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GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINING PROCESS HEATING REQUIREMENTS

DETERMINE APPROPRIATE WATT DENSITY

SELECT TYPE OF HEATER(S)

DETERMINE PROPER SHEATH MATERIAL

THERMAL SYSTEM DESIGN

FACTORS AFFECTING SYSTEM ACCURACY

COMPONENT PLACEMENT
WORK SENSOR HEATER

TEMPERATURE AT THE WORK


Initial Start-up Steady State Cold Material added

Change in Ambient Temperature or Conditions

Fig. 5a

Fig. 5b
B B

Fig. 5c
C

Fig. 5d

SELECTION OF TEMPERATURE CONTROL

GUIDES FOR ESTIMATING HEAT LOSSES


1T: Heat Losses From Uninsulated Metal Surfaces
1000 900 800 700 WATTS PER SQUARE FOOT 600
80

3T: Heat Losses From Oil and Parafin Surfaces


1000 900 WATTS PER SQUARE FOOT 800 700 600 500 400 300 200

A
60

40

E
20 0 60 100 140 180

100 70 100 200 300 400 500 600

500 400

TEMPERATURE OF OIL OR PARAFFIN (F)

4T: Heat Losses From Water Surfaces


300
1600

200 100

1300

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900 1000

1200 1100 1000 WATTS PER SQUARE FOOT 900 800 700 600 500 400

TEMPERATURE (F) Radiant and convection heat losses are combined. Based upon 70F ambient. For horizontal bottom surface, use 12 figure from graph.

2T: Heat Losses From Insulated Surfaces


170 160 150 140 130 120 WATTS PER SQUARE FOOT 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

F. P. S.

T 1"

300 200 100

CK HI "T 2 K HIC 3" T

50 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210

TEMPERATURE OF WATER (F)

HICK 4" T

5T: Heat Losses From Molten Metal Surfaces (Lead, Babbit, Type Metal, Tin, etc.)
1200 1100 WATTS PER SQUARE FOOT 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE ( T) Radiant and convection heat losses are combined. Based upon 70F ambient temperature with ceramic fiber insulation.For horizontal bottom surface, use 12 of figure from graph.

TEMPERATURE (F)

S. 40 % 60 % 1 F REL 0% RE .P A RE LA .S. TIVE HU LA TIV 40 % MID TI E IT Y HU REL VE AT MI HU IVE DI MI TY HU DI M ID TY ITY


F.

ABlack Body BOxidized Steel COxidized Brass DOxidized Nickel EOxidized Aluminum

1500 1400

F.

P.

P.

S.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

11T:Thermal Conductivity of Various Substances The following is a listing of the ratios of how fast heat is conducted through each material. The information is useful as a comparison of one substance to another. Large numbers indicate greater conductivity characteristics.*
Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.0568 Aluminum . . . . . . . . . .480.0 Antimony . . . . . . . . . . . .44.2 Argon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.0389 Asbestos, paper . . . . . . .0.6 Bismuth . . . . . . . . . . . . .17.7 Blotting paper . . . . . . . . .0.15 Brass . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204.0 Brick, aluminum . . . . . . . .2.0 Brick, building . . . . . . . . .1.5 Brick, carborundum . . . .23.0 Brick, fire . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1 Brick, graphite . . . . . . . .25.0 Brick, magnesia . . . . . . . .7.1 Brick, silica . . . . . . . . . . .2.0 Cadmium . . . . . . . . . . .222.0 Carbon gas . . . . . . . . .130.0 Carbon graphite . . . . . .290.0 Carbon dioxide . . . . . . . .0.0307 Carbon monoxide . . . . . .0.0499 Carborundum . . . . . . . . .0.50 Cardboard . . . . . . . . . . . .0.50 Cement, portland . . . . . . .0.17 Chalk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.28 Charcoal, powdered . . . .0.22 Clinkers, small . . . . . . . . .1.1 Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.30 Coke, powdered . . . . . . .0.44 Concrete, cinder . . . . . . .0.81 Concrete, stone . . . . . . . .2.2 Copper . . . . . . . . . . . .918.0 Cotton wool . . . . . . . . . . .0.043 Cotton batting, loose . . . .0.11 Cotton batting, packed . . .0.072 Earth, average . . . . . . . . .4.0 Eiderdown, loose . . . . . . .0.108 Eiderdown, packed . . . . .0.045 Feathers . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.16 Felt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.22 Fiber, red . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1 Flannel . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.035 German silver . . . . . . . .80.0 Glass, crown . . . . . . . . . .2.5 Glass, flint . . . . . . . . . . . .2.0 Gold, . . . . . . . . . . . . . .700.0 Granite . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.5 Gutta percha . . . . . . . . . .0.48 Gypsum . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1 Hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.15 Hair cloth, felt . . . . . . . . .0.042 Helium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.339 Horn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.087 Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . .0.327 Ice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.9 Iron, pure . . . . . . . . . . .161.0 Iron, cast . . . . . . . . . . .109.0 Iron, wrought . . . . . . . .144.0 Lamp black . . . . . . . . . . .0.07 Lead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83.0 Leather, cowhide . . . . . . .0.42 Leather, chamois . . . . . . .0.15 Lime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.29 Linen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.21 Magnesia . . . . . . . . . . . .0.3 Magnesium, carb . . . . . . .0.23 Marble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.4 Mercury . . . . . . . . . . . . .19.7 Mica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.86 Nickel . . . . . . . . . . . . .142.0 Nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.0524 Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.0563 Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.31 Paraffin . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.62 Pasteboard . . . . . . . . . . .0.45 Plaster of Paris . . . . . . . .0.42 Plaster, mortar . . . . . . . . .1.3 Platinum . . . . . . . . . . .170.0 Plumbago . . . . . . . . . . . .1.0 Poplox (Na2Si03) . . . . . .0.13 Porcelain . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.3 Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . .0.39 Pumice stone . . . . . . . . .0.43 Quartz, pr. to axis . . . . .30.0 Quartz, perp. to axis . .160.0 Rubber, hard . . . . . . . . . .0.43 Rubber, Para . . . . . . . . . .0.38 Sand, dry . . . . . . . . . . . .0.86 Sandstone . . . . . . . . . . . .5.5 Sawdust . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.14 Silica, fused . . . . . . . . . .2.55 Silk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.13 Silver . . . . . . . . . . . . . .974.0 Slate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.8 Snow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.60 Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115.0 Terra Cotta . . . . . . . . . . .2.3 Tin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155.0 Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.6 Wood, fir, with grain . . . . .0.30 Wood, fir, cross grain . . . .0.09 Wool, sheep . . . . . . . . . .0.14 Wool, mineral . . . . . . . . .0.11 Wool, steel . . . . . . . . . . .0.20 Woolen, loose, wadding . .0.12 Zinc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265.0

* Expressed in gramcalories/second/square centimeter/centimeter/C

SHEATH TEMPERATURES RELATIVE TO WATT DENSITY


12T: Sheath Temperature of Tubular Elements at Various Watt Densities in Free or Forced Air at 80F.
6 FP S FP S 4 FP 1F S ST PS IL LA IR

15T: Allowable Watt Density of Tubular Elements Operating at 800 to 1400F Sheath Temperature for Various Temperatures in Distributed Air Velocity of 4 Fps.
40 TUBULAR ELEMENT WATTS PER SQUARE INCH 1200F 30 1000F 20 850F 800F 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 600 400 800 850* 1000 TEMPERATURE OF AIR (F) 1200 1400 WATTS PER SQUARE INCH 1400F

WATTS PER SQUARE INCH

40

30

20

10

10

600F 400F 200F


200

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

SHEATH TEMPERATURE (F)

*FINNED TUBULAR HEATER LIMIT (STEEL SHEATH AND FINS)

13T: Sheath Temperatures of Tubular Elements Clamped to a Surface at Various Ambient Temperatures and Watt Densities
40 WATTS PER SQUARE INCH SHEATH TEMPERATURE 1400F SHEATH TEMP 1200F

16T: Allowable Watt Density of Tubular Elements Operating at 800 to1400F Sheath Temperature for Various Temperatures in Distributed Air Velocity of 9 Fps.
40 TUBULAR ELEMENT WATTS PER SQUARE INCH
1 20
0F

14

30

100 0

20

SHEATH TEMP 1000F

20

10

SHEATH TEMP 800F 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

800 F 750 F 600 F

10

400 F 200 F

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (F)


200 400 600 750* 800 1000 TEMPERATURE OF AIR (F) 1200 1400

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE =

Sheath Temperature at + Temperature Process (Work) 2

*FINNED TUBULAR HEATER LIMIT (STEEL SHEATH AND FINS)

14T: Allowable Watt Density of Tubular Elements Operating at 800 to 1400F Sheath Temperature for Various Temperatures in Distributed Air Velocity of 1 Fps.
40 TUBULAR ELEMENT WATTS PER SQUARE INCH 1400F

17T: Allowable Watt Density of Tubular Elements Operating at 800 to 1400F Sheath Temperature for Various Temperatures in Distributed Air Velocity of 16 Fps.
40 TUBULAR ELEMENT WATTS PER SQUARE INCH FINNED TUBULAR WATTS PER SQUARE INCH
12 00 F

14 00 F

100 0F
30

30

1200F

20

8 00 F 700 F 60 0F
40 0F

20

1000F
900F
800F

10

600F 400F 200F

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 400 800 900* 1000 600 TEMPERATURE OF AIR (F) 1200 1400

10

20 0 F
200 400 600 700* 800 1000 TEMPERATURE OF AIR (F) 1200 1400

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

200

*FINNED TUBULAR HEATER LIMIT (STEEL SHEATH AND FINS)

*FINNED TUBULAR HEATER LIMIT (STEEL SHEATH AND FINS)

FINNED TUBULAR WATTS PER SQUARE INCH

30

00

FINNED TUBULAR HEATER WATTS PER SQUARE INCH

18T: Sheath Temperature of HD Strip Heaters Clamped to a Surface at Various Ambient Temperatures and Watt Densities1
22 20 18 WATTS PER SQUARE INCH 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (F) Sheath Temperature at + Temperature Process (Work) 2 1000F 900F 800F 700F 600F 500F 1200F

21T: Allowable Watt Density of Finned HD Strip Heaters to Produce 600 to 700F Sheath Temperatures at Various Ambient Temperatures and Air Velocities2
32 WATTS PER SQUARE INCH 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 100 200 300 400 500 600
9 F. P.S .

TH EA SH

1100F

16 F.P .S.

RE TU RA PE M TE
) (F

4 F.P. S. 1 F.P.S . OR S TILL AIR

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (F)

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE =

WATTS PER SQUARE INCH

19T: Allowable Watt Density of HD Strip Heaters to Produce 700F Sheath Temperatures at Various Ambient Temperatures and Air Velocities2
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
WATTS PER SQUARE IN

22T: Allowable Watt Density of Finned HD Strip Heaters to Produce 800 to 900F Sheath Temperatures at Various Ambient Temperatures and Air Velocities1,2
32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 100 200 300 400 500 600
4 F.P.S .

9 F. P.S .

16 F.P .S.

1 F.P.S. OR

STILL A IR

16 F. P.S.
9 F.P .S. 4 F.P .S.

1 F . P .S .

OR ST ILL A IR

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (F)

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (F)

20T: Allowable Watt Density of HD Strip Heaters to Produce 1000F Sheath Temperatures at Various Ambient Temperatures and Air Velocities. Use Stainless Steel Sheath Material2
26 24 WATTS PER SQUARE INCH 20 18
16 F.P .S. 9 F.P .S. 4 F.P ,S,

1F.P.S
16 8 4

. OR STIL L AI R

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (F)

1. Use stainless steel materials (and fins) over 750F sheath temperatures. 2. Where element spacing is close, use 80% of values.

22A: Sheath Temperature vs Cold End . 25 Diameter Tubular


650
. . . . in . in . n n . in . i . i sq. /sq q sq sq W /s W/ W/ 1 W/ 55 44 W 33 22 1

22D: Sheath Temperature vs Cold End .475/.490 Diameter Tubular


900
. . . . . . in . in . in . in . in /sq sq sq sq /sq W W/ W/ W/ W 55 44 33 22 11

SHEATH TEMPERATURE (F)

550 450 350 250 150

800 SHEATH TEMPERATURE (F) 3" 4" 5" 6" 200 700 600 500 400 300

AMBIENT - 70F 50 0 1" 2" COLD END LENGTH

AMBIENT - 70F 100 0 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" COLD END LENGTH

22B: Sheath Temperature vs Cold End .312 Diameter Tubular


750
. . . . . . in . in . in . in q. in s /sq sq q q W W/ W/s W/s W/ 55 44 33 22 11

SHEATH TEMPERATURE (F)

650 550 450 350 250 150

22E: Sheath Temperature vs Ambient Temperature in a Vacuum .430 Diameter Tubular


1600 SHEATH TEMPERATURE (F) 1500 1400
22 W

33 W

/sq.

in.
in.

/sq.

1300 1200 1100 1000


1 / 1W . in .

AMBIENT - 70F 50 0 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" COLD END LENGTH

sq

22C: Sheath Temperature vs Cold End .430 Diameter Tubular


900 800 SHEATH TEMPERATURE (F) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100
. . n. . in. . in . n . in . i . i /sq q q sq /sq W /s W/s W/ W 55 44 W 33 22 11

100

200

300

400

500 600 700 AMBIENT (F)

800

900 1000

22F: Tubular Heater Sheath Temperatures Operating in Different ambient temperatures at various watt densities.
60 Sheath Temperature F 54 WATT DENSITY (W/sq. in. ) 48 42 36 30 24 1200 18 1000 12 800 6 0 600 0 160 320 480 640 800 960 1120 1280 1440 1600 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (F) 1400 1600

AMBIENT - 70F 0 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6"

COLD END LENGTH

WATT DENSITY AND OPERATING TEMPERATURE GUIDELINES FOR VARIOUS MATERIALS


23T: The information presented is only intended as a guideline. Adjustments may be necessary should variations occur in heat transfer, flow rates and temperatures. The sheath material and watt density selected must be based upon the specific dynamics of the application. See complete Corrosion Resistance of Sheath Materials (24T).
Material To Be Heated Acid Solutions (Mild) Acetic Boric Carbonic Chromic Citric Fatty Acids Lactic Malic Nitric Phenol2.4 Disulfonic Phosphoric Phosphoric (Aerated) Proponic Tannic Tartaric Acetaldehyde Acetone Air Alcyl Alcohol Alkaline Solutions Aluminum Acetate Aluminum Potassium Sulfate Ammonia Gas Ammonium Acetate Amyl Acetate Amyl Alcohol Aniline Asphalt Barium Hydroxide Benzene, liquid Butyl Acetate Calcium Bisulfate Calcium Chloride Carbon Monoxide Carbon Tetrachloride Caustic Soda 2% 10% 75% Citrus Juices Degreasing Solution Dextrose Dyes & Pigments Electroplating Baths Cadmium Copper Dilute Cyanide Potassium Cyanide Rochelle Cyanide Sodium Cyanide Ethylene Glycol Formaldehyde Freon gas Maximum Operating Temp (F) 180 257 180 180 180 150 122 122 167 180 180 180 180 167/180 180 180 130 C/F 200 212 122 212 C/F 167 240 212 350 200-500 212 150 225 400 200 160 210 210 180 185 275 212 212 180 180 180 180 180 180 300 180 300 Max. Watt Density (W/sq. in.) 40 40 40 40 23 20 10 10 20 40 23 23 40 23/40 40 10 10 10 40 10 40 23 23 20 23 4-10 40 10 10 20 5-8 23 23 48 25 25 23 23 20 23 40 40 40 40 40 40 30 10 2-5 Sheath Material C-20, Quartz Quartz C-20, Quartz 316 S.S. 316 S.S. 316 S.S. 316 S.S. Quartz 316 S.S. Quartz Stainless Steel Copper Quartz 316 S.S. Copper Incoloy Incoloy Copper Steel 316 S.S. Copper Steel Incoloy Incoloy Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Steel 316 S.S. Copper 316 S.S. 316 S.S. Quartz Incoloy Incoloy Incoloy Incoloy Incoloy 316 S.S. Steel Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Quartz 316 S.S. Quartz Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Steel Stainless Steel Steel Material To Be Heated Fuel Oils Grades 1 & 2 (distilate) Grades 4 & 5 (residual) Grades 6 & bunker C (residual) Gasoline Gelatin; Liquid Solid Glycerine Glycerol Grease; Liquid Solid Hydrazine Hydrogen Hydrogen Sulfide Linseed Oil Lubrication Oil SAE 10 SAE 20 SAE 30 SAE 40 SAE 50 Magnesium Chloride Manganese Sulfate Methanol gas Methylchloride Mineral Oil Molasses Naptha Oil Draw Bath Oils (see specific type) Paraffin or Wax (liquid state) Perchloroethylene Potassium Chlorate Potassium Chloride Potassium Hydroxide Soap, liquid Sodium Acetate Sodium Cyanide Sodium Hydride Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Phosphate Steam, flowing Sulfur, Molten Toluene Trichlorethylene Turpentine Vegetable Oil & Shortening Water (Process) Maximum Operating Temp (F) 200 200 160 300 150 150 500 212 212 C/F C/F 150 250 250 250 250 250 212 212 C/F 180 200 400 100 212 600 400 150 200 212 212 160 212 212 140 720 212 300 500 700 600 212 150 300 400 212 Max. Watt Density (W/sq. in.) 23 13 8 23 23 5 10 23 23 5 16 50 23 23 23 13 13 40 40 20 23 16 4-5 10 23 24 16 23 40 40 23 20 40 40 28 See Caustic Soda 40 10 5-10 5 10 23 23 20 30 60 Sheath Material Steel Steel Steel Steel Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Incoloy Incoloy Steel Steel Stainless Steel Incoloy 316 S.S. Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel C-20, Quartz Quartz Stainless Steel Copper Steel Steel Stainless Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel 316 S.S. 316 S.S. Monel Stainless Steel Steel Stainless Steel Incoloy Quartz Incoloy Incoloy Incoloy Incoloy Steel Steel Stainless Steel Stainless Steel S.S., Incoloy

Properties of Heat Transfer Oils: Sheath material utilized is typically steel


Material Caloria HT 43 Dowtherm A Dowtherm J Dowtherm LF Dowtherm G Dowtherm HT Marlotherm S Mobiltherm 603 Multitherm PG-1 Multitherm IG-2 Syltherm XLT Syltherm 800 Therminol 44 Therminol 55 Therminol 59 Therminol 60 Therminol 75 Therminol LT Therminol VP-1 UCON 500 C/F Consult Factory Maximum Maximum Maximum Fluid Sheath Temperature Temperature w/in.2 F F 475 725 575 575 675 625 675 550 565 575 475 725 400 560 575 560 675 475 725 475 680 835 650 675 775 700 695 625 640 650 550 800 475 605 650 655 805 650 800 550 12 20 20 20 20 20 12 20 12 20 12 12 12 12 20 20 20 20 20 12 Density Weight in lbs/cu. ft. 52.0 66.0 54.1 63.0 68.6 60.6 60.8 53.9 54.2 54.8 52.6 58.7 57.8 55.2 60.6 62.6 68.8 53.7 66.7 64.8 Specific Heat 0.43 0.38 0.43 0.40 0.37 0.37 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.47 0.40 0.38 0.47 0.46 0.41 0.39 0.38 0.43 0.37 0.47 Flash Point 400 255 145 260 305 374 380 340 440 116 350 405 350 302 310 390 134 255 540 Flammability F Fire Auto Point Ignition 275 155 280 315 385 500 130 380 438 410 335 320 440 150 280 600 670 1150 806 1020 1150 932 690 700 662 725 705 675 770 835 1000 805 1150 750 Minimum Velocity of Material Through Elements in Ft./Second 8 16 23 30 w/in.2 w/in.2 w/in.2 w/in.2 1.5 .5 1 .7 .7 1.5 1.5 1.5 1 .8 1.5 1.5 1 1.5 1.5 1.5 1 1.5 1 1 2.5 1 2 1.5 1.5 2.5 3 3 2 1.7 2.5 3 2 2.5 2.5 3 2 2.5 2 2 3 2 3 2.5 2.5 3.5 5 5 3 2.3 4 5 3 3.5 3.5 5 3 4 3 3 4 3 4.5 3.5 3.5 5 7 7 4 3 5 7 4 5 5 7 4 5 4 4

NOTE: C-20 designates Carpenter Stainless #20

CORROSION RESISTANCE OF SHEATH MATERIALS


24T:

PROCESS INFRARED HEATING

produce uniform radiant distribution. Specific application considerations may require the distance to be adjusted. Materials are selective as to the wavelength accepted to absorb infrared energy. As can be seen on 38T, PVC will absorb best at 3.5 microns. The wavelength produced by the heat source is dependent upon the source temperature. It is possible then to adjust the source temperature and thus the peak wavelength to match the best spectral absorption rate or wavelength. The formula is: 2897 5215 C = -273 F = -459 Thus, if the element temperature is known and the wavelength is desired: = 5215 459 + F = 2897 273 + C

SPECTRAL ABSORPTION OF VARIOUS MATERIALS


26T: Water
100%

80%

ABSORPTION

60%

40%

By applying the formula to PVC, based upon 3.5 microns being the desired wavelength, 1025F (550C) would be the emitters surface temperature for the best heat transfer to the process. This principle holds true no matter what the construction of the heat source. An Incoloy tubular heater, the resistance wire of a quartz heater, an FP Flat Panel heater or a Black Body Ceramic Infrared heater operating at 842F (450C) would all have the same peak energy wavelength of 4 microns. Other characteristics such as penetration and color sensitivity would also be the same. Other common methods of temperature control in infrared processes is by varying the voltage input to the elements or adjusting the amount of on-time versus off-time of the elements. These are open-loop control systems and usually require the constant attention of an operator. A closed loop control system would consist of infrared sensors or thermocouples attached or integral to the heat source, that would monitor the temperature of the process or heater, signal a control which in turn would signal an output device to deliver current (or turn off) the heat source. For complete information, see each respective catalog section, the Thermal System Design section or consult OGDEN. OGDEN offers a number of choices of heating elements for infrared applications. The advantages, limitations and adaptability of each will determine which is most suitable. For instance, the emissivity/conversion ratio of an Incoloy sheath tubular heater is about 55%, a quartz heater's is 60%, an FP Flat Panels is about 80% and the Black Body Ceramics is over 90%. This indicates that close to all of the infrared energy produced by the ceramic heater will be absorbed by the process. This type of efficiency may be the most important consideration. But the process may require a heat source with a quick response time. The quartz heater will likely be chosen, or an expensive retraction system may be necessary should a line stoppage occur. The Incoloy sheath tubular heater could be the best selection because of its ruggedness and ability to be formed to suit spacing or confinement requirements. An FP Flat Panel heater may be selected because of the wide area coverage. Although much technical information is available in this and other sources, trial and pilot testing are often necessary to establish if a process is suitable for infrared. The wattage required, watt density, process time cycle, distance from the heat source to the material and how well the material absorbs infrared can perhaps only be determined by this method. Should any uncertainty exist, contact OGDEN. The information necessary may already be on file, because OGDEN has successfully solved scores of infrared heating problems.

20%

WAVE LENGTH (MICRONS)

27T: Aluminum
ALUMINUM: Anodized 100% Polished Sandblasted

80%

ABSORPTION

60%

40%

20%

WAVELENGTH (MICRONS)

28T: Pure Linen, Cotton and Cellulose Wood


PURE LINEN 100% COTTON CELLULOSE WOOD

80% ABSORPTION

60%

40%

WAVELENGTH (MICRONS)

Radiation / Temperature Comparison Chart


Peak Wavelength ( m ) 3 .8 3 3 .5 7 3 .3 4 3 .1 4 2 .9 6 2 .8 0 2 .6 6 2 .5 3 2 .4 1 2 .3 0 2 .2 1 2 .1 2 2 .0 4 1 .9 6 1 .8 9 1 .8 2 1 .7 6 1 .7 0 1 .6 5 1 .6 0 Flux ( watts / in 2 ) 11 .91 1 5.82 2 0.62 2 6.44 3 3.41 4 1.68 5 1.39 6 2.71 7 5.81 9 0.85 10 8 .0 4 12 7 .5 5 14 9 .5 9 17 4 .3 7 20 2 .11 23 3 .0 4 26 7 .3 8 30 5 .3 9 34 7 .3 2 39 3 .4 2

Revision 1.0 16/NOV/99

Temp (F) 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800

Tem p (K) 7 55 8 10 8 66 9 22 9 78 1 03 3 1 08 9 11 44 2 00 0 1 25 5 1 311 1 36 6 1 42 2 1 47 8 1 53 3 1 58 9 1 64 4 1 70 0 1 75 5 1 81 0

Co lor

QUICK ESTIMATES FOR WATTAGE REQUIREMENTS


42T: To Heat Steel
Weight in lbs. 25 50 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 50 .06 .12 .25 .37 .50 .65 .75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 100 .12 .25 .50 .75 1.00 1.25 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 Temperature Rise (F) 200 300 400 .25 .37 .50 .50 .75 1.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 1.50 2.25 3.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 2.50 3.75 5.00 3.00 4.50 6.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 5.00 7.50 10.00 6.00 9.00 12.00 7.00 10.50 14.00 8.00 12.00 16.00 9.00 13.50 18.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 kw to heat in 1 hour 500 .65 1.25 2.50 3.75 5.00 6.25 7.50 10.00 12.50 15.00 17.50 20.00 22.50 25.00 600 .75 1.50 3.00 4.50 6.00 7.50 9.00 12.00 15.00 18.00 21.00 24.00 27.00 30.00

44T: To Heat Water


Cubic feet Gallons .66 5 1.3 10 2.0 13 2.7 20 3.3 25 4.0 30 5.3 40 6.7 50 8.0 60 9.4 70 10.7 80 12.0 90 13.4 100 16.7 125 20.0 150 20 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.1 1.3 1.6 2.1 2.7 3.3 3.7 4.3 5 5.5 7 8 40 0.5 1.1 1.6 2.2 2.7 3.2 4 5.4 6.4 7.5 8.5 10 11 13 16 Temperature Rise (F) 60 80 100 0.8 1.1 1.3 1.6 2.1 2.7 2.4 3.2 4 3.2 4.3 5.3 4 5.3 6.7 4.8 6.4 8 6.4 8.5 11 8 10.7 13 9.6 12.8 16 11.2 15 19 13 17 21 14.5 19 24 16 21 27 20 27 33 24 32 40 kw to heat in 1 hour 120 1.6 3.2 4.8 6.4 8 9.6 13 16 19 22 26 29 32 40 48 140 1.9 3.7 5.6 7.5 9.3 12 15 19 22 26 30 34 37 47 56

43T: To Heat Air


Cu.ft./ minute (scfm) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 1,100 1,200 Temperature Rise (F) 50 1.7 3.3 5.0 6.7 8.3 10.0 11.7 13.3 15.0 16.7 18.3 20 100 3.3 6.7 10.0 13.3 16.7 20.0 23.3 26.7 30.0 33.3 36.7 40 150 5 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35 40 45.0 50 55 60 200 250 300 350 400 6.7 8.3 10.0 11.7 13.3 13.3 16.7 20.0 23.3 26.7 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 26.7 33.3 40.0 46.7 53.3 33.3 41.7 50.0 58.3 66.7 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 46.7 58.3 70.0 81.7 93.3 53.3 66.7 80.0 93.3 106.7 60.0 75.0 90.0 105.0 120.0 66.7 83.3 100.0 116.7 133.3 73.3 91.7 110.0 128.3 146.7 80.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 160.0 kw 450 15.0 30.0 45.0 60.0 75.0 90.0 105.0 120.0 135.0 150.0 165.0 180.0 500 16.7 33.3 50.0 66.7 83.3 100.0 116.7 133.3 150.0 166.7 183.3 200.0 600 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 160.0 180.0 200.0 220.0 240.0

Quick estimates for other volumes

gal./hr. x 8.34 x Temperature Rise (F) kw = _______________________________ 3412 kw x 3412 gal.hr. = _______________________ 8.34 x Temperature Rise (F)

45T: To Heat Oil


Cubic feet .5 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Gallons 3.74 7.48 14.96 22.25 29.9 37.4 74.8 112.5 149.6 187 222.5 252 299 336.5 374 50 .3 .5 1 2 2 3 5 7 9 11 13 16 18 20 22 100 .5 1 1 3 4 4 9 14 18 22 27 31 36 40 45 Temperature Rise (F) 200 300 400 1 2 2 2 3 4 2 4 6 6 9 12 8 12 16 9 15 20 18 29 40 28 44 60 37 58 80 46 72 100 56 86 120 65 100 139 74 115 158 84 129 178 93 144 197 kw to heat in 1 hour 500 3 6 11 16 22 25 52 77 102 127 151 176 201 226 252

Use the maximum anticipated airflow. Chart 35T and below equations assume insulated duct (negligible heat loss), 70F inlet air and 14 psia.

Quick estimates for other volumes

For Air: scfm* x Temperature Rise (F) kw = ________________________ 3000


*Measured at normal temperature and pressure.

For Compressed Air: scfm** x Density** x Temperature Rise (F) kw = __________________________________ 228
**Measured at heater system inlet temperature and pressure.

Add 5% for uninsulated tanks.

Quick estimates for other volumes

Gallons x Temperature Rise (F) kw = ___________________________ 800 x Process Start-up Time (hrs.)

DETERMINING WATTAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR ENCLOSURE HEATERS


TEMPERATURE RISE FROM MINIMUM EXPECTED AMBIENT TEMPERATURE TO DESIRED ENCLOSURE TEMPERATURE (F) 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1340 320 2010 480 2680 640 3350 800 4020 960 4690 1120 130 1075 260 1610 385 2145 515 2680 640 3220 770 3755 900 100 805 195 1210 290 1610 385 2010 480 2415 580 2815 675 80 670 160 1005 240 1340 320 1675 400 2010 480 2345 560 65 540 130 805 195 1075 260 1340 320 1610 385 1880 450 50 405 100 605 145 805 195 1005 240 1210 290 1410 340 35 270 65 405 100 540 130 670 160 805 195 940 225 30 245 60 365 90 485 115 605 145 725 175 845 205 25 200 50 300 75 400 100 500 125 600 150 700 175 20 160 40 245 60 325 80 405 100 485 115 565 135 20 135 35 205 50 270 65 335 80 405 100 470 115 15 110 30 160 55 215 55 270 65 320 80 375 90 10 80 20 120 30 160 40 200 50 240 60 280 70 10 55 15 90 20 110 30 135 35 165 40 190 45 Required wattage Double above values in areas with extreme wind factors. uninsulated cabinet insulated cabinet Match above values from chart to a standard Enclosure Heater. Use multiple heaters where necessary.

50 40 30 25 20 15 10 9 7.5 6 5 4 3 2

670 540 405 335 270 205 135 120 100 80 70 55 40 30

Enclosure Surface AreaSquare Feet

KW REQUIREMENTS FOR MAINTAINING TANK TEMPERATURES AGAINST HEAT LOSSES


To use graph, assume a requirement for maintaining a fluid temperature of 250F in an ambient of 30F in a tank 12 diameter by 20 long. Chart is based upon still air. A. Connect 12 on scale 2 with 20 on scale 6 (line A). The intersection of this line with scale 4 is the surface area of the cylindrical portion of the tank (approximately 800 sq. ft.). The intersection of line A with scale 3 is the tank volume (approximately 17,000 gallons). B. Draw horizontal line B to scale 1 to determine the surface area of the tank ends (approximately 225 sq. ft.). C. Adding A and B is the total surface area of the tank (1,025 sq. ft.). Connect 1,025 on scale 4 and 220F (250-30F) on scale 7 with line C. The kw required is where line C intersects scale 5. Insulated tank = 35kw Uninsulated tank = 250kw See wind velocity correction factor chart below.

A B

* Based on still air See Wind Velocity Correction Chart below.

3.5

Wind Velocity Correction Factor

Wind Velocity Effects On exposed, Bare and Insulated Surfaces 1. Determine surface heat losses at still air conditions as per calculation or chart above. 2. Multiply result by wind correction factor from above for total heat loss.

3.0 WIND VELOCITY MPF 2.5 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 2.5 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Temperature Difference between Exposed Surface and Air F

2.0

1.5

1.0

PROCESS HEATING APPLICATION EXAMPLES

DETERMINING WATT DENSITY

PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE RATINGS OF STEEL AND STAINLESS STEEL FLANGES

TANK CAPACITIES
VERTICAL CYLINDER
Dia (in) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Dia (ft) 0.167 0.250 0.333 0.417 0.500 0.583 0.667 0.750 0.833 0.917 1.000 1.083 1.167 1.250 1.333 1.417 1.500 1.583 1.667 1.750 1.833 1.917 2.000 2.083 2.167 2.250 2.333 2.417 2.500 2.583 2.667 2.750 2.833 2.917 3.000 3.083 3.167 3.250 3.333 3.417 3.500 3.583 3.667 Surface Area (sq ft) 9.222 0.049 0.087 0.136 0.196 0.267 0.349 0.442 0.545 0.660 0.785 0.922 1.069 1.227 1.396 1.576 1.767 1.969 2.182 2.405 2.640 2.885 3.142 3.409 3.687 3.976 4.276 4.587 4.909 5.241 5.585 5.940 6.305 6.681 7.069 7.467 7.876 8.296 8.727 9.168 9.621 10.08 10.56 Volume per 1' depth (Gal) 0.163 0.367 0.653 1.020 1.469 1.999 2.611 3.305 4.080 4.937 5.875 6.895 7.997 9.180 10.44 11.79 13.22 14.73 16.32 17.99 19.75 21.58 23.50 25.50 27.58 29.74 31.99 34.31 36.72 39.21 41.78 44.43 47.16 49.98 52.88 55.86 58.92 62.06 65.28 68.58 71.97 75.44 78.99 Dia (in) 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 75 78 81 84 87 90 93 96 99 102 105 108 111 114 117 Dia (ft) 3.750 3.833 3.917 4.000 4.083 4.167 4.250 4.333 4.417 4.500 4.583 4.667 4.750 4.833 4.917 5.000 5.083 5.167 5.250 5.333 5.417 5.500 5.583 5.667 5.750 5.833 5.917 6.00 6.25 6.50 6.75 7.00 7.25 7.50 7.75 8.00 8.25 8.50 8.75 9.00 9.25 9.50 9.75 Area (sq ft) 11.04 11.54 12.05 12.57 13.10 13.64 14.19 14.75 15.32 15.90 16.50 17.10 17.72 18.35 18.99 19.63 20.29 20.97 21.65 22.34 23.04 23.76 24.48 25.22 25.97 26.73 27.49 28.27 30.68 33.18 35.78 38.48 41.28 44.18 47.17 50.27 53.46 56.75 60.13 63.62 67.20 70.88 74.66 Volume per 1' depth (Gal) 82.62 86.33 90.13 94.00 97.96 102.0 106.1 110.3 114.6 119.0 123.4 127.9 132.6 137.3 142.0 146.9 151.8 156.8 161.9 167.1 172.4 177.7 183.2 188.7 194.2 199.9 205.7 211.5 229.5 248.2 267.7 287.9 308.8 330.5 352.9 376.0 399.9 424.5 449.8 475.9 502.7 530.2 558.5 Dia (in) 120 126 132 138 144 150 156 162 168 174 180 186 192 198 204 210 216 222 228 234 240 246 252 258 264 270 276 282 288 294 300 306 312 318 324 330 447 342 348 354 360 372 384 Dia (ft) 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0 15.5 16.0 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0 18.5 19.0 19.5 20.0 20.5 21.0 21.5 22.0 22.5 23.0 23.5 24.0 24.5 25.0 25.5 26.0 26.5 27.0 27.5 38.0 28.5 29.0 29.5 30 31 32 Area (sq ft) 78.54 86.59 95.03 103.9 113.1 122.7 132.7 143.1 153.9 165.1 176.7 188.7 201.1 213.8 227.0 240.5 254.5 268.8 283.5 298.6 314.2 330.1 346.4 363.1 380.1 397.6 415.5 433.7 452.4 471.4 490.9 510.7 530.9 551.5 572.6 594.0 615.8 637.9 660.5 683.5 706.9 754.8 804.2 Volume per 1' depth (Gal) 587.5 647.7 710.9 777.0 846.0 918.0 992.9 1071 1152 1235 1322 1412 1504 1600 1698 1799 1904 2011 2121 2234 2350 2469 2591 2716 2844 2974 3108 3245 3384 3527 3672 3820 3972 4126 4283 4443 4606 4772 4941 5113 5288 5646 6016 Dia (in) 396 408 420 432 444 456 468 480 492 504 516 528 540 552 564 576 588 600 624 648 672 696 720 744 768 792 816 840 864 888 912 936 960 984 1008 1032 1056 1080 1104 1128 1152 1176 1200 Dia (ft) 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 Area (sq ft) 855.3 907.9 962.1 1018 1075 1134 1195 1257 1320 1385 1452 1521 1590 1662 1735 1810 1886 1963 2124 2290 2463 2642 2827 3019 3217 3421 3632 3848 4072 4301 4536 4778 5027 5281 5542 5809 6082 6362 6648 6940 7238 7543 7854 Volume per 1' depth (Gal) 6398 6792 7197 7614 8043 8484 8936 9400 9976 10364 10863 11374 11897 12432 12978 13536 14106 14688 15887 17132 18425 19764 21151 22584 24065 25592 27167 38788 30457 32173 33935 35745 37601 39505 41455 43453 45497 47589 49728 51913 54146 56425 58752

HORIZONTAL CYLINDER
Contents in gallons per foot of length of tank with flat ends when filled to various depths.
Tank Dia (in) 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 Depth of Liquid, h (in) Full Tank 1.47 5.88 13.22 23.50 36.72 52.88 71.97 94.00 118.97 146.88 117.72 211.51 248.23 287.88 330.48 376.01 424.48 475.89 530.24 587.52 3 0.73 1.15 1.45 1.70 1.91 2.10 2.28 2.45 2.60 2.75 2.88 3.02 3.14 3.26 3.38 3.49 3.60 3.71 3.81 3.91 6 1.47 2.94 3.86 4.59 5.23 5.79 6.31 6.78 7.23 7.64 8.04 8.42 8.78 9.13 9.46 9.78 10.10 10.40 10.70 10.98

9 4.73 6.61 8.05 9.27 10.34 11.31 12.20 13.03 13.82 14.56 15.26 15.93 16.58 17.20 17.80 18.38 18.94 19.49 20.02

12 5.88 9.36 11.75 13.72 15.43 16.97 18.38 19.69 20.91 22.07 23.17 24.22 25.23 26.19 27.13 28.03 28.90 29.75 30.58

15 11.77 15.45 18.36 20.85 23.07 25.10 26.97 28.72 30.36 31.92 33.41 34.84 36.20 37.52 38.80 40.02 41.23 42.39

18 13.22 18.91 23.00 26.44 29.46 32.20 34.72 37.06 39.26 41.35 43.33 45.23 47.05 48.81 50.50 52.13 53.72 55.26

D
21 21.81 27.45 32.02 35.99 39.54 42.79 45.81 48.64 51.32 53.86 56.28 58.61 60.84 62.99 65.08 67.10 69.06 24 23.50 31.49 37.45 42.51 47.00 51.09 54.86 58.39 61.72 64.87 67.87 70.75 73.51 76.17 78.74 81.23 83.65 27 34.81 42.54 48.90 54.46 59.49 64.10 68.40 72.45 76.27 79.91 83.39 86.72 89.94 93.04 96.04 98.95 30 36.72 47.08 55.00 61.81 67.88 73.44 78.59 83.42 87.97 92.30 96.43 100.39 104.20 107.87 111.42 114.86

h
33 50.77 60.66 68.91 76.18 82.77 88.86 94.55 99.90 104.97 109.81 114.44 118.88 123.17 127.31 131.31 36 52.88 65.66 75.63 84.26 92.02 99.13 105.75 111.97 117.85 123.44 128.79 133.92 138.86 143.63 148.24 39 69.69 81.80 92.00 101.07 109.32 116.96 124.11 130.86 137.27 143.39 149.25 154.88 160.32 165.57 42 71.97 87.22 99.29 109.82 119.33 128.09 136.26 143.94 151.22 158.16 164.80 171.18 177.32 183.26

45 91.56 105.94 118.16 129.08 139.06 148.33 157.02 165.24 173.05 180.52 187.69 194.58 201.24

48 94.00 111.75 125.97 138.46 149.79 160.25 170.03 179.26 188.01 196.35 204.35 212.04 219.46

51 116.37 133.06 147.36 160.19 171.96 182.91 193.21 202.96 212.24 221.12 229.65 237.87

54 118.97 139.24 155.65 170.16 183.36 195.58 207.04 217.85 228.13 237.95 247.36 256.42

57 144.13 163.17 179.58 194.37 207.98 220.67 232.62 243.96 254.77 265.12 275.07

60 146.88 169.68 188.34 204.89 220.01 234.05 247.22 259.68 271.54 282.88 293.76

SATURATED STEAM
Thermodynamic Properties Saturated Steam (Values to Nearest Even Digits)
PSIG 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 F 212 216 219 222 224 227 230 232 235 237 240 250 259 267 274 281 287 292 298 303 307 Heat of Liquid* 180 183 187 190 193 195 298 201 203 206 208 218 227 236 243 250 256 262 267 272 277 BTU/lb. Latent Heat of Evaporation 970 968 965 964 962 961 959 957 956 954 952 945 940 934 929 924 920 915 912 908 905 Total Heat of Steam 1150 1151 1152 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1160 1163 1167 1170 1172 1174 1176 1177 1179 1180 1182 Spec. Vol. Ft3/lb Sat. Vapor 27 25 24 22.5 21.0 20.0 19.5 18.5 18.0 17.0 16.5 14.0 12.0 10.5 9.5 8.5 8.0 7.0 6.7 6.2 5.8 PSIG 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 125 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 250 F 312 316 320 324 328 331 335 338 344 350 353 356 361 366 371 375 380 384 388 395 403 406 Heat of Liquid* 282 286 290 294 298 302 306 309 316 322 325 328 334 339 344 348 353 358 362 370 378 381 BTU/lb. Latent Heat of Evaporation 901 898 895 892 889 886 883 881 876 871 868 866 861 857 853 849 845 841 837 830 823 820 Total Heat of Steam 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 1192 1193 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1197 1198 1199 1199 1200 1201 1201 Spec. Vol. Ft3/lb Sat. Vapor 5.5 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.75

* Heat content is the number of BTU/lb needed to reach the condition indicated starting with water at 32F. Saturated steam is pure steam in direct contact with the liquid water from which it was generated and at a temperature of water at the existing pressure. For example, saturated steam at 50 PSIG has a temperature of 298F. Pressure is commonly expressed either (a) PSIA pounds per square inch absolute or, (b) PSIG pounds per square inch gauge above standard atmospheric pressure of 14.7 PSIA, thus PSIG is equal to PSIA minus 14.7 psi. Latent heat, expressed in BTU per pound, is the amount of heat needed (absorbed) to convert a pound of boiling water to a pound of steam. The same amount of heat is liberated when a pound of steam condenses back to a pound of water. Latent heat varies with temperature (see table above).

SHEATH MATERIAL COMPOSITION

TERMINAL ENCLOSURE DESCRIPTIONS

Specifying an Explosion Resistant Electrical Enclosure

1)

2)

3)

4)

(Continued) Specifying an Explosion Resistant Electrical Enclosure

M6 and M7 Terminal Enclosures for Use in Hazardous Locations


CSA LR55274-24 NRTL/C - Certified to U.S. Standards Class I, Groups B, C, and D Class II, Groups E, F, and G Class III Special requirements for electric heaters and terminal enclosures in hazardous locations: WIRINGThe proper use of Type M6 and M7 terminal enclosures on electric heaters located in hazardous areas requires that all electrical wiring comply with National Electrical Code (NEC) requirements for hazardous locations MAXIMUM TEMPERATURES Safe operation in a hazardous location requires the maximum operating temperatures of all exposed surfaces of the heater including temperatures on the outside of the vessel, piping, flanges, pipe plugs, enclosures and other heat conduction parts be limited. The maximum surface temperature permitted in any hazardous location is determined by the flammable liquids, vapors or gases present. The end user or purchaser of the electric heating equipment is responsible for determining the proper classification of an area and for providing Ogden with hazardous area specifications and requirements for proper equipment design. (NEC Articles 500 and 501 provide guidelines for evaluating and classifying hazardous locations.) SAFETY DEVICESApproved pressure and/or temperature limiting controls must be used on electric heaters and heating elements to ensure safe operation in the event of system malfunctions. Note 1: Class I Group B locations include Hydrogen gas. These areas require additional conduit seals and thread engagement. Contact Ogden for heaters and terminal enclosures suitable for Class I Group B hazardous locations. Maximum Rating for Approval: Pipe Plug Immersion Heaters 225kw 600V Flanged Immersion Heaters 225kw 600V Circulation Heaters 70kw 600V Round elements only. Contact Ogden for Mighty-Blades.

STANDARD PIPE DATA

ELECTRICAL DATA

CONVERSION DATA

FORMULAS FOR DETERMINING GEOMETRIC AREAS AND VOLUMES

THERMAL SYSTEM GLOSSARY


Abolute ZeroThe lowest theoretical temperature. At absolute zero, a body would have no molecular motion of heat energy. Absolute zero is the zero point on the Rankine and Kelvin scale. (-273.15C or -459.67F) ACAlternating Current; an electric current that reverses direction at regularly occurring intervals. Accuracy Calibration Accuracythe potential error of a device compared to a physical constant or agency standard. Control Accuracymaintaining a process at the desired setting. The errors or combination of errors in the entire system including the sensor, control, power, load and design inefficiencies affect control accuracy. Display Accuracythe amount of potential error between a measured value and the controls displayed value. Set Point Accuracythe potential error between a measured value and the control setting Alarma control condition or function, indicating that the process is a predetermined amount above or below the set point. Ambient Compensationthe ability of an instrument to compensate for changes in the ambient temperature so that the changes do not affect control accuracy. Ambient Temperaturethe temperature of the immediate surroundings in which equipment is to operate. Ampere (amp)the rate of flow of current in a circuit. Analog Indicationa meter with graduated scale and a pointer that moves to indicate process condition. Analog Outputa voltage or current signal that is a continuous function of the measure parameter. Analog Set Pointpotentiometer adjustment of the control setting Anneal-To relieve stress in a metal or glass material by heating to just below its melting point, then gradually cooling to ambient temperature. Annealing lowers tensile strength while increasing flexibility. Tubular heaters are annealed prior to forming. ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute Anti-reset Windupa feature in 3 mode (PID) controls which prevents the integral (automatic rest) circuit from functioning when the temperature is outside the proportional band. ASMEAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers. ASTMAmerican Society for Testing and Materials. Atmospheric Pressure (Standard)Pressure exerted by the earths atmosphere on the objects within. Measured at 60F (15C), at sea level, standard atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psia. Automatic Reset (Integral)the integral function of a control that automatically compensates for the difference between the set point and the actual process temperature. A signal moves the proportioning band up or down to correct for the droop or offset error. Automatic Tuning (of control parameters)a control that calculates the optimum PID parameters with a built-in software algorithm to eliminate manual tuning efforts. Auxiliary Outputadditional outputs for control of functions other than the primary control output, such as lights, buzzers, horns or gas purges that are triggered by the control alarm function. AWGAmerican Wire Gauge. Bandwidththe total temperature variation measured at some point in the system, normally the process. Baud Rate In serial communications, the rate of information transfer in bits per second. Blackbodya theoretical object that radiates the maximum amount of energy at a given temperature and absorbs all energy incident upon it. Boiling Pointthe temperature at which a substance in the liquid state transforms to the gaseous state. Commonly refers to the boiling point of water (100C or 212F at sea level). BtuBritish Thermal Unit; the amount of thermal energy required to raise one pound of water, 1F . Bumpless TransferThe smooth, automatic transition from automatic control (closed loop) to manual control (open Loop). The control output is maintained during the transfer. Burst Firinga fast cycling control output type (3-32VDC for Ogden products) used in conjunction with a solid state relay. Calibrationthe process of adjusting an instrument so that the indication is accurate compared to the actual value. cfmthe volumetric flow rate of a liquid or gas in cubic feet per minute. Caloriethe amount of thermal energy required to raise one gram of water 1C at15C CascadeControl function where the output of one control loop provides the set point for a second loop, which determines the control action. CEA mark that designates compliance with European Union (EU) requirements for products sold in Europe Celsius(Centigrade) a temperature scale with 0C defined as the ice point and 100C as the boiling point of water at sea level. Chatterthe rapid cycling of a relay due to too narrow a bandwidth in the control. Closed Loop Controla control system in which process temperature changes are detected by a sensor. The feedback from the sensor allows the control to make adjustments for accurate system regulation. Cold Junction Compensationa temperature sensitive device that prevents changes in the ambient temperature from affecting the cold junction of a thermocouple. Common Mode Line Filtera device to filter noise signals on both power lines with respect to ground. Common Mode Rejection Ratiothe ability of an instrument to reject interference from a common voltage at the input terminals with relation to ground. Expressed in dB (decibels). Conductionthe transfer of heat from one material at a given temperature to another material at a lower temperature while in direct contact with each other. Continuity CheckA test that determines whether current flows throughout the length of a circuit. Control Loopthe basic control loop of any automatic control system consists of: 1) variable (process) 2) sensor 3) error detector (of control) 4) control 5) final control element (relay, SSR, SCR) 6) temperature indication Control Modethe method in which the control restores the system temperature to set point. On/Off, proportioning, and PID are the most common control modes. Convectionthe transfer of heat from a source or higher temperature area in a gas or liquid by the movement and mixing of the masses. CPSCycles per Second (See Hertz). Current Proportioning a 4-20 milliamp (typical) current output which provides a current proportional to the amount of control required. Cycle Ratein a time proportioning control, the period (usually in seconds) of time that is required to complete one on/off cycle once temperature has settled at the center of the proportioning band. DCdirect current; an electric current flowing in one direction and constant in value.

Data LoggingRecording a process variable over an extended period of time. Dead Bandthe temperature band where no heating or cooling takes place, expressed in degrees. Default ParametersThe programming instructions permanently written in microprocessor software. Densitymass per unit of volume, such as lbs./cu.ft. Derivative(See Rate) Deviationthe difference between the selected value and the actual value. Deviation Alarman offset value that follows the set point. If the set point is 300F and the Deviation Alarm value is +20F (or 320F), then the set point is changed to 350F, the Deviation Value alarm would be 350F plus 20F (or 370F). See Process Alarm. Deviation Meterthe display of process temperature on meter that indicates temperature relative to the set point. Dielectrican electrical insulator - a material with low electrical conductivity. Dielectric Strengthan amount of voltage that an insulating material can withstand before an electrical breakdown occurs. Differentialin an on/off control, the temperature difference expressed in degrees between where the control switches off and the control switches on. Differential Mode Line Filtera device to filter noise signals between two power lines. Digital Indicationthe actual process temperature in indicated by LED. Digital Set Pointthe desired temperature value is set by means of a pushbutton or pushwheel switch. DINDeutsche Industrial Norms, a German agency that sets engineering standards. DiodeDevice that allows current to flow in only one direction. Drifta change in a value over a long period due to changes in factors such as ambient temperature, time or line voltage. Droopin time proportioning controls, the difference in temperature between the set point and where the system temperature stabilizes. Corrected by automatic or manual reset. Dual Outputthe primary output will regulate the process temperature. A secondary output will be utilized for process cooling or as an alarm. Duty Cyclethe time to complete one ON/OFF cycle. Efficiencythe amount of useful output versus energy input. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)electrical and magnetic noise than can be generated when switching AC power. EMI can interfere with the operation of microprocessor based controls. EmissivityThe ratio of radiant energy emitted from a surface compared to the radiant energy emitted from a black body at the same temperature. Endothermica process is endothermic when it absorbs heat. Enthalpythe sum of the internal energy of a body and the product of its volume multiplied by the pressure used to evaluate the energy change occurring when a vapor or gas is heated. Expressed in units of Btu/lb. or Joules/gram. Errorthe difference between the correct value and the reading or display value. Exothermic-a process is exothermic when it generates heat. Eventa programmable On/Off output used to signal peripheral equipment or a process. Flow Ratespeed or velocity of fluid movement. Form A RelaySingle pole, single throw relay with Normally Open (NO) and common contacts. When heat is required for a process, the contacts will close. Form B RelaySingle pole, single throw relay with Normally Closed (NC) and common contacts. Contacts are open when coil is ener-

Form C RelaySingle pole, double throw relay with Normally Open (NO), Normally Closed (NC) and common contacts. Can be selected as Form A or Form B contact. fpmflow velocity in feet per minute. fpsflow velocity in feet per second. Fahrenheita temperature scale with 32F defined as the ice point and 212F as the boiling point of water at sea level. Frequencythe number of event occurrences or cycles over a specified period of time. Freezing Pointthe temperature where a material changes from a liquid to a solid. FuseA device that interrupts power in a circuit when an overload occurs. Fuzzy LogicAn artificial intelligence technique that allows control decisions to be made upon approximate or incomplete information. Fuzzy Logic is a continuous decision making function that can prevent initial overshoot and set point differentials. GIGAthe prefix for one billion (G). gphthe volumetric flow rate in gallons per hour. gpmthe volumetric flow rate in gallons per minute. Groundthe electrical neutral line having the same potential as the surrounding earth; the negative side of a DC power supply; the reference point for an electrical system. Grounded JunctionA thermocouple junction in which the sheath and conductors are welded together forming a completely sealed integrated junction. Heatthermal energy expressed in Calories, Btus or Joules. Heat Balanceproper sizing of the heat source to the requirements of the system (including heat losses) (See: Calculating Heating Requirements in the Engineering Section). Heat of Fusionthe amount of energy required to change one pound of a material from a solid to a liquid without an increase in temperature. Expressed in Btu/lb. Heat of Vaporizationthe amount of energy required to change one pound of a material from a liquid to a vapor without an increase in temperature. Expressed in Btu/lb. Heat Sinkheat conducting material used to dissipate heat. Heat Transfera process of thermal energy flowing from one body to another. 1) Conduction: the transfer of heat from one particle of matter to another. 2) Convection: the transfer of heat from one part of a particle to another by the mixing of the warmer particles with the cooler. 3) Radiant: the transfer of heat from one body to another as the result of the bodies emitting and absorbing radiation energy. Heat Transfer Mediuma gas, liquid or solid through which heat flows from the heat source to the work. Hertzunits of expression for frequency, measured in cycles per second. Hi-Pot Testto apply a high voltage to an electrical conductor to test the surrounding insulation. Hysteresisthe temperature sensitivity designed into the on/off control action between the on and off switching points. Expressed in percentage of control range. Ice Pointthe temperature where pure water freezes (0C or 32F). Impedancethe total opposition in a circuit to the flow of alternating current. Measured in ohms and represented by Z. Infraredor radiation is the exchange of energy by electromagnetic waves. The infrared spectrum extends from the deep red end of the visible spectrum to the microwave region of the radio spectrum, The portion adjacent to the visible spectrum is of importance to heating. Radiant heat transfer can be very efficient in directing energy from the heat source to an object. IsolationElectrical Separation Isothermala process or area that maintains a constant temperature. Integral(See Automatic Reset).

Joulethe basic unit of thermal energy. 1 Joule equals 1 ampere passed through a resistance of 1 ohm for 1 second. JunctionA thermocouple junction is the point at which two alloys are joined. A typical thermocouple circuit would have a measuring and a refernce junction. Kelvinthe unit of absolute or thermodynamic temperature scale. Zero Kelvin is absolute zero, where all molecular activity stops. No symbol is used. 0C = 273.15K; 100C = 373.15K. Kilothe prefix for one thousand (K). Kilowatt (kw)1000 watts or 3412 Btu per hour. Kilowatt Hourelectrical unit of energy expended by one kilowatt in one hour. Least Significant DigitThe digit farthest to the right in a display. Linearitythe deviation of an instruments response from a straight line. Loadthe electrical demand of a process expressed as wattage, amps or resistance (ohms). Manual Resetthe adjustment on a proportional control which shifts the proportioning band in relation to the set point to eliminate droop of offset errors. Mass Flow Rateweight of a substance flowing per unit of time past a specific cross-sectional area within a system. Mean Temperaturethe maximum and minimum temperature average of a process at equilibrium. Measuring Junctionthe thermocouple junction at the point of measurement in the process. Megathe prefix for one million (M) (106). Mechanical Relayan electromechanical device that completes or breaks a circuit by opening or closing electrical contacts. MicroThe prefix for one millionth (10-6). Microamp10-6 amps (one millionth of an amp). Micron10-6 meters (one millionth of a meter). MilliThe prefix for one thousndth (10-3). MicroprocessorThe central processing unit (CPU) that performs the logic operations in a micro-computer system. The microprocessor in a process or instrument control decodes instructions from the stored program, performs algorithmic and logic functions, and produces signals and commands. Milliamp10-3 amps (one thousandth of an amp). Millivolt10-3 volts (one thousandth of a volt). NECNational Electrical Code NEMANational Electrical Manufacturers Association Noiseundesirable electrical interference on the signal wires. Noise Suppressiona device used to reduce electrical interference. Normal Mode Rejection Ratiothe ability of an instrument to reject interference of the line frequency (50-60Hz) across the input terminals. NPTNational Pipe Thread Offsetthe difference in temperature between the set point and the actual process temperature. OHMThe unit of electric resistance. On-Offa control whose action is full on or full off. Open Loop Controla control system with no sensing feedback. Overshootexcursion of temperature above the set point. Phasetime based relationship between an intermittent function and a reference. Electrically, the expression is in angular degrees to describe the voltage or current relationship of two alternating waveforms. Phase Proportioninga temperature control form where the power supplied to the process is controlled by limiting the phase angle of the line voltage. PIDthree mode temperature controlproportional, integral (automatic reset), derivative (rate). Polarityhaving two oppositely charged poles; one positive, one negative. PottingThe sealing of components with a compound such as epoxy

to protect against moisture and other contaminates. Process Alarma fixed alarm or secondary set point value independent of the primary set point. Should a process value exceed this value, an alarm condition would register. Process Variablethe parameter being controlled or measured such as temperature, relative humidity, flow, level, pressure, etc. Proportioning Banda temperature band in degrees within which a controls proportioning function is active. Proportioning Control Modewhen process temperature approaches set point and enters the proportioning band, the output is switched on and off at the established cycle time. The change in power to the load provides a throttling action which results in less temperature overshoot. This cycling will continue until on and off times are equal. psiapounds per square inch absolute. Pressure reference to a vacuum. psigpound per square inch gage. Pressure reference to ambient air pressure. Quality of Steamthe relative amount of liquid present in saturated steam as a percent of the total weight. The quality of steam is 100% less the percent liquid. Dry saturated steam has a quality of 100%. Rampa programmed rise in temperature. Rangean area between two limits in which a measurement or control action takes place. Typically expressed in upper and lower limits. Rankinean absolute temperature scale based upon the Fahrenheit scale with 180 between the ice point and boiling point of water. 0F = 459.67R. Rate (derivative)a control function that measures the rate of increase or decrease of the system temperature and brings the control into an accelerated proportioning action. This mode prevents an overshoot condition at initial heat-up and with system disturbances. Rate Timethe interval over which the system temperature is sampled for the derivative function. Repeatabilitythe ability to give the same output or measurement under repeated identical conditions. Resistancethe resistance to the flow of electric current measured in ohms. Resolution Sensitivitythe amount of temperature change that must occur before the control will actuate. It may be expressed in temperature or as a percentage of the controls scale. Response TimeIn analog instruments, the time required for a change of the measured quantity to change the indication. In sensors, the time required to reach 63.2% of the step change. Retransmit Outputanalog output scaled to the process or the set point value. RS232 or RS485 Output SignalA serial interface suitable for connection between a digital control and a personal computer, a host computer or printer. RTDa temperature sensing probe of finely wound platinum wire that displays a linear resistance change for a corresponding temperature change. The resistance increases as the temperature rises. A base resistance of 100 ohms at 32F is the industry (DIN) standard. Saturation Temperaturethe boiling temperature of a liquid at the existing pressure. SCFMVolumetric flow rate in cubic feet per minute at 60F (15C) and standard atmospheric pressure. SCRSilicone Controlled Rectifier Sensor Breakdown Protectioncircuitry which ensures safe process shut down in the event of sensor failure. Serial CommunicationsA method of transmitting data between devices. Set Pointcontrol setting to achieve or maintain temperature. Shape Factorin radiant applications, the amount of energy received by the target relative to heater rating and distance to the target. Shieldmaterial surrounding a conductor(s) to prevent electrostatic or EMI from external sources.

Slide Wire FeedbackA potentiometer that varies the resistance to control a valve position. SoakTo raise the temperature of a metal object in a heated environment to produce a metallurgical change. Standarda reference point from which references or calibrations are made. Soft Startreduces voltage on initial start-up which reduces power to the heaters. If heater has accumulated moisture internally during a shut down, soft start will allow heater to dry before full voltage is applied extending heater life. Solid State Relaya solid state switching device which completes or breaks a circuit electrically with no moving parts. Spanthe difference between the upper and lower limits of a controllers range. Specific Gravitythe ratio of mass of any material to the same volume of pure water at 4C. Specific Heatthe ratio of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of a particle 1 degree to the thermal energy required to raise an equal mass of water 1 degree. Speed of Responsetime needed for a temperature change occurring at the sensor to be translated into a control action. Stabilitythe ability of an instrument or sensor to maintain a constant output when a constant input is applied. Standarda reference point from which references or calibrations are made. Super Heatingthe heating of a liquid above its boiling temperature without changing to a gaseous state; or the heating of a gas considerably above the boiling temperature. Surge Currenta current of short duration occurring when power is initially applied to capacitive or resistive loads, usually lasting no more than several cycles. Temperature Gradientthe range of temperature variations at various physical locations throughout a thermal system. Terathe prefix for one trillion(T). Thermal Conductivitythe property of a material to conduct heat.

Thermal Expansionan increase in size due to an increase in temperature. Thermal Lagthe time delay in the distribution of heat throughout a thermal system. Thermal Systema series of components arranged and designed to provide heat. The four elements or components compromising a Thermal System are: 1) work or load 2) heat source 3) heat transfer medium 4) control system Thermistora temperature sensing probe manufactured of a mixture of metal oxides then encapsulated in epoxy or glass. A large change in resistance is exhibited proportional to a change in temperature. The resistance usually decreases as temperature rises. Thermocouplea temperature sensing probe consisting of the junction of two dissimilar metals which has a millivolt output proportional to the difference in temperature between the hot junction and the lead wires (cold junction). Thermowella closed-end tube into which a temperature sensor is inserted to isolate it from the environment. Transducera device that converts a measured variable into another form which is the transducers output. A thermocouple transforms heat to a millivolt output. Transmittera device used to transmit temperature data from the sensor. Undershootexcursion of temperature below set point. Ungrounded JunctionA thermocouple junction fully insulated from the sheath. Viscositythe inherent resistance of a substance to flow Voltagean electrical potential which is measured in volts. Wattagea measurement of electrical power. In a resistive circuit, VI = W (See Ohms Law formulas). Watt Densitythe rated wattage of an element per unit of surface area. Usually expressed in watts per square inch. Zero Voltage Switchingcompleting or breaking of a circuit when the voltage wave form crosses zero voltage.

COMMON ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS


ACalternating current A/Danalog-to-digital AECarchitect, engineer and constructor AIartificial intelligence ANDFarchitecture neutral distribution format ASCIapplication specific integrated circuit APIapplication programming interface ATGautomatic tank gauge BCDbinary coded decimal BPSbits per second CADcomputer-aided design CAEcomputer-aided engineering CAMcomputer-aided manufacturing CASEcomputer-aided software engineering C/Ccenter-to-center CFCchlorofluorocarbon CIEcomputer integrated enterprise CIMcomputer integrated manufacturing CIPclean in place CJCcold junction compensation CMOScomplementary metal oxide semi-conductor CNCcomputer numerical control CPUcentral processing unit CRCcyclic redundancy check CRTcathode ray tube CSACanadian Standards Association CTcurrent transformer D/Adigital-to-analog DASdata acquisitions system DCdirect current DCEdistributed computing environment DCSdistributed control system DESdiscrimination expert system DINDeutsches Institute fur Normung DMAdirect memory access DNCdirect numerical control DOSdisk operating system DPdifferential pressure DPDTdouble pole, double throw DPMdigital panel meter DRAMdynamic random access memory EHLeffective heated length EMIelectro magnetic interference EMSexpanded memory specification EPAenhanced performance architecture EPROMerasable, programmable read-only memory ERPenterprise resource planning ESexpert system EVOPevolutionary operations EWMAexponentially weighted moving average FCSfield control station FFTfast Fourier transform FIAflow injection analysis FIDflame ionization detector FIPfactory information protocol FMS flexible manufacturing system FSfull scale FTIRFourier transform infrared GCgas chromatograph GPIBgeneral purpose interface bus GUIgraphical user interface HCFChydrochlorofluorocarbon HPLChigh pressure liquid chromatography HPVhigh performance vane HTGhydrostatic tank gauge ICintegrated circuit I/Oinput/output ID inside diameter I/Pcurrent-to-pneumatic IRinfrared ISintrinsic safety JITjust-in-time LANlocal area network LCliquid chromatograph LCDliquid crystal display LCLlower control unit LDESlinear discrimination expert system LEDlight emitting diode LELlower explosive limit LIMSlaboratory information management system LPlinear programming MACTmaximum achievable control technology MAPmanufacturing automation protocol MGOmagnesium oxide MIPSmillions instructions per second MISmanagement information services MMIman machine interface MMSmanufacturing message system MTBFmeantime between failures MTTDmean time to detect MTTFmean time to fail MODEMmodulating/demodulating module MPCSmanufacturing planning and control software MRPmaterial requirements planning MRP IImanufacturing resource planning NCnormally closed NC-numerical control NDIRnon-dispersive infrared NIRnear infrared NOnormally open OCRoptical character recognition ODoutside diameter OEMoriginal equipment manufacturer OIoperator interface OODobject oriented design OOPobject oriented programming OSIopen systems interconnection P&IDpiping and instrumentation diagram PBproportional band PCpersonal computer or programmable controller PDpositive displacement P/Ipneumatic-to-current PIproportional-integral PIDproportional-integral-derivative PLCprogrammable logic controller PROMprogrammable logic controller PSApressure sensitive adhesive PRVpressure reducing valve PVprocess variable or process value QCquality control R&Dresearch and development RAMrandom access memory RFradio frequency RFIradio frequency interference RHrelative humidity RMSroot mean square ROMread-only memory RSSroot sum squared RTDresistance temperature detector RTUremote terminal unit RVrelief valve SCADAsupervisory control and data acquisition SCRsilicon controlled rectifier SFCsupercritical fluid chromatography SNAsystems networking architecture SPset point SPCstatistical process control SPDTsingle pole, double throw SQCstatistical quality control SSRsolid state relay SSCsingle station controller SVset point value T/Cthermocouple TCDthermal conductivity detector THDtotal harmonic distortion TOPtechnical office protocol TPMtotal predictive maintenance TQCtotal quality control TVSStransient voltage surge suppressor UCLupper control limit UPSuninterruptible power supply UVultraviolet VDTvideo display terminal VFDvariable frequency drive VMEvirtual memory executive system WANwide area network WIPwork-in-process

WARRANTY: OGDEN makes no warranties or representations of any sort regarding the fitness for use, or the application of its products by the Purchaser. The selection, application or use of OGDEN products is the Purchasers responsibility. OGDEN products are warranted to be free from defects in material and workmanship. OGDENs sole responsibility under this warranty is to repair or replace, free of charge, F.O.B. its factory, items determined by OGDEN to be defective. The period of the warranty is one year from the manufacturing date, or three years for products so marked. Some additional time is extended for items purchased through and stocked by authorized OGDEN Service Centers. All warranties exist between OGDEN and the first party Purchaser. No claims will be allowed for labor, material, loss of profit or damages in shipping, handling, in installation or by abuse. OGDEN will not honor back charges for any alterations, modifications or revisions of any kind. OGDEN cannot warranty any immersion heater against failure by sheath corrosion if caused by operating conditions beyond the control of OGDEN. The ultimate selection of sheath and other immersion heater component materials are the responsibility of the Purchaser.

RETURNS: No products returned can be accepted without a completed Return Material Authorization form. Variance in Quantity (VIQ): Because of special manufacturing requirements and processes, Ogden may ship the following Variances in Quantity: Order Quantity VIQ 1-6 pieces 0 7-24 pieces 1 25-49 pieces 2 50-80 pieces 3 81-99 pieces 4 100+ 5% There is no overshipment on items with a net value over $125. However, certain items of extraordinary difficulty may exceed above VIQ. The following are registered trademarks of OGDEN Manufacturing Co.: OGDEN, Mighty-Blade, Golden-Ray, Chameleon, Mighty Watt, Mighty Watt Plus, Mighty Watt Grabber, Bullet, Maxi-Zone, Mighty-Tuff, Mighty-Miser, Aluma-Flex, Mini-Tubular, ETR, Smarter Logic, ETR-9090. ETR-3200, ETR-9200, ETR-3100. ETR-9300. MARCA REGISTRADA
Monel, Incoloy and Inconel are trademarks of the Inco family of companies. Teflon and Kapton are trademarks of E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Company.

OGDEN MANUFACTURING CO.

Printed in U.S.A.

1997