and organ-related), morpho-functional deteriorations, but also the influence the environment has on every individual. Posture control is considered to be the adaptive capacity of the neuromotor system that relies on integrating the information transmitted by the receptors. Posturology allows specialists (ophthalmologists, anthropologists, neurologists, psychologists, orthopedists, physiotherapists and kinesiotherapists) to make similar interpretations of posture deficiencies. The minimum modification of the posture with regard to the environment is generally perceived by the retina, the arches of the foot and the muscles of the inferior limb, and then it is transmitted to the Central Nervous System which provides the adequate feedback (the organization and stabilization of the muscles). The improper functioning of one or several receptors of the posture system means that the CNS will be provided with biased information. The pluridisciplinary answers rely on: knowing the neuro-physiologic and vestibular process array, walking static and dynamics elements, the foot print, postural disturbers, the body as a whole, general relaxation and also a slow recovery of the motor and neurovegetative function. Another problem of the elderly patient is represented by the predisposition to gaining weigh, which may lead to obesity. This is a direct consequence of the lack of physical activity which may be induced by the physiologic aging process or by the early aging process, but also by the lack of a daily organized activity or various conditions of the locomotory system, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and the aftermath of a depressive state. Overweight or sedentary patients are subject to develop problems of the bones and joints, muscular imbalances and little effort tolerance, HTN, heart failure, respiratory failure, diabetes, biliary lithiasis, psycho-affective disorders, rheumatic disorders, thus creating a spiral of negative factors and effects. Traumas, rheumatic and neurologic disorders are among the most common disorders elderly patients may be confronted with. Trauma induced long-term immobilization (inclusively cranio-cerebral traumas), or the one caused by severe pain, hemiplegia, brain

tumors, Parkinson disorder, multiple sclerosis (MS) with its multiple effects on blood circulation, thus creating the interstitial edema through venous stasis and the immobilization of the joints, all lead to a synovial inflammatory process, the adhesion of the synovial to the cartilage in the joints and resulting in joint stiffness. Long-term immobilization leads to the transformation of the fibro-fatty tissue, that invades the joint in fibrous tissue eventually blocks the joint. Concerning the vascular ishcaemic hemiplegia, in the first 6-24 months, more than a quarter of the patients develop algoneurodistrophy, especially in the superior limb. The algoneurodistrophic symptoms are: edema, regional and trophic and venous disorders, modifications of the bone structure in the affected area and pain, all leading to functional impotence. Regarding the modifications of the bone structure while suffering from algoneurodistrophy, the main factor determining it is the localized osteoporosis. MS is a chronic disease that worsens progressively, no other neurologic disorder being known to affect this many areas of the body. In this case, kinesiotherapy plays an extremely important part in improving the quality of life. The main goal is maintaining the functional autonomy as long as possible, correcting any eventual deformity, maintaining the mobility, preventing atrophies, maintaining the trophicity of soft tissues and preserving the ability to move. The adequate kinestiotherapy practice for the Parkinson disorder positively influences the patients mental state, motivating him or her to carry on several activities that may have been restricted by the disease. The activities are focused on the activity of the muscles and joints. Maintaining the he respiratory function is another very important aspect, the program being created so that it corresponds to the phase of the disorder the patient is found in. Concerning the part played by kinesiotherapy in the recovery of elderly patients, the main goal is represented by the prevention of complications, followed by: obtaining transfers, mobilization, obtaining the joint movement amplitude or preserving it (within functional limits), muscular invigoration, force and muscular endurance, obtaining motor coordination and control, as well as regaining the control of the equilibrium, walking again (only if the body is stable) so that the patients autonomy may be maintained as much as possible. The general goals in the elderly patients recovery aim at their psychological preparation in: - accepting the aging process and distinguishing between the normal and pathological aspects; - controlling the aging process, by their own intervention, or by thir familys intervention; - solving pathological problems; - reaching a global approach; - structuring the program in several phases; - assessing the results of each phase; - continuity; - involving both the patient and his or her family. Basic rules to be taken into account in the elderly patients recovery: - knowing exactly what is the disorder affecting the body, as well as the states of the anatomic structures which are to be mobilized; - choosing the patients position in obtaining the maximal relaxation conditions and giving them the possibility to passively observe the procedures; - proceeding to the passive mobilization only on the physiological movement axes; - associating the facilitating elements with passive movement; - should any spasms occur, the therapist will avoid a prolonged contact with the concerned muscular groups; 5

- each joint shall be mobilized individually; - the mobilization of one joint through another is strictly forbidden; - causing pain when mobilizing a joint shall be avoided at all costs, especially when the amplitude of the joint is considerably reduced; - the force, speed, length and frequency shall be permanently adjusted to the phase the patient is found in and the goal to be achieved. The intervention manners shall be permanently adapted to the necessities of the elderly patients. The communication between the kinesiotherapist and the patient is an extremely important aspect of the recovery process, therefore the former will take the necessary time to explain the parameters of the program to the latter, what are the benefits of the program, and the verbal commands shall be expressed clearly. Given the different necessities of each elderly patient, depending on the period of the day, the temperature, fatigue and distance, the use of special orthetic devices shall be recommended (crutch, cane, walking frame), as to preserve as much energy as possible. The geriatric-applied kinesiotherapy practice manages to increase the patients autonomy, yet this autonomy shall always depend on the type of the disorder the patient is suffering from, the period of time passed until the beginning of the treatment, any possible sequelae and last but not least, adjacent disorders.

OPTIMIZAREA PLANIFICRII EDUCRII I DEZVOLTRII PSIHOMOTRICITII SPORTIVILOR JUDOKA DE 10 - 11 ANI Adriana Neofit CSS Galai Mircea Ion Ene FEFS Galai Este cunoscut faptul c pentru obinerea performanelor sportive n fiecare disciplin deci i n judo este necesar o pregtire optim pe fiecare nivel de vrst (etapizat) astfel nct cei mai dotai sportivi s i poat fructifica corespunztor calitile psihomotrice, abilitaile tehnice i cunotinele teoretice. Obiectivele cercetrii. Judo face parte din categoria sporturilor individuale care se caracterizeaz din punct de vedere tehnic prin dominanta aciclic a micrilor, prin solicitare i efecte cumulative privind aspectele morfologice, funcionale, motrice ale individului i o tehnic ct mai corect a procedeelor de lupt. Datorit performanelor tot mai ridicate, procesul de antrenament trebuie revizuit att ca form ct i n coninut, perfecionarea mijloacelor i criteriilor de pregtire dnd natere la noi performane. n consecin ne-am propus: Elaborarea planului de pregtire i a structurilor de acionare care ar putea contribui la optimizarea instruirii i realizarea obiectivelor la nivelul grupelor de nceptori n judo; Pregtirea i de folosirea jocurilor i tafetelor aplicative pentru mbuntirea tehnicii n judo desprinse din literatura de specialitate; Formularea unor propuneri pentru mbuntirea metodologiei de dezvoltare a calitilor psihomotrice i nsuirea tehnicii procedeelor de judo la grupele de copii de 10-11 ani.

Organizarea i desfurarea studiului Intenia noastr a fost nc de la nceput, de a optimiza programarea, planificarea i mbogirea gamei sistemelor de acionare necesare dezvoltrii calitilor psihomotrice i nsuirii procedeelor tehnice specifice judo-ului la sportivii de 10-11 ani. De aceea, fa de planurile i mijloacele propuse n literatura de specialitate, am folosit n exclusivitate un program, o planificare i sisteme de acionare selecionate i adaptate de noi la acest nivel de vrst. Experimentul s-a desfurat la Sala de Judo a Clubului Sportiv colar Galai n perioada septembrie 2009 iunie 2010, a cuprins un numr de 15 sportivi judoka. Subiecii care fac obiectul acestei cercetri fac parte din grupele cu program de judo din cadrul Clubului Sportiv colar Galai.

Prezentam in continuare UN MACROCICLU OPTIMIZAT PENTRU educarea i


dezvoltarea componentelor psihomotricitii la 10-11 ani

DOMENIUL: Antrenament sportiv, DISCIPLINA: JUDO

DURATA: 35 sptmni (140 antr.) / 80-90 minute/antrenament

GRUPA DE VRST: 10-11 ani

OBIECTIVE FINALE/CADRU NR. DE ANTR. 8 antr. Metode: jocul, exersarea, imitaia Mijloace: jocuri de micare, exerciii din atletism (variante de mers, alergare), gimnastic (exerciii de front i formaii, de dezvoltare fizic armonioas) Materiale: bastoane, cercuri, saltele frontal individual pe perechi grupe echipe frontal individual pe perechi grupe echipe 2 antr. 6 antr/15 minute Total: 270' (4,5 h) 2 antr. 6 antr/15 minute Total: 270' (4,5 h) F.ORG. STRATEGIA DIDACTICA 3M

TIMP DIDACTIC INDICAII METODICE se corecteaz greelile trecerii prin execuie

S contientizeze schema corporal proprie

S cunoasc planurile de aciune a corpului i a prilor lui

8 antr.

se urmrete lucru pe perechi valorice apropiate

S i sincronizeze micarea segmentelor i a corpului ca ntreg

8 antr.

Metode: jocul, exersarea, imitaia Mijloace: jocuri de micare, exerciii din atletism (variante de mers, alergare, srituri), gimnastic (exerciii de front i formaii, de dezvoltare fizic armonioas, elemente statice i dinamice din acrobatic) Materiale: mingi de diferite dimensiuni i greuti, saltele, jaloane Metode: jocul, exersarea, imitaia, problematizarea Mijloace: jocuri dinamice, tafete, parcursuri aplicative, exerciii din atletism, gimnastic Materiale: jaloane, bnci de gimnastic, obstacole frontal individual pe perechi grupe echipe frontal individual pe perechi grupe echipe

2 antr. 6 antr/15 minute Total: 270' (4,5 h) 2 antr. 6 antr/15 minute Total: 270' (4,5 h)

se corecteaz greelile trecerii prin execuie se urmrete lucru pe perechi valorice apropiate

S i s u e a s c noiunile spaiale de traiectorie, distan, mrime, poziie i form

8 antr.

S nsueasc deprinderile de orientare spaial, temporar i de apreciere a traiectoriilor, direciilor i vitezelor de deplasare a unor obiecte n corelaie cu propriul corp

10 antr.

Metode: jocul, exersarea, problematizarea Mijloace: jocuri dinamice, tafete, parcursuri aplicative, exerciii de nvare a deprinderilor motrice de baz (prinderea-aruncarea) i utilitar aplicative (transport de greuti, escaladare, crare) Materiale: mingi de diferite dimensiuni i greuti, obstacole, zidul de antrenament Metode: jocul, exersarea, Mijloace: jocuri dinamice, tafete, parcursuri aplicative, exerciii cu mingea Materiale: jaloane, mingi de tenis, handbal, baschet, volei, fotbal, obstacole, zidul de antrenament

frontal individual pe perechi grupe echipe

3 antr. 7 antr/15 minute Total: 375' (6,25 h) 20 antr. 15 minute/ 60 antr. Total:2300' (38 h)

se corecteaz greelile trecerii prin execuie

S fie capabil s realizeze o sarcin motric sau mai multe combinate ntr-un ritm i tempou impus

12 antr.

Metode: jocul, exersarea, frontal individual Mijloace: jocuri dinamice, tafete, parcursuri aplicative, realizarea pe perechi grupe unor sarcini motrice sau combinaii de sarcini motrice ntr-un ritm i echipe tempou impus

se urmrete dozarea corect a mijloacelor se corecteaz greelile

Materiale: jaloane, mingi de tenis, handbal, baschet, volei, fotbal, obstacole, bnci de gimnastic 10 antr. Metode: jocul, exersarea, problematizarea Mijloace: jocuri dinamice, tafete, parcursuri aplicative, exerciii de mers, alergare i srituri cu meninerea echilibrului pe suprafee variate Matebriale: obstacole, bnci de gimnastic, planuri nclinate, plci mobile, trambulina elastic frontal individual pe perechi grupe echipe frontal individual pe perechi grupe echipe 3 antr. 7 antr/15 minute Total: 375' (6,25 h) 3 antr. 7 antr/15 minute Total: 375' (6,25 h) se corecteaz greelile trecerii prin execuie

trecerii prin execuie

S-i realizeze prin control voluntar meninerea poziiilor de echilibru static i dinamic

S fie capabil s realizeze aciuni si structuri motrice n ambele planuri ale lateralitii utiliznd segmente ale corpului att din partea dreapt, ct i din cea stng

10 antr.

se urmrete dozarea corect a mijloacelor

S perceap i s reacioneze ct mai rapid i eficient la stimuli vizuali i auditivi

12 antr.

frontal individual pe perechi grupe echipe frontal individual pe perechi grupe echipe frontal individual pe perechi grupe echipe

se urmrete dozarea corect a mijloacelor se corecteaza greelile trecerii prin execuie

s perceap i s reacioneze ct mai rapid i eficient la stimuli care fac posibil perceperea propriilor micri ( s i l u l u i chinestezic) 10 antr.

12 antr.

S fiecapabil s-i regleze percepia gradului de tensiune muscular (tonus muscular)

Metode: jocul, exersarea, problematizarea Mijloace: jocuri dinamice, tafete, parcursuri aplicative, exerciii de prindere-aruncare a unor obiecte, conducere a mingii, att cu braul (piciorul) ndemnatic, ct i cu cel nendemnatic, transport de greuti Materiale: obiecte, bnci de gimnastic Metode: jocul, exersarea, problematizarea Mijloace: jocuri dinamice, tafete, parcursuri aplicative, alergri cu starturi din diferite poziii, la semnale vizuale i auditive variate Materiale: obiecte de culori i forme diferite, obstacole Metode: jocul, exersarea, problematizarea, imitarea Mijloace: jocuri de micare, tafete, parcursuri aplicative, exerciii n condiii variate i cu ngreuiere Materiale: obiecte, bnci de gimnastic, Metode: jocul, exersarea, problematizarea, imitarea Mijloace: jocuri de micare, tafete, parcursuri aplicative, exerciii de lovire a unor mingi de greuti i mrimi diferite cu piciorul la distane diferite i inte fixe i mobile, exerciii de aruncare a unor mingi i obiecte de greuti i mrimi diferite la distane diferite i puncte fixe sau mobile Materiale: obiecte, bnci de gimnastic, inte fixe i mobile, mingi de fotbal, handbal, volei, tenis, oin, baschet, rugby Metode: jocul, exersarea, problematizarea, Mijloace: jocuri de micare, tafete, parcursuri aplicative, exerciii cu minge i fr minge, exerciii de consolidare a deprinderilor motrice de baz i utilitaraplicative Materiale: obiecte, mingi de fotbal, handbal, volei, tenis, oin, baschet, rugby frontal individual pe perechi grupe echipe

4 antr. 8 antr/15 minute Total: 480' (8 h) 4 antr. 8 antr/15 minute Total: 480' (8 h) 3 antr. 7 antr/15 minute Total: 375' (6,25 h)

se urmrete dozarea corect a mijloacelor se corecteaza greelile trecerii prin execuie

S execute structuri de aciuni motrice cu elemente de coordonare general

12 antr.

4 antr. 8 antr/15 minute Total: 480' (8 h)

se corecteaza greelile trecerii prin execuie

S fie capabil s combine i s cupleze diferite micri specifice coordonrii n judo frontal individual pe perechi grupe echipe 4 antr. 8 antr/15 minute Total: 480' (8 h)

12 antr.

se urmrete dozarea corect a mijloacelor se corecteaz greelile trecerii prin execuie

S-i formeze capacitatea de de concentrare voluntar i involuntar frontal individual pe perechi grupe echipe

8 antr.

Metode: jocul, exersarea, problematizarea, Mijloace: jocuri de micare, tafete, parcursuri aplicative, exerciii cu minge i fr minge, exerciii de consolidare a deprinderilor motrice de baz i utilitar-aplicative, exerciii cu micri i sarcini motrice pentru membrele superioare i inferioare separat i n acelai timp, complexe tehnice Materiale: obiecte, mingi de fotbal, handbal, volei, tenis, oin, baschet, Metode: jocul, exersarea, Mijloace: tafete, parcursuri aplicative, exerciii cu mai multe mingi i sarcini diferite n acelai timp, exerciii cu mingea la zidul de antrenament, exerciii n condiii variate i cu ngreuiere Materiale: jaloane, mingi de tenis, handbal, baschet, volei, fotbal, zidul de antrenament 2 antr. 6 antr/15 minute Total: 270' (4,5 h)

se urmrete dozarea corect a mijloacelor se corecteaz greelile trecerii prin execuie

Prezentarea grafic a progresului realizat pe componentele somatic, psihomotric i tehnic


Rata de progre s ntre testare intermediara si testarea finala pe componente: somatic, psihomotric, tehnic

Rata de progres ntre testare initiala si testarea intermediara pe componente somatic,psihomptric,tehnic

Rata de progres ntre testarea initiala si testarea finala pe componete: somatic, psihomotric, tehnic.

11%
12% 24%

26%

11% 28%

64%

61%

63%

Concluzii: Planificarea propus i utilizat de noi pentru instruirea tehnic este n concordan cu posibilitile copiilor la acest nivel de vrst; sistemele de acionare propuse contribuie la dezvoltarea calitilor psihomotrice specifice judo-ului; n procesul de instruire a copiilor, calitile psihomotrice specifice se dezvolt treptat, ele avnd o influen major n obinerea de rezultate n competiiile sportive; ealonarea pregtirii copiilor se va face punnd n concordan dezvoltarea calitilor psihomotrice specifice cu particularitile de vrst i individuale ale copiilor; sistemele de acionare propuse de noi favorizeaz n acelai timp nsuirea unor procedee tehnice i contribuie la dezvoltarea calitilor psihomotrice; jocurile tafetele i traseele aplicative lrgesc plaja mijloacelor utilizate n procesul instruirii, mbogesc coninutul leciilor; jocurile, tafetele i traseele aplicative asigur participarea activ i cu entuziasm a copiilor la antrenamente, le educ spiritul de echip i dau totodat posibilitatea antrenorului s-i cunoasc mai bine, deoarece n timpul jocurilor copiii se manifest liber, firesc, eliminnd din comportament timiditatea.

Bibliografie selectiv 1. ALBU A., ALBU C. "Psihomotricitatea La Varsta De Crestere Si Dezvoltare" Edit. Spiru Haret, Iasi, 1999 2. DRAGNEA A., BOTA A., Teoria activitatilor motrice. Edit. Didactica si Pedagogica, Bucuresti,1999 3. EPURAN,M.,HOLDEVICI,I.,TONITA,I., "Psihologia sporului de performan - Edit. Fest, Bucuresti,2001 4.HORGHIDAN V.,Psihologie. Sinteza principalelor probleme abordate in cadrul cursurilor si lucrarilor practice. Academia Nationala de Educatie Fizica si Sport, Bucuresti,1999 5. KRAMAR, M., Psihologia culturii fizice si a sporturilor. Arad, Edit. Fundatia Vasile Goldis, 1997 6. MANNO, R., Bazele teoretice ale antrenamentului sportiv. Bucuresti, M.T.S.,C.C.P.S, 1996 7. NICU, Alexe si colab., Studii privind pregatirea sportiva a copiilor si juniorilor. Bucuresti, Edit. Stadion,1972

PLANING OPTIMIZATION OF EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOMOTRICITY FOR JUDOKA 10-11 YEARS SPORTSMEN Adriana Neofit CSS Galai Mircea Ion Ene FEFS Galai It is known that to achieve performance in each sport and discipline so necessary training in judo is best for each age level (stages) so that the most gifted athletes are able to properly take advantage of psychomotor skills, technical skills and theoretical knowledge. 11

Research Objectives: Judo is part of the individual sports which are characterized by the technically dominant acyclic movements by requesting and cumulative effects on morphological aspects, functional and technical drivers of individual processes as fair fight. Due to ever-higher performance, the training process should be revised both in form and content, improving training methods and criteria for creating new performance. Therefore we propose: Develop training plan and operating structures that could help optimize the training and achievement of groups of beginners in Judo; Preparation and use of games and pieces of advice for improving technique in judo applications drawn from the literature; Formulation of proposals for improving the quality of psychomotor development methodology and learning processes judo technique in groups of children 10-11 years. Organize and conduct study: Our intention was from the outset, to optimize scheduling, planning and enrich the range of operating systems for the development of psychomotor qualities and learning specific techniques of judo athletes from 10-11 years. Therefore, to the plans and proposed means in the literature, we used only one program, planning and operators selected and adapted by us at this age. The experiment was conducted at room Galati Judo Club School Sports in September 2009 - June 2010 included a total of 15 judo athletes. Subjects covered by the research groups are part of the judo program in the School Sports Club Galati. It follows an OPTIMIZED MICROCYCLU for education and development of the components of psychomotricity from 10 to 11 years .

12

TEACHING TIME F.ORG. individual pairs teams front groups 2 train. 6 train.| 15 minutes total: 270min` ;(4.5 h)

Methodical indications

passing through implementation mistakes to be corrected

individual pairs teams front groups

2 train.6. train./15 minutes total: 270` ;(4.5 h)

seeking work in pairs close in value

individual pairs teams front groups

2 train.. 6 train/15 minutes total: 270` ;(4.5 h)

passing through implementation mistakes to be corrected

individual pairs teams front groups

2 train 6. train/15 total: 270` ;(4.5 h)

minutes

seeking work in pairs close in value

individual pairs teams front groups

3 train 7. train./15 total: 375` ;(6.25 h)

minutes

passing through implementation mistakes to be corrected

individual pairs teams front groups

20train.| 15 minutes / 60 train. Total: 2300` ;(38 h)

aimed at controlling the means of going through the correct implementation errors

FIELD: sports training, SUBJECT: JUDO DURATION: 35 weeks (140 trainings.) / 80-90 minutes per training Age group: 10-11 years FINAL OBJECTIVES / Number of TEACHING STRATEGY BACKGROUND training 3M 8 train. Methods: play, practice, imitation To understand the body`s own scheme Means: moving games, exercises in athletics (options for walking, running), gymnastics (exercises front and bands, harmonious physical development) Materials: sticks, hoops, mats Methods: play, practice, imitation To know the plans of action of the body 8 train. and its parts Means: moving games, exercises in athletics (options for walking, running, jumping), gymnastics (exercises front and bands, harmonious physical development, static and dynamic elements of acrobatics) Materials: balls of different sizes and weights, mats, cones Methods: play, practice, imitation, problem Synchronize their movements and body 8 train.. Means: dynamic games, relay runs, application segment as a whole exercises in athletics, gymnastics Materials: landmarks, banks, gym, obstacles Methods: play, practice, problem To acquire spatial concepts of the 8 train. Means: dynamic games, relay runs, application trajectory, distance, size, position and exercises to learn basic motor skills (catching, throwing) shape and utility applications (transport difficulties, climbing, climbing) Materials: balls of different sizes and weights, obstacles, training wall Methods: play, exercise, To acquire the skills of spatial 10 train. Means: dynamic games, relay runs, application orientation, and assessing temporary exercises with ball paths, directions and speeds of moving Materials: cones, tennis balls, handball, basketball, objects in conjunction with your own volleyball, soccer, obstacle training wall body Methods: play, exercise, To be able to perform a motor task or 12 train. Means: dynamic games, relay runs applications, more combined into a rhythm and execution of motor tasks or combinations of tasks in a tempo required driving rhythm and tempo required Materials: cones, tennis balls, handball, basketball, volleyball, soccer, hurdles, gymnastics benches Methods: play, practice, sistematization To achieve the maintenance of 10 train. Means: dynamic games, relay runs, application voluntary control of static equilibrium exercises walking, running and jumping while positions and dynamic maintaining balance on different surfaces Matebriale: obstacles, gymnastics banks, slopes, mobile boards, trampoline spring individual pairs teams front groups 3 train 7 train. /15 total: 375` ;(6.25 h) minutes

passing through implementation mistakes to be corrected

To be able to organize activities and motivity structures in both plans of laterality driving segments of the body using both the right and left side

10 train.

individual pairs teams front groups

3 train 7. train/15 total: 375` ;(6.25 h)

minutes

aimed at controlling the means

To perceive and react as quickly and effectively to visual and auditory stimuli

12 train.

individual pairs teams front groups

4 train.8 train| 15 minutes / . Total:480 ` ;(8 h)

aimed at controlling the means

12 train.

individual pairs teams front groups

4 train.8 train |15 minutes / Total: 480(8 h)

corrects errors transition

by

executing

to perceive and react as quickly and effectively to stimuli that make possible perception of their movements (silului Kinesthetic) To be able to realign their perceptions of the degree of muscle tension (muscle tone) individual pairs teams front groups 3 train 7 train. /15 total: 375` ;(6.25 h)

10 train.

minutes

aimed at controlling the means of going through execution errors are corrected

Perform the action structures with elements of driving overall coordination

12 train.

Methods: play, practice, sistematization Means: dynamic games, relay runs, applicationthrowing exercises holding objects, driving the ball, both with his arm (leg) adroitly and with the clumsy, transport difficulties Materials: objects, gymnastics benches Methods: play, practice, sistematization Means: dynamic games, relay runs applications, running with layers of different positions in various visual and auditory signals Materials: objects of different colors and shapes, obstacles Methods: play, practice, questioning, imitating Means: moving games, relay runs, application exercises in various conditions and burdened Materials: objects, gymnastics benches Methods: play, practice, questioning, imitating Means: moving games, relay runs, application exercises of hitting balls with leg weights and sizes and at different distances from fixed and mobile targets, exercise balls and throwing of objects of different weights and sizes at different distances and fixed or mobile Materials: objects, gym benches, fixed and mobile targets, footballs, handball, volleyball, tennis, oina, bask Methods: play, practice, sistematization Means: moving games, relay runs, application exercises without the ball and ball exercises to strengthen the basic motor skills and tool-applied Materials: objects, footballs, handball, volleyball, tennis, oina, basketball, rugby individual pairs teams front groups 4 train 8 train|. 15 minutes . Total: 480` ;(8 h) corrects errors transition by individual pairs teams front groups 4 train 8 train|. 15 minutes / 60 entrepre. Total: 480` ;(8 h)

executing

To be able to combine and coordinate engages different specific movements in Judo

12 train.

aimed at controlling the means of going through the correct implementation errors

To build capacity of voluntary and involuntary concentration

8 train.

Methods: play, exercise, sistematization, Means: moving games, relay runs, application exercises without the ball and ball exercises to strengthen the skills base and utility-driven, application exercises with movements and motor tasks for the upper and lower limbs separately and at the same time, complex technical Materials: objects, footballs, handball, volleyball, tennis, oina, basketball, Methods: play, exercise, Means: relay passes, application exercises with balls and several different tasks at the same time, exercises with the ball at the wall training exercises in various conditions and burdened Materials: cones, tennis balls, handball, basketball, volleyball, soccer training wall

individual pairs teams front groups

2 train 6. train/15 total: 270` ;(4.5 h)

minutes

aimed at controlling the means of going through the correct implementation errors

Prezentarea grafic a progresului realizat pe componentele somatic, psihomotric i tehnic


Rata de progre s ntre testare intermediara si testarea finala pe componente: somatic, psihomotric, tehnic

Rata de progres ntre testare initiala si testarea intermediara pe componente somatic,psihomptric,tehnic

Rata de progres ntre testarea initiala si testarea finala pe componete: somatic, psihomotric, tehnic.

11%
12% 24%

26%

11%

28%

64%

61%

63%

Conclusions: Plan proposed and used by us is consistent with the technical training opportunities at this children age; proposed drive systems contribute to the development of specific psychomotor qualities of judo; in the training of children, specific psychomotor skills develop gradually,having a major influence in achieving results in sporting competitions; timing will be putting children training in line with the specific psychomotor skills development and individual features age children; proposed new operating systems while favoring the acquisition of technical processes and contribute to the development of psychomotor qualities; pieces of advice games and beach trails extend applications used in training resources, enrich the content of lessons; games, pieces of advice and applied routes ensure active participation and enthusiasm of children to train, educate their team spirit and also give the coach the opportunity to know better, because it occurs during the games children free, quite naturally, eliminating the shy behavior.

CORELAIA DINTRE CAPACITATEA DE REGLARE A PARAMETRILOR DINAMICI I PREGTIREA FIZIC A JUCTORILOR DE HANDBAL BATIUREA EUGEN FEFS GALAI Cuvinte cheie: antrenament sportiv, handbal, pregtire fizic, capaciti de coordonare Rezumat: Jocul de handbal este un joc dinamic axat pe o bun pregtire fizic i un bagaj tehnico-tactic complex, ceea ce face ca i procesul de instruire s fie conceput, dozat i planificat la un nivel superior. n consecin, antrenamentele vor avea n structura lor o gam diversificat de metode i mijloace de instruire care s duc la mbuntirea miestriei sportive. Astfel, juctorii de handbal vor dobndi o bun vitez de deplasare i execuie, rezisten specific i un grad sporit de coordonare, caliti motrice att de necesare pentru execuiile din timpul jocului. Introducere Nevoia de rezultate sportive favorabile obinute ntr-un timp scurt i ritm permanent, precum i valoarea tot mai crescut a adversarilor oblig antrenorii de astzi s fie foarte ateni la conceperea, dozarea i planificarea procesului de instruire a sportivilor. ansa acestora o reprezint evoluia tiinei sportului cea care vine s influeneze n mod real performana sportiv i modul de desfurare a procesului de antrenament. Descoperirile oamenilor de tiin ajut antrenorii s duc la bun sfrit obiectivele propuse privind creterea nivelului de efort i performan al sportivilor. Sportivii cu o bun dezvoltare fizic i pot mbunti mai repede performanele motrice, tehnice i sportive comparativ cu cei lipsii de acest fundament. Amplul proces de instruire determin dezvoltarea fizic multilateral a sportivilor, ceea ce constituie suportul

16

energogenetic n baza cruia se desfoar jocul modern. Este dezvoltat fora i rezistena, mbuntit viteza i perfecionat coordonarea, situaie ce duce implicit la creterea performanelor sportive. Capacitile de coordonare reprezint un complex de caliti preponderent psihomiotrice (Dragnea A., Bota A., 1999), iar dezvoltarea acestora este strns legat de evoluia fiziologic a individului ntruct organismul este permanent supus unor schimbri funcionale, morfologice i biochimice. O serie de specialiti ai domeniului consider capacitatea de coordonare ca fiind un ntreg cu o structur complex i un numr mare de capaciti ce sunt destinate pentru activiti preponderent coordinative (Blume D.D., 1978, 1984; Bompa T.O., Carrera M.C., 2006; Hirtz P., Ludwig G., Willnitz J., 1981, 1982). Pentru realizarea cercetrii am folosit clasificarea conceput de Platonov V.N. (1997), iar pentru calcularea coeficientului de corelaie am selecionat doar prima capacitate de coordonare: 1. Capacitatea de apreciere i reglare a parametrilor dinamici, spaialitemporali a actului motric. 2. Capacitatea de meninere a echilibrului. 3. Simul de ritmicitate. 4. Capacitatea de orientare n spaiu. 5. Capacitatea de relaxare automat a muchilor. 6. Capacitatea de coordonare a micrilor. Fr coordonare, echilibru, reflexe i ritm, fr gndire creatoare i spirit combativ nu se poate ajunge la marea performan (Ludu V., 1983). n final, putem spune c jocul de handbal solicit foarte mult sportivii i, totodat, i oblig s participe n mod contient la procesul de instruire. Aceast implicare a sportivilor presupune concentrarea tuturor resurselor fizice i tehnico-tactice pentru a putea rezolva cu succes sarcinile de antrenament i joc. Ipoteza de lucru: - reglarea parametrilor dinamici i spaio-temporali influeneaz nivelul de pregtire fizic al juctorilor de handbal? Metodele cercetrii Pentru ndeplinirea obiectivelor studiului nostru s-a recurs la urmtoarele metode de cercetare: - metoda studiului bibliografic; - metoda testelor; - metoda experimentului; - metoda statistico-matematic; - metoda tabelar. Desfurarea experimentului Eantionul de subieci a fost alctuit din 15 sportivi, componeni ai echipei de handbal C.S.U. Galai, cu vrste cuprinse ntre 19 i 32 de ani. Acetia au parcurs un proces de instruire atractiv, dinamic i complex pentru mbuntirea pregtirii fizice i dezvoltarea capacitii de coordonare. n cadrul experimentului, cei 15 sportivi au fost evaluai din punct de vedere fizic i al coordonrii, iar n baza rezultatelor obinute s-a trecut la determinarea gradului de corelaie existent ntre aceti parametri (tabelul 1 i tabelul 2). 17

Tabelul 1 Rezultatele dezvoltrii capacitii de coordonare a juctorilor de handball


CAPACITATE DE COORDONARE INDICI AI Grupa experiment T.I. 60,07 3,81 2,63 0,21 T.F. 72,13 1,17 1,30 0,15 -2,80 0,75 t p

X m
Grupa martor T.I. 53,00 3,12 2,90 0,75 -3,67 0,82 T.F. 56,13 2,54 2,45 0,21 -3,27 0,74 t 0,78 0,58 0,36 p >0,05 >0,05 >0,05 t1 P

Capacitatea de apreciere i reglare a parametrilor dinamici, spaiali-temporali a actului motric

COORDONRII Aruncarea mingii n int, stnd cu spatele la ea (30 mingi) [puncte] Srituri la marcare [cm]

3,03 <0,01 5,10 <0,01 0,17 >0,05

5,72 4,43 0,44

<0,01 <0,01 >0,05

Diferena ncordrii -2,97 musculare a braului 0,59 ndemnatic [kg/F]

Legend: t - s-a calculat ntre indicatorii iniiali i finali ai fiecrei grupe; t1- s-a calculat ntre indicatorii finali ai grupelor martor i experiment; p- tabela lui Fisher la pragul de semnificaie 0,01-0,05, n conformitate cu ealonul cercetat. Not: rezultatele sunt date n valoare absolut. Tabelul 2 Rezultatele corelaiei dintre indicii capacitii de coordonare i indicii motrici ( r )
INDICI CAPACITA TE DE COORDON ARE AI COORDONRII Aruncarea mingii n int, stnd cu spatele la ea Srituri la marcare Diferena ncordrii musculare a braului ndemnatic Probe fizice Deplasare n triunghi Combinata Sritura n lungime de pe loc 2 x 400 m Abdomen Pentasalt Picior stng Picior drept Testul de sprint 0.023 0.080 0.074 5 x 30 m

Capacitatea de apreciere i reglare a parametrilor dinamici, spaialitemporali a actului motric

r=

- 0.036

- 0.173

0.056

- 0.241

0.022

- 0.325

- 0.325

0.101

0.174

r=

0.268

0.124

- 0.235

- 0.202

- 0.060

0.094

0.094

- 0.113

0.495

r=

- 0.321

- 0.214

0.119

0.124

0.109

0.156

0.156

0.285

0.238

Legend: - r = coeficientul de corelaie (indic fora legturii ntre cele dou valori; cu ct legtura este mai strns cu att valoarea coeficientului de corelaie r se apropie de valoarea 1; valorile lui r sunt cuprinse ntre 1 i -1) Interpretare: - r = 0,20 corelaie aproape inexistent; - r = 0,20 0,40 corelaie aproape moderat; - r = 0,40 0,60 corelaie moderat; - r = 0,70 0,90 corelaie nalt; - r = 0,90 0,100 corelaie foarte nalt (dup Guilford). Concluzii Analiznd valorile coeficienilor de corelaie dintre capacitatea de apreciere i reglare a parametrilor dinamici, spaiali-temporali a actului motric i pregtirea fizic, pot fi trase urmtoarele concluzii:

18

800 m

din numrul total de 30 de indici folosii pentru evaluarea juctorilor de handbal sa obinut o corelaie aproape moderat n procent de 33,3% (10 indici), o corelaie moderat n procent de 3.33% (un indice) i o corelaie aproape inexistent n proporie de 63,33% (19 indici); - din cei 3 indici ai coordonrii folosii pentru aflarea gradului de corelaie i ceilali 10 indici motrici, sriturile la marcare se situeaz pe primul loc cu cele mai multe valori care se apropie mai mult de cifra 1; - cel mai bun nivel de corelaie exist ntre Sriturile la marcare i proba fizic 800 m (r = 0,495); - cel mai sczut nivel de corelaie exist ntre Aruncarea mingii n int, stnd cu spatele la ea i proba fizic Pentasalt - piciorul stng (r = 0,022). ntruct s-au nregistrat valori sczute la 19 coeficieni din cei 30 folosii, putem concluziona c nu exist un grad ridicat de corelaie ntre aceast prim capacitate de coordonare luat n studiu capacitatea de apreciere i reglare a parametrilor dinamici, spaiali-temporali a actului motric i indicii fizici alei pentru testarea handbalitilor seniori.

Bibliografie BATIUREA E., Dezvoltarea capacitilor de coordonare a handbalitilor seniori n cadrul antrenamentului individualizat, n dependen de postul de joc, Tez de doctorat, INEFS Chiinu, Republica Moldova, 2004. BLUME D. D., Grundsatze und methodische ma bnahmen zur schulung koordinativer//Korpererziehung, nr. 2, 1978. BLUME D. D., Enige aktualle probleme des diagnostizierens koordinativer motorischen test//Korperkultur,nr.2, 1984. BOMPA T.O., CARRERA M.C., Periodizarea antrenamentului sportiv. Planuri tiinifice pentru for i condiia fizic pentru 20 de discipline sportive, Editura Tana, 2006. DRAGNEA A., BOTA A., Teoria activitilor motrice, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic R.A., Bucureti, 1999. HIRTZ P., LUDWIG G., WELLNITZ J., Potenzen des sportunterriehtz und ihre nitzung fiir die ausbildung und vervollhommnung koordinativer tatigkeiten // Theorie und Praxis der Korperkultur, nr. 9, 1981. HIRTZ P., LUDWIG G., WELLNITZ J., Entwicklung koordinativer Tatigkeiten.Ja, aber wie?// Korpererziehung, nr. 8/9, 1982. LUDU V., Ritmul i performana, Editura Sport-Turism, Bucureti, 1983. .., // , , 1997.

THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE CAPACITY OF REGULATING THE DYNAMIC PARAMETER AND THE PHYSICAL TRAINING OF THE HANDBALL PLAYERS BATIUREA EUGEN FEFS GALAI
Key words: sportive training, handball, physical training, coordination capacities Summary: Handball is a dynamic game centred on a good physical training and on a complex technical-tactical luggage that make the instruction process to be conceived, 19

measured and planned at a superior level. Consequently, the trainings will have in their structure a various range of instruction methods and ways that will bring about the improvement of the sportive mastery. So, the handball players will get a good speed of the change of place and execution, specific resistance and a bigger degree of coordination, driving qualities so necessary for the executions during the play. Introduction The need for favourable sportive results obtained in a short time and permanent rhythm, as well as the bigger value of the opponents compel today's coaches to be very careful at the conceive, measure and the planning of the sports men's instruction process. Their chance is the evolution of the sports science that comes to really influence the sportive performance and the way of the progress of the training process. The scientists' discoveries help the coaches achieve the proposed objectives regarding the increase of the sportsmen's effort and performance level. The sportsmen with a good physical development care improve faster their driving, technical and sportive performances in comparison with those who lack this foundation. The ample instruction process determines the sports men's multilateral physical development that is the energogenetic support according to which the modern game takes place. It is developed the force and the resistance, the speed improved and the coordination perfected, situation that brings about the increase of the sportive performances. The coordination capacities represent a complex of prevalent psycho-driving qualities (Dragnea A., Bota A., 1999), and their development is tightly tied to the physiological evolution of the person because the body is permanently subjected to some functional, morphological and biochemical changes. A series of specialists in the field consider the coordination capacity as being a whole with a complex structure and a big number of capacities that are destinated to the prevalent coordinative activities (Blume D.D., 1978, 1984; Bompa T.O., Carrera M.C., 2006; Hirtz P., Ludwig G., Willnitz J., 1981, 1982). To achieve the research we used the classification made by Platonov V.N. (1997), and for the calculation of the correlation coefficient we selected only the first coordination capacity: 1. The capacity of estimating and regulating of the dynamic, spatialtemporal parameters of the driving act. 2. The capacity of maintaining the balance. 3. The rhythmically sense. 4. The capacity of spatial orientation. 5. The capacity of automatic relaxation of the muscles. 6. The capacity of the coordination of the movements. Without coordination, balance, reflexes and rhythm, without creative thinking and militant spirit, one can't reach the great performance (Ludu V., 1983). Finally, we can say that handball challenges the sportsmen very much and, at the same time, compels them to consciously participate at the instruction process. This involvement of the sportsmen means the concentration of all physical and technical-tactical resources to successfully solve the training and play tasks. The working hypothesis: - does the regulation of the dynamic and special-temporal parameters influences the level of the physical preparation of the handball players?

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The methods of the research To achieve the objectives of our study we resorted to the following research methods: - the method of the bibliographic study; - the tests method; - the experiment method; - the statistical-mathematic method; - the table method. The progress of the experiment The sample of subjects consisted of 15 sportsmen, components of the CSU Galati handball team, with ages between 19 and 32. They had an attractive, dynamic and complex instruction process to improve the physical preparation and the development of the coordination capacity. In the experiment, the 15 sportsmen were evaluated from the coordination and physical point of view, and according to the obtained results we passed to the establishment of the correlation degree extant between these parameters (table 1 and table 2). Table 1 The results of the development of the coordination capacity of the handball players
COORDINATION CAPACITY COORDINATION INDEXES T.I. The throwing of the ball in the target, standing with the back at it (30 balls) [points]

X m
Experimental group T.F. t p T.I. Control group T.F. t p t1 P

The capacity of estimating and regulating of the dynamic and spatialtemporal parameters of the driving act

60,07 3,81

72,13 1,17

3,03 <0,01

53,00 3,12

56,13 2,54

0,78

>0,05

5,72

<0,01

Jumpings at scoring [cm]

2,63 0,21

1,30 0,15 -2,80 0,75

5,10 <0,01

2,90 0,75 -3,67 0,82

2,45 0,21 -3,27 0,74

0,58

>0,05

4,43

<0,01

The difference of the -2,97 muscular strain of the deft 0,59 arm [kg/F]

0,17 >0,05

0,36

>0,05

0,44

>0,05

Legend: t - was calculated between the initial and final indicators of each group; t1- was calculated between the final indicators of the control and experimental group; p- Fisher's table at the signification edge 0.01-0.05 according to the studied sample. Note: the results are given in absolute value.

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Table 2
The results of the correlation between the index of the coordination capacity and the driving index ( r )
Physical tests The long jump from a place Change of place in triangle Combined 5 x 30 m 800 m COORDINATIO N CAPACITY COORDINATION INDEXES The sprint test 0.023 0.080 0.074 2 x 400 m 0.101 Abdomen 0.325 Pentasalt Left leg Right leg

The capacity of estimating and regulating of the dynamic and spatial-temporal parameters of the driving act

The throwing of the ball in the target, standing with the back at it Jumpings at scoring The difference of the muscular strain of the deft arm

r=

- 0.036

- 0.173

0.056

- 0.241

0.022

0.325

0.174

r=

0.268

0.124

0.235

- 0.202

- 0.060

0.094

0.094

- 0.113

0.495

r=

- 0.321

- 0.214

0.119

0.124

0.109

0.156

0.156

0.285

0.238

Legend: r = the correlation coefficient (it shows the force of the link between the 2 values; the tighter the link is more the value of the correlation coefficient r comes up to 1; the values of r are between 1 and -1) Interpretation:

- r = 0,20 almost inexistent correlation;


r = 0,20 0,40 almost moderate correlation; r = 0,40 0,60 moderate correlation; r = 0,70 0,90 high correlation; r = 0,90 0,100 very high correlation (according to Guilford).

Conclusions Analyzed the values of the correlation coefficients between the capacity of estimating and regulating the dynamic, spatial-temporal parameters of the driving act and the physical preparation, the following conclusions can be drawn: - from the total number of 30 indexes used for the handball players' evaluation it was obtained an almost moderate correlation of 33.3% (10 indexes), a moderate correlation of 3.33% (one index) and an almost inexistent correlation of 63.33% (19 indexes); - from the 3 indexes of the coordination used to find out the correlation degree and the others 10 driving indexes, the jumpings at scoring are on the first place with most of the values that come up to 1; - the best correlation level is between the jumpings at the scoring and the physical test 800 m (r = 0.495); - the lowest correlation level is between the throwing of the ball in the target, standing with the back at it and the physical test Pentasalt - the left leg (r = 0.022). Because there were registered low values at 19 coefficients from those 30 used, we can conclude that it isn't a high correlation degree between this first coordination capacity studied the capacity of estimating and regulating of the dynamic and spatial-temporal

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parameters of the driving act and the physical indexes chosen for the senior handball players' testing.

DANS SI IDENTITATE DE GEN TSIFT (E)-TELI DANCE N FARASSA, KAPPADOKIA


Hariton Haritonidis A., Vasiliki K. Tyrovola Departamentul de Educaie Fizic i Sport tiinei, Universitatea din Atena Kapodistrian 1. Introducere Tsift (e) dance-teli este un element integrant al realitii dansului modern grec deoarece, cu ritmul su recunoscut instantaneu i nltor, acesta constituie o component esenial a divertismentului grec contemporan (Raftis, 1996). Dei tsift (e) de dans teli (dublucoard) astzi apare ca fiind de genul neutru, practic este, dincolo de orice ndoial, de sex feminin. Tsift (e)-teli face parte din categoria special de dansuri (Bucheld, 1996) n care predomin anumite micri, cum ar fi cele din partea superioar a corpului leganate sau discrete, micri ondulatorii ale trunchiului, arcuirea corpului n timp ce se inverseaza simultan minile ( Bucheld, 1996, i Tyrovola, 2002). Muli termeni au fost folositi pentru a descrie acest dans, care sunt fie derivati din istoria sa, originile i proprieti simbolice, cum ar fi : dans din burta , oriental , dans salomi , dans harem , horos ton epta peplon , sau de la modul de executare sau a coninutului su teoretic, cum ar fi senzational , ecstatic, hieratic, dans hip , dans de fertilitate , (Petrides, 1976; Buchheld, 1996; Raftis, 1996; Tyrovola, 1999, 2002). Din cele de mai sus, ar putea fi trasa concluzia la prima vedere c, n ciuda multor nume, tsift (e) se refer la teli-dans n principiu, un anumit tip de dans popular-traditional asociat cu fertilitatea, care n decursul istoriei sale a dat nastere la diferiti hibrizi i a fost inclus n repertoriul muzical i dans de tradiie urban (Tyrovola, 2002), sau a fost vzut conform criteriilor de folclor i dans artistic (Shay &amp; Sellers-Young, 2005). n plus, rapoartele post crestinismului timpuriu (Suchs, 1963), precum si ilustratii numeroase confirma conexiunea imediat a acestui dans, i a diferitelor sale sub-forme, exclusiv cu sexul feminin, ca ... micarea viguroasa de sn, balansare a oldurilor i ndoire a trunchiului i taliei pentru a obine sensul exclusiv atunci cnd este angajat n scopul de a trezi i excita masculin ... (Tyrovola, 2002: 46-47). Se poate concluziona cu certitudine c diversele forme de tsift (e) dans teli i au originea n motenirea etnologica comuna a poporului mediteranean si al Orientului Apropiat, din timpul primelor rapoarte cu date nominale specifice din perioada de dezvoltare a unor centre urbane n Imperiul Otoman (Tyrovola, 2002). Rapoarte ale tsift (e)-teli dans au venit din Grecia, i n special din insulele din nord-estul Mrii Egee, cum ar fi Chios (Tyrovola, 2002) i Lesbos (Tyrovola,2010), din regiunea Macedonia, cum ar fi Irakleia, Serres (Papakostas, 2007), dar i din regiuni, cum ar fi zona continental a Asiei Mici, precum i din tradiia muzical i de dans a populaiilor vorbitoare de limb turc i ortodoxe de limb greac din Kappadokia , cum ar fi zona de Farassa, sau Misti i altele. Interesant, dei n funcie de percepia comun de Vest tsift (e)-teli este reprezentativ pentru un dans exclusiv feminin, n tradiiile de Est, dansul este o chestiune att de brbai cat i de femei, singura distincie fiind dac este dansat n public (brbai) sau n particular (femei), precum i n forma de dans. O situaie similar poate fi observat n comunitatea ortodox de limb greac

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din Farassa, n cazul n care tsift (e) se refer la ambele sexe i reflect organizarea sociala a comunitatii in special n ceea ce scoate n eviden relaiile de gen n rndul membrilor comunitii, prin micrile de dans Revizuind literatura de specialitate, este clar c cele mai multe informaii cu privire la exemplele de dans al tsift (e)-teli sunt de descriere etnografica si folclorica. (Margariti, 1987 i Lambropoulos, 1994). Cercetarea, care este o excepie de la aceast include activitatea de: Tyrovola (1992), n care tradiia dansului la grecii din Kappadokia este prezentata prin utilizarea datelor etnografice, precum i cu referire la ritmuri; Kotsia & Charitonidis (1998), care foloseste o analiz structural-morfologica pentru a atesta tsift (e) teli al grecilor din Kappadokian ca pe o categorie speciala de dans, care a inclus diverse forme de dans de baz (hetero-morphies); i Tyrovola (2002) , care investigheaz problemele care apar ntre cultura popular i dezvoltarea social, folosind exemplul de tsift (e) de dans-teli. Din cele de mai sus, este clar c exist o lipsa de studii privind tsift (e) de dans-teli ca un mijloc de gestionare i de a evidenia identitatea relationata la gen legate printr-o analiz a structurii si formei sale. 1.2. Scopul Scopul acestui studiu este investigarea formelor de dansuri ta kousokka si I paigni mo ta houliere din Farassa de Kappadokia, ca variaii regionale ale tsift (e) de dans-teli aa cum este folosit de fiecare sex. n special, studiul de fa i propune s scoat n eviden relaiile de gen n contextul societii tradiionale din Farassa prin utilizarea formei de dans ca un instrument de analiz a structurii i formei de dansuri menionate mai sus, acesta din urm fiind reprezentant al fiecarui sex. 1.3. Metodologie Datele au fost colectate prin metoda etnografica bazata pe surse primare i secundare (Buckland, 1999; Giurchesku 1999; Koutsouba, 1999; Tyrovola, 2008). Sursele primare de date se refer la date colectate prin intermediul cercetarii de teren sub form de interviu (Thompson, 2002) i observarea participativ (Gefou-Madianou, 1999; Lydaki, 2001; Petronoti, 2002). n special, cercetarea de teren a fost realizat n luna februarie 1987 (preliminar) i a fost finalizata n mai 2003, i constituie o parte a unei cercetri mai ample privind identitatea cultural a refugiailor Kappadokian. Cercetarea a fost axata pe comunitatea de Plati din Imathia, Macedonia, locuita preponderent de refugiaii din Farassa, Kappadokia. Sursele secundare se refer la date colectate prin cercetare etnografic (Stocking, 1983; Gefou-Madianou, 1999; Tyrovola, 2008). Analiza structural-morfologica i tipologica cum este aplicata n Ethnochoreology (Tyrovola, 1994, 2001; Tyrovola, 2008) a fost utilizata pentru analiza formelor de dans, n timp ce metoda comparativ a fost utilizat pentru compararea formelor de dans (Holt & Turner, 1972 ; Vallier, 1973; Tyrovola, 2008). Pentru interpretarea datelor,a fost folosita gndirea antropologica pe identitatea de gen , aa cum apare n aspectele antropologice ale dansului i n special n Hanna (1987, 1988). Acesta este un model teoretic care considera percepia de sex ca pe un domeniu de negociere, simbol cultural sau relaie sociala (Strathern, 1976, 1988; Papataxiarchis, 1992), precum i ca pe un criteriu de analiz a populaiei locale (Papataxiarchis, 1992). 2. Analiza datelor Farassa, sau Varassos (nume grecesc care este folosit n zona nc din antichitate), este un ora mare cu populaie greac (Loukopoulos & Petropoulos, 1949; Merlier, 1974; Tyrovola, 1990; Kikisoglou, 1997), n sud-estul Kappadokia, printre chei i satele turceti i la o altitudine de 1050 metri. Potrivit lui Merlier, ... n 1923, grecii de Kappadokia (...) au ajuns n Grecia abandonandu-si patria lor pentru totdeauna ... (1974:30). Refugiai din

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Farassa s-au stabilit la marginea centrelor urbane din centrul Macedoniei i al Thessaliei, dar majoritatea s-au stabilit n regiunea Katerini (Plati, Imathia). Tradiia de dans a populaiei din Farassa include dansuri circulare i antikristoi (Lambropoulos, 1994:79), care se efectueaz la ritm cu patru batai si noua batai (Tyrovola, 1996). Dansurile antikristoi la noua batai(zeibekiko; cu cutite) sunt dansate exclusiv de brbai, n timp ce dansurile antikristoila patru batai sunt separate pe barbate si femei deoarece rareori ar dansa un barbat cu o femeie - i asta numai dac ar fi rude apropiate. Dansurile antikristoi cu patru batai sunt caracterizate de acompaniamentul de instrumente idiophone, cum ar fi zornaitoare sau, linguri, inute de dansatori i sunt dansate in public. Pe de alt parte, dansurile antikristoi pentru femei nu au fost nsoite de astfel de instrumente idiophone (zornitoare, linguri, zilia), deoarece ar fi extrem de nepotrivit pentru o femeie sa danseze in public tinand aceste instrumente (Tyrovola, 1992; Lambropoulos, 1994). In locul lor de origine, Kappadokia, aceste dansuri au fost nsoite de cntece n dialectul de Farassa precum i n limba turc, n timp ce srbtorile Farassian au fost un punct de atracie pentru armeni, turci, greci convertiti i cripto-cretini din satele nvecinate. Aceast multime au avut nevoie de oameni au avut nevoie de mijloace comune de comunicare pentru divertisment, un rol ndeplinit de un cntec i, n principal,de limba cntecului (Lambropoulos, 1994). Dansurile kousokka i i paigni mo ta houliere sunt dansuri antikristoicu o msur de patru batai. Ta kousokka (sau skafidakia, care nseamn guri mici) este un dans antikristosfemeiesc i i datoreaz numele gaurii ovale care se formeaz atunci cnd vrful degetului mare atinge varful degetului arttor (Lambropoulos , 1994) sau atunci cnd capetele celor trei prime degete vin n contact. I paigni mo ta houliere este un dansantikristos barbatesc i numele su nseamn dans cu linguri. n ciuda faptului c aceste dansuri nu sunt denumite n continuare tsift (e) teli de ctre localnici, analiza lor structural-morfologica le clasific, n funcie de componentele lor tehnice, n aceast categorie. Este o practic destul de comun n zonele de coast din Asia Mic, precum i n partea continental (Kappadokia) pentru dansatori s acompanieze dansurileantikristoi cu instrumente idiophone, cum ar fi linguri de lemn, zilia, pahare de vin, etc cu care menin ritmul de dans. Dar, n timp ce n zonele de coast aceast practic este observata att la dansurile de femei cat si de barbate atat n cazuri de dans publice cat i private, n regiunea vorbitoare de limb greac din Kappadokia, este vzuta n exclusivitate n rndul brbailor. 2.1. Observaii Din analiza structural-morfologica a dansurilor de mai sus, se observ c ambele dansuri(ta kousokka i I paigni mo ta houliere),sunt dansuri antikristoi caracterizate prin folosirea libera a spaiului i a structurii coregrafice. Cu toate acestea, femeile au mai puin libertate de improvizatie, cu variatii mici pe expresia de baz a dansului. Femeile efectueaza miscari mici, simple ale membrelor inferioare n timp ce isi sprijina greutatea corporal pe ntreaga suprafa a tlpii. Minile sunt la nivelul fetei, ca si cum ar incerca sa o ascunda, si executa miscari semi-circulare ntr-un mod relativ liber, n timp ce primele dou sau trei degete sunt n mod constant n contact la varfuri(fara degetul care plesneste). Trunchiul este drept i nu efectueaz nici un fel de miscare de unduire sau balansar. Modul de executare a acestui dans, cu micri neelaborate i reinute, reflect introvertire, smerenie i implic ruine. Dimpotriv, dansul barbatilor prezinta un grad mai mare de improvizaie cu excentricitati caracteristice n timpul spectacolului de dans, cum ar fi unduirea trunchiului i oldurilor n timp ce sunt n poziie semi-ghemuit. Barbatii sunt liberi s mite partea superioar a corpului,sa se ndoaie i sa se arcuiasca de la talie cum vor, i chiar sa isi roteasca soldurile. Minile lor se misca libere, deschise la fiecare parte, cu micri circulare caracteristic n timp ce tin n acelai timp, ritmul de dans utilizand o pereche de linguri

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(houliere), stabilind astfel o identitate dubla de dansator-muzician. Atunci cnd nu in linguri, barbatii danseaza tinand (zilia) sau zornie sau isi pocnesc doar degetele . Dansul lor este mult mai rapid dect cel al femeilor i mai energic, rezultand din micri de picior mai scurte si mai abrupte. Foarte adesea, picioarele bat ritmul pe pamant. Acest mod de dans cu o execuie plina de via , cu micri puternice i viguroase, reflect extrovertire i scoate n eviden poziia dominant a brbailor asupra femeilor. 3. Discuii Concluzii Analiza formei a artat diferenele dintre cele dou dansuri n ceea ce privete elementele lor morfo-sintactice, precum si functia lor i coninutul semantic. Dansul I paigni mo ta houliere o forma de tsift (e) teli, n contextul cultural al Farassa, apare ca o practic de dans public exclusiv pentru brbai. Dansul Kousokka de asemenea, o form de tsift (e) teli, dar cu semiologie diferite, i asum identitatea unei practice de dans privat al femeilor, care are loc n limitele casei. O practic similar, cu semiologie diferita, dar limitata la graniele unui spaiu privat, poate fi ntlnita n haremuri ale domnilor bogai i ale ofierilor din Est, unde femeile vor putea realiza dansul din buric, din datoria de a distra brbaii. n comunitatea din Farassa, la fel ca n orice tip de societate, sexul, i aciunile sau funciile care deriv din acesta, organizeaz relaiile sociale ale grupului i ntrete i legitimeazaierarhia acestor relaii. Prin urmare, sexul organizeaz grupuri sociale de brbai i femei, stabilete limitele precum i regulile de comunicare ntre ele, i determin coninutul relaiei lor (Strathern, 1976). Ierarhia naturala a sexelor ca un criteriu prin care valorile stabilete relaii organizeaza comunitatea din Farassa ca un exemplu de societate patriarhala, n care punctele de pivot de referin sunt religia, cstoria i nrudira (cu accent puternic pe relaiile pe partea tatlui ), i n care barbatul deine centrul simbolic. Astfel, femeile apar obiecte slabe i pasive n acest sistem social special, n timp ce brbaii sunt forta conducatoare primara si factorii decizionali. Acest tip de comportament stabilete capacitatea de dominare a brbailor asupra femeilor. n acest context, feminitatea este o datorie care trebuie s fie controlata de nimeni altul dect de femeie prin suprimarea de sine (a se vedea Papataxiarchis, 1992). Puritatea, modestia i rezervarea reda femeii timiditatea i, astfel, sunt asociate cu ideea de timiditate ntr-o tendinta ascunsa. Puritate, ca atitudine i poziie, este adecvata pentru femeile morale - femeile care adopt abtinerea, astfel nct s contribuie la aprarea onoarei familiei, n care, desigur, ele joac un rol secundar, deoarece rolul primordial aparine barbatilor. n concluzie, n contextul comunitii cretine, monogam i patriarhala din Farassa, dansul I paigni mo ta houliere, o forma de tsift (e)-teli, cu utilizarea unor instrumente muzicale idiophone, a fost identificatcu dominaia barbatilor. Ar fi foarte nepotrivit pentru o femeie sa practice acest dans tinand linguri i agitand umerii,unduindu-si trunchiul sau soldurile. Traditiile stricte nu ar permite nici mcar s se pocneasca degetele. Cu toate acestea, cu trecerea timpului, noile structuri sociale, care au stabilit relaia dintre cele dou sexe pe o baz diferit i au revendicat pentru femei o egalitate instituionala neoficiala dar generalizata, a permis treptat, participarea femeilor la dans, utilizarea instrumentelor muzicale idiophone , iniial pornind de la cercul retras al familiei i ntotdeauna n interior progresand practicarea n public, cum ar fi n piaa satului. Cu toate acestea, chiar i astzi n ciuda repertoriului de dans, populaia din Farassa, brbai i femei, continua sa participe la dans n perechi strict masculine sau feminine. Prin urmare, sexele organizeaza societatea din Farassa i se permite continuarea elementelor care evideniaz particularitile sociale ale fiecrui sex i ale grupurilor sociale corespunztoare - elemente care sunt reflectate n formele de dans i in participarea celor dou sexe n dansurile menionate anterior.

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TABELUL I: Tabelul pentru intelegerea si compararea elementelor de forma ale dansuluiTSIFT (E)-TELI din FARASSA, KAPPADOKIA Zona Farassa, sau Varasos, Kappadokia Numele de ta kousokka I paigni mo ta houliere dans Dansatori Perechi de femei Perechi de barbati Utilizarea de Dansulantikristos folosirea libera a dansulantikristos folosirea libera a spaiului spaiu spaiului (poziii de tranzacionare - revoluii (poziii de tranzacionare - revoluii complete n complete n jurul axei corpului jurul axei corpului Coregrafie Structura coregrafiei libere Structura coregrafiei libere model de Bazat pe improvizatii relative bazate pe mici improvizatii bazate pe modificri diverse ale formular / variaii ale expresiei dansului de baz expresiei dansului de baza model Elemente acompaniament instrumental cu lir acompaniament instrumental cu lir (kemane), acustice (kemane), tamboura-mpoulgari (instrumente tamboura-mpoulgari (instrumente cu coarde), cu coarde), daire (defi) melodii n dialect de daire (defi) melodii n dialect de Farassa (din Farassa (din vremuri stravechi) sau n turc vremuri stravechi) sau n turca. instrumente muzicale idiophone (linguri, zilia, zornitori) Ritm 4/4 (.) or (. ) 2/4 or 4/4 (. ) or (.) Tempo Motivul dansului lent - mediu i de echilibru a. Expresia dansului de baza: [T 1(1/4+1/4+1/4+1/4)] b. Heteromorphy: [T 1(1/4+1/4+1/4+()11/4) + T 2(1/4+1/4+1/4+()11/4)] membrele inferioare c.Improvizaie (limitat) micrilentei, simple i taraite intinderea piciorului (drept de obicei) greutate corporal susinut de toata talpa piciorului Ridicari lente ale membrelor micri semi-circulare limitate la nivelul capului (ca n cazul n care l-ai ascunde), cu primele 2-3 degete care ating varfurile[formnd un orificiu oval (skafida, sau kousokka)] micri transversale neelaborate mediu - rapid a. Expresia dansului de baza [ 1(1/8+1/8+1/8+1/8)] b. Heteromorphy: [ 1(1/8+1/8+1/8+()11/8) + 2(1/8+1/8+1/8+()11/8)] c.Improvizaie miscare libera cu intoarceri caracteristice lovirea ritmica a lingurilor

Membrele superioare

miscare libera cu intoarceri caracteristice lovirea ritmica a lingurilor

Trunchi

Interpretare

micri simple restranse care implica modestie i moralitate atenie la detalii coordonarea miscarilor membrelor inferioare i superioare miscare alternativa

micri transversale unduirea / agitarea trunchiului superior (de foarte multe ori cu pauz de micare simultan a membrelor inferioare n poziie ghemuit-jumtate) ndoire la talie miscari relative restranse cu ridicari scurte improvizate(fara exagerari) in timpul executarii dansului . atenie la detalii coordonarea micrilor membrelor inferioare i superioare miscare alternativa

DANCE AND GENDER IDENTITY THE TSIFT(E)-TELI DANCE IN FARASSA, KAPPADOKIA


1

Hariton A. Haritonidis1, Vasiliki K. Tyrovola1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Kapodistrian University of Athens

1. Introduction The tsift(e)-teli dance is an integral element of the modern Greek dance reality as, with its instantly recognizable and uplifting rhythm, it constitutes an essential component of

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contemporary Greek entertainment (Raftis, 1996). Although the tsift(e)teli dance (doublechord) today appears as being of neuter gender, practically it is, beyond doubt, of female gender. Tsift(e)-teli belongs to the special category of dances (Bucheld, 1996) in which certain movements prevail, such as those of upper body swaying or slinking, wavelike motions of the torso, arching of the body while simultaneously reversing the hands (Bucheld, 1996, and Tyrovola, 2002). Many terms have been used to describe this dance, which are derived either from its history, origins and symbolic properties, such as belly dance, oriental, Salomis dance, harem dance, horos ton epta peplon or from its manner of execution or its notional content, such as sensational, ecstatic, hieratic, hip dance, fertility dance (Petrides, 1976; Buchheld, 1996; Raftis, 1996; Tyrovola, 1999, 2002). From the above, it could be concluded at a first glance that, despite its many names, the tsift(e)-teli dance concerns basically a certain kind of popular-traditional dance associated with fertility, which in the course of its history spawned various hybrids and was included in the musical and dance repertoire of urban tradition (Tyrovola, 2002), or was seen through the criteria of folklore and artistic dance (Shay & Sellers-Young, 2005). Additionally, reports from early post-Christian times (Suchs, 1963) as well as numerous illustrations confirm the immediate connection of this dance, and its various sub-forms, exclusively with the female sex, as the bouncing movement of the breast, the rocking of the hips and the bending of the torso and waist obtain meaning exclusively when employed in order to arouse and excite the male (Tyrovola, 2002: 46-47). It could be concluded with relative certainty that the various forms of the tsift(e)teli dance have their origins in the common ethnological legacy of the people of the Mediterranean and Near East, while the first reports with the specific name date from the period of the development of urban centres in the Ottoman Empire (Tyrovola, 2002). Reports of the tsift(e)-teli dance have come from Greece, and in particular from islands of the northeastern Aegean such as Chios (Tyrovola, 2002) and Lesbos (Tyrovola, 2010), from the Macedonian region such as Irakleia, Serres (Papakostas, 2007), but also from regions such as the mainland of Minor Asia as well as from the musical and dance tradition of non-Christian Turkish-speaking and orthodox Greek-speaking populations of Kappadokia, such as the area of Farassa, or Misti and others. Interestingly, although according to common Western perception the tsift(e)-teli is representative of an exclusively female dance, in the traditions of the East, the dance is a matter of both men and women, the only distinction lying in whether it is danced in public (men) or in private (women) as well as in the form of the dance. A similar situation can be observed in the orthodox Greek-speaking community of Farassa, where the tsift(e)-teli concerns both sexes and reflects the social organization of the particular community as it highlights the gender-related relationships among the community members through its dance movements. From the review of relevant literature, it is clear that most of the information concerning dance examples of the tsift(e)-teli is ethnographic or folklore-descriptive (Margariti, 1987 and Lambropoulos, 1994). Research which is an exception to this includes the work of: Tyrovola (1992), in which the dance tradition of the Greeks of Kappadokia is presented through the use of ethnographic data as well as with reference to rhythms; Kotsia & Charitonidis (1998), which uses a structural-morphological analysis to document the tsift(e)teli of the Kappadokian Greeks as a special dance category which included various forms of the basic dance (hetero-morphies); and Tyrovola (2002), who investigates the problems arising between popular culture and social development, using the example of tsift(e)-teli dance. From the above, it is clear that there is an absence of studies approaching the tsift(e)-teli dance as a means of managing and highlighting the gender-related identity through analysis of its structure and form.

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1.2. Aim The aim of this study is the investigation of the forms of the "ta kousokka" and "i paigni mo ta houliere" dances from Farassa of Kappadokia, as regional variations of the tsift(e)-teli dance and as used by each sex. In particular, the present study aims at highlighting the gender relationships in the context of the traditional society of Farassa by utilising the dance form as a tool for the analysis of the structure and form of the aforementioned dances, the latter being representative of each sex. 1.3. Methodology Data was collected using the ethnographic method based on primary and secondary sources (Buckland, 1999; Giurchesku 1999; Koutsouba, 1999; Tyrovola, 2008). The primary sources concern data collected through field research in the form of interview (Thompson, 2002) and participative observation (Gefou-Madianou, 1999; Lydaki, 2001; Petronoti, 2002). In particular, the field research was conducted in February 1987 (preliminary) and was completed in May 2003, and constitutes part of a wider research on the cultural identity of Kappadokian refugees. The research focused on the community of Plati of Imathia, Macedonia, inhabited mainly by refugees from Farassa, Kappadokia. The secondary sources concern data collected through ethnographic research (Stocking, 1983; Gefou-Madianou, 1999; Tyrovola, 2008). The structural-morphological and typological analysis as applied in Ethnochoreology (Tyrovola, 1994, 2001; Tyrovola, 2008) was used for the analysis of the dance forms, while the comparative method was used for the comparison of dance forms (Holt & Turner, 1972; Vallier, 1973; Tyrovola, 2008). For the interpretation of the data, anthropological thought on the gender identity was used, as it appears in anthropological views of dance and particularly in Hanna (1987, 1988). This is a theoretical model which views the perception of sex as a field of negotiation, cultural symbol or social relationship (Strathern, 1976, 1988; Papataxiarchis, 1992), as well as a criterion for the analysis of the local population (Papataxiarchis, 1992). 2. Data Analysis Farassa, or Varassos (Greek name that is used in the area since ancient times), is a major town with Greek population (Loukopoulos & Petropoulos, 1949; Merlier, 1974; Tyrovola, 1990; Kikisoglou, 1997) in south-eastern Kappadokia, among gorges and Turkish villages and at an altitude of 1050 metres. According to Merlier, in 1923, the Greeks of Kappadokia () arrived in Greece abandoning their homeland for good(1974:30). The refugees from Farassa settled on the fringes of urban centres in central Macedonia and Thessalia, but the majority settled in the region of Katerini (Plati, Imathia). The dance tradition of the population of Farassa includes circle and antikristoi dances (Lambropoulos, 1994:79), which are performed at four-beat and nine-beat rhythms (Tyrovola, 1996)1. The nine-beat antikristoi dances (zeibekiko with knives) are danced exclusively by men, while the fourbeat antikristoi dances are distinguished in all-male and all-female, since rarely would a man dance with a woman and that, only if they were close relatives. The four-beat antikristoi dances are characterized by the accompaniment of idiophone instruments, such as rattles or spoons, held by the dancers and are danced in public. On the other hand, the female antikristoi dances were never accompanied by such idiophone instruments (rattles, spoons, zilia) as it would be enormously inappropriate for a woman to dance in public holding these instruments (Tyrovola, 1992; Lambropoulos, 1994).

Antikristos in Greek means opposite the other. The term antikristoi for dances, freely translated, means that the participants perform the dance facing each other.

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In their place of origin, Kappadokia, these dances were accompanied by songs in the dialect of Farassa as well as in Turkish, while the Farassian celebrations were an attraction for Armenians, Turks, converted Greeks and crypto-Christians from neighbouring villages. This gathering of people required a common means of communication in entertainment, a role fulfilled by the song and, mainly, the song language (Lambropoulos, 1994). The dances "ta kousokka" and "i paigni mo ta houliere" are antikristoi dances with a four-beat measure. "Ta kousokka" (or skafidakia, which means little holes) is a female antikristos dance and owes its name to the oval hole that is formed when the tip of the thumb touches the tip of the index finger (Lambropoulos, 1994) or when the tips of the three first fingers come in contact. "I paigni mo ta houliere" is a male antikristos dance and its name means the dance with the spoons. Despite the fact that these dances are not referred to as tsift(e)teli by the locals, their structural-morphological analysis classifies them, according to their technical components, in this category. It is quite a common practice in the coastal areas of Minor Asia as well as in the mainland (Kappadokia) for the dancers to accompany the antikristoi dances with idiophone instruments such as wooden spoons, zilia, wine glasses, etc. with which they maintain dance rhythm. But while in the coastal areas this practice is observed in both male and female dances, both in private and public dancing instances, in the Greek-speaking region of Kappadokia, it is exclusively seen among men. 2.1. Observations From the structural-morphological analysis of the above dances, it is observed that both ("ta kousokka" and "i paigni mo ta houliere") are antikristoi dances characterized by free use of space and free choreographic structure. However, women have less improvisational freedom with little variations on the basic dance phrase. The women perform small, simple and shuffling movements of the lower limbs while supporting body weight on the whole area of the sole. The hands are at face level, as if in an attempt to obscure it, and execute semicircular movements in a relatively free manner, while the two or three first fingers are constantly in contact at the tips (absence of finger snapping). The torso is straight and does not perform any sort of slinking or swaying movement. The manner of execution of this dance, with unelaborated and restrained movements, reflects introversion, humbleness and implies shame. On the contrary, the dance of men exhibits a greater degree of improvisation with characteristic peaks during the dance performance, such as slinking the torso and hips while in half-squat position. The men are free to move the upper body, bend and arch at the waist at will, and even rock the hips. Their hands move freely, open at each side with characteristic circular movements while simultaneously holding the dance rhythm pattern with the use of a pair of spoons (houliere), thus establishing a dual identity of dancer-musician. When they do not hold spoons, the men dance holding zilia or rattles or just snap their fingers. Their dance is more quickly-paced than that of the women and more vigorous, resulting in shorter and more abrupt leg movements. Very often, the feet stomp the rhythm on the ground. This manner of lively execution of the dance, with loud and vigorous movements, reflects extroversion and highlights the dominance of men over women. 3. Discussion - Conclusions Analysis of the form showed differences between the two dances in terms of their morphosyntactic elements as well as their function and semantic content. The dance "i paigni mo ta houliere", a form of tsift(e)teli, within the cultural context of Farassa, emerges as a public dance practice exclusive to men. The "kousokka" dance, also a form of tsift(e)teli but with different semiology, assumes the identity of a private dance practice of women that occurs within the boundaries of the home. A similar practice, with different semiology but confined to the boundaries of a private space, can be encountered in the harems of the wealthy lords

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and officers of the East, where women would perform the belly dance as a part of their duty to entertain the men. In the community of Farassa, just like in every kind of society, the sex, and the actions or functions that derive from it, organizes the social relationships of the group and strengthens and legitimises the hierarchy of these relationships. Therefore, the sex organises the social groups of the men and the women, establishes the boundaries as well as the communication rules between them, and determines the content of their relationship (Strathern, 1976). The natural hierarchy of sexes as a criterion by which values organise relationships establishes the community of Farassa as an example of a patriarch society, in which pivotal points of reference are religion, marriage and kinship (with heavy emphasis on relations on the side of the father) and in which the man holds the symbolic centre. Thus, the women appear as weak and passive objects in this particular social system while the men are the primary driving force and decision makers. This type of behaviour establishes the dominating ability of men over women. In this context, femininity is a liability which must be controlled by no other than the woman by suppressing her self (see Papataxiarchis, 1992). Purity, modesty and reserve render the woman shy and, thus, are associated with the idea of shyness in an undercurrent way. Purity, as an attitude and stance, is appropriate for moral women - the women who adopt self-restraint so as to contribute to the protection of family honour, in which, of course, they play a secondary role since the primary role belongs to men. In conclusion, in the context of the Christian, monogamous and patriarch community of Farassa, the dance "i paigni mo ta houliere", a form of tsift(e)-teli, with the use of idiophone musical instruments, was identified with the dominance of men. It would be greatly inappropriate for a woman to perform this dance holding spoons and shaking her shoulders, torso or hips. The strict customs would not even allow snapping her fingers. However, with the passing of time, the new social structures, which established the relationship of the two sexes on a different basis and had the women claiming an unofficial but generalized institutional equality, gradually allowed the womans participation in dance using idiophone musical instruments, initially starting from the secluded family circle and always indoors and progressing to performing in public, such as in the village square. However, even today and despite the crossover of dance repertoire, the population of Farassa, men and women, persist in participating in dance in strictly male or female pairs. Therefore, the sexes organise the society of Farassa and condone the continuation of the elements that highlight the social particularities of each sex and the corresponding social group - elements which are reflected in the dance forms and the participation of the two sexes in the aforementioned dances.

Table 1: comprehensive and comparative table of the form elements of the tsift(e)-teli dance of farassa, kappadokia
Area Name of dance Dancers Use of space Farassa, or Varasos, Kappadokia "ta kousokka" Pair of women antikristos dance free use of space (trading positions full revolutions around body axis Free choreographic structure Relative improvisation based on small variations of the basic dance phrase instrumental accompaniment with lyre (kemane), tamboura-mpoulgari (stringed instruments), daire (defi) songs in the dialect of Farassa (earlier times) or in Turkish "i paigni mo ta houliere" Pair of men antikristos dance free use of space (trading positions full revolutions around body axis Free choreographic structure improvisation based on various alterations the basic dance phrase instrumental accompaniment with lyre (kemane), tamboura-mpoulgari (stringed instruments), daire (defi) songs in the dialect of Farassa (earlier times)

Choreography Form pattern/model Acoustic elements

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Rhythm Tempo Dance motif

4/4 ( . ) or ( . ) slow medium and steady a. Basic dance phrase: [T 1(1/4+1/4+1/4+1/4)] b. Heteromorphy: [T 1( + + +()1 ) + T 2(1/4+1/4+1/4+()11/4)] c. Improvisation (limited)
1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4

or in Turkish idiophone musical instruments (spoons, zilia, rattles) 2/4 or 4/4 ( . ) or ( . ) medium fast a. Basic dance phrase: [ 1(1/8+1/8+1/8+1/8)] b. Heteromorphy: [ 1(1/8+1/8+1/8+()11/8) + 2(1/8+1/8+1/8+()11/8)] c. Improvisation small, abrupt movements frequent stomping of the rhythm on the ground extension of the right (usually) foot body weight supported by whole area of the sole of the foot low leg lifts pauses free movement with characteristic turns rhythmic striking of spoons

Lower limbs

small, simple and shuffling movements

extension of the right (usually) foot body weight supported by whole area of the sole of the foot low leg lifts Upper limbs limited semi-circular movements at head level (as if in an attempt to hide it) with the 2 or 3 first fingers touching at the tips [forming an oval hole (skafida, or kousokka)] unelaborated transverse movements

Torso

transverse movements slinking/shaking of the upper torso (very often with simultaneous pause of movement of lower limbs in half-squat position) bending at the waist relatively restrained movements with short improvisational peaks (without exaggerations) during the dance performance attention to details coordination of upper and lower limb movements alternating movement

Interpretation

simple, restrained movements implying modesty and morality attention to details coordination of upper and lower limb movements alternating movement

Selective Bibliography 1. Buckland, Th. (Ed). (1999). Dance in the Field. Theory, Methods and Issues in Dance Ethnography, Macmillan Press, Great Britain. 2. Gefou-Madianou, D. (1999). (Culture and Etnography). thens: Hellinika Grammata. 3. Giurchesku, A. (1999). "Past and Present in Field Research: A Critical History of Personal Experience". In T. J. Buckland (d.), Dance in the Field. (. 41-54). London: Macmillan Ltd. 4.Hanna, J. (1988). Dance, Sex and Gender. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 5. Holt, T. R. & Turner, E. J. (Eds). (1972). The Methodology of Comparative Research. New York: The Free Press.

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Judo, comunicare i lucru n echip


Conf dr. ION ENE MIRCEA Cuvinte cheie: ncredere, interdependen, responsabilitate, maturitate, echip. Rezumat: Comunicarea prin intermediul sportului ofer ansa stpnirii unui limbaj specific, de cunoatere i autocunoatere, de evaluare, perfecionare, de susinere a speranelor, a proiectelor, a valorificrii experienelor sportive n viaa cotidian. Ea ne d ansa formrii contiinei de sine, a numelui i renumelului, a respectului, a demnitii, a recunoaterii valorii. n anumite condiii asigur orientarea profesional i permite transferul achiziiilor comunicrii i colaborarii n acest plan. Comunicarea prin sport i poate aduce contribuia pe toat durata vieii n influenarea pozitiv a tuturor categoriilor de ceteni. Prin regulamente, disciplin, tipologie, ramurile sportive asigur nivele i direcii diferite de integrare. Sporturile individuale ne apropie, prin obiective de cerinele Eu-ului personal, n timp ce sporturile de echip, ne asigur modele psiho-adaptative integrative relaionale legate de: respect, asigurare, ajutor, responsabilitate fa de sine i fa de grup, colaborare, interaciune, sinergie acional, etc. Rigorile fiecrui sport impun valene educative, etice, estetice, artistice, culturale specifice. n acest context remarcm poziionarea judo-ului ca disciplina n care competiiile sunt organizate att individual ct i pe echipe, practicanii beneficiind de ambele direcii de integrare. Comunicarea prin sport este valorificat din ce n ce mai mult i la nivelul relaional. Site-urile, forum-urile de pe Internet, grupeaz pe zone de interes un numr din ce n ce mai mare de persoane ce doresc s beneficieze de efectele socio-integrative ale sportului. Se dau i se primesc sfaturi de la mii de km., se in lecii on-line. n jurul fenomenului sportiv se ntresc aliane i prietenii ntre persoane de diverse naionaliti. Comunicarea prin sport formeaz conduite, amplific procesul cunoaterii, mediaz rspndirea mesajelor valoroase cum ar fi cele ale micrii Olimpice i nu numai. Ea ofer soluii alternative de manifestare psiho-comportamental pentru situaii diferite de prietenie, colaborare sau adversitate. Comunicarea prin sport ofer dimensiunea unor concepte, stri, soluii, aciuni ce pot fi adaptate: lupt, fair-play, miestrie, antrenament, sacrificiu, ctig, adversar, echip, colaborare, munc, druire, perseveren, voin, eroism, altruism etc. Comunicarea prin sport amplific realitile spiritului sportiv: suntem adversari, suntem lupttori, cunoatem preul victoriei i al nfrngerii, nvm s pierdem i s ctigm, suntem coreci, respectm adversarul, arbitrii i pe noi nine. Atuuri ale comunicrii i colaborrii n echipa sportiv i la locul de munc Beneficiari la nivel formativ ai comunicrii prin sport sunt toi cei aflai n contact cu fluxul informaional: sportivi, antrenori, arbitrii, specialiti, oficiali, organizatori, comentatori, ziariti, spectatori, cititori, oameni de diferite vrste, profesii sau categorii sociale. Comunicarea prin intermediul sportului ofer ansa stpnirii unui limbaj specific, de cunoatere i autocunoatere, de evaluare, perfecionare, de susinere a speranelor, a proiectelor, a valorificrii experienelor sportive n viaa cotidian. Ea ne d ansa formrii

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contiinei de sine, a numelui i renumelului, a respectului, a demnitii, a recunoaterii valorii. n anumite condiii asigur orientarea profesional i permite transferul achiziiilor comunicrii i colaborarii n acest plan. S-au scris multe despre LUCRUL IN ECHIPA, activitate n care se regsesc oameni lucrnd cu bucurie mpreun i avnd drept rezultat o productivitate sporit, spre binele firmei i al lor. Tot ceea ce le trebuie: un anumit nivel de instruire i educaie, un set de exerciii de sudare a colectivului, un scop comun i o serie de obiective. Nu-i putem alege pe cei cu care lucrm zilnic. i s recunoatem cele mai multe locuri de munc sunt departe de a fi lipsite de animoziti ntre angajai. Prin urmare, cum poi ncuraja ncrederea ntr-un cadru n care nu tu ai ales participanii, iar nivelul stresului este ridicat? Comunicare, maturitate, responsabilitate reciproc, interdependen, controlul strii conflictuale, ncredere n capacitatea de a depi obstacolele, asumarea riscurilor i implicare, sunt posibile rspunsuri la aceasta ntrebare. Comunicarea piatra de temelie a oricrei aciuni reuite, incluznd alctuirea unei echipe i ncredere ntre membrii acesteia. Dei este uor s recunoti o comunicare sincer, deschis, e greu s o implementezi. ntr-o echip, fiecare ar trebui ncurajat s vorbeasc deschis ntr-un mod constructiv i fr s-i atace sau denigreze pe colegi, deoarece fiecare vine cu propriul su stil de a comunica. Iari, un lucru important este stabilirea unor reguli ca: Nimic nu iese din camera asta, n afar de cele stabilite de comun acord i care nu sunt tabu. ncrederea va crete mai repede dac fiecare simte c echipa este un forum pentru a-i dezvolta ideile i o fereastr pentru a vedea gndurile celorlali. ncrederea n capacitatea de a depi obstacolele aceast credin sau atitudine pozitiv este crucial pentru succesul unei echipe. Adesea, echipele se formeaz tocmai pentru a depi obstacole i a rezolva probleme. Trebuie s existe o ncredere reciproc n cadrul colectivului. Cine nu crede n noiunea de echip va declana o stare negativ n ceilali, care va irosi timpul i energia echipei. Mai ales dac i se pare c ea este o pierdere de vreme i c nu va merge-n veci. Maturitatea este cheia ncrederii care se cldete odat cu echipa. Cel care aparine unei echipe trebuie s fie suficient de matur pentru a lua n considerare o prere sau o personalitate, n funcie de cum aceasta afecteaz colectivul; nu doar cum l-ar atinge pe fiecare. Maturii sunt capabili i s discearn prerea echipei fa de una dintre ideile lor, n paralel cu opinia echipei fa de ei personal. De asemenea, i pot menine prerea bun despre sine chiar cnd ceilali sunt n dezacord cu ei i nici nu devin isterici, prndu-li-se c echipa vrea s-i termine. Responsabilitatea reciproc nu este un lucru pe care am fost obinuii s-l acceptm la locul de munc. Pornind de pe bncile colii i trecnd prin mai multe locuri de munc, am fost recompensai pentru performanele personale, i nu pentru realizrile grupului. Multor oameni le este greu s recunoasc faptul c reuita i avansarea lor sunt fie i parial meritul celorlali. Adesea, unii nu cred c i colegii lor fac o munc serioas ori de calitate. Interdependena o alt trstur care nu se gsete de-a gata n societatea noastr (cu excepia familiei, n unele cazuri). Suntem nvai s ne ferim de Number One i s nu fim surprini cnd alii ne las de izbelite. Totui, studiile au artat c dou (sau trei, sau patru, sau cinci) capete sunt mai bune dect unul singur. Interdependena este extrem de important pentru bunul mers al unei echipe, fiindc nici un membru al ei nu valoreaz ct ntreaga echip. Controlul strii conflictuale din pcate, prea des totul se preschimb ntr-o ncercare de evitare. Membrii unei echipe i dau seama c este cu mult mai bine s se ocupe din vreme de un conflict, atunci cnd st s izbucneasc, dect s-l lase s se umfle odat cu

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trecerea timpului. Puinul disconfort care este resimit acum este minor fa de o izbucnire de mai trziu. ncrederea nu poate nflori ntr-o atmosfer ostil. ntr-o echip, fiecare membru vine cu un stil diferit de a controla starea conflictual. Este foarte important s se stabileasc nite reguli de baz pentru grup i cel mai important lucru va fi s se in sub control toate disputele ntrun mod ct se poate de prompt. De fapt, lipsa unui acord de preri este o component natural i sntoas a procesului de constituire a echipei, dac este controlat aa cum se cuvine. Asumarea riscurilor ca afinitate e n strns legtur cu cele de pn acum. Toate noiunile discutate anterior implic i asumarea unui risc oarecare. Oamenii se pot mpotrivi celor care risc, fie prin natura lor, fie datorit unor experiene trecute. Pentru unii, asumarea riscurilor este dificil, existnd teama s nu le fie furate ideile. Succesul i bunul mers al unei echipe const n obinuina fiecrui membru de a-i asuma un anume risc, pentru a lsa loc ncrederii s se dezvolte. Implicarea preocuparea pentru alctuirea unei echipe este la ndemna oricui i este necesar la consolidarea ncrederii. Dac lipsete mcar un singur fir, mnunchiul va avea de suferit. Toi trebuie s fie ncredinai c vin la lucru gata pregtii i concentrai asupra problemelor de rezolvat. n sfrit, adevraii lideri de echip vor acorda mai mult atenie faptelor i mai puin spuselor. Nu poi cldi ncredere i bun reputaie numai pe planuri. Sa nu uitam ca la baza structurrii i consolidrii unei echipe stau respectul, onestitatea, politeea, seriozitatea, prietenia, curajul, autocontrol, modestia, sinceritatea, ntrajutorarea, ntr-un cuvnt CODUL MORAL, att de apreciat de practicanii artelor mariale, a judo-ului n mod deosebit.

Bibliografie selectiv:
1. Cucos, Ctin., (coord.), 1998, Psihopedagogie, Ed. Polirom, Iasi 2. Dave, R., H., 1991, ( n traducere), Fundamentele educatiei permanente, Ed..Didactica si Pedagogica, R. A., Bucuresti. 3. Delors, J., (coord.), 2000, (n traducere), Comoara launtrica, , Ed.. Polirom, Iasi 4. Mihailescu, L., 2008, Calitate n educatie - o abordare pragmatica, Caled 1, Ed.Universitatea din Pitesti 5.Vaideanu, G., 1988, Educatia la frontiera dintre milenii, Ed.Politica, Bucuresti 6. Vaideanu, G.,1996, UNESCO 50 Educatie, Ed.. Didactica si Pedagogica, R. A.,Bucuresti

Judo, communication and team working


Key words: trust, interdependence, responsability, maturity, team. Summary: Communication by sports offers the chance of having a specific language of knowing and selfknowing valuation, improvement supporting hopes, projects, putting to good use of the sport experiences in the daily life. It gives us the chance of building the self conscience, of the name and fame, respect, dignity, knowing the real value. In certain conditions it guarantees the professional orientation and it allows the transfer of the communication acquisitions and of colaboration in this plan.

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The communication by sports can contribute all life long to the positive influence of all the citizens categories. By rules, discipline, typology, the sports domains guarantee different levels and directions of integration. The individual sports have such targets which help us to be near the personal I requirement, while the team sports guarantee patterns of psycho adaptation, of relations concerning: respect, help, self responsability, concerning the group, collaboration, interaction and so on. The rigourousity of every sport asks for specific cultural, educative, ethical, artistic values. So we see judo as the discipline with individual and group competitions where the players have both integration directions. The communication by sports is turned to account more and more at the level of relations too. The sites and forums on Internet present a great number of people who want to profit by the integrative-social effects of sports. Pieces of advice are given and received from thousands of km, there are lessons online. Friendship among different nationalities is created by sports. Sport communication contributes to a good behavior, amplifies the knowledge process, help people to participate to the Olympic Games and that is not all. It offers alternative solutions of behavior manifestations for different friendship situations and partnership. The sport communication offers the following concepts: states, solutions, adapted actions fight, fair-play, skillfulness, training, sacrifice, winning, opponent, team, collaboration, work, love for sports, tenacity will, heroism, altruism. The sport communication amplifies the realities of the sportive spirit: we are opponents, we are fighters, we learn to loose and to win, we are honest, we have respect for the opponent, the referee and for ourselves. The trumps of communication and collaboration in the sport team and for the working place. Formative level of customer communication through sports are all those in contact with the flow of information: athletes, coaches, officials, experts, organizers, commentators, journalists, spectators, readers, people of different ages, professions and social categories. Communication offers a chance domination through sport-specific language, knowledge and self-awareness, evaluation, improvement, supporting the hopes, the Projects, the capitalization of sports in everyday life experiences. It gives us a chance formation of selfconsciousness of the name and fame, respect, the dignity, the recognition of the value. In certain circumstances provide guidance for transferring procurement professional communication and cooperation in this plan. Have written a lot about team work, which included business people working together and having a happy result improved productivity for the good of the company and their own. Everything they need: a certain level of training and education, a set of welding team exercises, a common purpose and a series of objectives. We can not choose who work with daily. And recognize most of the jobs are far from being devoid of animosity among the employees. Therefore, how to encourage trust in a setting where you did not choose the participants, and the stress level is high? Communication, maturity, mutual responsibility, interdependence, conflict state control, confidence in the ability to overcome obstacles, risk-taking and involvement, are possible answers to this question. Communication The ground team and trust among members. While it is easy to recognize an honest communication, opened it is difficult to implement it a team, everyone

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would be encouraged to talk openly in a constructive way and without attacking or denigrate colleagues because each comes with its own style of communicating. Again, the important thing is to establish rules like nothing comes out of this room, except for those agrees and not taboo. Confidence will grow faster if each feels the team is a forum to develop ideas and a window to see the othersthoughts.. Confidence in the ability to overcome obstacles this belief or positive attitude is crucial to the success of a team. Often, teams are formed precisely to overcome obstacles and solve problems. There must be mutual trust in the team. Who does not believe in the notion of team will trigger a negative feeling it is a waste of time and it will not work forever. Maturity is a key that builds trust with the team. One who belongs to a team must be mature enough to consider an idea or personality, depending on how it affects the team, not just how it would touch everyone. Adults are able to discern from a team think opposite their ideas, along with the opinion of the team. Also, they can maintain their good opinion of themselves even when others disagree with them and not become hysterical, thinking that the team wants to finish them. Mutual responsibility not something we were accustomed to accept at work. Starting in school and going through several jobs, we were rewarded for our personal performances, and not for achievements group. Many people find it difficult to recognize that their success and promotion even partial the others merit. Often people dont think that their collegues do a serious work of quality. Interdependency another feature not found ready-made in our society (except the family, in some cases). We learned to stay away from number one and not be surprised when others abandon us. However, studies have shown that two (or three, or four, or five) heads are better that one. Interdependence is extremely important for the good of a team, because no member of it not worth the whole team. The control of conflicting state unfortunately, all too often is changed in an attempt to erupt when standing, than to let it swell over time. Which is now felt little discomfort is minor compared to a later outburst. Trust can not flourish is a hostile atmosphere. One team, each member brings a different style to control the state conflict. It is very important to keep under control all disputes in a timely manner as possible. In fact, no agreement of opinion is a natural and healthy part of the process of establishing the team, if controlled as properly. Taking risks affinity is in close touch with so far. All concepts discussed before involves some risk-taking. People may resist those who take risks, either by their nature or because of past experiences. For some, taking Risks is difficult, being afraid their ideas not to be stolen. The success and smooth running of a team consists of each members habit of assuming some risk, to leave room to develop confidence. Involvement concern for the composition of a team is available to everyone and it is necessary to strengthen confidence. If missing even one thread, bunch will suffer. We all need to be confident that we come to work ready and prepared to resolve problems. Finally, the true leaders, will pay more attention to facts and less words. You cant only build trust and reputation but on the plans. Do not forget that the basis for structuring and consolidation of a team are respect, honesty, politeness, seriousness, friendship, courage, self-control, modesty, sincerity, helping, in a word MORAL CODE, so appreciated by trainees of martial arts, judo in the particular.

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STUDIU COMPARATIV PRIVIND CRETEREA I DEZVOLTAREA FIZIC A COPIILOR DE VRST COLAR ATT DIN MEDIUL URBAN CT I DIN MEDIUL RURAL N CORELAIE CU FACTORII DE MEDIU I SOCIOECONOMICI
Masterand Srbu Oana-Alexandra FEFS Galai Cuvinte cheie: cretere, dezvoltare fizic, copii de vrst colar, factori de mediu, factori socio-economici. Rezumat: Creterea i dezvoltarea copiilor reprezint una dintre problemele de biologie uman cu deosebit semnificaie teoretic i practic. Elementul esenial care deosebete copilul de adult este tocmai acest proces complex al creterii i dezvoltrii. Una din etapele importante ale dezvoltrii organismului uman este adolescena care debuteaz n jurul vrstei de 10 ani. Etapa pubertar (colar mijlociu) difer pe sexe: 10 ani la fete (10 - 14 ani); 12 ani la biei (11 16 ani), etap n care copilul crete brusc, apoi creterea ncetinete, toate segmentele corpului cresc concomitent, se dezvolt musculatura i crete fora fizic. Introducere: Creterea este un proces unic pentru fiecare copil, ncadrndu-se, n limite largi, n ceea ce se cheam normalitate. Principalii indicatori de cretere sunt talia, greutatea, perimetrul cranian, dar se mai pot aduga perimetrul toracic i msurtorile segmentare. Dezvoltarea fizic a copiilor prezint unul din cei mai importani indici ai sntii organismului n cretere i reprezint totalitatea capacitilor morfologice i funcionale ale organismului, care caracterizeaz procesul de cretere i dezvoltare. n aprecierea creterii se folosesc, de regul, criterii cantitative: uor, greu, mic, mare, scund, nalt. Dezvoltarea se apreciaz folosind criteriile calitative. Se poate vorbi de o dezvoltare bun, rea, rapid, lent, timpurie, ntrziat. Motivaia alegerii temei: Avnd n vedere faptul c n zona judeului Galai nu exist studii privind ritmul de cretere i dezvoltare a copiilor de vrst colar i nici corelaii privind modul n care factorii de mediu i socio-economici influeneaz creterea i dezvoltarea, considerm necesar efectuarea unui studiu longitudinal care s urmreasc ritmul de cretere i dezvoltare fizic a copiilor de ciclu gimnazial n corelaie cu factorii de mediu i socioeconomici. Scopul lucrrii: Studiul de fa reprezint o etap intermediar a unui studiu longitudinal ce se desfoar n decursul a 4 ani avnd ca obiectiv primar evaluarea factorilor ce influeneaz ritmul de cretere i dezvoltare a copiilor de vrst colar. Aadar, scopul lucrrii de fa este de evaluare a ritmului de cretere i dezvoltare a copiilor de vrst colar n corelaie cu factorii de mediu, socio-economici i cu nivelul de activitate fizic. Ipoteza de lucru: Privind creterea i dezvoltarea sub aspect fizic a copiilor de vrst colar, presupunem c factorii de mediu i socio-economici pot influena pozitiv sau negativ aceste procese.

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Materialul de studiu i metode de cercetare folosite: Aceast lucrare se ntemeiaz pe studiul a 909 copii, toi din judeul Galai, cu vrste cuprinse ntre 10 i 16 ani, dintre care 749 din mediul urban i 160 din mediul rural (localitile Bneasa i Vrlezi). Acest studiu s-a bazat pe urmtoarele evalurii: - antropometrice:nlime, greutate corporal, nlime eznd, diametru biacromial, diametru bitrohanterian, diametru transvers-toracic, diametru toracic antero-posterior. Pe baza datelor antropometrice s-a calculat indicele Quetelet (BMI sau IMC), fiind considerat de ctre OMS drept criteriu fundamental n evaluarea creterii copiilor cu vrste cuprinse ntre 2-20 de ani. Pentru analiza evoluiei indicelui Quetelet am recurs la metoda percentililor, metod recomandat de ctre OMS. De asemenea s-au efectuat evaluri n ceea ce privete nivelul de noxe atmosferice din zona de reedin i evaluarea nivelului de activitate fizic indicele de activitate fizic (metoda chestionarului). Prelucrarea statistic a rezultatelor s-a efectuat separat pentru fiecare din cele dou loturi de subieci, n funcie de sex i categoria de vrst, astfel: Din figurile nr. 1 i 2 se constat c aproximativ o treime din copiii studiai n aceast etap nu sunt dezvoltai normal, fie ei subponerali (3,89%), supraponderali i obezi (27,23%).

Stare ponderala Baieti 2009-2010


subponderali, 3.89

suprponderali&ob ezi, 27.23

normoponderali, 68.88

Figura nr. 1
Stare ponderala Fete 2009-2010

supraponderal si obezi 19%

subponderal, 4%

normoponderal, 77%

Figura nr. 2

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n ceea ce privete graficul nr. 1 constatm c ponderea cea mai ridicat de fete/biei, obezi i supraponderali o ntlnim n zonele periferice ale oraului Galai iar cea mai sczut n mediul rural.

Grafic comparativ stare ponderala fete/baieti pe zone 2009-2010


35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3

supraponderali&obezi fete supraponderali&obezi baieti

centru

periferie

rural

Graficul nr. 1 Analiznd graficul nr. 2 constatm c fetele (20%) sunt mai sedentare dect bieii (18%) n studiul realizat n perioada 2009-2010.
Grafic com parativ privind indicele de activitate n funcie de sex 2009-2010 60,0% 40,0% 20,0% 0,0% masculin feminin

foarte sedentar

sedentar

activ

foarte activ

Graficul nr. 2 n urma desfurrii acestei cercetri tiinifice, din datele obinute dorim s punctm urmtoarele concluzii: Factorii care influeneaz semnificativ ritmul creterii i dezvoltrii sunt: vrsta, sexul, mediul (urban, rural) i nivelul de activitate fizic. Mai mult de o treime din lotul studiat este sedentar i foarte sedentar cu un procentaj mai ridicat la fete. Copiii studiai de noi cresc difereniat n decursul intervalul 10-16 ani i i modific succesiv proporiile corporale, fenomene ce vor duce in final la realizarea conformaiei dismorfice exprimate, n general prin dimensiuni mai mari la sexul masculin fa de cel feminin. Datorit pubertii mai precoce, fetele ntre 12-14 ani sunt mai nalte dect bieii, iar bieii n aceast perioad nu i realizeaz nc caracterele lor dismorfice.

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Propuneri: n urma rezultatelor obinute din studiul de fa, punctm anumite propuneri i msuri de combatere n acest sens: Promovarea utilizrii n condiii de siguran a transportului public i micare activcum ar fi bicicleta sau mersul pe jos, ca alternative la folosirea vehiculelor personale ar putea reduce emisiile de dioxid de carbon i mbuntirea sntii publice. Aadar, reducerea emisiilor de gaze cu efect de ser sau diminuarea impactului asupra sntii de schimbrile ar putea avea efecte pozitive asupra sntii; Promovarea activitii fizice sistematice prin intervenia kinetoterapeutic i a profesorului de educaie fizic n aceast perioad, a pubertii ar putea influena pozitiv evoluia strii de sntate, mai ales c intervenia kinetoterapeutului are rolul de a antrena ntregul corp n micare i de a pregtii organismul copilului pentru efort; Dat fiind importana unei bune respiraii n vederea meninerii strii de sntate a organismului i pentru buna lui dezvoltare n perioada de cretere i dezvoltare, recomandm i un program de gimnastic respiratorie; De aceea consider c prin exerciiile specifice pe care le ofer, kinetoterapia este o soluie pentru problemele de sntate ale copiilor din perioada pubertar i nu numai, nvndu-i n acelai timp c micarea reprezint un mod de via sntos i armonios. Bibliografie: Alexandrescu, Constantin - Igiena i controlul medical n sport. Ed. C.N.E.F.S, 1967, pag. 67-80 Antal, Andrei. Igiena colar - Teoria i practica promovrii sntii copiilor i tinerilor din colectiviti. Andrei Antal; Colaboratori-consultani M. Deleanu ; Magda Farkas, Ed. A 2-a revzut i completat: Bucureti: Editura Medical, 1978. pag. 3761 Creterea normal i dezvoltarea armonioas a corpului. Ed. Consilului Naional pentru educaie fizic i sport, Bucuretei, 1968. pag. 104118

Ionescu, Adrian N, Mazilu, Virgil -

COMPARATIVE REASERCH ON GROWTH AND PHISICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN BOTH IN URBAN AND IN RURAL AREAS AND THE CORRELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND SOCIAL FACTORS ECONOMIC
Masterand Srbu Oana-Alexandra FEFS Galatzi Keywords: growth, physical development, school age children, environmental factors, social factors economic. Summary: Growth and development of children is one of the problems of human biology with a particular theoretical and practical significance. The essential element that distinguishes the adult child is just the growth and development complex process. One of the important development of human body stages is adolescence wich begins around age of 10

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years. Pubertal stage (middle school) differ depending on sex: 10 years for girls (10-14 years); 12 years for boys (11-16 years), stage in wich the child grows sharply, then growth slows, all body segments simultaneously grow, develop muscles and increase physical strength. Introduction: Growth is a unique process for each child, fits in large limits, in what is called normality. The main indicators of growth are size, weight, head perimeter, but may be supplemented and chest perimeter and segmentation measurements. Physical development of children presents one of the major indices rising health body and represent all morphological and functional capacity of the body, characterizing the growth and development process.

In estimating the growth used usually, quantitative criteria: easy, hard, small, large, short, tall. Development is assessed using qualitative criteria. Is there a good, bad, fast, slow, early, late development. Motivation for choosing the theme: Considering that in the Galati county area, there is no research on the growth and development of the school age children and no correlation on how environmental factors and socio-economic affect growth and development, we consider necessary conducting a longitudinal research to pursue the growth and physical development of children from gymnasium cycle correlated with environmental factors and soio-economic. The aim of research: This research represents an intermediate stage of a longitudinal research that takes place within 4 years, primarily aimed at evaluating factors influencing the growth and development of the school age children. Therefore, the aim of this research is to assess the pace of growth and development of school age children correlated with environmental factors, socio-economic and the level of physical activity. The hypothesis of research: We suppose that environmental factors and socio-economic may influence positively or negatively the growth and development. Material and research methods used: This research is based on a sample of 909 children of secondary school, aged between 10 and 16 years of whom 749 urban and 160 rural (Baneasa and Varlezi localities) and on the following assessment: - anthropometric: height, weight, sitting height, biacromial diameter, bitrohanterian dimeter, transverse thoracic diameter, anterior-posterior chest diameter. Anthropometric data was calculated based on Quetelet index (BMI- body mass index) being considered by WHO as a fundamental criterion in assessing growth of child aged between 2 and 20 years. For analysis of changes in Quetelet index we used the percentile method, the method recommended by WHO. The ratings also were made regarding the level of air pollutants in the area of residence and assessing the physical activity level physical activity index (questionnaire methode). Statistical processing of results was performed separately for each of the two groups of subjects according to sex and age group, thus: In figures 1 and 2 it can be noted that approximately one third of the children studied at this stage are not developing normally, whether underweight (3,89%), overweight and obese (27,23%).

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Status share for boys


underweight overweight&obese
27.23 %

3.89%

normal weight
68.88%

Figure number 1

Status share for girls


overweight&obese 19%

underweight
4%

normal weight
77%

Figure number 2

Regarding drawing number 1 note that the highest ratio of girls/boys, obese and overweight we meet the outskirts of town Galati and lowest in rural areas.

Status share for girls/boys by area 2009-2010


35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3

supraponderali&obezi fete supraponderali&obezi baieti

center

periphery

rural

Drawing number 1

Analyzing drawing number 2 we find that girls (20%) are more sedentary than boys (18%) in the study conducted in 2009-2010.

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Comparision chart of physical activity index by sex 2009-2010


60,0% 40,0% 20,0% 0,0% male female

very sedentary

sedentary

active

very active

Drawing number 2

After carrying out the scientific research of data we want to point the following conclusions: Factors that influence the pace of growth and development are: age, gender, environment (urban, rural) and level of physical activity. More than one third of the research group is very sedentary and sedentary with a higher percentage for girls; Children studied further increase differences during the period 10-16 years and their body proportions change successively, phenomena which will eventually lead to achieving dismorfic conformation cast, generally the larger male to female; Due to early puberty, girls between 12-14 years are higher than boys and boys in this period not yet made their dismorfic characters.

Suggestions: Taking into account this research we point some proposals and control measures in this regard: Promoting the safe use of public transportation and active movement, such as cycling or walking as alternatives to using private vehicles could reduce carbon dioxide emissions and improving public health. Therefore, reducing greenhouse gas could have positive effects on health; Promoting physical activity through systematic intervation by physical therapist and physical education teacher at this period, could positively influence the development of health, especially since physical therapist intervation is to train the entire body and to prepare for the effort the body of the child; Given the importance of a good breathing to maintain the body health and for his proper development during growth and development, we recommend a respiratory exercise program too; Through specific exercises that it offers, physical therapy is a solution for health problems of children and not only during pubertary, teaching them in the same time that movement is a healthy lifestyle and balanced.

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ASPECTE IMAGISTICE ALE COMPLICAIILOR RAHIDIENE POSTOPERATORII Lect dr. Marinescu Rodica Cuvinte cheie: biomecanica , postoperator fibroza epidurala, spondilo-discita, laminectomie, imagistica prin rezonanta magnetica, meningocel Rezumat: Coloana vertebral constituie axul de susinere a ntregului schelet al corpului. n ansamblul ei este un complex de vertebre cu diversele lor legturi (articulaii, cartilaje, ligamente). Unitatea funcional n biomecanica coloanei vertebrale este segmentul motor. Examenul prin rezonan magnetic a segmentului vertebro-medular a devenit n multe situaii examenul de prim intenie, deoarece este neiradiant, neinvaziv i permite examenul tuturor compartimentelor. Cele mai frecvente complicatii postoperatorii sunt : fibroza peridurala, arahnoidita, spondilodiscita, pseudomeningocelul si sindromul de hipotensiune intracraniana spontana 1. Noiuni generale de anatomie i biomecanic a coloanei vertebrale Coloana vertebral constituie axul de susinere a ntregului schelet al corpului. n ansamblul ei este un complex de vertebre cu diversele lor legturi (articulaii, cartilaje, ligamente). Coloana este mprit n cinci segmente, dup criterii anatomice, biomecanice, patologice, etc. ntre cele cinci segmente enunate, se remarc zonele intermediare, tranziionale, numite i zone de jonciune. Acestea sunt: - jonciunea occipito-cervical (C0-C2); - jonciunea cervico-toracal (C7-T1); - jonciunea toraco-lombar (T12-L1); - jonciunea lombo-sacrat (L5- sacru). Unitatea funcional n biomecanica coloanei vertebrale este segmentul motor, denumit astfel de ctre Junghanns i cuprinde totalitatea formaiunilor disco-ligamentare dintre dou corpuri vertebrale, pe care le solidarizeaz i le confer mobilitate. 2. Tehnica examenului IRM verterbro-medular Examenul prin rezonan magnetic a segmentului vertebro-medular a devenit n multe situaii examenul de prim intenie, deoarece este neiradiant, neinvaziv i permite examenul tuturor compartimentelor (osos, epidural, intradural i medular), precum i examinarea multiplanar. O examinare standard trebuie s cuprind secvene sagitale T1 i T2, secvene rapide de tipul T2 FSE, seciuni coronale T1 sau T2, axiale T2 sau T2*, secvene STIR i administrare de contrast i.v. Grosimea seciunilor trebuie s fie adaptat regiunii examinate. Astfel, grosimea va fi de 4mm pentru coloana cervical, 4-5mm pentru regiunea toracal i 56mm pentru coloana lombar. Se utilizeaz benzi anterioare de presaturare. Antenele folosite sunt de tip body i antene de suprafa. Cele de tip body sunt ncorporate n gantry i au rol de emisie i de recepie, iar cele de suprafa au numai rol de recepie.

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3. Aspecte normale postoperatorii Urmtoarele imagini pot apare n mod normal n perioada postoperatorie a unei hernii discale: - hemilaminectomie cu absena ligamentelor galbene i eventual rezecia parial a faetei articulare superioare; - laminotomie; - esut cicatriceal pe traiectul abordului chirurgical; -deformarea sacului dural asemntor cu perioada preoperatorie, n primele trei sptmni; - imagini n hipersemnal n regiunea curetat, vizibile pe seciunile axiale, cu priz de contrast; - ncrcare heterogen a spaiului epidural, a zonei de laminectomie, a faetelor articulare, tecilor nervoase i a esutului muscular adiacent, ncrcare care poate persista pn la o lun; - mici colecii hemoragice n spaiul epidural; - remanieri inflamatorii ale platourilor vertebrale; -artefacte prin susceptibilitate magnetic a microparticulelor metalice de pe traiectul operator. 4. Imagistica unor complicaii postoperatorii Fibroza peridural Reprezint o cicatrice aprut postintervenie chirurgical pe coloana lombar i este responsabil de 10% din cauzele durerii recurente de dup discectomie. Ea este situat n continuitatea cicatricei de pe calea de abord chirurgical. Patogenez- extinderea fibrozei e posibil legat e extinderea inciziei chirurgicale, precum i de rspunsul inflamator al gazdei. esutul cicatriceal comprim, irit i exercit o traciune anormal pe rdcinile nervoase. n acelai timp, aportul sanguin este compromis i transportul axoplasmic ntrerupt. Aspect IRM de reinut c n fazele iniiale este greu de difereniat imagistic o fibroz epidural patologic de o reacie cicatriceal reparatorie, fiziologic ; deaceea se prefer examinare dup 4-6 sptmni postoperator. Se observ infiltrarea grsimii epidurale i perineurale de ctre structuri cu semnal de esut moale. Uneori poate s mbrace aspect tumoral i s exercite efect de mas asupra sacului dural i a rdcinilor nervoase (trama de esut de colagen are aspect hipertrofic). La nceput, semnalul este intermediar T1 i hiperintens T2, iar dup 2-3 luni cnd ncepe organizarea scleroas, apare hiposemnal T1 i se menine hipersemnalul T2. Caracteristic este ntrirea semnalului imediat postcontrast. Aceast ntrire postGd prezint acuratee de aproximativ 96% n ceea ce privete diferenierea fibrozei de hernia de disc recurent. Un fragment discal se poate ncrca i el cu substan de contrast, dar mult mai trziu. Supresia grsimii pre- i post- contrast, poate s cresc sensibilitatea. Gadolinofilia fibrozei este maxim la o lun postoperator, iar dup 6-14 luni apare semnal de tip fibros.

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Pseudomeningocelul Se mai numete i dehiscen dural sau pseudochist i reprezint un chist spinal nedelimitat de meninge, care se continu cu sacul tecal. Se formeaz prin hernierea arahnoidei printr-o bre dural, aprut cel mai adesea postoperator. Poate fi i o complicaie posttraumatic i n acest caz nu sunt elemente nervoase. Pseudomeningocelul postoperator poate conine elemente nervoase. Patogenez- posttraumatic, cel mai frecvent prin avulsia rdcinii cervicale sau postoperator prin dilacerare dural, cu scurgerea LCR-ului. Aspect imagistic chist spinal cu semnal lichidian identic cu LCR-ul i aspect pediculat la inseria sa dural. Orientarea este de-a lungul inciziei i poate conine elemente nervoase herniate. Comunicarea cu sacul tecal se demonstreaz folosind T2 axial i sagital. Post contrast semnalul se intensific doar dac este inflamat sau infectat. Totui se poate observa ntrire i ngroare dural cranian i spinal la pacienii cu hipotensiune LCR simptomatic. ntre rdcinile nervoase i pseudomeningocel se pot forma aderene. Pseudochistul poate fi compresiv dac are dimensiuni crescute. Secvenele ponderate T2 sau FSE IR sunt cele mai bune pentru a demonstra existena pseudomeningocelului i pentru a localiza comunicarea sa dural. Examenul trebuie completat cu seciuni axiale subiri. Diagnosticul diferenial se face cu : - meningocelul adevrat (nu are istoric traumatic sau chirurgical i adesea coexist cu displazia dural); - neurofibromul plexiform (nu apare la fel de strlucitor ca LCR-ul i se ncarc postcontrast); - colecii lichidiene seroase sau abcese dezvoltate n musculatura paraspinal (nu comunic cu sacul dural); - ectazii laterale ale sacului dural n zona de laminectomie pe traiectul operator. Spondilo-discita Spondilo-discita postoperatorie este de obicei inflamatorie i se instaleaz n intervalul 1sptmn-3 luni. Aspectul IRM modificrile sunt de tip lichidian, n hiposemnal T1 i hipersemnal T2 , cu captarea substanei de contrast, la care se poate asocia edem i gadolinofilie epidural i paravertebral. Se consider patologic ncrcarea platourilor vertebrale adiacente discectomiei dup 6 sptmni de la actul operator. Modificrile degenerative tip ModicI nu se ncarc cu contrast sau se ncarc foarte puin. Sindromul de hipotensiune intracranian spontan (SIH) Acest sindrom const n presiune sczut a LCR-ului, cu congestie venoas compensatorie. Poate fi: spontan, traumatic sau iatrogen (dup puncie lombar, postchirurgical). Patogenie scderea presiunii LCR precipitat prin: - manevre chirurgicale; - traumatisme; - exerciii fizice intense sau tuse violent; - puncii lombare; - anomalii ale durei (sdr. Marfan); - diverticul arahnoidian rupt; - deshidratare sever.

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Sindromul este de dou ori mai frecvent la femei, cu un vrf de vrst de 30-40 ani. Aspecte imagistice examenul IRM evideniaz ngroarea durei, mrirea venelor epidurale i colecie de lichid n izosemnal cu LCR-ul. n ponderaie T1 se pune n eviden lichid izointens cu LCR ventral i anterolateral, eventual fenomenul de flow voids. n ponderaie T2 apare lichid extraaxial n izosemnal LCR (poate fi hiperintens n PD) i se poate observa diverticul arahnoidian. Dup administrarea de gadolinium se constat captare intens, plex venos mult lrgit, ngroare dural variabil i captare a substanei de contrast. Secvenele STIR sau ponderate T2 cu FS pot pune n eviden diverticuli arahnoidieni (adesea multipli) i pot demonstra scurgerea LCR. Se recomand mai nti examinare cerebral, care poate arta: - ngroarea durei i gadolinofilie; - sagging midbrain; - hernie tonsilar; - hygrom subdural. Se va avea n vedere c nu toate cazurile prezint toate caracteristicile clasice de diagnostic. Diagnosticul diferenial se face cu: - alte cauze de lrgire a plexului venos (anevrisme, tromboza venei jugulare, congestie venoas deasupra stenozei spinale de grad nalt); - pahimeningopatii (abcese epidurale). Arahnoidita Produce aderene ale rdcinilor nervoase, care par acolate pe sacul dural, conferindu-i un contur neregulat. Inflamaia meningelui l face s apar ngroat i cu semnal crescut postcontrast. n cazurile avansate, rdcinile sunt deformate i pot fi confundate cu tumori ale tecilor nervoase. n timp se pot forma chiste arahnoidiene care s comunice sau nu cu spaiile subarahnoidiene. BIBLIOGRAFIE 1. Brant- Zawadzki, M.;Norman D.; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Central Nervous System- Raven Press New York-1997; 2. Exergian Fl.; Tratat de patologie spinal Bucureti , 2004; 3. Mihi I.; Opri L; IRM vertebro- medular; - Bucureti 2000; 4. Rohen; Color Atlas of Anatomy Lippincott WW-2003; 5. Stoller; Pocket Radiologist- Musculoskeletal; - Saunders- 2002. IMAGING ASPECTS OF POSTOPERATIVE SPINAL COMPLICATIONS

Keywords: biomechanics, postoperative epidural fibrosis, spondylo disk, laminectomy, magnetic resonance imaging, meningocele Abstract: The spine is the axis of support of the entire skeleton of the body. The whole complex is connected with their different vertebrae (joints, cartilage, ligaments). Biomechanics of the spine functional unit is the engine segment. Magnetic resonance examination of the spine segment in many instances become the first choice examination because it is irradiated, and allows noninvasive examination of all compartments. The most common postoperative complications are epidural fibrosis, Arachnoiditis, spondylo-disk pseudomeningocelul spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome

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1. General knowledge of anatomy and biomechanics of the spine The spine is the axis of support of the entire skeleton of the body. The whole complex is connected with their different vertebrae (joints, cartilage, ligaments). The column is divided into five segments, anatomical criteria, biomechanics, pathology, etc.. Among the five sections mentioned, it is noted in intermediate, transitional, called junction zones they are: - Occipito-cervical junction (C0-C2); - Cervico-thoracic junction (C7-T1); - Thoraco-lumbar junction (T12-L1); - Lumbo-sacral junction (L5-sacred). The functional unit in the biomechanics of the spine is engine segment, so named by Junghanns and includes all formations disco-ligament between two vertebral bodies, which are common cause and give them mobility. 2. MRI technique verterbro-marrow examination: Magnetic resonance examination of the spine segment has become in many cases examination of first choice because it is irradiated, and allows noninvasive examination of all compartments (bone, epidural and spinal intradural) and many planar examination. A standard examination should include sagittal T1 and T2 sequences, a sequence type T2 ESF, T1 or T2 coronal sections, axial T2 or T2 * sequences ESRF and iv contrast administration should be appropriate thickness sections of the region considered. Thus, thickness is 4mm to cervical spine, thoracic Region 4-5mm and 5-6mm for the lumbar spine. Previous bands of presaturation are used. The antennas used are of the body type surface antennas. The type body are incorporated into the gantry and act as transmission and reception, and those are only part of the reception area. 3. Normal postoperative aspects The following images may appear normal in the postoperative period of a disc hernia: - Hemilaminectomie yellow ligament and the absence of any partial resection of superior articular facet; - - Laminotomie; - - Scar tissue on the surgical approach path; - Dural sack deformation which is like during the preoperative period, in the first three weeks; - hipersemnal images in the region cleaned visible on axial sections with contrast setting; - heterogeneous loading of the epidural space, the area of laminectomy, the facet joints, nerve and muscle sheaths adjacent loading may persist up to a month; - Small collections of bleeding in the epidural space; - reshuffle inflammatory vertebral plateaus; - magnetic susceptibility artifacts through the metal micro-controller path. 4. Imaging of postoperative complications Epidural fibrosis Represents a surgical scar on the lumbar spine appeared postsurgery and is responsible for 10% of cases of recurrent pain after discectomy. It is located in the path continuity scar surgical approach. Pathogenesis- the extension of fibrosis is possible in connection with the extension of the surgical incision, and with the hostess inflammatory response. Scar tissue compress, irritate

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and exercise abnormal traction on the nerve roots. At the same time, the blood supply is compromised and interrupted axoplasmic transport. MRI Appearance - please note that in the early stages is difficult to distinguish epidural fibrosis imaging a pathological reparative scar reaction, physiological, therefore it is preferred examination after 4-6 weeks postoperatively. Observe epidural fat and perineural infiltration by soft tissue structures with signal. Sometimes it could take part and exert tumor mass effect on the dural sack and nerve roots (the texture looks hypertrophic collagen tissue). In the beginning,it is intermediate T1 signal and hyperintense T2 and after 2-3 months when the organization begins sclera appears hiposemnal T1 and T2 is maintained. Characteristic is to strengthen the immediate postcontrast signal. This strength has postGd approximately 96% accuracy in the differentiation of recurrent disc herniation fibrosis. A disc fragment can be loaded with contrast too, but much later. Fat suppression pre-and post-contrast, may increase sensitivity. Gadolinofilia fibrosis is maximum one month after surgery and after 6-14 months signs of fiber type appear. Pseudomeningocelul Also known as dural dehiscence is a cyst or pseudocyst and unlimited spinal meningitis, which continues to tecal bag. It is formed by arachnoid herniation through a dural hole, occured most often after surgery. It can be a traumatic complication and in this case there are not nervous elements. Pseudomeningocelul surgery may contain nerve elements. Pathogenesis-trauma, most commonly by cervical root avulsion or postoperative dural through dilacerare with CSF leakage site. Aspect imaging - spinal cyst with fluid signal identical to LRC and pediculated aspect in the dural insertion. Orientation is along the incision and may contain nerve elements hernia. Communication tecal bag is demonstrated using axial and sagittal T2. Post contrast enhances the signal only if it is inflamed or infected. However, it is apparent hardening and thickening of cranial and spinal dural hypotension in patients with symptomatic CSF. Between pseudomeningocel nerve roots can form adhesions. Pseudocyst may be compressive if the size is increased. ESF IR or T2-weighted sequences are the best to prove the existence and to locate pseudomeningocelului dural communication. The exam must be completed by axial thin sections. The differential diagnosis is made with: - Meningocele true (not traumatic or surgical history, and often coexists with dural dysplasia); - Plexiform neurofibroma (does not appear as bright as LCR and it is postcontrast loaded); - Serous fluid collections or abscesses developed in paraspinal muscles (not communicating with the dural sack); - Ectasis on sides of the dural sack in the area of laminectomy on the operator path. Spondylo disk Spondylo disk postoperative is usually inflammatory and it is installed within 1week-3 months.

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MRI appearance - changes are fluid type in hiposemnal hipersemnal T1 and T2, with the capture of the contrast, which may be associated edema and epidural and paravertebral gadolinofilie. It is considered pathological loading shelves adjacent vertebral discectomiei act after 6 weeks from the surgery act. Modici degenerative changes do not charge with contrast or they charge very little. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome (SIH) This syndrome consists of low pressure of CSF`s, with compensatory venous congestion. Can be: spontaneous, traumatic or iatrogenic (after lumbar puncture, postsurgical). Pathogenesis - precipitated by lowering CSF pressure: - Surgical procedures; - Trauma; - Strenuous exercise or violent cough; - Lumbar puncture; - Abnormalities of the dura (Marfan sdr.) - Diverticulum arahnoidian broken; - Severe dehydration. The syndrome is twice as common in women, with a peak age of 30-40 years. Issues imaging - MRI examination shows thickening of the dura, and epidural veins increased collection of fluid in the CSF izosemnal site. In T1 ponderation underline the CSF fluid izointens ventral and anterolateral possibly phenomenon of flow voids.In ponderation T2 appears in izosemnal extraaxial CSF fluid (may be hyperintense on PD) and you can see arahnoidian diverticulum. After gadolinium administration there is intense abstraction, much enlarged venous plexus, dural thickening and variable capture of the contrast. T2-weighted sequence with FS news and highlights diverticula can arahnoidieni (often multiple) and may demonstrate CSF leakage. It recommends first examining brain, which can show: - Thickening of the dura and gadolinofilie; - midbrain sagging - Hygrom subdural. It will take into account that not all cases have all the classic characteristics of the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis is made with: - Other causes of venous plexus enlargement (aneurysm, jugular vein thrombosis, venous congestion, high above the spinal steno - Pahimeningopatii (epidural abscess). Arachnoiditis It produces adhesions of nerve roots, which seem acolytes on dural sack, giving an irregular contour. Inflammation of the meninges that makes him appear strong and increased postcontrast signal. In advanced cases, the roots are deformed and can be confused with tumors of nerve sheaths. In the meanwhile arahnoidiene can form cysts that communicate or not with the suarachnoid spaces .

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ABORDARE KINETIC I NUTRIIONAL A OBEZITII. (STUDIU) Dr. Viorica Lefter , Facultatea KinetoterapiGalai. Dr.Oana Andreea Cibu ,Facultatea deMedicin Galai Cuvinte cheie:kinetoterapie,aport caloric,indice de masa corporal.IMC(BMI) Obezitatea .Definiie.Este starea patologic datorat tulburrii funciei de nutriie sau endocrine, ce perturb echilibrul ntre aportul caloric i pierderile energetice ale organismului, evideniat prin depuneri excesive de de grsime, uniform sau localizate n anumite regiuni ale corpului.(1) Tipurile de obezitate : dup debut; 1.hiperplazica -este de debut caracteristica copiilor supraalimentati 2.hipertrofica- debuteaz dup 18-20 de ani. Etiopatogenie ; I.factori endogeni; predispoziia genetic 80% din 2 prini,50% 1 printe.,predispoziia constituional II. factori exogeni (supra alimentaia , 80%-90%). Incidena :OMS (1997) ,,epidemie de obezitate,, SUA 36%,Europa central 15-20%, Est 40-50%,Romnia 20-25% din populaia general. Incidena mai mare la sexul feminin si dup 40 de ani.(2) Ex. clinic .1.cntrire 2.msurarea pliului cutanat3.circunferine 4.calcularea IMC. Material i metod.Cercetarea a fost realizat pe un lot 138 de subieci (femei) cu probleme ponderale ,de diverse vrste i grade de afectare,n perioada septembrie 2007 - 2009, n staiunea LacuSrat i Centru de Recuperare Medical ,,Sc Fiziter SRL.,,Brila.Lotul de studiu a fost mprit n 2 subloturi i anume un lot martor A ,compus din 57 (41%) paciente care au beneficiat doar de diet,calculate tot dup consumul energetic zilnic i care nu au dorit s participe la programele kinetice de grup i la domiciliu, i un lot experimental B, compus din 81(69%) paciente care au beneficiat att de diet ct i de programe kinetice, Programele kinetice au fost individualizate fucie de posibilitile kinetice ale fiecrui caz. Parametrii urmrii au fost; IMC,dimensiunea taliei, greutate , au fost testai sptmnal dar pentru studiu au fost estimate (iniial, intermediar i final.) Rezultate:Evoluia taliei s-a redus de la 95cm la 87 cm,de la 120cm la 99cm i de la 148cm la 139cm respectiv cu 7,5 cm la 24,5% din pacieni, cu 11cm la 54,5% din pacieni i cu 9 cm la 19,5% din pacieni.S-a constatat o asuplizare a persoanelor ,o abilitate mai mare n micri , att la sal ct i n viaa de zi cu zi.IMC supraponderali la intrarea n studiu au fost 24,3% inial, la final procentul ajuns la 42,6% prin preluare de la obezitate i ob extrem.Procentul de obezitate s-a redus de la 54,4% la 37,6% la finele studiului.Procentul obezitii exterme s-a redus de la 19,3% la 17,8 %. Controlul greutii, pas obligatoriu n monitorizarea obezitii. Am obinut ;1.Scdere n gr. 2-5kg.(14%)2.Scdere n gr. 5-8 kg.(16%) 3.Scdere n gr. 10-12kg.(21%)4.Scdere n gr. 12-15 kg.(26 %) 5.Scdere n gr. 15-20-kg.(9%) 6.Fluctuaii nesemnificative statistic(14%) Concluzii.Terapia const n optimizarea stilului de via, respectiv diet moderat hipocaloric i activitate fizic regulat, terapie comportamental, medicaie specific i motivaie. . Aceste metode se aplic diferit n faza de scdere ponderal i cea de meninere i mai ales n funcie de obiective. Introducere.Obezitatea .Definiie.Este starea patologic datorat tulburrii funciei de nutriie sau endocrine, ce perturb echilibrul ntre aportul caloric i pierderile energetice ale organismului, evideniat prin depuneri excesive de de grsime, uniform sau localizate n anumite regiuni ale corpului(1).Tipurile de obezitate : dup debut; 1.hiperplazica -este de debut caracteristica copiilor supraalimentati ,2.hipertrofica- debuteaz dup 18-20 de ani. Dup form %- obezitate uoara creterea greutii corporale cu peste 15% din greutatea ideala;obezitate mijlocie cu peste 20%; obezitate mare cu peste 30%.Dup repartizarea depozitelor ; tip "ginoid - pe burta, olduri si coap, ,,tip android ,, - tergere a liniei taliei, ,,tip general,, Etiopatogenie 1. factori endogeni Predispoziia genetic 80% din 2

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prini,50% 1 printe.Predispoziia constituional(3) 2. Factori exogeni.Supra alimentaia , 80%-90.Numrul meselor ,masa unic luat seara,Consumulde alcool ,Sedentarismu ,Stresul ,Traumele psihice (7,40% pentru femei i 10% pentru brbai .Incidena :OMS (1997) ,,epidemie de obezitate,, SUA 36%,Europa central 15-20%, Est 40-50%,Romnia 20-25% din populaia general. Incidena mai mare la sexul feminin si dup 40 de ani. Ex. clinic 11.cntrire 2.msurarea pliului cutanat3.circunferine 4 IMC.Pentru a msura supraponderalitatea i obezitatea putem folosi un indicator IMC (Indexul Masei Corporale) sau BMI (Body Mass Index) se calculeaz astfel: IMC(kg/m2) = masa corporal(kg) / nlime(m2). Valorile acceptate internaional ale indicatorului BMI sunt redate n sub-ponderal < 18.5

Tabelul 1 normal 18.5-24.9 (:tabel 1)DIAGNOSTIC se bazeaz pe;Excesul ponderal.Repartizarea depozitelor .Edeme declivbe.Dispnee de supra-ponderal 25 - 29.9 n artic. efort .Suprasolicitare hemodinamic.Dureri suprasolicitate obezitate 30 -39.9 Diagnosticul diferenial: Sindromul Couching , Hipotiroidismul , Hiperinsulinismul , Limfedemele, obezitate > 40 Evoluie. 1. I-a faz este dinamic i se caracterizeaz prin: extrem polifagie i lipogenez.2. a-II-a faz, static, greutatea se stabilizeaz se instaleaz treptat complicaiile.Complicaii : Metabolice, respiratorii, osteoarticulare , infiltrarea gras a ficatului , ateroscleroza hipogonadism .Prognostic; Sperana de via este cu 10 ani mai mic dect la restul populaiei.Managementul obezitii este redat n tabelul

ORGANIZAREA I DESFURAREA CERCETRII Cercetarea a fost realizat pe un lot 138 de subieci (femei) cu probleme ponderale ,de diverse vrste i grade de afectare,n perioada septembrie 2007 - 2009, n staiunea Lacu-Srat i Centru de Recuperare Medical ,,Sc Fiziter SRL.,,Brila.Lotul de studiu a fost mprit n 2 subloturi i anume un lot martor A ,compus din 57 (41%) paciente care au beneficiat doar de diverse forme de diet,calculate tot dup consumul energetic zilnic i care nu au dorit s participe la programele kinetice de grup i la domiciliu, i un lot experimental B, compus din 81(69%) paciente care au beneficiat att de diversele forme de diet ct i de programe kinetice, stabilite n funcie de particularitile fiecrui caz.(grafic I)

A 57 (41%)-diet B 81 (69%) -diet+kineto

- 54,4%obezitate , - 24,3%suprapondere, - 19,3% ob. extrem


1 2 3

1 2

Graficul I .Structura lotului de studiu

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n aceast perioad am efectuat subiecilor 3 testri (iniial, intermediar (la o lun )i final, dup 6 luni), urmrind evoluia fiecrui caz i elabornd noi programe de exerciii corespunztoare receptibilitii pacienilor la programele kinetice impuse iniial. Lotul A a beneficiat de aceleai diete : 1.dieta de testare, 2.dieta de 14oo kcal, 3.dieta de 1500 kcal, 4.dieta de 1600 kcal, 5.dieta de 1800 kcal.Pentru lotul experimental am structurat programul de slbire in felul urmtor:Dieta de testare metabolic 14 zile.Diet funcie de consumul energetic, vrst, sex dup tabel.Program kinetic de iniiere.Program kinetic de dificultate mic.Program kinetic de dificultate medie .Program kinetic de dificultate mare .Reevaluare la 30 zile.Program pe termen :scurt, mediu i lung dup posibiliti. n funcie de gradul obezitii, obiectivele propuse i caracteristicile personale am recomandat urmtoarele diete: 1.Dieta cu deficit de 1800 kcal/zi fa de alimentaia anterioar, ce poate determina o scdere ponderal de 0,5-1 kg/sptmn, 5-10 kg n 3 luni (aproximativ 5-10% din greutatea iniial); 2.Dieta cu deficit de 1.600 kcal/zi fa de alimentaia anterioar, urmat de scdere ponderal de 1-2 kg/sptmn (aproximativ 20% din greutatea iniial), recomandat la pacienii cu risc crescut i foarte crescut; 3.Dieta hipocaloric standard de 1.500 kcal/zi, care necesit recomandarea i urmrirea de medicul specialist n diabet, nutriie, boli metabolice; 4.Diete intens hipocalorice, 1400 kcal/zi, care produc o scdere ponderal marcat i rapid, dar nu lipsit de efecte secundare, motiv pentru care acest tip de diet are indicaii specifice, se aplic pe o durat scurt de maximum 1-2 luni i doar sub supravegherea specialitilor n diabet, nutriie, boli metabolice. Nu exist evidene tiinifice asupra superioritii diverselor diete comerciale sau a celor disociate, bogate n proteine i srace n glucide. n plus, acest tip de diete se pot nsoi de efecte negative asupra organismului, motiv pentru care nu sunt recomandate dect, eventual, sub stricta supraveghere a specialitilor consacrai n nutriie. n perioada de meninere a greutii, dieta hipocaloric va putea fi completat cu 200-300 kcal, n condiiile intensificrii exerciiului fizic, astfel ca balana energetic s se menin negativ. Programele kinetice au fost individualizate fucie de posibilitile kinetice ale fiecrui caz Parametrii urmrii: Parametrii urmrii au fost; IMC,dimensiunea taliei, greutate , parametrii au fost testai sptmnal dar pentru studiu au fost estimate (iniial, intermediar i final.) Programul a cuprins i un studiu al motivaiei (iniial i final) Programele kinetice au fost individualizate fucie de posibilitile kinetice ale fiecrui caz.Exemplu : pentru nceptori, Pilates,exerciii de dificultate mic Tip I ;pentru ciclul 2-3 exerciii de dificultate medie i sever.Tip II,III.(Fig. 2) La nceputul ciclului de tratament motivaia a fost n proporie de 76, 1 % prezent, pe parcursul ciclurilor se menine ridicat la persoanele care au avut rezultate n terapie ,cu fluctuaii lunare scade progresiv la persoanele cu rezultate nesatisfctoare, chiar sunt perioade de depresie.La sfiritul ciclurilor persoanele care i-au schimbat modul de via motivaia crete. .EVOLUIA DIMENSIUNILOR TALIEI n urma tratamentului aplicat, dimensiunile taliei sunt primele care se modific , uneori fr modificri de greutate kg.Evoluia taliei a variat ntre 1,95cm-12cm, 12 cazuri au avut oscdere a taliei de peste 12cm.Evoluia taliei s-a redus de la 95cm la 87 cm,de la 120cm la 99cm i de la 148cm la 139cm respectiv cu 7,5 cm la 24,5% din pacieni, cu 11cm la 54,5% din pacieni i cu 9 cm la 19,5% din pacieni.S-a constatat o asuplizare a persoanelor ,o abilitate mai mare n micri , att la sal ct i n viaa de zi cu zi.

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11 cm 54,3%
12 10

25

9cm 19,3%
1

40% 2-5cm cm 19,3%

37%7-10cm 23% 5-7cm

7 cm 24,4%
8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 2 3

20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 1 2 3

Graficul II . Evoluia taliei lot studiu, lot martor. Evoluia taliei la lotul martor.(57) din care 13(23%) i-au redus talia ci 2-5cm,23 pacieni (40%) cu 5-7 cm i 21 pacieni (37%) cu7-10cm.. Pentru a msura supra-ponderalitatea i obezitatea putem folosi un indicator IMC (Indexul Masei Corporale) sau BMI (Body Mass Index) se calculeaz astfel: IMC(kg/m2) = masa corporal(kg) / nlime (m2).Valorile IMC se modific cel mai lent n evoluia lotului de studiu. Pentru acurateea studiului am verifical IMC la nceputul i sfritul fiecrui ciclu. Vlorile de referin statistic au fost cele iniiale i finale.Dac supraponderali la intrarea n studiu au fost 24,3% inial la final procentul ajuns la 42,6% prin preluare de la obezitate i ob extrem. Procentul de obezitate s-a redus de la 54,4% la 37,6% la finele studiului.Procentul obezitii exterme s-a redus de la 19,3% la 17,8 %.n decursul studiului au fost i abandonuri ,dar au intrat alte persoane , astfel nct procentele au rmas aceleai Dup cel puin 3-5 cicluri ntrun an. Diferenele semnificative statistic fa de lotul martor la care s-a aplicat doar tratamentul dietetic specific .(grafic II)
60 50 40 1. IMC 25-29,9 24,3%suprapondere 30 20 10 0 1 2 3
50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3
37,6%

2. IMC 30-39,9 obezitate 54,5%


,42,6 %

3. IMC > 40 ob. 2 Extrem 19,3%


3

1
17,8%

2 3

Graficul II . Evoluia IMC iniial i final Controlul greutii, pas obligatoriu n monitorizarea obezitii Am obinut scderea ponderal n trepte, cu unul sau mai multe cicluri de scdere ponderalmeninere. Aceast strategie de abordare a obezitii se bazeaz pe succesiunea de cicluri scdere ponderal-meninere. Un astfel de ciclu constat n etapa de scdere ponderal, ce a avut ca obiectiv reducerea greutii cu 5-10%, obinut n 3-6 luni, urmat de o perioad de 36-9 luni de meninere a noii greuti. Ciclurile au fost repetate pn la atingerea greutii optime propuse.

1.Scdere n gr. 2-5kg.(14%) 2.Scdere n gr. 5-8 kg.(16%) 3.Scdere n gr. 10-12kg.(21%) 4.Scdere n gr. 12-15 kg.(26%) 5.Scdere n gr. 15-20-kg.(9%) 6.Fluctuaii nesemnificative statistic(14%) Graficul III. Evoluia greutii lot de studiu

50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

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Lotul de studiu a beneficiat de 3 sptmni de diet de testare la care 89% dintre paciente au pierdut n greutate minim 4 kg.Dupa care s-a intocmit fia personal cu tipul de diet (nr . kcal admis conform tipului de efort al fiecrei persoane) obinndu-se valorile din graficul III I adaptndu-se de la ciclu la ciclu slbire /meninere. CONCLUZII Principiile de baz ale managementului clinic n obezitate sunt: 1.Intervenie continu, cu obiective ealonate pe termen scurt i lung; adaptate periodic i individual.2. Colaborare strns cu persoana cu obezitate n stabilirea obiectivelor i metodelor terapeutice dup parametriclinici, monitorizare,evaluare periodic.3. scderea ponderal n trepte, cu unul sau mai multe cicluri de scdere -meninere. Aceast strategie de abordare a obezitii se bazeaz pe succesiunea de cicluri scdere ponderal-meninere. Un astfel de ciclu const n etapa de scdere ponderal, ce are ca obiectiv reducerea greutii cu 5-10%, obinut n 3-6 luni, urmat de o perioad de 6-9 luni de meninere a noii greuti. Ciclurile pot fi repetate pn la atingerea greutii optime propuse. Obiectivele pe termen lung ar trebui s fie obinerea greutii normale, adic cea corespunztoare unui IMC <25 kg/m. n realitate, acest lucru este foarte greu de realizat i mai ales de meninut. Din acest motiv, se consider c cel mai realist obiectiv pe termen lung este meninerea pentru cel puin 2 ani a noii greutii obinute dup etapa de scdere ponderal. BIBLIOGRAFIE 1.Harrison - editia 14, vol. 2 Educatia terapeutica specifica in managementul clinic al obezitatii. 2.www. amf-b.ro. 3.Kopelman P.G. Obesity as a medical problem. Nature 2000; 404:635-643 Cummings D.E., Schwartz M.W. Genetics and pathophysiology of human obesity. Annu Rev Med 2003; 54:453-471. 4.Cornelia Pencea, Constantin Ionescu-Tirgoviste. Obezitatea. In: Constantin IonescuTirgoviste. Capitol 34. Tratat de Diabet Paulescu. Bucuresti: Editura Academiei Romane; 2004: 710-725. 5.Fraga Paveliu, Sorin Paveliu, Abordarea moderna a scderii in greutate, Editura AII, Bucureti, 2004 pp132-15

KINETIC AND NUTRITIONAL APPROACH OF THE OBESITY. (STUDY)

Dr. Viorica Lefter , Faculty of Kinetotherapy of Galai. Dr.Oana Andreea Cibu , Faculty of Medicine of Galai ABSTRACT Keywords: kinesitherapy, caloric contribution, IMC (BMI.)body mass index. Obesity. Definition. It is a pathological condition caused by the nutrition or endocrine function disorders that disturb the equilibrium between the caloric contribution and the bodys energetic losses, highlighted by excess body fat uniformly or localized in particular body regions. (1) Types of obesity: first appearance; 1. hyper plastic develops typically in children who are over-nourished.2. Hypertrophic obesity develops after the age of 18 -20. Etiopathogeny; I. endogenous factors; genetic predisposition 80% of 2 parents, 50% 1

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parent, constitutional predisposition II. Exogenous factors (over-nourishment, 80%-90%). Incidence: OMS (1997)obesity outbreak, USA 36%, Central Europe 15-20%, Eastern Europe 40-50%, Romania 20-25% of the population. Theres an increase in obesity incidence that goes for women and for those aged over 40. (2) Clinical examination. 1. weighing 2. Measurement of skin fold thickness 3. Girth 4. BMI calculation. Material and method. The research was made during September 2007-2009, in Lacu-Srat Resort and ,,Sc Fiziter SRL Medical Recovery Centre in Braila. The study batch was split in two sub-batches, that is a witness batch A made of 57 women patients (41%) that benefited only from the diet, calculated after the daily energetic consumption and who did not want to take part in the group kinetic and home programs and an experimental group B, made of 81 women patients (69%) that benefited both from the diet and the kinetic programs. The kinetic programs were personalized based on the kinetic possibilities of each case. The followed parameters were: BMI, waist girth, weight and which have been tested weekly, but for the study they have been previously estimated (initially, intermediary and finally). Results: The waist evolution reduced from 95 cm to 87 cm, from 120 cm to 99 cm and from 148 cm to 139 cm respectively with 7,5 cm to 24,5% of the patients, with 11 cm to 54,5% of the patients and with 9 cm to 19,5% of the patients. A flexibilization of the people involved in the study has been noticed, a bigger ability in movements both in the gym and in daily life. The overweight BMI that started the study were initially in the percentage of 24,3% and at the end of the study they were 42,6%, the reason being the persons that entered the category from the obesity and extreme obesity studies. The obesity percentage reduced from 54, 4% to 37, 6% at the end of the study. The extreme obesity percentage reduced from 19, 3% to 17,8 %. The weight control is a compulsory step in the obesity monitoring. We obtained: 1. Weight loss 2. 5 kg. (14%) 2. Weight loss. 5-8 kg.(16%) 3. Weight loss 10-12kg. (21%) 4. Weight loss 12-15 kg. (26 %) 5. Weight loss 15-20-kg. (9%) 6. Insignificant fluctuations statistically (14%). Conclusions. The therapy consists in the optimization of the life style, respectively a low calorie diet and regular physical activity, behavioral therapy, specific medication and motivation. These methods apply differently, starting with the weight loss phase and the maintenance phase, according to the objectives. Introduction. Obesity. Definition. It is a pathological condition caused by the nutrition or endocrine function disorders that disturb the equilibrium between the caloric contribution and the bodys energetic losses, highlighted by excess body fat uniformly or localized in particular body regions. (1) Types of obesity: first appearance; 1. hyper plastic develops typically in children who are over-nourished. 2. Hypertrophic obesity develops after the age of 18 -20. By body shape % - low body obesity increase of the body mass with over 15% more than the ideal body weight; average obesity - increase of the body mass with over 20% more than the ideal body weight; big obesity - increase of the body mass with over 30%. By the fat settlement we have: gyno type the fat accumulates on the belly and hips area, android type the wrist line disappears, the general type Etiopathogeny; I. endogenous factors; genetic predisposition 80% of 2 parents, 50% 1 parent, constitutional predisposition II. Exogenous factors: Over-nourishment, 80%-90%). Number of meals, sole meal had in the evening, alcohol consumption, sedentariness, stress, psychical trauma (7,40% for women and 10% for men). Incidence: OMS (1997)obesity outbreak, USA 36%, Central Europe 15-20%, Eastern Europe 40-50%, Romania 20-25% of the general population. Theres an increase in obesity incidence that goes for women and for those aged over 40. Clinical examination. 1. Weighing 2. Measurements of skin fold thickness 3. Girth 4. BMI In order to calculate the overweighting and the obesity we can use the IMC (Body Mass

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Index) or BMI (Body Mass Index) that can be made using the formula: BMI (kg / meters) = body mass (kg) / height (in meters). Clinical obesity The internationally BMI values accepted are presented below in Table 1 (:table 1) the DIAGNOSIS is based on the weight excess. Body Fat Settlement. Peripheral oedema. Effort dyspnoea. Pains in Underweight < 18.5 the over-stressed joints. Differential diagnosis: Couching 18.5-24.9 Symptom, Hypothyrodism, Hyperinsulism, normal st Lymphedems,Evolution. 1. The 1 stage is dynamic and 25 - 29.9 characterized by polyphagia and lipogenesis. 2 The 2nd stage is Overweight static, the body weight settles and complication soon arrive. 30 -39.9 Complications:Metabolic, respiratory, osteoarticular, fatty Obesity infiltration of the liver, atherosclerosis, hypogonadism. > 40 Prognostic;Life expectancy is 10 years shorter than for the rest Extreme Obesity of the population. ORGANIZING AND DEVELOPING THE RESEARCH The research was realized on a 138 subject lot (women) with weight problems, of various ages and affection degrees, between September 2007 and 2009, in the Lacu Sarat resort and the SC Fiziter SRL Medical Rehabilitation Center, Braila. The study lot was divided into 2 sub-lots, that is, a witness lot A, comprising 57 (41%) female patients benefiting only from different forms of diet, still calculated depending on the daily calories consumption, patients who did not want to participate to group and home kinetic programs, and an experimental lot B, comprising 81 (69%) female patients benefiting from both different forms of diet and kinetic programs, established depending on the physical features of each case (graphic I).
A 57 (41%) - diet B 81 (69%) diet + kineto
- 54,4% obesity, - 24,3% overweight, - 19,3% extreme obesity

1 2

1 2 3

Graphic I. The structure of the study lot Within this period we have realized 3 tests on the subjects (initial, intermediary (once a month) and final, after 6 months), observing the evolution of each case and elaborating new exercise programs adjusted to patients receptivity to the initially enforced kinetic programs. Lot A has benefited from the same diets: 1) test diet, 2) 1400-calory diet, 3) 1500-calory diet, 4) 1600-calory diet, 5) 1800-calory diet. For the experimental lot we have structured the loss weight program as follows: 14-day metabolic test diet; diet depending on the energy consumption, on age, sex, according to the table; initiation kinetic program; low difficulty kinetic program; average difficulty kinetic program; high difficulty kinetic program; reevaluation after 30 days; short, medium and long term programs, depending on possibilities. Depending on the degree of obesity, on the established objectives and on the personal features, we have recommended the following diets: 1) diets with 1800 kcal less than the previous diet, which can lead to a weight loss of 0,5-1kg / week, 5-10 kg within 3 months (about 5-10% of the initial weight); 2) diets with 1600 kcal less than the previous diet, followed by a weight loss of 1-2 kg / week (about 20% of the initial weight), recommended for increased and extremely increased risk patients; 3) standard low calorie diet of 1500 kcal / day, which requires the recommendation of and the monitoring performed by the doctor

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specialized in diabetes, nutrition, metabolic disorders; highly low calorie diets, 1400 kcal / day, which lead to an obvious and rapid weight loss, but which does not lack side effects, reason for which this type of diet has specific indications, being applied only for a short period of time no longer than 1-2 months, and only under the supervision of specialists in diabetes, nutrition, metabolic disorders. There is no scientific proof with respect to the superiority of various commercial diets or of the dissociated ones, reach in proteins and low in sugars. Moreover, this type of diets can be accompanied by negative effects on the organism, reason for which they are, if so, recommended under the strict supervision of recognized specialists in nutrition.Within the weight maintenance period, the low calorie diet will be able to be complemented with 200-300 kcal, provided that physical exercises are intensified, so the energetic balance remains negative. Kinetic programs have been individualized depending on the kinetic possibilities of each case. Monitored parameters: The monitored parameters were: IMC, girth, weight. The parameters have been tested weekly, but for the study they were estimated (initially, intermediary, and finally).The program also included a study on motivation (initially and finally). Kinetic programs have been individualized depending on the kinetic possibilities of each case. For instance, for beginners, Pilates, Type I low difficulty exercises; for cycles 2-3, Types II, III average and high difficulty exercises (Fig. 2). At the beginning of the treatment cycle, the featured motivation had a percentage of 76,1%; during cycles, it maintains high in people having results in therapy, and it presents monthly fluctuations; motivation decreases progressively in people with unsatisfactory results who present even periods of depression. At the end of the cycles, motivation increases in people who have changed their way of life.EVOLUTION OF GIRTH DIMENSIONS Following the applied treatment, girth dimensions are the first to modify, sometimes in the absence of modifications in weight. The evolution of girth varied between 1,95 cm-12cm, and a decrease of more than 12 cm occurred in 12 cases. Girth reduced from 95 cm to 87 cm, from 120 cm to 99 cm, and from 148 cm to 139 cm, respectively, with 7,5 cm in 24,5% of the patients, with 11 cm in 54,5% of the patients, and with 9 cm in 19,5% of the patients. The flexibilization of people and their increased ability in movement were ascertained, both in gym and in their daily life.
12 10 8

11 cm 54,3% 9cm 19,3%


1 2 3

40% 2-5cm 25 cm 19,3%


20 15 10 5 0 1 2

37%7-10cm 23% 5-7cm


1 2 3

7 cm 24,4% 6
4 2 0 1 2 3

Graphic II. The evolution of girth in the study lot, the witness lot. The evolution of girth in the witness lot (57): 13 patients (23%) reduced their girth with 2-5 cm, 23 patients (40%) reduced it with 5-7 cm, and 21 (37%) patients reduced it with 7-10 cm. In order to measure overweight and obesity we can use the BMI indicator (Body Mass Index), which is calculated as follows: body mass (kg) / height (m). BMI values modify the slowest during the evolution of the study lot. For the accuracy of the study, we have verified BMI at the beginning and at the end of each cycle. Statistical reference values are the initial and the final ones. If, initially, upon entering the study, overweight people yielded a percentage of 24,3%, at the end, the percentage mounted up to 42,6% by undertaking obesity and extreme obesity. 59

The obesity percentage reduced from 54,4% to 37,6% at the end of the study. The percentage of extreme obesity reduced from 19,3% to 17,8%. There has been abandonment during the study, but other people have entered the study, so the percentage remained the same. Following at least 3-5 cycles within a year, the statistically significant differences as compared to the witness lot upon which only the diet treatment was applied were as shown (graphic II).
2. BMI 30-39,9 obesity 54,5%
60 50

1. BMI 25-29,9 40 24,3% overweight 30


20 10 0 1 2 3

1 3. BMI > 40 extreme 2 obesity 19,3% 3

50 40 30 20 10 0

37,6%

,42,6 %

1
17,8%

2 3

Graphic II. The evolution of initial and final MBI Weight control, an imperative step in monitoring obesity We have obtained weight loss gradually, with one or more weight loss maintenance cycles. This strategy of approaching obesity is based on the succession of weight loss maintenance cycles. A cycle of this kind, during the weight loss phase, was meant to decrease weight cu 5-10%, objective realized in 3-6 months, followed by a 3-6-9-month new weight maintenance period. The cycles have been repeated until the established optimum weight was attained. 50
40 30 20 1 2 3

1. 2-5kg. (14%) weight loss 4 2. 5-8 kg. (16%) weight loss 5 10 3. 10-12kg. (21%) weight loss 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. 12-15 kg. (26%) weight loss 5. 15-20-kg. (9%) weight loss 6. (14%) statistically insignificant fluctuations Graphic III. The evolution of weight in study lot The study lot benefited from a 3-week test diet, during which 89% of the female patients lost at least 4 kg, subsequently to which the personal sheet of each patient containing the diet type (no. of admitted calories according to the type of effort of each person) was drawn, obtaining the values shown in graphic III. The personal sheet was adapted from weight loss / maintenance cycle to weight loss / maintenance cycle. CONCLUSIONS The basic principles of clinical management of obesity are: 1) Continuous intervention, with short and long term echeloned objectives, periodically and individually adjusted. 2) Close collaboration with the obese person with respect to establishing the objectives and the therapeutic methods according to clinical parameters, monitoring, and periodical evaluation. 3) Gradual weight loss, with one or more loss maintenance cycles. This strategy of approaching obesity is based on the succession of weight loss maintenance cycles. A cycle of this kind consists of a weight loss phase, the objective of which is the decrease of weight with 5-10% attained in 3-6 months, followed by a 6-9-month new weight maintenance period. The cycles can be repeated until the optimum established weight is attained. Long term objectives should be the obtaining of normal weight, that is, the weight corresponding to a BMI < 25 kg/m. In reality, this objective is very difficult to realize and, in particular, to maintain. This is why it is considered that the most realistic long term objective is the maintenance for at least 2 years of the new weight obtained subsequently to the weight loss phase

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CURRICULUM VITAE
1. Date biografice Numele: BATIUREA Prenumele: EUGEN Cetenie: romn Data i locul naterii: 14.04.1959, Galai Starea civil: cstorit Domiciliul: str. Constructorilor nr. 12, bl. C 2, sc. III, etaj II, ap. 51, Galai Profesia i locul de munc: Confereniar universitar doctor la Universitatea Dunrea de Jos din Galai, Facultatea de Educaie Fizic i Sport, Catedra de Jocuri sportive i educaie fizic 2. Studii Ciclul liceal Liceul Industrial Nr. 4, Galai (1974-1978)
Studii universitare

Universitatea din Galai, Facultatea de nvmnt Pedagogic, Specializarea: Educaie fizic (1980-1983) Academia Naional de Educaie Fizic i Sport, Facultatea de Educaie Fizic, Bucureti (1990-1992) 3. Specializri, grade didactice i titluri tiinifice Profesor de educaie fizic i sport definitivat (ANEFS Bucureti, 1986) Antrenor cu specializarea handbal categoria I (CNFPA Bucureti, 2008) Doctor n pedagogie - INEFS Chiinu, Republica Moldova (2004) Atestat doctor n domeniul educaie fizic i sport Ministerul Educaiei i Cercetrii (2005) 4. Contribuii tiinifice Tez de doctorat = 1 Cri publicate n edituri naionale i internaionale = 5 Cursuri i caiete de lucrri practice publicate = 6 Brevet de invenie = 1 Proiecte/contracte de cercetare (responsabil/membru) = 4 Articole tiinifice publicate n reviste recunoscute de CNCSIS = 17 Articole tiinifice publicate n reviste nerecunoscute de CNCSIS = 7 Lucrri publicate n volumul unor conferine tiinifice naionale i internaionale = 27 Citri n cri (capitole din cari, bibliografie) = 16 Citri n teze de doctorat i habilitat (capitole din tez, bibliografie) = 16 Colectivul redacional al unor reviste i volume tiinifice = 15 Comisia de concurs a cadrelor didactice din nvmntul universitar = 7 Comisia de finalizare a studiilor de nvmnt superior, domeniu licen = 11 Lucrri de gradul I ndrumate = 16 Lucrri de licen i disertaie ndrumate = 106 5. Responsabiliti Secretar tiinic al facultii (din febr. 2007) Membru n Consiliului Profesoral al facultii (din 1997)

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Director program de studiu, specializarea Educaie fizic i management n sport (2002-2005) 6. Realizri specifice domeniului Locul II la Campionatul Naional de handbal juniori I, Suceava, 1978 (sportiv) Locul II la Campionatul Naional de handbal juniori III, Ploieti, 1992 (antrenor) Locul II la Campionatul Naional Universitar de handbal masculin, Timioara, 1998 (profesor FEFS) Promovarea echipei de handbal masculin CSU Galai n Liga Naional, 2000 (antrenor principal) Calificarea echipei de handbal masculin CSU Galai n turul II al Challenge Cup, 2001 Promovarea echipei de handbal feminin Oelul Galai n Divizia A, Bistria, 1993 (antrenor principal) Antrenor secund al lotului naional universitar de handbal (2000-2001) Antrenor secund al lotului naional de tineret (2001, 2003) 7. Premii/medalii tiinifice Medalie de argint obinut la Festivalul Internaional de Invenii i Tehnologii, pentru Metod i aparat pentru determinarea dezechilibrelor musculare la nivelul torsului, ediia a VI-a, Suzhou, China, 2008 Premiul de excelen n inovare primit din partea Fundaiei pentru Promovarea i Dezvoltarea Proprietii Intelectuale, Galai, 2008 Premiul IT&C EXPO 2008 acordat de Camera de Comer, Industrie i Agricultur Galai pentru Aparat pentru determinarea dezechilibrelor musculare prezente la nivelul trunchiului, ediia a VIII-a, Galai, 2008

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