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MATHEMATICS

LESSON PLANS GRADE 8

Term 3

SENIOR PHASE

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 1 Day 1 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Add and subtract fractions - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.b decimals, fractions and percentages; 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.2.f multiples and factors; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Add and subtract fractions - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Convert mixed numbers to common fractions in order to perform calculations with them - Use knowledge of multiples and factors to write fractions in the simplest form before or after calculations - Use knowledge of equivalent fractions to add and subtract common fractions. - Solve problems in contexts involving common fractions and mixed numbers, including grouping, sharing and finding fractions of whole numbers - Recognize equivalent forms between: common fractions (fractions where one denominator is a multiple of the other) Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Addition - Common fraction - Mixed numbers - Subtraction - Fraction in its simplest form - Multiples and factors - Equivalent fractions

- A problem in context - Problem solving - Sharing - Whole numbers - Denominator - Multiples Assessment: Add and subtract fractions Informal Resources: Board

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 1 Day 1 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 7 x 9 = (63) 9 x 11 = (99) 8 x 3 = (24) 8 x 4 = (32) 4 x 7 = (28) 12 x 8 = (96) 7 x 12 = (84) 8 x 8 = (64) 6 x 7 = (42) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,39 x 0,02 = (0,0078) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Draw the following on the board.

Revise proper fractions, improper fractions and mixed numbers with learners.

Ask learners which number is the numerator and which one is the denominator. 2 4 numerator denominator What can you tell me about this fraction using the words numerator and denominator? What can you tell me about this fraction using the words numerator and denominator? What can you tell me about this number?

2 6 5 2

Concept development Write the following on the board. Revision: say if it is a proper or improper fraction, or a mixed number.

2 4 7 4 4 5 6 2

13

12

Revise equivalent fractions with your learners. What fractions are equal to

35

3

8 5 3 6

1 5

58

1

one half? one quarter? one third? one fifth? one sixth? Revise simplest form.

1 2 3 4 5

If is ; ; ; and 2 4 6 8 10 form? 4 6 3 6 10 ; ; ; ; 6 8 9 12 15

6 12

We can also do it as follows: 4 What number can 6 be divided into 4 4 2 as well as into 6? =6 2 =3

1 4

2

Also revise the highest common factor (HCF) with learners: 2 F4 = {1, 2, 4} F6 = {1, 2, 3, 6} GCF = 2 So 2 is the biggest number that can divide into 4 and 6. What do you notice? Learners do the following in pairs: 1 1 Add up 3 + 4 Add up 15 + 26

3 4

2 4

Revise: If we add up common fractions with different denominators we need to find the LCM. 4 : {4, 8, 12 , 16, 20, } =

1 3

1 4

3 3

= 12

Homework: Question 3, 4, 5 Do the following activities in your writing book. 1. Revision: say if it is a proper or improper fraction, or a mixed number. a.

8 2 4 6 1

d. 5 g. 5

4

b. 2 e. 5 h. 3 5

3 1

c. 12 f. i.

3 6 7 4

a. 1 2 d. 6 3 g. 3 j. 1 5

1 1 4 1 1

j. 5 8

1

1 6 3 2

c. 4 2 f. 2 5 i. 5

1 6 4 1

3. Add up the following, write it as a mixed number and simplify if necessary. Example: + 5 divided by 3 is 1 remainder = a. 5 + 5 =

2 5 7 4 4 5

g. 8 + 8 =

10 9

d. 10 + 10 = j. 15 + 15 =

b. 9 + 9 = e. 6 + 6 =

5 9 3 8 5 6

c. 4 + 4 = f. 7 + 9 =

2 5 2 6 3 2

h. 12 + 12 =

i. 3 + 3 =

3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1

a. + =

1 4 1 2

b. +

1 1 1 5

g. 7 + 2 =

e. 5 + 4 = h. 8 + 3 =

1 3 1 1

1 10

c. + = f. 2 + 3 = i. 4 + 3 =

2 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 6

12 1 1 4 1

a. 1 + = 2

e. 26 + 1 5 =

9 1 1 3

b. 2 + 4 =

Consolidation

j. 311 + 2 12 =

h. 15 1 10 =

f. 72 1 4 = i.

1 29 1

c. 24 + 8 =

2 3

+ 17 =

We can only add fractions if they have the same denominators. Learners who need support: Solve all addition sums by drawing number lines. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

Add up any proper, improper and mixed numbers with different denominators.

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 1 Day 2 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Multiply fractions - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.b decimals, fractions and percentages; 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.2.f multiples and factors; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Multiply fractions - Revise Finding fractions of whole numbers - Revise Multiplication of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Convert mixed numbers to common fractions in order to perform calculations with them - Use knowledge of multiples and factors to write fractions in the simplest form before or after calculations - Solve problems in contexts involving common fractions and mixed numbers, including grouping, sharing and finding fractions of whole numbers Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Common fraction - Whole numbers - Mixed numbers - Multiplication - Fraction in its simplest form - Multiples and factors - A problem in context - Problem solving - Sharing

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 1 Day 2 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 4 x 12 = (48) 11 x 3 = (33) 7 x 4 = (28) 4 x 9 = (36) 7 x 11 = (77) 7 x 12 = (84) 6 x 12 = (72) 8 x 6 = (48) 6 x 8 = (48) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,61 x 0,13 = (0,0793) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Let us multiply fractions: 1 1 4 2 Ask the learners to identify the numerators: 1 1 4 2 and then the denominators:

1 2 1

Concept development

Ask learners what they should remember when multiplying fractions. Do the following example on the board: 2 1 3 4

2 1 5 4

= 12 3

3 5 3

1 2 1 5

= 12 = =6

2 12 1

6

2 2

2 2

1 2

6=6

2 1

1 3 12 8

Example:

a. d. g. j.

1 5 1 5

1. Calculate. =

2 4

1 2

3 =

2

m. p.

1 2

3 4

6 7

6=

4 6 3

3 =

2

6=

4

b. e. h. k. n.

9=

5=

7 8

2 1 3 4 2 8 9 3 2

7 2 4 8

3=

1

c. f. i. l. o.

4=

8 9

1 3 7 6 4

8 9

1 3 7 6 4

5= =

2 2 3 8

5=

2. Calculate the following. Example: ___ ___ = a. ___ ___ = 9 d. ___ ___ =

=

4 12 16

12 18 63 8

6

27 22

i. ___ ___ = 42

30

6 10

=2

a. 2 = 5 g. 6 3 =

2 4 8

d. 9 2 =

1

b. 4 6 = e. h.

8 9 2 3

3= 5=

c. 11 10 = f. 8 7 = i.

6 11 6 3

j. 10

7=

4

4. What whole number and fraction will give you the following answer?

a. ___ ___ = 6

d. ___ ___ = 50

g. ___ ___ = 18 j. ___ ___ = 10

8 12

15

b. ___ ___ = 18

e. ___ ___ = 21

7

c. ___ ___ = 8

3

h. ___ ___ = 24

18

f. ___ ___ = 24

i. ___ ___ = 9

2

5. Revision: simplify. F15 ={1, 3, 5, 15} F20 = {1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 20} GCF: 5 Example: = =

a.

d. 24 g. j.

16

4 12 50 80

b. e. h.

8 16 27 99

7 21

c. f. i.

24 64

5 20

60 100

48 72

a. d. g. j.

1 2 4 5

1 3

8 =

4

7. Revision: write the improper fractions as whole numbers and simplify if necessary. Example:

F2 = {1, 2} F4 = {1, 2, 4} = a. d. g. j.

32 7 19 3

3 4

2 =

1

4 =

3

5=

5

b. e. h.

3 3 9 8

1 3 4 2

7 7

6=

3

c. f. i.

2 5 6 3

1 2

8 10

7=

2

12 =

10

= or =

b. e. h.

21 5 64 10

70 11

20 3

18 8

c. f. i.

21 9

20 6

27 12

GCF is 2

a. d.

3 2

5 4

6 =

7 9

8=

b. e.

6 9 8 5

6 3

5=

6

c. f.

9 7

8 6 4 7 6

3=

g. j.

Consolidation

12 10

12 11

10 =

11

6 =

8

h.

4 10 9 2

i.

11 9

12 =

14

Problem solving

a. What fraction is 5 days of seven weeks? b. What fraction is four months of 10 years? c. What fraction is 12 minutes of an hour?

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 1 Day 3 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Divide whole number by common fractions - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.b decimals, fractions and percentages; 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.2.f multiples and factors; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Divide whole number by common fractions - Divide whole numbers and common fractions by common fractions - Convert mixed numbers to common fractions in order to perform calculations with them - Use knowledge of multiples and factors to write fractions in the simplest form before or after calculations - Use knowledge of reciprocal relationships to divide common fractions - Solve problems in contexts involving common fractions and mixed numbers, including grouping, sharing and finding fractions of whole numbers Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Common fraction - Division - Mixed numbers - Fraction in its simplest form - Multiples and factors - A problem in context - Problem solving - Sharing - Whole numbers

Assessment: Divide whole number by common fractions Informal Resources: Board Writing book

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 1 Day 3 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 3 x 4 = (12) 6 x 9 = (54) 12 x 3 = (36) 8 x 9 = (72) 3 x 11 = (33) 8 x 12 = (96) 11 x 6 = (66) 8 x 6 = (48) 6 x 8 = (48) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,93 x 0,29 = (0,2697) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduce the topic by asking learners what a rational number is. Write the following examples on the board. Revise simplification of fractions.

4 8

15

1 4

3

=8

=1 =1

6 9

4 = 4

1 2

6 9

2 3 =1 3 3

4 10

1 = 8

24

3 = (simplify) 3

Tell learners that they are going to apply the last two days knowledge by completing this assessment.

Concept development

Write the following on the board. Introduce the division of fractions by going through the examples step by step with your learners. 3

3 4 3 4 8 1 2 1 2 3 3 1 1

=1x3 =1 =4

45

5 2 4 1

22 =

= (simplify)

=8x

5

1 2

=2

=3

x1

6

6

6

2 3

=9

x3

8

4

4

1 2 24 =24 =2x9 =3

1 2 3 4 3 9 2

=13

Complete the assessment. Carefully go through each question. Calculate each sum.

After the assessment, another classmate will mark your work. Homework: Complete this activity. Do the following activities in your writing book. 1. Calculate. Example: 3 = x =

a. 4 =

g. 2 =

d. 9 =

= 4

b. 7 = e. 5 =

j. 11 =

2. Calculate.

h. 8 =

c. 12 = i. 6 = f. 10 =

Example: 4 = x = a. 3 =

= 2

d. 2 =

b. 6 = e. 4 =

c. 8 = f. 7 =

g. 9 = j. 12 =

h. 10 =

i. 5 =

3. Calculate.

Example: =

= x

d. = g. = j.

a. =

b. = e. = h. =

c. = f. i.

4. Calculate.

Example: 2 = x = = x a. 1 2 = d. 3 7 = g. 6 4 =

b. 1 2 = h. 2 2 =

j. 9 =

e. 5 2 =

c. 3 4 = f. 5 3 = i. 4 5 =

Consolidation

Emphasise that to divide by any number means to multiply by its reciprocal. Complete assessment and check answers. Learners who need support: Give learners more problems with whole numbers multiplied by fractions. Peer support. Do corrections for homework. Learners who are more than competent: Give learners five sums with fractions divided by fractions. Provide peer support.

Problem solving

Write a word sum for twelve divided by hundred and eight-tenths. Divide eight-ninths by eighteen halves.

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 1 Day 4 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Concept Development - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.b decimals, fractions and percentages; 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.2.f multiples and factors; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Concept Development - Calculate the squares, cubes, square roots and cube roots of common fractions - Convert mixed numbers to common fractions in order to perform calculations with them - Use knowledge of multiples and factors to write fractions in the simplest form before or after calculations - Solve problems in contexts involving common fractions and mixed numbers, including grouping, sharing and finding fractions of whole numbers Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Common fraction - Cube number - Cube roots - Square number - Square roots - Mixed numbers - Fraction in its simplest form - Multiples and factors - A problem in context - Problem solving

- Sharing - Whole numbers Assessment: Concept Development Informal Resources: Board Writing book

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 1 Day 4 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 4 x 11 = (44) 3 x 4 = (12) 6 x 11 = (66) 3 x 3 = (9) 4 x 12 = (48) 6 x 8 = (48) 8 x 8 = (64) 7 x 8 = (56) 11 x 12 = (132) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,79 x 0,22 = (0,1738) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Revise: Square and cube numbers Square roots and cube roots

Concept development

Do the following with your learners on the board.

3 4

3 4

3

16 25

= 42 = =

32 16 25

Homework: Complete this activity. Do the following activities in your writing book: 1. Calculate. Example: a.

1 4 5 8

8 27

= 43 =

33

=5

9 16 4

27 64 2

27

=3

= =

b.

d.

g. j.

e.

h.

3 4

2 7

c.

f.

i.

2 5

5 6

= b.

c.

d. g.

e. h.

f. i.

3. Calculate. Example: a. d. g. j.

1 4 4 8

= =

b. e. h.

2 3

1 3

c. f. i.

2 7

6 6

g.

Consolidation

= b. e.

h.

c. f.

i.

It is important to understand the following: Square numbers and square roots Cube numbers and cube roots Fractions Learners who need support: Receive peer support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 1 Day 5 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Fractions, decimals and percentages - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.b decimals, fractions and percentages; 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Fractions, decimals and percentages - Solve problems in contexts involving common fractions and mixed numbers, including grouping, sharing and finding fractions of whole numbers - Revise: Find percentages of whole numbers. - Revise: Calculate the percentage of part of a whole - Revise: Calculate percentage increase of decrease of whole numbers - Recognize equivalence: common fraction, decimal fraction and percentage forms of the same number - Revise equivalent forms between: common fraction, decimal fraction and percentage forms of the same number. Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - A problem in context - Common fraction - Mixed numbers - Problem solving - Sharing - Whole numbers - Percent

- Decrease - Increase - Common fractions - Decimal fraction - Equivalence between common fraction, decimal fraction and percentage Assessment: Fractions, decimals and percentages Informal Resources: Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 1 Day 5 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 12 x 11 = (132) 4 x 8 = (32) 11 x 11 = (121) 6 x 4 = (24) 9 x 12 = (108) 12 x 12 = (144) 8 x 7 = (56) 8 x 6 = (48) 6 x 6 = (36) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,78 x 0,05 = (0,039) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduce this lesson by revising the following.

1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97 8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

1 4

25 100

Decimal: 0,25

Introduce this lesson by asking learners what a percentage is. Ask them what increase and decrease mean.

Concept development

Write the following on the board. Do it step by step with your learners.

60 100

3

=5 =

105 1

= R63

315 5

105 1

60 100

simplified is 10 = 5

6 3

What percentage is 40c of R3,20? Do this step by step with your learners. 40 100 1 320 = =

100 8

4 000 320

400 320

simplified is

100 8

= 12,5% Calculate the percentage increase if the price of a bus ticket of R60 is increased to R84. Amount increased is R24.

24 60

= 40% Calculate the percentage decrease if the price of petrol goes down from 20 cents a litre to 18 cents. Amount decreased is 2 cents. 2 100 1 20 = 200 20

240 60

100 1

= 10% Homework: Question 5g-j and 6g-j Ask the learners to solve the following problems in their writing books. 1. Write the following as a fraction and decimal fraction. Example: 18% or or 0,18 a. d. g. j. 37% 9% 8% 69% =

18 100 9 50

simplified is

c. 83% f. 3% i. 92%

2. Write the following as a fraction in its simplest form. Percentage 10% 10 100 1 10 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Fraction

Simplest form 3. Calculate. 40% of R20 = =

40 100 800 100 20 1

= R8

5. Calculate the percentage increase. Example: see example under concept development. a. d. g. j. R50 of R70 R25 of R30 R120 of R150 R75 of R100 b. R80 of R120 e. R100 of R120 h. R24 of R32 c. R15 of R18 f. R36 of R54 i. R90 of R120

6. Calculate the percentage decrease. Example: see example under concept development. a. d. g. j. R20 of R15 R24 of R18 R45 of R36 R72 of R66 b. R50 of R45 e. R90 of R80 h. R48 of R40 c. R18 of R15 f. R28 of R21 i. R99 of R90

We need to know that 100% is the same as 100 is the same as 1. We need to know the equivalent of fractions, percentage and decimals in order to do calculations.

Consolidation

100

Learners who need support: Let learners make drawings with the calculations. Make use of peer support.

Learners who are more than competent: What is 120% of R85? Provide peer support.

Problem solving

I bought a top for R175. I got 25% discount. How much did I pay for it? Calculate the percentage decrease if the price of petrol goes down from 35c to 28c.

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 2 Day 1 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Place value, ordering and comparing decimals - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.b decimals, fractions and percentages; 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.4 Solves problems in context including contexts that may be used to build awareness of other Learning Areas, as well as human rights, social, economic and environmental issues such as: 8.1.4.a financial (including profit and loss, budgets, accounts, loans, simple interest, hire purchase, exchange rates); 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Place value, ordering and comparing decimals - Solve problems in contexts involving percentages.

Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) Assessment: Place value, ordering and comparing decimals Informal Resources: Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 2 Day 1 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 12 x 3 = (36) 11 x 11 = (121) 12 x 9 = (108) 9 x 11 = (99) 11 x 4 = (44) 12 x 6 = (72) 12 x 7 = (84) 8 x 6 = (48) 6 x 6 = (36) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,13 x 0,12 = (0,0156) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Revise increasing and decreasing of percentages with your learners.

Concept development

In pairs, learners come up with a list of how they will solve a percentage problem. Make notes of the learners answers. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Homework: Complete this activity

1. a. c. e. g. i. j. l. Solve the following. Find 80,6% of the number 110. b. What is 5,2% of 29? What percentage is 36 of 82? d. What percentage is 13 of 121? What percentage is 55 of 149? f. What is 86,6% of 44? What percentage is 61 of 116? h. 22,3% of a number is 123. What is the number? 57,1% of a certain number is 115. What is the number? What percentage is 143 of 146? k. 81,8% of what number is 84? What percentage is 22 of 26?

2. Solve the following. a. The original price of a shirt was R200. It was decreased by R150. What is the percentage decrease of the price of this shirt? b. Mary earns a monthly salary of R12 000. She spends R2 800 per month on food. What percentage of her monthly salary does she spend on food? 3. Mixed problems. Solve the following. a. Calculate 60% of R105 60 Amount = 105 = 63

100

d. Calculate the percentage decrease if the price of petrol goes down from 20 cents a litre to 18 cents a litre. Amount decreased = 2 cents. Therefore percentage decrease is 2 100 1 = 10% 20

c. Calculate the percentage increase if the price of a bus ticket is increased from R60 to R84. Amount increased = R24. Therefore percentage increase is 24 100 1 = 40% 60

e. Calculate how much a car will cost if its original price of R150 000 is reduced by 15%. Calculation involves finding 15% of R150 000 and then subtracting that amount from the original price. i.e. 15 150 000 1 = R22 500 100 Hence new price of car = R150 000 R22 500 = R127 500

Consolidation

Sometimes problem solving is very complicated. Dont be afraid to use visual aids such as graphs, diagrams and tables in solving maths problems. Learners who need support: Make a drawing/diagram of your problem. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

See this lesson.

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 2 Day 2 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Place value, ordering and comparing decimals - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.b decimals, fractions and percentages; 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Place value, ordering and comparing decimals - Revise: Ordering, comparing and place value of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places - Solve problems in context involving decimal fractions Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Compare decimal fractions - Decimal fraction - A problem in context - Problem solving Assessment: Place value, ordering and comparing decimals Informal Resources: Board Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 2 Day 2 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 9 x 8 = (72) 12 x 4 = (48) 3 x 11 = (33) 9 x 4 = (36) 11 x 4 = (44) 6 x 8 = (48) 6 x 12 = (72) 6 x 6 = (36) 8 x 6 = (48) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,33 x 0,22 = (0,0726) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduce the lesson by asking what a decimal fraction is. Write 4,236 on the board. Tell learners that in South Africa we make use of a decimal comma. (LB to change) Note that we can also say decimal number

Concept development

Revise place value of decimal fractions with your learners. Use your example on the board and label the decimal fraction. units tenths hundredths thousandths

8, 924

Ask learners to write the decimal fraction in expanded notation: 8, 924 = 8 + 0,9 + 0,02 + 0,004 Homework: Questions 1g-j, 2g-j and 3g-j.

1. Write the following in expanded notation: Example: 5,763 = 5 + 0,7 + 0,06 + 0,003 a. 9,371 d. 8,076 g. 16,003 j. 900,009 k. Show this using your calculator, e.g. 9 + 0,6 + 0,08 + 0,002 b. 6,215 e. 9,304 h. 19,020 c. 34,672 f. 8,004 i. 56,003

2. Write the following in words. Example: 5,872 = 5 units + 8 tenths + 7 hundredths + 2 thousandths a. d. g. j. 3,378 2,037 23,004 45,026 b. e. h. k. 6,2914 c. 2,588 2,003 f. 14,030 400,404 i. 2,998 Use a calculator to check your answers.

thousands a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 2,869 24,328 18,003 376,02 8674,5 2874,345 987,001 400,08 hundreds tens units 2 , , , , , , , , tenths 8 hundredths 6 Thousandths 9

i.

2000,203

4. Write down the value of the underlined digit. Example: 3,476 = 0,07 or 7 hundredths a. d. g. j. 5. a. d. g. j. 6,857 8,949 765,323 87,608 b. 4,37 e. 85,080 h. 7,660 c. 3,809 f. 34,004 i. 568,999

Write the following in ascending order. 0,04; 0,4; 0,004 b. 0,1; 0,11; 0,011 0,753; 0,8; 0,82 e. 0,67; 0,007; 0,06 0,202; 0,2; 0,22 h. 0,345; 0,45; 0,5 0,702; 0,72; 0,072

6. a. d. g. j.

Fill in <, >, = . 0,4 ___ 0,04 0,62 ___ 0,26 0,123 ___ 0,321 0,05 ___ 0,050

Consolidation

The place value of decimal fractions after the decimal comma is tenths, hundredths and thousandths.

Learners who need support: Let learners write a decimal number in expanded notation and then identify the value of each digit.

Learners who are more than competent: What do we call the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th place after the decimal comma?

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 2 Day 3 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Round off rational numbers - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.b decimals, fractions and percentages; 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.a rounding off; 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Round off rational numbers - Recognize equivalent forms: common fraction and decimal fraction forms of the same number - Revise: Rounding of decimal fractions to at least 2 decimal places - Use rounding off and a calculator to check results where appropriate Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Common fraction - Decimal fraction - Equivalence between common fraction and decimal fraction - Equivalent fractions - Rounding (decimals) - Calculator - Rounding - Use of a calculator Assessment: Round off rational numbers Informal

Resources: Board

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 2 Day 3 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 3 x 4 = (12) 12 x 9 = (108) 11 x 9 = (99) 8 x 11 = (88) 9 x 7 = (63) 12 x 12 = (144) 11 x 7 = (77) 11 x 12 = (132) 7 x 12 = (84) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,51 x 0,08 = (0,0408) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduce the topic by revising rational numbers.

Concept development

Write the following on the board. Do the following with your learners: Round off to the nearest unit. 3,7 4 3,2 3 5,62 6 5,68 5 7,321 7 7,329 7

Round off to the nearest tenth. 8,26 8,3 3,765 3,8 5,293 5,3

8,21 8,2

3,768 3,8

5,224 5,2

Round off to the nearest hundredth. 3,472 3,47 3,478 3,48 8,925 8,93 7,342 7,34

3. Round off to the nearest whole number. Example: 6,7 7 a. d. g. j. 9,2 6,4 3,34 100,383 b. 4,5 e. 5,68 h. 7,82 c. 4,8 f. 5,999 i. 9,321

If you struggle to round off, circle the number that is before the number you need to round off to. Example: 7,38 7

4. Round off to the nearest tenth. Example: 5,84 5,8 a. 5,24 d. 9,39 g. 8,632 j. 8,9789 5. Round off to the nearest hundredth. Example: 8,957 8,96 2 b. 3,53 e. 7,513 h. 1,189 c. 5,55 f. 2,329 i. 6,7631

a. d. g. j.

6. Round off to the nearest thousandth. Example: 18,2576 18,258 a. d. g. j. 5,1272 5,2336 9,4581 8,6491 b. 2,7864 e. 1,9813 h. 7,7857 c. 6,6628 f. 3,3336 i. 7,8176

Consolidation

Learners who need support: Learners circle the digit that will help them to round off.

Learners who are more than competent: Write down the steps on how to use a scientific calculator to round off decimal numbers.

Problem solving

In real life, why do we round off decimal numbers? Give five examples.

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 2 Day 4 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Equivalence between common and decimal fractions - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.b decimals, fractions and percentages; 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Equivalence between common and decimal fractions - Revise equivalent forms between: common fraction and decimal fraction forms of the same number Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Decimal fraction - Equivalence between common fraction and decimal fraction Assessment: Equivalence between common and decimal fractions Informal Resources: Board Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 2 Day 4 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 3 x 7 = (21) 9 x 8 = (72) 4 x 6 = (24) 3 x 3 = (9) 9 x 3 = (27) 8 x 12 = (96) 11 x 12 = (132) 11 x 8 = (88) 12 x 6 = (72) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,51 x 0,08 = (0,0408) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduce the lesson by asking learners to give you an example of a common fraction a decimal fraction Write it on the board (LB to change)

Concept development

Write 0,5 on the board. Ask the learners: Can you remember how to write this as a common fraction? Do the following on the board. 0,5 = 10

5

0,08 = 100

2

0,007 = 1 000

Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. Write as a decimal fraction. Example:

= 0,06

a.

d. j.

b.

g.

e. h.

c. f. i.

k. Learners use their calculators to convert between common and decimal fractions. 2. Write as a decimal fraction. Example: a. d. j. g.

= 0,73

b. h.

e.

c. f. i.

k. Learners use their calculators to convert between common and decimal fractions. 3. Write as a decimal fraction. Example: = 5,1

a. d. g. j.

k. Learners use their calculators to convert between common and decimal fractions. 4. Write as a common fraction. Example: 8,4 =

b. e.

h.

c. f. i.

= = ,

b. e.

g.

h.

c.

f.

i.

Consolidation

4 10

The place (place value) after the comma determines the denominator of the comma fraction, e.g. = 0,4 = 0,04 = 0,004

4 1 000 1 25 1 5

4 100

= 0,02 = 0,04

Learners who need support: Give learners more examples similar to those in Questions 1-4. Learners who are more than competent: Write the following as decimal fractions 4 789 1 365 389499 237654 , , , , using scientific notation. 1000000 100000 100000 1000000 1000000

Problem solving

If the tenths digit is six and the units digit is three, what should I do to get an answer of 7,644?

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 2 Day 5 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Addition, subtraction and multiplication of decimal fractions - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.b decimals, fractions and percentages; 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Addition, subtraction and multiplication of decimal fractions - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places - Revise: division of decimal fractions by whole numbers - Use knowledge of place value to estimate the number of decimal places in the result before performing calculations Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Addition - Decimal fraction - Multiplication - Subtraction - Division - Whole numbers - Estimate - Estimate the possible answer before doing a calculation on a calculator Assessment: Addition, subtraction and multiplication of decimal fractions Informal

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 2 Day 5 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 9 x 3 = (27) 11 x 3 = (33) 12 x 9 = (108) 6 x 9 = (54) 4 x 12 = (48) 7 x 7 = (49) 12 x 8 = (96) 6 x 6 = (36) 6 x 7 = (42) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,57 x 0,11 = (0,0627) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduce this activity by telling learners that this is going to be an assessment activity. In pairs, they will solve the sums using the examples to guide them.

Concept development

In pairs you are going to discover addition, subtraction and multiplication of decimal numbers. Homework: Complete the assessment.

1. Calculate. Example: 2,37 + 4,53 3,88 = (2 + 5 3) + (0,3 + 0,5 0,8) + (0,07 + 0,03 0,08) = 4 + 0 + 0,02 = 4,02 a. 2,15 + 8,21 7,21 = c. 4,29 + 8,34 3,38 = e. 6,36 + 8,42 4,47 = 2. Calculate. Example: 0,2 x 0,3 = 0,06 a. 0,3 x 0,4 = d. 0,6 x 0,7 = 0,02 x 0,3 = 0,006 b. 0,5 x 0,1 = e. 0,04 x 0,02 = 0,02 x 0,03 = 0,0006 c. 0,7 x 0,8 = b. 5,34 + 7,42 6,38 = d. 9,77 + 5,14 9,53 =

3. Calculate. Example: 0,2 x 10 =2 a. 0,7 x 8 = d. 0,03 x 8 = 4. Calculate. Example: 0,3 x 0,2 x 100 = 0,06 x 100 =6 a. 0,3 x 0,5 x 10 = d. 0,8 x 0,04 x 100 = 5. Calculate. Example: 5,276 x 30 = (5 x 30) + (0,2 x 30) + (0,07 x 30) + (0,006 x 30) = 150 + 6 + 2,1 + 0,18 = 150 + 6 + 2 + 0,1 + 0,1 + 0,08 = 1 562 + 0,2 + 0,08 = 1 562,28 a. 1,365 x 10 = d. 17,654 x 60 = b. 4,932 x 30 = e. 28,342 x 20 = c. 2,578 x 40 = b. 0,9 x 0,02 x 10 = e. 0,3 x 0,2 x 100 = c. 0,3 x 0,4 x 100 = b. 0,4 x 9 = e. 0,06 x 5 = c. 0,7 x 8 =

Consolidation

When we multiply decimals we should look at the places (place value) after the decimal comma. Learners who need support: Receive peer support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support. Multiply three-hundredths by nine-thousandths by 1 000. Divide a decimal with two places after the decimal by a whole number.

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 3 Day 1 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Divide decimal fractions by decimal fractions - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.b decimals, fractions and percentages; 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Divide decimal fractions by decimal fractions - Extend multiplication to multiplication by decimal fractions not limited to one decimal place - Extend division to division of decimal fractions by decimal fractions - Use knowledge of place value to estimate the number of decimal places in the result before performing calculations Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Decimal fraction - Multiplication - Division - Estimate - Estimate the possible answer before doing a calculation on a calculator Assessment: Divide decimal fractions by decimal fractions Informal Resources:

Board

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 3 Day 1 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 8 x 3 = (24) 3 x 9 = (27) 8 x 9 = (72) 12 x 9 = (108) 4 x 9 = (36) 8 x 7 = (56) 11 x 12 = (132) 11 x 6 = (66) 7 x 8 = (56) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,77 x 0,21 = (0,1617) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduction: Division

Introduce this lesson by giving learners some quick recall activities. a. 8 4 = d. 55 5 = g. 30 5 = j. 121 11 = m. 35 5 = b. 35 7 = e. 63 9 = h. 16 4 = k. 54 6 = n. 125 25 = c. 42 7 = f. 12 2 = i. 81 9 = l. 42 6 = o. 144 12 =

Concept development

Look at the examples in this lesson and do them with your learners on the board. Homework: Questions 1 g-j. Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. Calculate the following. Example: 0,4 2 = 0,2 a. 0,8 4 = d. 0,8 2 = b. 0,6 3 = e. 1,8 3 = c. 0,6 2 =

3. Revision: calculate the following. Example: 0,25 5 = 0,05

a. 0,81 9 = d. 0,54 6 =

b. 0,35 7 = e. 0,12 4 =

c. 0,63 7 =

4. Round off your answers in 3 to the nearest tenth. 5. Solve the following problems. a. I have R45,75. I have to divide it by five. What will my answer be? b. My mother bought 12,8 m of rope. She has to divide it into four pieces. How long will each piece be? c. You need seven equal pieces from 28,7 m of rope. How long will each piece be?

R0,50

b.

2,4 m

c.

5,4 kg

Divide by 2

Divide by 8

Divide by 9

d.

R3,75

e.

2,5

f.

1,44 kg

Divide by 25

Divide by 5

Divide by 12

Consolidation

When dividing decimals by whole numbers, you place the decimal comma in the same place as in the dividend.

Learners who need support: Give learners more examples like in this lesson. Learners who are more than competent: Peer support.

Problem solving

Divide a decimal with two places after the decimal by a whole number.

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 3 Day 2 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Calculate the squares of rational numbers. - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.b decimals, fractions and percentages; 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Calculate the squares of rational numbers. - Calculate the squares, cube, square roots and cube roots of decimal fractions. - Solve problems in context involving decimal fractions - Revise equivalent forms between: common fraction and decimal fraction forms of the same number Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Cube number - Cube roots - Decimal fraction - Square number - Square roots - A problem in context - Problem solving - Equivalence between common fraction and decimal fraction Assessment: Calculate the squares of rational numbers. Informal

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 3 Day 2 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 4 x 12 = (48) 9 x 12 = (108) 9 x 4 = (36) 7 x 11 = (77) 3 x 12 = (36) 7 x 7 = (49) 8 x 7 = (56) 11 x 12 = (132) 11 x 7 = (77) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,93 x 0,29 = (0,2697) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduce the topic by revising square numbers. 72 = 49 and square roots

49 = 7

Concept development

Write the following on the board.

Do each calculation step by step with the learners using both methods. (0,7)2 = 0,7 x 0,7 = 0,49 or

7 2 ) 10 7 7 = x 10 10 49 = 100 = 0,49

(

or

or

4 100 2 2 = x 10 10 2 = 10 = 0,2

0 ,004

=

0 , 02 0 , 02

4 1000

or

= 0,2

= 0,02

Homework: Questions 1g-j; 2g-j; 3g-j; 4g-j; 5g-j; 6g-j. Choose any two sums and say where you will use it in real life.

1. Calculate. Example 1: (0,7)2 = 0,7 x 0,7 = 0,49 a. (0,6)2 d. (0,1)2 g. (1,2)2 j. Add up a, b, c and d. b. (0,2)2 e. (0,5)2 h. (1,4)2 k. Subtract d from e. Example 2: (1,5) 1,5 x 1,5 = 2,25 c. (0,3)2 f. (0,4)2 i. (1,6)2

2. Calculate. Example 1: (0,04)2 = 0,04 x 0,04 = 0,0016 a. (0,03)2 b. (0,05)2 c. (0,01)2 Example 2: (0,13) 0,0169

d. (0,04)2

g. (0,11)2 j. (0,14)2 3. Calculate. Example: 0 ,04 =

e. (0,12)2

h. (0,08)2

f. (0,16)2

i. (0,09)2

0,2 0,2

= 0,2 a. d. g. j.

0,9 0,36

b. e. h.

0,1

0,49

c. 0,25 f. i.

0,81

0,64 0, 4

0 ,121

0 ,144

4. Calculate. Example: =

0 , 004

0 , 02 0 , 02

= 0,02 a. 0,0009 d. g. j.

0,0049

b. 0,0016 e. 0,0004 h.

c. 0,0001 f. 0,0121 i.

0 , 0064 0 , 0036

0 , 0081

0 , 0144

Consolidation

Use both methods (see concept development) to calculate square roots. It is important to understand place value of decimals numbers.

Learners who need support: Do the sums first in common fraction form, e.g. (0,6)2 = 6/10 x 6/10 = 36/100 = 0,36 Solve square roots using both methods. Learners who are more than competent: What is 0,00012 squared? Explain by means of common and decimal fractions how you solved it. What is the square root of 0,000000016? Write your answer in scientific notation.

Problem solving

If the side of a square tile is 0,6 m, what is the area of the tile? Problem: why did we not use

0,4 and

Introduce the topic by revising cube numbers and cube roots. 23 =8

3

27

=3

Concept development

Write the following on the board. Do each calculation step by step with the learners using both methods.

1 3 ) 10 1 1 1 = x x 10 10 10 1 = 1000 = 0,001

Where in real life will you use this? (e.g. calculating volume)

(

or

0,027 0 ,3 0 ,3 0 ,3

0 ,027

3

0 ,3 0 ,3 0 ,3

= 0,3

= -0,3

Where in real life will you use this? (e.g. the volume of a cube is given to you and you need to work out the height)

Homework: Questions 2d and 3d. Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. Calculate. Example: (0,1)3 = 0,1 x 0,1 x 0,1 = 0,001 a. (0,3)3 d. (0,5)3 2. Calculate. Example: (0,01)3 = 0,01 x 0,01 x 0 x 01 = 0,000001 a. (0,03)3 d. (0,05)3 3. Calculate. Example:

3

b. (0,2)3 e. (1,2)

c. (0,4)3 f. (0,6)

b. (0,02)3 e. (0,08)

c. (0,04)3 f. (0,08)

0,027

= 3 0 ,3 0 ,3 0 ,3 = 0,3 a. d.

0,008

b.

0,081

c.

0,001

5

0 ,125

4. Calculate. Example:

3

0 ,027

3

= 0 ,3 0 ,3 0 ,3 = -0,3 a. d.

3

0,008

b.

0,081

c. 3 0,001

0 ,125

It is important to look at the place value of decimal numbers when we multiply with decimal numbers. Use both methods to calculate cube roots. Place value of decimal numbers are important. Learners who need support: Solve all the sums using both methods. Solve all calculations using both methods. Learners who are more than competent: What is 0,00009 cubed? What is the cube root of 0,00004?

Consolidation

Problem solving

If the height of a cube is 0,35 m, what is the volume of the cube? Problem: we can say

3

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 3 Day 3 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Assessment 1.1 - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.b decimals, fractions and percentages; 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.2.f multiples and factors; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.a rounding off; 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Assessment 1.1 - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise Finding fractions of whole numbers - Revise Multiplication of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Divide whole numbers and common fractions by common fractions - Calculate the squares, cubes, square roots and cube roots of common fractions - Convert mixed numbers to common fractions in order to perform calculations with them - Use knowledge of multiples and factors to write fractions in the simplest form before or after calculations - Use knowledge of equivalent fractions to add and subtract common fractions. - Use knowledge of reciprocal relationships to divide common fractions - Solve problems in contexts involving common fractions and mixed numbers, including grouping, sharing and finding fractions of whole numbers - Revise: Find percentages of whole numbers. - Revise: Calculate the percentage of part of a whole - Revise: Calculate percentage increase of decrease of whole numbers - Calculate amounts if given percentage increase or decrease - Recognize equivalent forms between: common fractions (fractions where one denominator is a multiple of the other) - Recognize equivalent forms: common fraction and decimal fraction forms of the same

number - Recognize equivalence: common fraction, decimal fraction and percentage forms of the same number - Revise: Ordering, comparing and place value of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places - Revise: Rounding of decimal fractions to at least 2 decimal places - Use rounding off and a calculator to check results where appropriate - Solve problems in context involving decimal fractions - Revise equivalent forms between: common fraction and decimal fraction forms of the same number - Revise equivalent forms between: common fraction, decimal fraction and percentage forms of the same number. Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Addition - Common fraction - Mixed numbers - Subtraction - Whole numbers - Multiplication - Division - Cube number - Cube roots - Square number - Square roots - Fraction in its simplest form - Multiples and factors - Equivalent fractions - A problem in context - Problem solving - Sharing - Percent - Decrease - Increase - Denominator - Multiples - Decimal fraction - Equivalence between common fraction and decimal fraction - Common fractions - Equivalence between common fraction, decimal fraction and percentage - Compare decimal fractions - Rounding (decimals) - Calculator - Rounding - Use of a calculator Assessment: Assessment 1.1

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 3 Day 3 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 3 x 12 = (36) 6 x 3 = (18) 6 x 11 = (66) 7 x 3 = (21) 3 x 9 = (27) 6 x 12 = (72) 8 x 6 = (48) 12 x 12 = (144) 6 x 8 = (48) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,39 x 0,02 = (0,0078) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Tell learners that they are going to write an assessment to assess what they have learnt this term. They can use their previous work to help them.

Concept development

Week 1 Day 1 Week 3 Day 2 Add and subtract fractions Multiply fractions Divide whole number by common fractions Fractions of squares, cubes, square and cube roots Fractions, decimals and percentages Place value, ordering and comparing decimals Round off rational numbers Equivalence between common and decimal fractions Addition, subtraction and multiplication of decimal fractions Division Calculate the squares of rational numbers Homework: No homework.

a. 5

4

2 4 1 2 1

a. 6 3

1

3

b. 3 5

3

c.

1 5

b. 9 + 9 =

5 6 1 5 8 1

b. 2 4

5. Calculate. a. 3 =

2

d. 8 3 95 =

4

e.

b. 5 + 10 =

2 4

c. 4 + 4 =

3 2 1 1

c. 2 5

4

3 6

(3)

(3)

(3)

c. 3 + 6 = f.

1 3 7 6

(6)

b.

4

6. What whole number and fraction will give you the following answer? a. ___ ___ = 6 b. ___ ___ = 18

9

3=

1

c.

=

3

(3)

7. Write the following as a fraction and decimal fraction. a. 56% 8. Write the following as a fraction in its simplest form. Percentage Fraction Simplest form 10% 10 100 1 10 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%

c. ___ ___ = 8

(3)

(1)

(2)

70% 80% 90% 100%

(2)

a. What is 86,6% of 44? b. Mary earns a monthly salary of R12 000. She spends R2 800 per month on food. What percentage of her monthly salary does she spend on food? (4) 13. Write the following in expanded notation: 900,009 14. Write the following in words. 23,004 15. Write the following in the correct column.

thousands a. b. c. d. 24,328 376,02 8674,5 987,001 hundreds tens units , , , , tenths hundredths

Thousandths

16. Write down the value of the underlined digit. 568,999 17. Write the following in ascending order. 0,67; 0,007; 0,06 18. Fill in <, >, = . 0,123 ___ 0,321 19. Round off to the nearest whole number. 5,68 20. Round off to the nearest tenth. 7,513 (5)

21. Round off to the nearest hundredth. 7,942 22. Round off to the nearest thousandth. 5,1272 23. Write as a decimal fraction.

24. Write as a common fraction. 48,003 25. Calculate. a. 4,29 + 8,34 3,38 = d. 0,8 x 0,04 x 100 = b. 0,7 x 0,8 = e. 28,342 x 20 = c. 0,6 x 8 = f. (0,16)2 (1)

(6)

26. Solve the following problems. I have R45,75. I have to divide it by five. What will my answer be? 27. Complete the flow diagram.

2,5

(3)

Divide by 5

(2) Total: 60

Consolidation

In this lesson we revised the following: Week 1 Day 1 Week 3 Day 2 Add and subtract fractions Multiply fractions Divide whole number by common fractions Fractions of squares, cubes, square and cube roots Fractions, decimals and percentages Place value, ordering and comparing decimals Round off rational numbers Equivalence between common and decimal fractions Addition, subtraction and multiplication of decimal fractions Division Calculate the squares of rational numbers Tell learners to identify the concepts that they are not clear about, write it on a piece of paper and put it on the teachers desk. Start the next lesson with those concepts. Learners who need support: Receive peer, group or teacher support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer or group support.

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 3 Day 4 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Pythagoras - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.a length; 8.4.1.b perimeter and area of polygons and circles; Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Pythagoras - Investigate the relationship between the lengths of the sides of a right-angled triangle to develop the Theorem of Pythagoras. - Determine whether a triangle is a right-angled triangle or not, if the length of the three sides of the triangle a re known. - Use the Theorem of Pythagoras a missing length in a right-angled triangle, leaving irrational answers in surd form. Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Theorem of Pythagoras - Right-angle triangle Assessment: Pythagoras Informal

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 3 Day 4 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 8 x 11 = (88) 6 x 9 = (54) 4 x 8 = (32) 12 x 11 = (132) 4 x 6 = (24) 8 x 7 = (56) 12 x 12 = (144) 7 x 8 = (56) 11 x 12 = (132) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,74 x 0,03 = (0,0222) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduction:Pythagoras

Introduce the lesson by telling learners that you are going to learn about Pythagoras theorem. Years ago, a man named Pythagoras discovered an amazing fact about triangles. Draw the following on the board. What is the size of c? (42) A What is the size of a? (32) What is the size of b? (52) What do you notice?

32 + 42 = 52

B C 9 + 16 = 25 25 = 25

Concept development

We can say that a2 + b2 = c2

What do we call the largest side of the triangle? (hypotenuse) The theorem only applies to right-angled triangles. Homework: Complete drawings. Do the following in your writing books. 1. Write an equation for the following and solve it.

Side A a. b. c. d. e. 6 15 45 20 9 Side B 8 25 36 12 15 Side C 10 20 27 16 12

Consolidation

Learners who need support: Receive peer support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 3 Day 5 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Theorem of Pythagoras - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.a length; 8.4.1.b perimeter and area of polygons and circles; Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Theorem of Pythagoras - Investigate the relationship between the lengths of the sides of a right-angled triangle to develop the Theorem of Pythagoras. - Determine whether a triangle is a right-angled triangle or not, if the length of the three sides of the triangle a re known. - Use the Theorem of Pythagoras a missing length in a right-angled triangle, leaving irrational answers in surd form. Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Theorem of Pythagoras - Right-angle triangle Assessment: Theorem of Pythagoras Informal

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 3 Day 5 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 4 x 3 = (12) 7 x 11 = (77) 4 x 12 = (48) 4 x 7 = (28) 12 x 3 = (36) 12 x 6 = (72) 6 x 12 = (72) 11 x 6 = (66) 11 x 7 = (77) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,57 x 0,11 = (0,0627) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduce the lesson by revising the theorem of Pythagoras.

Concept development

Do the following on the board. Ask the learners to give you an equation for the following.

4 3 42 + 32 = 52

a b a2 + b2 = c2

16 + 9 = 25

25 = 25 Homework: Questions 1d and 2d.

1. Write an equation for the following and use the given sides to prove the theorem of Phytagorus. Example: see concept development. a. b. 5 130 104 78

4

3 c. 33

d. 55 51

68

85

44

b. b n o s r t m

c.

g h i

d.

Consolidation

Learners who need support: Receive peer support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

If you have the hypothesis and one side of a right-angled triangle, how will you calculate the other side?

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 4 Day 1 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Theorem of Pythagoras - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.a length; 8.4.1.b perimeter and area of polygons and circles; Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Theorem of Pythagoras - Investigate the relationship between the lengths of the sides of a right-angled triangle to develop the Theorem of Pythagoras. - Determine whether a triangle is a right-angled triangle or not, if the length of the three sides of the triangle a re known. - Use the Theorem of Pythagoras a missing length in a right-angled triangle, leaving irrational answers in surd form. Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Theorem of Pythagoras - Right-angle triangle Assessment: Theorem of Pythagoras Informal

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 4 Day 1 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 4 x 9 = (36) 6 x 4 = (24) 4 x 4 = (16) 7 x 4 = (28) 11 x 11 = (121) 12 x 8 = (96) 8 x 8 = (64) 12 x 6 = (72) 7 x 7 = (49) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,49 x 0,07 = (0,0343) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduce the topic by asking learners why we need to know the theorem of Pythagoras.

Concept development

Do the following on the board. 2 = 3 2 + 4 2 = 9 2 + 16 2 = 25 2 = 25 = 5

2

3 cm

4 cm

Do the following in your writing books. 1. Find the lengths of the unknown sides in the following right-angled triangles. You may use a calculator. Example: see concept development.

a. 4 cm a

b. 3,5 cm

5 cm c. a d.

6,4 cm

15 cm 7 cm a

10 cm

12 cm

e.

f. a 7 cm 2,2 cm 75 cm 0,5 cm

Consolidation

Learners who need support: Support learners in writing an equation for the lengths of the sides of the right-angled triangle. Learners who are more than competent: Learners draw two of their own rightangled triangles and give them to a friend to solve the third side.

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 4 Day 2 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Theorem of Pythagoras - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.a length; 8.4.1.b perimeter and area of polygons and circles; Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Theorem of Pythagoras - Investigate the relationship between the lengths of the sides of a right-angled triangle to develop the Theorem of Pythagoras. - Determine whether a triangle is a right-angled triangle or not, if the length of the three sides of the triangle a re known. - Use the Theorem of Pythagoras a missing length in a right-angled triangle, leaving irrational answers in surd form. Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Theorem of Pythagoras - Right-angle triangle Assessment: Theorem of Pythagoras Informal

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 4 Day 2 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 12 x 9 = (108) 3 x 3 = (9) 4 x 7 = (28) 4 x 8 = (32) 7 x 11 = (77) 12 x 12 = (144) 7 x 12 = (84) 6 x 8 = (48) 8 x 7 = (56) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,82 x 0,07 = (0,0574) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduce the topic by asking learners what a diagonal is.

Concept development

Do the following on the board. Find the length of the diagonal of the rectangle. 4 cm

8 cm

3 cm

5 cm

= 25 = 5

2 = 3 2 + 4 2 = 9 2 + 16 2 = 25 2

2 = 5 2 + 8 2 2 = 25 2 + 64 2 = 89 2 = 89 2

1. Find the lengths of the of the diagonal of the rectangle. Example: see concept development. a. 21 mm b. 30 mm

28 mm

50 mm

c.

d.

2. Find the length of the diagonal of the rectangle. Example: see concept development. a. 2 cm b.

9,2 cm

1,2 cm

12,2 cm

c.

d.

Consolidation

Learners who need support: Learners highlight the triangle before doing the calculation. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 4 Day 3 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Theorem of Pythagoras - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.a length; 8.4.1.b perimeter and area of polygons and circles; Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Theorem of Pythagoras - Investigate the relationship between the lengths of the sides of a right-angled triangle to develop the Theorem of Pythagoras. - Determine whether a triangle is a right-angled triangle or not, if the length of the three sides of the triangle a re known. - Use the Theorem of Pythagoras a missing length in a right-angled triangle, leaving irrational answers in surd form. Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Theorem of Pythagoras - Right-angle triangle Assessment: Theorem of Pythagoras Informal

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 4 Day 3 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 8 x 3 = (24) 3 x 11 = (33) 6 x 11 = (66) 11 x 9 = (99) 4 x 3 = (12) 12 x 8 = (96) 7 x 8 = (56) 11 x 12 = (132) 7 x 6 = (42) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,79 x 0,22 = (0,1738) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduce the lesson by asking learners what they know about the theorem of Pythagoras. Write the keywords on the board.

Concept development

Find the unknown sides. 16 2 = 2 + 5 2 256 2 = 2 + 25 2 = 231

16 cm

10 cm

2 = 231 2 = 15,2 cm

Homework: Question 1d. Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. Find the unknown side. a. b. 10,8 cm

75 mm

6 cm

c.

d.

Consolidation

Learners who need support: Receive peer support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

If you have an equilateral triangle, you are given two sides, namely the length and the height of the triangle. How will you calculate the third side?

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 4 Day 4 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Area and perimeter of a square - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.b decimals, fractions and percentages; 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.a length; 8.4.1.b perimeter and area of polygons and circles; Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Area and perimeter of a square - Extend multiplication to multiplication by decimal fractions not limited to one decimal place - Extend division to division of decimal fractions by decimal fractions - Calculate the squares, cube, square roots and cube roots of decimal fractions. - Use knowledge of place value to estimate the number of decimal places in the result before performing calculations - Solve problems in context involving decimal fractions - Revise equivalent forms between: common fraction and decimal fraction forms of the same number - Investigate the relationship between the lengths of the sides of a right-angled triangle to develop the Theorem of Pythagoras. - Determine whether a triangle is a right-angled triangle or not, if the length of the three sides of the triangle a re known. - Use the Theorem of Pythagoras a missing length in a right-angled triangle, leaving irrational answers in surd form. Teacher Note:

Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Decimal fraction - Multiplication - Division - Cube number - Cube roots - Square number - Square roots - Estimate - Estimate the possible answer before doing a calculation on a calculator - A problem in context - Problem solving - Equivalence between common fraction and decimal fraction - Theorem of Pythagoras - Right-angle triangle Assessment: Area and perimeter of a square Informal Resources: Board Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 4 Day 4 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 4 x 9 = (36) 9 x 7 = (63) 11 x 3 = (33) 4 x 4 = (16) 7 x 9 = (63) 6 x 6 = (36) 7 x 6 = (42) 12 x 8 = (96) 6 x 7 = (42) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,45 x 0,05 = (0,0225) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Revise the perimeter and the area of a square. Perimeter of a square = 4 Area of a square = 2

Also revise:

Concept development

4,5

Where in real life will we use the perimeter and area of a square?

Draw the following on the board. Do it step by step with your learners.

4,5

Perimeter = 4 (4,5 ) = 18

2 025 100

= 4

Area

= 2

Homework: Complete the activities. Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. Calculate the a. Area b. Perimeter Give your answers in , and .

= 4

Area

d. 45

2. If this is the area of a square, what is the length of one side? Calculate the perimeter. a. 6,76 Example: 1,

3. Construct each of these squares. Example: 1, 1,2 x 1,2 12 x 12 144 4. Write the following in . 1,44 = 1,2

a. 3,24 b. 5,29

c. 57,76

Example: 256

a. 576

= ,

b. 3 769 c. 1 681

a. 15 15

b. 24 24 c. 31 31

Consolidation

Learners who need support: Receive peer support Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support. I have 32 tiles of 30 x 30 . Will I be able to cover 3 m?

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 4 Day 5 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Area and perimeter of a square - Assessment 1.2 - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.b perimeter and area of polygons and circles; 8.4.5 Calculates, by selecting and using appropriate formulae 8.4.5.a perimeter of polygons and circles; 8.4.5.b area of triangles, rectangles, circles and polygons by decomposition into triangles and rectangles; 8.4.6 Converts between: 8.4.6.a mm cm m km Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Area and perimeter of a square - Assessment 1.2 - Use appropriate formulae to calculate perimeter and area of: Squares - Solve problems, with or without a calculator involving perimeter and area of polygons and circles - Use and convert between appropriate SI Units including mmcmmkm Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Area - Area of a square - Formulae - Square - Area of a circle

- Area of a rectangle - Area of a triangle - Calculator - Circles - Polygon - Problem solving - Use of a calculator - Convert between SI units: cmm - Convert between SI units: mkm - Convert between SI units: mmcm - Convert between SI units: mmm Assessment: Area and perimeter of a square - Assessment 1.2 Formal Assessment task 1.2 All 40 Marks

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 4 Day 5 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 3 x 11 = (33) 4 x 4 = (16) 4 x 7 = (28) 12 x 3 = (36) 4 x 11 = (44) 7 x 8 = (56) 12 x 12 = (144) 11 x 12 = (132) 8 x 8 = (64) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,57 x 0,11 = (0,0627) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Tell learners that they are going to write an assessment to assess what they have learnt this term. They can use their previous work to help them.

Concept development

Week 3 Day 4 Week 4 Day 3 Pythagoras Theorem of Pythagoras Homework: No homework.

i

(8) 2. Make drawings of the following triangles.

Side A a. b. 6 15 Side B 8 25 Side C 10 20

(10)

3. What is the hypothesis? Highlight it in all your drawings. 4. Write an equation for the following and calculate each side 33 55 44

(2)

(5)

5. Find the lengths of the unknown sides in the following right-angled triangles. You may use a calculator. 15 cm a (5) 12 cm

(5) Total: 40

Consolidation

In this lesson we revised the following: Week 3 Day 4 Week 4 Day 3 Pythagoras Theorem of Pythagoras Tell learners to identify the concepts that they are not clear about, write it on a piece of paper and put it on the teachers desk. Start the next lesson with those concepts. Learners who need support: Receive peer, group or teacher support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer or group support.

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 5 Day 1 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Area + perimeter of a rectangle - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.b perimeter and area of polygons and circles; 8.4.5 Calculates, by selecting and using appropriate formulae 8.4.5.a perimeter of polygons and circles; 8.4.5.b area of triangles, rectangles, circles and polygons by decomposition into triangles and rectangles; 8.4.6 Converts between: 8.4.6.a mm cm m km Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Area + perimeter of a rectangle - Use appropriate formulae to calculate perimeter and area of: Rectangles - Solve problems, with or without a calculator involving perimeter and area of polygons and circles - Use and convert between appropriate SI Units including mmcmmkm Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Area of a rectangle - Rectangle - Area of a circle - Area of a square - Area of a triangle

- Calculator - Circles - Polygon - Problem solving - Use of a calculator - Convert between SI units: cmm - Convert between SI units: mkm - Convert between SI units: mmcm - Convert between SI units: mmm Assessment: Area + perimeter of a rectangle Informal Resources: Board Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 5 Day 1 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 12 x 9 = (108) 8 x 9 = (72) 11 x 4 = (44) 3 x 12 = (36) 9 x 12 = (108) 12 x 6 = (72) 11 x 7 = (77) 11 x 12 = (132) 7 x 6 = (42) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,21 x 0,16 = (0,0336) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Revise the following with your learners: Perimeter of a rectangle Area of a square 2( + ) or 2 +2 = x If 1 = 10 , then 1 2 = 100 2 If 1 = 100 , then 1 2 = 10 000 2 Also revise:

Where in real life will we use the perimeter and area of a square?

Concept development

3,8 2,1

Draw the following on the board. Calculate the perimeter Calculate the area

Write the area answer in and . 1 = 10 = 14,44 1 = 1 x 1 = 14,44 x 100 1 = 10 x 10 = 1 444 1 = 100

Area

= 0,001444

14,44 10 000

Homework: Complete this activity. Learners do the following in their writing books.

1. Calculate the a. Area b. Perimeter Give your answers in , and . Perimeter 2 ( + ) = 2 ( 2,1 + 1,8 ) = 7,8 Millimetres

= 78

Area x = 2,1 x 1,8 = 3,78 3,78 10 000 = 3,78 x 100 = 378 = 0,000378

Metres = 0,078

2. If this is the area of a rectangle, what is the possible length and breadth?

Consolidation

a. 2,7 d. 46,92

b. 24,7

c. 17,94

Learners who need support: Receive peer support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support. You need to tile a room of 4,2 3,5 . The tiles you want to buy are 45 45 . How many tiles do you need?

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 5 Day 2 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Area and perimeter of a triangle - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.b perimeter and area of polygons and circles; 8.4.5 Calculates, by selecting and using appropriate formulae 8.4.5.a perimeter of polygons and circles; 8.4.5.b area of triangles, rectangles, circles and polygons by decomposition into triangles and rectangles; 8.4.6 Converts between: 8.4.6.a mm cm m km Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Area and perimeter of a triangle - Use appropriate formulae to calculate perimeter and area of: Triangles - Calculate the areas of polygons, to at least 2 decimal places, by decomposing them into rectangle and/or triangles - Solve problems, with or without a calculator involving perimeter and area of polygons and circles - Use and convert between appropriate SI Units including mmcmmkm Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Area of a triangle - Triangle - Area

- Polygon - Area of a circle - Area of a rectangle - Area of a square - Calculator - Circles - Problem solving - Use of a calculator - Convert between SI units: cmm - Convert between SI units: mkm - Convert between SI units: mmcm - Convert between SI units: mmm Assessment: Area and perimeter of a triangle Informal Resources: Board Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 5 Day 2 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 3 x 6 = (18) 4 x 7 = (28) 9 x 6 = (54) 12 x 3 = (36) 3 x 3 = (9) 12 x 12 = (144) 8 x 7 = (56) 7 x 7 = (49) 11 x 7 = (77) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,23 x 0,17 = (0,0391) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Revise the following with your learners: Perimeter of a triangle 1 =2 x h Also revise: If 1 = 10 , then 1 2 = 100 2 If 1 = 100 , then 1 2 = 10 000 2 Area 2,3

1 2 1

Where in real life will we use the perimeter and area of a square?

Concept development

=2 x h

Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. Calculate the a. Area b. Perimeter Give your answers in , and . The dimensions of the triangle are:

Example: Base = 6

Height = 2,6

= 3 x 2,6 = 7,8

Area: 1 + 2

1

Millimetres:

= (6 ) 2,6 ) 2

7,8 10 000

Metres:

Example: 7,35

2. If this is the area of a triangle what is the possible height and base? Area: (7 ) , Height = , b. 5,52 c. 33,12

Base =

3. Draw the height of each triangle and calculate the area. You will need a ruler. Note: the height of a triangle is the line segment drawn from any vertex perpendicular to the opposite side. A A

a.

b.

B B c. A C C b. A

B B

Consolidation

Learners who need support: Receive peer support The triangular area is 10,5 . You have 2 025 tiles. How many do you need to tile the area? Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 5 Day 3 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Area and perimeter of a circle - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.b perimeter and area of polygons and circles; 8.4.5 Calculates, by selecting and using appropriate formulae 8.4.5.a perimeter of polygons and circles; 8.4.5.b area of triangles, rectangles, circles and polygons by decomposition into triangles and rectangles; 8.4.6 Converts between: 8.4.6.a mm cm m km Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Area and perimeter of a circle - Use and describe the relationship between the radius, diameter and circumference of a circle in calculations - Use and describe the relationship between the radius, and area of a circle in calculations - Solve problems, with or without a calculator involving perimeter and area of polygons and circles - Use and describe the meaning of the irrational number Pi () in calculations involving circles. - Use and convert between appropriate SI Units including mmcmmkm Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Circle

- Diameter - Radius - Circumference - Area - Circles - Area of a circle - Area of a rectangle - Area of a square - Area of a triangle - Calculator - Polygon - Problem solving - Use of a calculator - Irrational numbers - Convert between SI units: cmm - Convert between SI units: mkm - Convert between SI units: mmcm - Convert between SI units: mmm Assessment: Area and perimeter of a circle Informal Resources: Board Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 5 Day 3 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 3 x 9 = (27) 6 x 4 = (24) 4 x 6 = (24) 3 x 12 = (36) 4 x 12 = (48) 11 x 8 = (88) 8 x 7 = (56) 7 x 6 = (42) 12 x 6 = (72) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,63 x 0,14 = (0,0882) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Revise the following with your learners: Circumference of a circle = d or 2 r Also revise: Area of a circle = 2

Where in real life will we use the perimeter and area of a circle?

Concept development

circumference

is an irrational number and is given as 3,141592654 to the 9th decimal place. = = 3,14159 represents the value of the circumference divided by the diameter.

22 7

circumference diameter

Tell the learners that the radius is the distance from the centre to the edge. the diameter starts at the side of the circle, goes through the centre and ends on the other side. What can you tell me about the diameter? (diameter = 2x radius) = 2

What is the circumference? (The circumference is the distance around the edge of the circle.) = or 2

= x

Homework: Complete this activity. Learners do the following in their writing books.

Example: = = (3,14159) (3) = 28,27 a. 4 d. 4,3 b. 2,8 e. 5,9 c. 3,7 f. 10,1

c. 113,098

Consolidation

Learners who need support: Receive peer support

The triangular area is 10,5 . You have 2 025 tiles. How many do you need to tile the area?

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 5 Day 4 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Area and perimeter problem solving - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.b perimeter and area of polygons and circles; Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Area and perimeter problem solving - Solve problems, with or without a calculator involving perimeter and area of polygons and circles Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Area of a circle - Area of a rectangle - Area of a square - Area of a triangle - Calculator - Circles - Polygon - Problem solving - Use of a calculator Assessment: Area and perimeter problem solving Informal

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 5 Day 4 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 11 x 9 = (99) 3 x 12 = (36) 9 x 4 = (36) 3 x 3 = (9) 3 x 9 = (27) 6 x 7 = (42) 12 x 12 = (144) 6 x 8 = (48) 8 x 6 = (48) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,91 x 0,28 = (0,2548) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Perimeter of a square = 4 Area of a square = 2 Area of a square = x

Introduce this lesson by asking learners to share everything they have done on area and perimeter so far.

Circumference of a circle = d or 2 r

Area of a circle = 2

Concept development

In this lesson learners will solve problems. Give learners the formula and ask them for what it is. Perimeter of a square = 4 Perimeter of a rectangle = 2 ( ) or 2 + Area of a square = Area of a rectangle = Area of a triangle = ( ) Diameter of a circle: d = 2r Circumference of a circle: C = Pi d or 2 Pi r Area of a circle: A = PI r

Ask learners how they will solve the problems. Make notes on the board. Write a summary below. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

b. You live in a rectangular-shaped home that is 150 long and 902 m wide. You want to plant shrubs around the home. You are to plant the shrubs 70 apart. Approximately how many shrubs will you need to surround the house? c. A room of which the area is 14,82 has a length of 100 longer than the width. What are the dimensions of the room? d. Find the area of a circular sector of which the cord is the side of the square inscribed in a circle with a 3 -radius.

1. Solve the following. a. If the perimeter of a square is 52 , what is the length of each side? If the area of a rectangle is 200 , and its length is 50 , what is its breadth?

Homework: Complete the word problems. Learners do the following in their writing books.

Consolidation

Learners who need support: Receive peer support Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

See this lesson.

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 5 Day 5 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Surface area, volume and capacity of a cube. - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.c volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders. 8.4.5 Calculates, by selecting and using appropriate formulae 8.4.5.c volume of triangular and rectangular-based prisms and cylinders. 8.4.6 Converts between: 8.4.6.b mm cm m 8.4.6.c ml (cm) l kl Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Surface area, volume and capacity of a cube. - Use appropriate formulae to calculate the surface area, volume and capacity of Cubes - Describe the interrelationship between surface area and volume of the objects mentioned above - Use and convert between appropriate SI Units including mmcmm - Use and convert between appropriate SI Units including ml(cm)lkl Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Area - Capacity - Cube - Surface area of a prism - Volume of a cube

- Volume - Surface area - Convert between SI units: mmm - S.I. Unit - Convert between SI units Assessment: Surface area, volume and capacity of a cube. Informal Resources: Board Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 5 Day 5 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 8 x 4 = (32) 9 x 8 = (72) 11 x 9 = (99) 3 x 7 = (21) 3 x 12 = (36) 6 x 7 = (42) 6 x 12 = (72) 8 x 6 = (48) 11 x 7 = (77) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,59 x 0,12 = (0,0708) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Revise: Volume of a cube = Surface area of a cube A = the sum of the areas of all the faces. Capacity of a cube An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 ml of water. An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 of water. Surface area

Concept development

Volume Volume of a solid is the amount of space it occupies.

Write the following on the board. Capacity Capacity is the amount of liquid a container holds when it is full.

Ask learners if they can still remember what each one means. Draw the following on the board and revise it with your learners. Volume 4 Capacity Note: an object with a volume of 1 3 will displace 1 ml of water. Surface area Net of the cube. How many faces (surfaces) are there? Shape? 4

= 3 = (4 )3 = 64 3

Cubic 1 0, 001 0,000001

Homework: Questions 1e and f. Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. Label and complete calculate the volume, capacity and surface area of the following. Example: see concept development. a. b. 2 3,2 c. Length: 4,6 Breadth: _____ Height: _____

Consolidation

Learners who need support: Receive peer support Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support. How much water can a container of 32 by 32 by 32 contain?

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 6 Day 1 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Surface area, volume and capacity of a prism. - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.c volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders. 8.4.5 Calculates, by selecting and using appropriate formulae 8.4.5.c volume of triangular and rectangular-based prisms and cylinders. 8.4.6 Converts between: 8.4.6.b mm cm m 8.4.6.c ml (cm) l kl Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Surface area, volume and capacity of a prism. - Use appropriate formulae to calculate the surface area, volume and capacity of Rectangular prisms - Describe the interrelationship between surface area and volume of the objects mentioned above - Use and convert between appropriate SI Units including mmcmm - Use and convert between appropriate SI Units including ml(cm)lkl Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Capacity - Rectangular prism - Surface area of a prism - Volume of a prism

- Volume of a rectangular prism - Surface area - Volume - Convert between SI units: mmm - S.I. Unit - Convert between SI units Assessment: Surface area, volume and capacity of a prism. Informal Resources: Board Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 6 Day 1 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 9 x 12 = (108) 9 x 11 = (99) 7 x 3 = (21) 6 x 9 = (54) 9 x 8 = (72) 12 x 8 = (96) 8 x 7 = (56) 11 x 12 = (132) 12 x 6 = (72) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,73 x 0,19 = (0,1387) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Volume of a prism = Surface area of a prism SA = the sum of the areas of all its faces.

Concept development

Volume Volume of a solid is the amount of space it occupies.

If 1 = 10 , then 1 3 = 1 000 3 If 1 = 100 , then 1 3 = 1000 000 3 106 An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 of water. An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 of water. Capacity Capacity is the amount of liquid a container holds when it is full. Surface area

Capacity of a prism An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 ml of water. An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 of water.

In groups, ask learners to complete this. Draw the following on the board and revise it with your learners. Volume 4 Capacity 2 Note: an object with a volume of 1 3 will displace 1 ml of water. An object that is 12 3 will displace 12 ml. Cubic

Surface area

= x x = 4 x 1,5 x 2 ) = 12 3 1 000 1

1,5

0, 001 0,000001

Homework: Complete this activity. Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. Calculate the volume, capacity and surface area. Example: see concept development. a. b. 3,2 5 8,5 c. Length: 7,3 Breadth: 5,5 Height: 3,8 2,9

Consolidation

2,1

3,2

Learners who need support: Receive peer support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support. A container has a square base of 8 . What is the height of the box if its volume is 384 ?

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 6 Day 2 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Surface area, volume and capacity of a triangular prism. - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.c volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders. 8.4.5 Calculates, by selecting and using appropriate formulae 8.4.5.c volume of triangular and rectangular-based prisms and cylinders. 8.4.6 Converts between: 8.4.6.b mm cm m 8.4.6.c ml (cm) l kl Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Surface area, volume and capacity of a triangular prism. - Use appropriate formulae to calculate the surface area, volume and capacity of Triangular prisms - Describe the interrelationship between surface area and volume of the objects mentioned above - Use and convert between appropriate SI Units including mmcmm - Use and convert between appropriate SI Units including ml(cm)lkl Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Capacity - Surface area of a prism - Volume of a prism - Volume of a rectangular prism

- Surface area - Volume - Convert between SI units: mmm - S.I. Unit - Convert between SI units Assessment: Surface area, volume and capacity of a triangular prism. Informal Resources: Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 6 Day 2 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 6 x 9 = (54) 6 x 4 = (24) 12 x 9 = (108) 7 x 4 = (28) 8 x 11 = (88) 8 x 12 = (96) 8 x 6 = (48) 6 x 12 = (72) 7 x 8 = (56) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,67 x 0,16 = (0,1072) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Revise the following: Volume of a triangular prism 1 =

2

Surface area of a rectangular prism. A = the sum of the area of all its faces.

Concept development

Tell the learners that you are going to introduce the following to them. Write the concept on the board. x-intercept and y-intercept gradient

If 1 = 10 , then 1 3 = 1 000 3 If 1 = 100 , then 1 3 = 1000 000 3 106 An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 of water. An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 of water.

Capacity An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 ml of water. An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 of water.

Volume

Capacity

Surface area

Area of triangle

Revise the concepts with the learners. Draw the following on the board and revise it with your learners. Volume 3 Capacity Note: an object with a volume of 1 3 will displace 1 ml of water. An object that is 15 3 will displace 64 ml of water. Surface area Describe the face (surface) 3 1,5 = 2 (area of triangle) + 3 (area of rectangles) 1 = 2 (2(5 ) x 3 ) + 3(3 x 2 ) = 15 + 18 = 33

= 2 x x

=

1

= 2,5 x 3 x 2 = 15

1 (5 ) x 3 x 2 ) 2

Cubic

Homework: Complete this activity. Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. Calculate the volume, capacity and surface area. Example: see concept development. a. 18 12 9 b. 4,8 5,1

Consolidation

Learners who need support: Receive peer support Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

What is the volume, capacity and surface area of a triangular prism with a base of 25 which is 12 long? (Answer: 25 x 12 = 300 )

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 6 Day 3 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Surface area, volume and capacity of cubes and prisms problems - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.c volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders. Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Surface area, volume and capacity of cubes and prisms problems - Solve problems, with of without a calculator, involving surface area, volume and capacity Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Calculator - Capacity - Use of a calculator - Surface area - Volume Assessment: Surface area, volume and capacity of cubes and prisms problems Informal Resources: Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 6 Day 3 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 9 x 8 = (72) 9 x 7 = (63) 3 x 9 = (27) 11 x 11 = (121) 9 x 12 = (108) 11 x 12 = (132) 8 x 6 = (48) 12 x 8 = (96) 7 x 12 = (84) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,15 x 0,13 = (0,0195) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduction: Surface area, volume and capacity of cubes and prisms problems

Revise the following: The volume of a prism = The volume of a cube = Surface are of a prism A = the sum of the area of all its faces. Capacity An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 ml of water. An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 of water

Revise the following: If 1 = 10 , then 1 3 = 1 000 3 If 1 = 100 , then 1 3 = 1000 000 3 106 An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 of water. An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 of water.

Concept development

Revise the following with your learners. Give them the formula and ask them what it is for. The volume of a prism = the area of the base x height The surface area of a prism = the sum of the area of all its faces. The volume of a cube = The volume of a rectangular prism = The volume of a rectangular prism = ( ) x height of the prism.

Homework: Complete the activities. Learners do the following in their writing books.

1. Calculate the volume, capacity and surface area of ___. Give your answers in , and . a. The length of one edge of a cube is 2,75 .

c. The height of the triangular prism is 3,65 , the triangles height is 4,65 and the base is 5,58 .

b. The length, breadth and height of a rectangular prism is 4,25 , 3,75 and 2,95 .

Consolidation

Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

Create your own word problems to solve the volume, capacity and surface area of a cube rectangular prism triangular prism

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 6 Day 4 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Surface area, volume: problems - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.c volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders. Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Surface area, volume: problems - Solve problems, with of without a calculator, involving surface area, volume and capacity Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Calculator - Capacity - Use of a calculator - Surface area - Volume Assessment: Surface area, volume: problems Informal Resources: Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 6 Day 4 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 7 x 9 = (63) 9 x 3 = (27) 12 x 11 = (132) 8 x 11 = (88) 6 x 9 = (54) 8 x 6 = (48) 8 x 7 = (56) 6 x 8 = (48) 7 x 12 = (84) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,15 x 0,13 = (0,0195) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Revise the following: Volume of a prism = Volume of a triangular prism 1 = 2 Volume of a prism = Volume of a cube =

Concept development

If 1 = 10 , then 1 3 = 1 000 3 If 1 = 100 , then 1 3 = 1000 000 3 106 An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 of water. An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 of water.

Surface area of a prism A = the sum of the area of all its faces.

Capacity An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 ml of water. An object with a volume of 1 3 will displace exactly 1 of water.

Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. Calculate the volume and surface area of a prism if AB = 8 cm, BC = 6 cm and CF = 16 cm. A C

B D F

E 2. What is the volume, capacity and surface area of this cubic water container? The length of one side is1,2 m.

Consolidation

Learners who need support: Receive peer support Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

See this lesson.

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 6 Day 5 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Assessment 2.1 - 0 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 4:MEASUREMENT 8.4.1 Solves problems involving: 8.4.1.b perimeter and area of polygons and circles; 8.4.5 Calculates, by selecting and using appropriate formulae 8.4.5.a perimeter of polygons and circles; 8.4.5.b area of triangles, rectangles, circles and polygons by decomposition into triangles and rectangles; Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Assessment 2.1 - Use appropriate formulae to calculate perimeter and area of: Squares - Use appropriate formulae to calculate perimeter and area of: Rectangles - Use appropriate formulae to calculate perimeter and area of: Triangles - Calculate the areas of polygons, to at least 2 decimal places, by decomposing them into rectangle and/or triangles - Use and describe the relationship between the radius, diameter and circumference of a circle in calculations - Use and describe the relationship between the radius, and area of a circle in calculations - Solve problems, with or without a calculator involving perimeter and area of polygons and circles Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Area

- Area of a square - Formulae - Square - Area of a rectangle - Rectangle - Area of a triangle - Triangle - Polygon - Circle - Diameter - Radius - Circumference - Circles - Area of a circle - Calculator - Problem solving - Use of a calculator Assessment: Assessment 2.1 Formal Assessment task 2.1 All 60 Marks

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 6 Day 5 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 11 x 11 = (121) 11 x 3 = (33) 9 x 8 = (72) 3 x 11 = (33) 9 x 12 = (108) 7 x 7 = (49) 7 x 12 = (84) 11 x 6 = (66) 6 x 7 = (42) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,78 x 0,05 = (0,039) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Tell learners that they are going to write an assessment to assess what they have learnt this term. They can use their previous work to help them.

Concept development

Week 4 Day 5 Week 6 Day 4 Area and perimeter of a square Area and perimeter of a rectangle Area and perimeter of a triangle Area and perimeter of a circle Area and perimeter problem solving Surface area, volume and capacity of a cube Surface area, volume and capacity of a prism Surface area, volume and capacity of a triangular prism Surface area, volume and capacity of cubes and prisms problems Surface area, volume: problems Homework: No homework.

3 769 17,94

57,76

29,16

1. Calculate the area and perimeter if all the sides are equal: 3,2cm. Give your answer in , and . (6) 2. If this is the area of a square, what is the length of one side? Calculate the perimeter. 3. Write the following in . (3)

(1)

(1)

(1)

6. If this is the area of a rectangle, what is the possible length and breadth? (3)

33,12

7. If this is the area of a triangle what is the possible height and base? (3) (3) (3)

8. Calculate the area of the circle. The radius of the circle is 5,9 :

10. Solve the following. a. You live in a rectangular-shaped home that is 150 long and 902 m wide. You want to plant shrubs around the home. You are to plant the shrubs 70 apart. Approximately how many shrubs will you need to surround the house? (3) b. Find the area of a circular sector of which the cord is the side of the square inscribed in a circle with a 3 -radius. (3)

11. Label and complete calculate the volume, capacity and surface area of the following. a. 3,2 b.

8,5

c. 4,8

5,1

3,2

2,9

12. Calculate the volume, capacity and surface area of ___. Give your answers in , and .

The height of the triangular prism is 3,65 , the triangles height is 4,65 and the base is 5,58 . (6) 13. Calculate the volume and surface area of a prism if AB = 8 cm, BC = 6 cm and CF = 16 cm. A C

(18)

B D F

(6)

14. What is the volume, capacity and surface area of this cubic water container? The length of one side is1,2 m. (3) Total: 60

Consolidation

In this lesson we revised the following: Week 4 Day 5 Week 6 Day 4 Area and perimeter of a square Area and perimeter of a rectangle Area and perimeter of a triangle Area and perimeter of a circle Area and perimeter problem solving Surface area, volume and capacity of a cube Surface area, volume and capacity of a prism Surface area, volume and capacity of a triangular prism Surface area, volume and capacity of cubes and prisms problems Surface area, volume: problems

Tell learners to identify the concepts that they are not clear about, write it on a piece of paper and put it on the teachers desk. Start the next lesson with those concepts.

Learners who need support: Receive peer, group or teacher support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer or group support.

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 7 Day 1 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Data collection - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 5:DATA HANDLING 8.5.1 Poses questions relating to human rights, social, economic, environmental and political issues in own environment. 8.5.2 Selects appropriate sources for the collection of data (including peers, family, newspapers, books, magazines, the Internet). 8.5.4 Performs simple experiments using random number generators, coins, spinners, dice and cards in order to collect data. Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Data collection - Pose questions relating to social, economic, and environmental issues - Select appropriate sources for the collection of data (including peers, family, newspapers, books, magazines), including distinguishing between samples and populations. Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Population - Samples Assessment: Data collection Informal

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 7 Day 1 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 4 x 6 = (24) 12 x 4 = (48) 11 x 4 = (44) 6 x 3 = (18) 6 x 4 = (24) 11 x 8 = (88) 8 x 12 = (96) 12 x 12 = (144) 8 x 7 = (56) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,81 x 0,23 = (0,1863) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

In Grade 7 we learnt that if we want to solve a problem, the first step is to collect data about the problem. We can use data collected by other people for different purposes (called secondary data) or we can collect new data directly from the source (called primary data). The population refers to the entire group of individuals or objects in which we are interested, in generalising the conclusions of our research. If we are able to ask everybody (the population) then it is called a census. If the group (population) is very large, we can ask some of the people this is called a sample of the population. The best way to prevent bias in a survey is to select the sample using a random method. Surveys can help you decide what needs changing, where money should be spent, what products to purchase, what problems there might be, or may answer many other questions you might have. A common method of collecting primary data for a survey is to use a questionnaire. So if we want to know something, we need to start with posing questions or data (information) collection. In this lesson we are going to look at discrete and continuous data and how to collect it from the most appropriate source by asking questions.

Concept development

1. Ask students to define "continuous data" and "discrete data". Once students have had some time to reflect on these terms and develop a definition in their own words, provide them with the following: Discrete data is data that can only take certain values Continuous data is data that can take any value (within a range) 2. Ask learners to classify the following examples as "continuous data" or discrete data". The amount of rainfall recorded each day for seven days (discrete) The amount of money earned during an eight-hour workday (continuous) The weight of newspapers collected at each house on a route (discrete) The length of hair-growth over a one-month period (continuous)

3. You think most people in your school get to school by bus. You want to investigate this by means of a survey. A tally chart can be used to record your data. Write a hypothesis for your survey. Remember: (Hypothesis: most learners from our A hypothesis is an school use the bus to get to school.) idea that you want to investigate to see if it 4. Who will you use for your survey? is true or false. (Answer: population all learners of the school, or a sample only a portion of them, randomly selected, say 20% per grade) 5. If the population is too big and you need to select a sample, how will you go about selecting a sample to eliminate bias? (Answer: to eliminate bias the sample must be randomly selected across the grades and across the possible transport methods. If we decided to only survey 20% of the population, it will be biased to stand at the bus stop and ask every fifth learner. It will also be biased if we only ask learners in the higher or lower grades. Instead, it will be less biased if we take an alphabetical list of all learners and select every fifth name to participate in the survey.) 6. Design a simple questionnaire for your survey, using multiple choice questions. Your data must also include: a. Grade of learner b. Gender c. Transport method Answer: Transport survey for Rhodes High We want to determine the most popular method of transport to school. Please assist us by answering a few questions. Which grade are you? (tick the correct box)

Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12

Boy Girl

Which transport method do you use MOST to get to school? (only tick one box)

Walk Bicycle Bus Motorcar Other

Homework: See problem solving. Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. Classify the following data as either discrete data or continuous data. a. The number of times that a movement authority is sent to a train from a relay station is recorded for several trains over a two-week period. The movement authority, which is an electronic transmission, is sent repeatedly until a return signal is received from the train. b. A quality technician records the length of material in a roll product for several products selected from a production line. c. The number of aces in five-card poker hands is noted by a gambler over several weeks of gambling at a casino. 2. Survey people in your school to find out what their favourite movie is. a. Write a hypothesis for your survey project. b. Who will you ask? Define your population. c. How will you select a sample from your population? d. How will you ensure that your survey eliminates bias? e. Design a simple questionnaire for your survey, using multiple-choice questions to establish grade, gender, favourite movie type and favourite movie.

Consolidation

Data can be classified as discrete or continuous data. Discrete data contains distinct values, whereas continuous data can assume any value within a range. For example, the number of phone calls a company receives would be discrete data. You can only have distinct, whole number values. You can't have, for example, 4,375 calls. There is either a phone call or there isn't; there aren't fractions of calls. Continuous data would be like temperatures, lengths, and so on. Usually, anything you have to use a measuring device for is continuous data. Temperatures, lengths, etc can all be anywhere on a range; they don't have to have distinct values. Learners who need support: Pair learners with competent peers and work through the concept development examples again, but change the numbers before doing the problem solving activities. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

Design the survey In making a survey, it is very important that you first decide what questions you want answered. Make sure that you are asking all the questions that interest you. There won't be time to go back to those surveyed to get more information. Write a hypothesis for your survey. Create a survey that lists all of the popular sodas. Be sure to create an "other" option. Ask how much soda each student drinks per day. You can define soda consumption around a common quantity such as millilitres. Will the choice of soda be discreet or continuous data? What type of data will the consumption of soda be?

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 7 Day 2 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Organise data - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 5:DATA HANDLING 8.5.5 Organises (including grouping where appropriate) and records data using tallies, tables and stem-and-leaf displays. Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Organise data - Organize (including grouping where appropriate) and record data using Tallies - Organize (including grouping where appropriate) and record data using Tables - Organize (including grouping where appropriate) and record data using Stem-and-leaf displays - Group data into intervals Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Tally - Table - Stem-and-leaf plot Assessment: Organise data Informal Resources:

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 7 Day 2 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 8 x 11 = (88) 4 x 7 = (28) 6 x 9 = (54) 11 x 11 = (121) 9 x 8 = (72) 7 x 8 = (56) 8 x 7 = (56) 8 x 8 = (64) 11 x 7 = (77) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,31 x 0,21 = (0,0651) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

After we have collected data, we need to organise it to be able to make some conclusions. We can organise the data using tallies, tables and stem-and-leaf tables. Tally is a way of counting data to make it easy to display in a table. A tally mark is used to keep track of counting. Vertical bars are made for each number, and a diagonal bar is made for every five numbers, forming bundles of 5s. When the set of data values are spread out, it is difficult to set up a frequency table for every data value as there will be too many rows in the table. So we group the data into class intervals (or groups) to help us organise, interpret and analyse the data. Ideally, we should have between five and ten rows in a frequency table. Bear this in mind when deciding on the size of the class interval (or group). Stem-and-leaf tables (plots) are special tables where each data value is split into a leaf (usually the last digit) and a stem (the other digits). The "stem" values are listed down, and the "leaf" values go right (or left) from the stem values. The "stem" is used to group the scores and each "leaf" indicates the individual scores within each group. In this lesson we are going to look at how to determine the group intervals, also called class intervals, when we group the data.

Concept development

Write the following table on the board. The number of calls from motorists per day for roadside service was recorded for a month. The results were as follows:

28 122 217 130 120 86 80 90 82 120 140 109 120

70

100 81

40

75

104 97 75

90

68

123 100

How will we group these numbers into class intervals? Ask learners to make suggestions. After discussing their suggestions, show them the following method. Smallest value = 28 Highest value = 217 Difference = highest value smallest value = 217 28 = 189

Therefore:

189 5

Now we can construct a table with three columns, and then write the data groups or class intervals in the first column. The size of each group is 40. So the groups will start at 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 to include all of the data. Class interval 0 - 39 40 - 79 80 - 119 120 - 159 160 - 199 200 - 239 Next we can go through the list of data values. For the first data value in the list, 28, place a tally mark against the group 0-39 in the second column. For the second data value in the list, 122, place a tally mark against the group 120-159 in the second column. For the third data value in the list, 217, place a tally mark against the group 200-239 in the second column. Continue this process until all of the data values in the set are tallied. Class interval 0 - 39 40 - 79 80 - 119 120 - 159 160 - 199 200 - 239 Homework: See problem solving. Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. The data shows the mass of 40 students in a class to the nearest kg. Construct a frequency table for the data using an appropriate scale. 55 60 75 49 52 70 48 64 66 76 57 58 65 62 71 73 54 57 76 61 55 69 71 61 53 59 51 78 63 56 64 63 76 63 67 72 78 62 76 71 Tally Frequency 1 5 12 8 4 1 Tally Frequency Note: we need six groups (one more than we thought at first).

2. The following table represents the time taken by a group of learners to answer mental maths questions (in seconds). Construct a frequency table for the data using an appropriate scale. 20 26 16 14 25 8 21 15 24 19 17 21 33 31 11 18 13 11 34 17

3. A researcher is interested in knowing how many calls teenagers make in a month. He monitored the calls of 18 learners randomly selected from your school. The following data was recorded during the month: 53, 35, 67, 48, 63, 42, 48, 55, 33, 50, 46, 45, 59, 40, 47, 51, 66, 53 Construct a frequency table for the data using an appropriate scale.

Consolidation

When the set of data values is spread out, it is difficult to set up a frequency table for every data value as there will be too many rows in the table. So we group the data into class intervals (or groups) to help us organise, interpret and analyse the data. To group the data into class intervals: Step 1: Find the range. The range of a set of numbers is the difference between the smallest and the biggest numbers in the set. Step2: Find the intervals. The intervals separate the scale into equal parts. Divide the range by the interval or the number of groups you want to create. Step 3: Draw the frequency table using the selected scale and intervals. Learners who need support: Pair learners with competent peers and work through the concept development examples again, but change the numbers before doing the problem solving activities. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

58 63 78 52 55 68 46 62 64 74

The following table represents the test scores of your class in mathematics. Construct a frequency table for the data, using an appropriate scale. 60 61 68 65 74 71 52 55 74 59 53 67 69 59 51 62 54 81 66 59

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 7 Day 3 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Summarise data - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 5:DATA HANDLING 8.5.6 Summarises grouped and ungrouped numerical data by determining mean, median and mode as measures of central tendency, and distinguishes between them. Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Summarise data - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Mean - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Median - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Mode - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Range - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Extremes Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Mean (or Average) - Median - Mode - Extreme Assessment: Summarise data Informal

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 7 Day 3 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 6 x 9 = (54) 4 x 11 = (44) 6 x 11 = (66) 6 x 4 = (24) 9 x 4 = (36) 8 x 12 = (96) 12 x 8 = (96) 8 x 8 = (64) 12 x 12 = (144) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,65 x 0,15 = (0,0975) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

We use the following as measures of central tendency:

The range is the difference between the biggest and the smallest number.

The mode is the value that appears the most. The median is the middle value. The mean is the total of the numbers divided by how many numbers there are. In this lesson we are going to revise these measures of central tendency and we are going to look at summarising data using measures of dispersion, like range and extremes.

Concept development

Revise with the learners the following concepts: mean, median, mode and range.

Measure Definition How to calculate Example Data set: 2, 2, 3, 5, 5, 7, 8 Adding up the numbers gives: 2 + 2 + 3 + 5 + 5 + 7 + 8 = 32 There are seven values, so you divide the total by 7: 32 7 = 4.57... So the mean is 4.57 The numbers in order: 2 , 2 , 3 , (5) , 5 , 7 , 8 The middle value is marked in brackets, and it is 5. So the median is 5. The data values: 2,2,3,5,5,7,8 The values that appear most often are 2 and 5. They both appear more times than any of the other data values. So the modes are 2 and 5 The data values: 2,2,3,5,5,7,8 The lowest value is 2 and the highest value is 8. Subtracting the lowest from the highest gives: 8 - 2 = 6 So the range is 6.

Mean

To find the mean, you The mean is the total of need to add up all the the numbers divided by data, and then divide how many numbers this total by the number there are. of values in the data

To find the median, you need to put the values in order, then find the The median is the middle value. If there are Median middle value. two values in the middle, then you find the mean of these two values. The mode is the value which appears most The mode is the value often in the data. It is Mode that appears the most. possible to have more than one mode if there is more than one value which appears the most. To find the range, you first need to find the The range is the lowest and highest values difference between the in the data. The range is Range biggest and the smallest found by subtracting the number. lowest value from the highest value

We use a measure of central tendency to describe where the peak on a graph is located.

1. Ask learners to calculate the mean, mode, median and range for the following: a. (2,23,3,3,4) Answer: Range = 21 Mean = 7 Median = 3 Mode(s) = 3 b. (1,22,20,29,29,29,24) Answer: Range = 28 Mean = 22 Median = 24 Mode(s) = 29 c. (29,9,1,26,25) Answers: Range = 28 Mean = 18 Median = 25 Mode(s) = none

The mean average is not always a whole number. Remember to start by arranging the data from small to big. Note: if there is an even amount of numbers, the median will be the value that is halfway between the middle pair of numbers.

Ask learners what they understand under the term measure of dispersion. Once the learners have had some time to reflect on this term and develop a definition in their own words, provide them with the following: A measure of dispersion measures how spread out a set of data is. We use a measure of dispersion to describe how much spread there is in the distribution of data. When we look at a graph of a frequency table, we will notice a peak and a spread on either side of the peak. We use different measures of dispersion like: range, minimum values and maximum values, together with measures of central location to interpret the data series. 2. Ask learners to find the minimum value, maximum value and range of the following data: 29, 31, 24, 29, 30, 25 Answer: Start by arranging the 24, 25, 29, 29, 30, 31 data in sequence small large from small to large Identify the minimum and maximum values: Minimum = 24, maximum = 31 The range: Range = maximum minimum = 3124 = 7. Thus the range is 7.

1. Use the data series below and calculate: a. The mean b. The mode c. The median d. Minimum value e. Maximum value

f. The range

8 14 15 50 -6 19 3 37 12 10

2. David made a frequency table to show the numbers of pets owned by 10 people. The range is 6. What might the total number of pets be? Explain. 3. The frequency table of your survey shows a minimum value of 43 and a maximum value of 336. What is the range?

4. Ethan's scores in six subjects are 72, 48, 72, 72, 72, and 84. What is his average score?

5. The following table represents the car ownership rates by the age of the home owners in South Africa in the year 2011. Find the range of the given data. Age in years 15-24 15-34 35-44 45-54 Percentage of home owners 17.9 45.6 66.2 74.9

6. The table shows the number of fruits sold by a street vendor on seven consecutive days. Using the table, calculate the mean number of fruit sold per day. What is the minimum value, maximum value and range? Day 1 Day 2 8 Day 3 10 Day 4 12 Day 5 16 Day 6 4 Day 7 14

Fruits sold

Consolidation

We use a measure of central tendency to describe where the peak on a graph is located.

The range is the difference between the biggest and the smallest number. The mode is the value that appears the most. The median is the middle value. The mean is the total of the numbers divided by how many numbers there are. The measure of dispersion describes how much spread there is in the distribution of data. We use different measures of dispersion like range, minimum values and maximum values. Learners who need support: Pair learners with competent peers and work through the concept development examples again, but change the numbers before doing the class work activities. Make sure that they first arrange the data from small to big in their writing books. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

The scores of learners of four teams A, B, C, and D in their math tests were recorded. Each team reported an average of 90%. Which of the following measures of central tendency was used by the teams? Team A: Team B: Team C: Team D: 85, 81, 91, 96, 97 93, 92, 90, 90, 91 85, 81, 94, 93, 90 85, 89, 90, 90, 90

range

mode median mean

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 7 Day 4 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Bar graphs - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 5:DATA HANDLING 8.5.7 Draws a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data including: 8.5.7.a bar graphs and double bar graphs; 8.5.8 Critically reads and interprets data presented in a variety of ways in order to draw conclusions and make predictions sensitive to the role of: Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Bar graphs - Draw a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data (grouped and ungrouped) including" Bar graphs and double bar graphs - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Words - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Bar graphs Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Bar graph - Double bar graph - Word problems Assessment: Bar graphs Informal

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 7 Day 4 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 7 x 3 = (21) 6 x 11 = (66) 9 x 6 = (54) 4 x 3 = (12) 11 x 9 = (99) 12 x 8 = (96) 7 x 12 = (84) 11 x 12 = (132) 11 x 7 = (77) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,78 x 0,05 = (0,039) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

In Grade 7 we learnt that a bar graph is a visual display used to compare the amounts or frequency of occurrence of different characteristics of data. This type of display allows us to compare groups of data make generalisations about the data quickly. When reading a bar graph there are several things we must pay attention to: the graph title, two axes, including axes labels and scale, and the bars. Since bar graphs are used to graph frequencies or amounts of data in discrete groups, we will need to determine which axis is the grouped data axis, as well as what the specific groups are, and which is the frequency axis. The height of the bars are particularly important since they give us information about specific data. To draw a bar graph you have to start with your frequency table. From the frequency table, decide on the range and scale of the frequency data axis (vertical axis) and the grouped data axis (horizontal axis). Draw the vertical and horizontal axes and label them. Write the graph title at the top. Mark the data on the graph for each data group and draw the bar. Add the colour or shading of the bar to the legend (key). In this lesson we are going to draw bar graphs from raw data, then we are going to interpret the information and answer questions related to the bar graphs.

Concept development

Start by revising bar graphs. Refer to Grade 7 Term 4 Week 6 Day 3 for revision. Bar graphs are used to show data that is discrete. A bar graph allows us to compare data like amounts or frequency or categories. A bar graph also allows us to make generalisations about the data and to see differences in the data. In a bar graph we place the independent variable on the x-axis and the dependent variable on the y-axis. The independent variable is the category or subject we are collecting the data from r about. The dependent variable is the data we are collecting or what we are measuring. Remember: Discrete data is data that can only take certain values.

Player JF Pienaar CP Strauss AJ Richter GH Teichmann CPJ Krige J Erasmus JH van der Westhuizen AN Vos RB Skinstad JW Smit V Matfield Johan Muller Number of games played as Springbok captain 29 1 1 36 18 1 10 16 12 73 3 1

A quality bar graph consists out of: T Title A Axis I Interval L Labels S Scale

Analyse your data and answer the following questions. a. What is the independent variable? (names of players) b. The dependent variable? (number of games captained) c. What are we comparing with this graph? (number of games captained) d. In general, what can we say about the number of games played by each Springbok captain? (JW Smit captained the most games and GH Teichman second most, four players only captained one game) Remember the Answers: answers are in Games captained brackets.

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

73

29

36 18 10 1 1 1 16

12 3 1

Games captained

Homework: See problem solving. Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. The following table shows the sales of cars per month. Create a bar graph for the data.

Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Sales in R00 000 15 14 13 11 9 7 2 7 8 11 12 14

Analyse and interpret your graph and answer the following questions. a. Where do you think this data came from? b. How can this data and graph be useful for the car dealer? c. What scale did you used for your graph? Explain why. d. Calculate the mean, mode and median. e. What can these answers tell you? f. What is the data range? g. What does the range tell you about the data? h. Is there any extreme data (very small or large data)? Why do you think this data varies so much from the mean? i. If you want to determine the sales for all car dealers, how will you go about that? j. How can you provide for any bias in your data? Bar graphs are used to compare categorical data using bars. For example amount of rainfall on different days in a week, the favourite colours of Grade 8 learners, the number of students enrolled in different grades in a school in a particular academic year, etc. A bar graph is a visual display used to compare the amounts or frequency of occurrence of different characteristics of data. Learners who need support: Pair learners with competent peers and work through the concept development examples again, but change the numbers before doing the problem solving activities. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Consolidation

Problem solving

Use the data collected form your class regarding their favourite movie star. 1.Compile a frequency table using tallies. 2.Draw a bar graph using your frequency table. 3.Analyse and interpret your graph and answer the following questions. a. What is the independent variable? b. The dependent variable? c. What are we comparing with this graph? d. Who is the most favourite movie star? e. Who is the least favourite movie star? f. What scale did you used for your graph? Explain why. g. Calculate the mean, mode and median. h. What can these answers tell you? i. What is the data range? j. What does the range tell you about the data? k. If you want to determine the most popular movie star in your school, how will you go about that? l. How can you provide for any bias in your data?

Name Denise John Jason Matapelo Beatrix Opelo Lisa Gugu Sipho Lorato

Movie star Johnny Depp Julia Roberts Julia Roberts Nicolas Cage Brad Pitt Jennifer Aniston Jennifer Aniston Brad Pitt Julia Roberts Johnny Depp

Name Elias Simon Edward Susan Philip Ben Lauren Tefo Alicia Masa

Movie star Julia Roberts Nicolas Cage Johnny Depp Julia Roberts Johnny Depp Brad Pitt Julia Roberts Jennifer Aniston Johnny Depp Julia Roberts

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 7 Day 5 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Bar graphs - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 5:DATA HANDLING 8.5.7 Draws a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data including: 8.5.7.a bar graphs and double bar graphs; 8.5.8 Critically reads and interprets data presented in a variety of ways in order to draw conclusions and make predictions sensitive to the role of: Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Bar graphs - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Words - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Double bar graphs Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Word problems - Bar graph - Double bar graph Assessment: Bar graphs Informal Resources:

Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 7 Day 5 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 3 x 7 = (21) 3 x 4 = (12) 9 x 7 = (63) 3 x 6 = (18) 4 x 4 = (16) 7 x 12 = (84) 6 x 6 = (36) 11 x 7 = (77) 6 x 8 = (48) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,27 x 0,19 = (0,0513) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

A bar graph is a visual display used to compare the amounts or frequency of occurrence of different characteristics of data. A double bar graph is similar to a regular bar graph, but gives two pieces of related information for each item on the vertical axis, rather than just one. This type of display allows us to compare two related groups of data, and to make generalisations about the data quickly.

Concept development

Revise the construction of a double bar graph refer to lesson Grade 7 Term 4 Week 6 Day 4. Exam results Remember that the 80 two sets of data on a double bar graph 60 must be related. 40 20 0 Term 1 Term 2

Literacy %

Term 3

Numeracy %

Term 4

Homework: See problem solving. Learners do the following in their writing books. The table below represents the expenditure per learner for primary and high schools. Draw a bar graph. Year 1985 1990 1995 2000 Expenditure per learner Primary schools High schools 325 225 361 240 418 274 425 277

Analyse your data and answer the following questions. a. b. c. d. What is the independent variable? The dependent variable? What are we comparing with this graph? In general, what can we say about the expenditure per learner?

2. From 1994 to 2006, the percentage of households in your town that recycled increased. Examine the table to see how many households are helping our environment:

Households that recycle Metal cans 1994 2006 56% 81% Plastics 52% 84% Paper 58% 83%

Draw a bar graph to illustrate the increase. Analyse your graph and answer the following questions. a. Where do you think this data came from? b. How can this data and graph be useful for recycle companies? c. What scale did you used for your graph? Explain why. d. Calculate the mean, mode and median. e. Compare the mean, mode and median for 1994 to 2006. f. What can these answers tell you? g. What is the data range? h. What does the range tell you about the data? i. How can you provide for any bias in your data? 3. The table shows the median age of men and women at the time of their first marriage. Create a double bar graph to represent this data. What conclusions can you draw? Year 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Men 24,3 22,8 22,8 23,2 24,7 26,1 Women 21,5 20,3 20,3 20,8 22 23,9

Consolidation

A bar graph is a visual display used to compare the amounts or frequency of occurrence of different characteristics of data. A double bar graph is similar to a regular bar graph, but gives two pieces of related information for each item on the vertical axis, rather than just one. This type of display allows us to compare two related groups of data, and to make generalisations about the data quickly. Learners who need support: Pair learners with competent peers and work through the concept development examples again, but change the numbers before doing the problem solving activities. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

Terry asked the children in her class how many hours per day they watch TV and how much time they spend doing homework. TV Study TV Study 0 1 2 3 0 0,5 2 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 1 2 3 4 1 1,5 3 1,5 1 1,5 3 3,5 1 2 3 3 1 2,5 4 2,5 1 1 1 1 2 0,5 0,25 0,25 0,25 1,5 4 4 5 5 6 1,5 2 1,5 2 3

Make a frequency table. Make a bar graph. Compare the mean, mode and median between watching TV and doing homework. What does this information tell us? Explain.

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 8 Day 1 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Histograms - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 5:DATA HANDLING 8.5.7 Draws a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data including: 8.5.7.c pie charts; 8.5.8 Critically reads and interprets data presented in a variety of ways in order to draw conclusions and make predictions sensitive to the role of: Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Histograms - Draw a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data (grouped and ungrouped) including" Pie charts - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Words - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Pie charts Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Pie chart - Word problems Assessment: Histograms Informal

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 8 Day 1 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 9 x 4 = (36) 6 x 11 = (66) 11 x 3 = (33) 6 x 3 = (18) 7 x 9 = (63) 6 x 12 = (72) 8 x 8 = (64) 11 x 6 = (66) 7 x 8 = (56) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,61 x 0,13 = (0,0793) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduction: Histograms

A histogram is a particular kind of bar graph that summarises data points falling in various ranges. The main difference between a normal bar graph and a histogram is that a bar graph shows you the frequency of each element in a set of data, while a histogram shows you the frequency of a range of data. In a histogram the bars must touch, because the data elements we are recording are numbers that are grouped, and form a continuous range from left to right.

Concept development

Revise the steps in the construction of a histogram. Constructing a histogram: Step 1 - Count the number of data points Step 2 - Summarise on a tally sheet Step 3 - Compute the range Step 4 - Determine the number of intervals Step 5 Compute the interval width Step 6 Determine the interval starting points Step 7 - Count the number of points in each interval Step 8 - Plot the data Step 9 - Add a title and legend Revise how to compute the interval width. Let us use the following example:

28 70 100 81 122 217 130 120 40 75 145 187 113 104 97 75 86 90 80 68 90 82 120 140 109 120 174 194 170

Example of a histogram

Height of learners 8 6 4 2 0

135-140

141-145

146-150

156-160

Height of learners

123 100

28 40 68 70 75 75 80 81 82 86 90 90 97 100 100 104 109 113 120 120 120 122 123 130 140 145 170 174 187 194 217

Smallest value = 28 Highest value = 217 Difference = highest value smallest value = 217 28 = 189

Now we decide that we want five class intervals. 189 Therefore: 5 =37,8 = 40 (round to the next 10)

161-165

151-155

Once we have determined the range and the class intervals, we must organise the data into a frequency table. Class interval Tally Frequency

0 - 39

40 - 79 80 - 119 120 - 159 160 - 199 200 - 239

1

5 12 8 4 1

With the data in a frequency table it is easy to construct a histogram. Histogram example

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

40-79

80-119

0-39

120-159

160-199

Frequency

Homework: See problem solving. Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. Let us consider the following set of numbers. 43 55 83 85 90 90 95 96 97 101 105 105 112 115 115 119 124 128 135 135 135 137 138 145 155 160 185 189 202 209 232 15 56 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 70 98 100 105 105 110 111 112 116 120 120 127 130 130 134 Compute the range Determine the number of intervals Compute the interval width show your calculations. Determine the interval starting points Count the number of points in each interval (frequency table) Plot the data Add a title and legend

200-239

33 35 73 65 80 70 85 76 87 81 95 85 102 95 105 114 108 125 115 125 117 128 125 145 140 175 169 192 189 222 16 28 56 58 63 63 68 69 70 74 78 78 85 88 88

92

97 101 108 108 108 110 111 118 128 133 158 162 175 182

Remember to complete a frequency table first.

Consolidation

The main difference between a normal bar graph and a histogram is that a bar graph shows you the frequency of each element in a set of data, while a histogram shows you the frequency of a range of data. In a histogram the bars must touch, because the data elements we are recording are numbers that are grouped, and form a continuous range from left to right. Constructing a histogram: Step 1 - Count the number of data points Step 2 - Summarise on a tally sheet Step 3 - Compute the range Step 4 - Determine the number of intervals Step 5 - Compute the interval width Step 6 - Determine the interval starting points Step 7 - Count the number of points in each interval Step 8 - Plot the data Step 9 - Add a title and legend Remember we use histograms to summarise large data sets graphically

Learners who need support: Pair learners with competent peers and work through the concept development examples again, but change the numbers before doing the problem solving activities. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

A bank wants to improve its customer service. Before deciding to hire more workers, the manager decides to get some information on the waiting times customers currently experience. During a week, 50 customers were randomly selected, and their waiting times recorded. The data is as follows: a. Construct a frequency table of the data. b. Create a histogram. c. Must he hire more people? Motivate your answer. 18,5 5,8 4,4 0,8 10,9 9,1 1,8 3,8 0,1 0,1 3,1 1,5 5,8 9,7 5,9 6,2 1,9 1,9 2,6 1,4 1,3 0,4 3,6 0,8 0,3 0,5 3,5 2,5 1,2 5,5 4,2 5,2 0,0 10,8 8,5 11,1 0,3 1,2 4,5 5,8 1,5 0,7 2,9 3,0 3,2 2,8 4,8 0,9 1,6 2,2

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 8 Day 2 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Histograms - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 5:DATA HANDLING 8.5.7 Draws a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data including: 8.5.7.b histograms with given and own intervals; 8.5.8 Critically reads and interprets data presented in a variety of ways in order to draw conclusions and make predictions sensitive to the role of: Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Histograms - Draw a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data (grouped and ungrouped) including" Histograms with given intervals - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Words - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Histograms Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Word problems Assessment: Histograms Informal Resources:

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 8 Day 2 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 6 x 3 = (18) 4 x 11 = (44) 6 x 11 = (66) 8 x 3 = (24) 3 x 6 = (18) 6 x 8 = (48) 6 x 12 = (72) 6 x 7 = (42) 11 x 6 = (66) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,25 x 0,18 = (0,045) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduction: Histograms

Part of the power of histograms is that they allow us to analyse extremely large data sets by reducing them to a single graph that can show primary, secondary and tertiary peaks in data as well as give a visual representation of the statistical significance of those peaks.

Frequency 8 6 4 2 0 0-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 Frequency

This plot represents data with a well-defined peak that is close to the median and the mean. While there are "outliers," they are of relatively low frequency. Thus it can be said that deviations in this data group from the mean are of low frequency.

Concept development

Ask learners to find histograms with different shapes in a newspaper. Histograms can come in different shapes. The two most common shapes are the bell-shaped curve also known as the normal distribution and the skewed distribution. Asked learners if they can draw these two shapes and explain in words what they mean.

After giving them some time to make drawings and to explain, draw the following histograms on the board.

Histogram A

Normal distribution (bell-shaped) 6 4 2 0 8 6 4 2 0

Histogram B

Skewed distribution (skewed to the left) 8 6 4 2 0

Histogram C

Skewed distribution (skewed to the right)

131-135

136-140

141-145

146-150

156-160

161-165

131-135

136-140

141-145

146-150

151-155

156-160

131-135

136-140

141-145

146-150

151-155

156-160

Height of learners

Height of learners

Height of learners

161-165

151-155

161-165

Looking at these three histograms, what can you tell us regarding the height of the learners in the class? Answer: In histogram A, most learners are close to the average height, with a few learners taller and a few shorter. In histogram B, most learners are short with a few learners that are very tall. In histogram C, most learners are tall with a few learners that are very short. Homework: See problem solving. Learners do the following in their writing books.

Jazz music lovers

80 60 40 20 0

1990-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005

72 63

24 9

2006-2010

Jazz lovers

a. What shape is this histogram? b. Which year has the maximum number of jazz music lovers? c. Which year has the minimum number of jazz music lovers? d. What is the total number of jazz music lovers from 2001to 2005? e. What is the total number of jazz music lovers from 2000 to 2010? f. Which decade had more jazz music lovers? g. What can you conclude about jazz music lovers if you look at this graph? 2. Answer the following questions about this histogram. a. What is the shape of the graph? Project data b. For how many hours do less than 10 people work on the project? 30 c. For how many hours do 20 people work 25 20 on the project? 20 15 d. What is the total number of people 15 working for at least 20 hours? 10 5 e. What is the total number of people 5 working for at least between 0 1-10 11-20 21-30 31and 40 hours? Hours Hours Hours f. How many people Number of people work for between 11and 30 hours?

25

31-40 Hours

Histograms can come in different shapes. The two most common shapes are the bell-shaped curve also known as the normal distribution and the skewed distribution. Learners who need support: Pair learners with competent peers and work through the concept development examples again, but change the numbers before doing the problem solving activities. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Consolidation

Problem solving

Consider the following data set. 57 31 45 37 57 3 78 66 60 36 88 63 32 18 73 32 49 41 59 82 39 92 22 42 54 15 48 77 77 25 56 42 62 37 97

a. Sort the data in increasing order. b. Make a histogram for this data with classes 019, 2039, 4059, 6079 and 8099. c. Make a histogram for this data with classes 050 and 5199. d. Make a histogram for this data with classes 04, 59, 1014, 1519, . . . , 8589, 9094 and 9499. e. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of the histograms. f. What do you learn from each? g. Overall, which one is the most informative? Why?

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 8 Day 3 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Pie charts - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 5:DATA HANDLING 8.5.7 Draws a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data including: 8.5.7.d line and broken-line graphs; 8.5.8 Critically reads and interprets data presented in a variety of ways in order to draw conclusions and make predictions sensitive to the role of: Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Pie charts - Draw a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data (grouped and ungrouped) including" Broken-line graphs - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Words - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Broken-line graphs Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Broken line graph - Word problems Assessment: Pie charts Informal

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 8 Day 3 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 9 x 3 = (27) 3 x 3 = (9) 3 x 6 = (18) 9 x 11 = (99) 6 x 11 = (66) 8 x 6 = (48) 12 x 12 = (144) 11 x 6 = (66) 7 x 6 = (42) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,61 x 0,13 = (0,0793) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

A pie chart is a circular chart in which the circle is divided into sectors. Each sector visually represents an item in a data set to match the amount of the item as a percentage or fraction of the total data set. Pie charts are useful to compare different parts of a whole amount. They are often used to present financial information, e.g. a company's expenditure can be shown to be the sum of its parts, including different expense categories such as salaries, borrowing interest, taxation and general running costs (i.e. rent, electricity, heating etc). It is simple to read a pie chart. Just look at the required sector representing an item (or category) and read off the value. A pie chart is used to compare the different parts that make up a whole amount.

Concept development

Revise the pie chart and how to draw a pie chart with the learners. Steps: 1. Convert all of your data points to percentages of the whole data set. 2. Convert the percentages into angles. Since a full circle is 360 degrees, multiply this by the percentages to get the angle for each section of the pie. 3. Draw a circle on a blank sheet of paper, using the compass. While a compass is not necessary, using one will make the chart much neater and clearer by ensuring the circle is even. 4. Draw a horizontal line, or radius, from the centre to the right edge of the circle, using the ruler or straight edge. This will be the first baseline. 5. Measure the largest angle in the data with the protractor, starting at the baseline, and mark it on the edge of the circle. Use the ruler to draw another radius to that point. 6. Use this new radius as a baseline for your next largest angle and continue this process until you get to the last data point. You will only need to measure the last angle to verify its value since both lines will already be drawn. 7. Label and shade the sections of the pie chart to highlight whatever data is important for your use.

Make sure it adds up to 100%

180 90 90

Learners do the following in their writing books. 1. Ahmed is the treasurer of the Grade 8 class at The Sunshine High School. His class raised money for activities through various events. The total raised was R2440. Ahmed used a pie graph to show the amount of money each event raised.

Study the graph and answer the following questions. Fund-raising events

Flea market Dance Bake sale Flower sale Dinner Car wash

a. What percentage of the total money was raised at the flea market? b. How much money was raised at the flea market? c. What percentage of the total money was raised at the car wash? d. How much money was raised at the car wash? e. How much more money was raised at the flea market than at the car wash? f. How much money was raised at the bake sale? g. How much more money was raised at the dance than at the bake sale? h. Find the difference between the money raised at the flower sale and at the dinner. i. Ahmed offered a suggestion for next year. Since the flea market and dance raised about half of the total amount of money, he feels that the class should have two dances and two flea markets instead of the car wash and spaghetti dinner. Do you agree? Explain. 2. More Grade 9 learners travel to school by car in school A than in school B. Look at the two pie charts below and say if you agree with this statement. Give reasons for your answer.

Car Bus Walk Bike

School A

Other

School B

3. Your expenditure for the week is: Expense Rent Value 450,75

Food

Transport Draw a pie chart to display this information.

220,50

77,88

Consolidation

A pie chart is a circular chart in which the circle is divided into sectors. Each sector visually represents an item in a data set to match the amount of the item as a percentage or fraction of the total data set.

A pie chart is actually a very clever visual design that conveys one fact above all others with a minimum of visual cues. The circle (the "pie") represents some kind of whole, which is made up of the slices. Add up all the slices and you get the complete pie. Enlarge one part, and other parts will need to shrink. What this means is that the pie chart first and foremost represents the size relationship between the parts and the entire thing. If a company has five divisions, and the pie chart shows profits per division, the sum of all the slices/divisions is the total profit of the company.

If the parts do not sum up to a meaningful whole, they cannot be represented in a pie chart. It makes no sense to show five different occupations in a pie chart, because there are obviously many missing. The total of such a subsample is not meaningful, and neither is the comparison of each individual value to the artificial whole.

Learners who need support: Pair learners with competent peers and work through the concept development examples again, but change the numbers before doing the problem solving activities. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

A sample shows that on average every person in South Africa generates about 240g of plastic waste per day. This table shows the different categories of plastic waste and the amount in grams generated per day. Draw a pie chart to display this information.

Plastic category

Plastic waste generated per person per day. (in grams) 120 48 24 12 31,2 4,8

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 8 Day 4 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Broken-line graph - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 5:DATA HANDLING 8.5.8 Critically reads and interprets data presented in a variety of ways in order to draw conclusions and make predictions sensitive to the role of: 8.5.8.a context (e.g. rural or urban, national or provincial); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Broken-line graph - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Data categories, including data intervals - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Data sources and contexts - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Central tendencies - (mean, mode, median - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Scales used on graphs Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Data categories - Data collection - Mean (or Average) - Median - Mode - Central tendencies - Scale

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 8 Day 4 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 3 x 9 = (27) 9 x 8 = (72) 3 x 8 = (24) 12 x 9 = (108) 12 x 3 = (36) 6 x 8 = (48) 8 x 8 = (64) 7 x 12 = (84) 6 x 6 = (36) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,75 x 0,2 = (0,15) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduce this lesson by telling learners that you can replace a bar graph by a line graph if the data on the horizontal axis is continuous such as time, temperature or age.

Concept development

Tell learners in the case of a this case the data is plotted as a series of points that are joined by straight lines

Businesses often use line graphs to show information about profits. Meteorologists use line graphs to show monthly rainfall. This means that with some line graphs it might be possible to continue the line to show what might happen in the future.

Line graphs are useful as they show trends and can easily be extended.

The line graph below shows rainfall measured over a period of six months for Town A.

Town A

120 100

Rainfall in mm

A line graph basically shows it going straight up. What happens to this graph?

80 60 40 20 0

Maximum

March

April

Febuary

January

June

May

Drawing a broken line. We will use an example of the profit you made selling sweets over ten months. We will also describe each step

160 140 120 100

Rand

April

June

In January a profit of R50 was made. In February a profit of R120 was made. The points are connected with a straight line that shows that profit increased. In March a profit of R70 was made. The points, February and March, are connected with a straight line that shows that profit decreased.

The profit in April was R90, in May R100 and in June R150. The points, March, April, May and June, are connected with a straight line that shows that profit increased over these months.

The profit in July was R90, in August R80, in September R60 and in October R50. The points, March, April, May and June, are connected with a straight line that shows that profit decreased over these months. The graph goes up and down showing profit increase and decrease. Homework: Complete this activity. Learners do the following in their writing books.

August

May

1. Draw a broken-line graph of the heart rate of a Grade 8 learner. Describe the graph. Time of the day 9:00 9:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 Beats per minutes 68 73 88 120 77 75 72 72 100

a. Use the words increase and decrease. b. Explain why you think the heart rate increases at a certain time of the day.

2. Measure your heart rate. Draw a graph. Compare it with the graph drawing in Question 1.

Consolidation

A broken-line graph shows information by plotting points of information on the graph with dots and connecting them with a line that is not straight. Learners who need support: Receive peer support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Problem solving

Find a broken-line graph in a newspaper or the internet. Redraw it and then describe it.

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 8 Day 5 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Select the right graph - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Select the right graph - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Samples and populations - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Dispersion of data - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Error and bias in the data Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Population - Samples - Dispersion of data Assessment: Select the right graph Informal Resources: Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 8 Day 5 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 9 x 7 = (63) 9 x 9 = (81) 4 x 11 = (44) 4 x 7 = (28) 7 x 4 = (28) 8 x 6 = (48) 6 x 8 = (48) 7 x 6 = (42) 8 x 12 = (96) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,79 x 0,22 = (0,1738) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Using graphs to represent data makes it easier for the researcher to interpret and understand the data. There are many different types of graphs, each with its own unique advantages. It is important to select the most appropriate graph for your data set.

Concept development

Ask learners to make a list of all the types of graphs they know. Now ask them to list all the advantages and disadvantages that they can associate with the different types of graphs. Once students have had some time to reflect on the different types of graphs and developed a list of advantages and disadvantages, provide them with the following:

Type of Graph Bar graph and double bar graph Description A bar graph displays discrete data in separate columns. A double bar graph can be used to compare two data sets. Shows discrete or continuous variable data in a similar way to column graphs, but without the gap between the columns. Advantages Visually strong Can easily compare two or three data sets Visually strong Can compare to normal curve Usually vertical axis is a frequency count of items falling into each category Can compare multiple continuous data sets easily Interim data can be inferred from graph line Visually appealing Shows percentage of total for each category Disadvantages Graph categories can be reordered to emphasise certain effects Use only with discrete data Cannot read exact values because data is grouped into categories More difficult to compare two data sets Use only with continuous data Use only with continuous data

Histogram

Line graph

Pie chart

A line graph plots continuous data as points and then joins them with a line. Multiple data sets can be graphed together, but a key must be used A pie chart displays data as a percentage of the whole. Each pie section should have a label and percentage. A total data number should be included

No exact numerical data Hard to compare two data sets "Other" category can be a problem Total unknown unless specified Best for three to seven categories Use only with discrete data

Choose which of the following graphs will you use to best represent your data in the following research projects. A. Bar graph B. Histogram C. Pie chart a. The body masses of 500 male learners. (Histogram) b. The number of Biology undergraduates belonging to the different University Colleges. (Pie chart) c. The proportion of seedlings in a forest destroyed by fungus, herbivores, pathogens, trampling or wilting. (Pie chart) d. The number of first class degrees in biology for each year between 1980 and 1990. (Bar graph) e. The average number of eggs laid by five varieties of chickens. (Pie chart) f. The number of learners who passed matric with and without mathematics and science. (Pie chart)

Remember the answer is in brackets.

h. The frequency of students belonging to Anglican, Catholic, Jewish, Islamic, Hindi and Buddhist faiths. (Bar graph)

Consolidation

A graph can be a useful tool in the evaluation of data. The most commonly used graphs are pie charts, line graphs, histograms and bar graphs. The questions you have about a set of data determine which type of graph to use. Generally, the advantages of each type of graph are as follows: Line graphs are useful for understanding general trends in data and for estimating data between or outside the data points given. Bar graphs work well with data in categories. They are also helpful in understanding trends in data. Pie charts are useful for data that represents parts of a total or whole. A histogram is useful to understand the spread of data.

Problem solving

The following table shows the number of glasses of water you drink during the week. Day Glasses of water Monday 6 Tuesday 7 Wednesday 9 Thursday 8 Friday 10 Saturday 12 Sunday 5

a. What kind of graph would not be helpful in spotting general trends? b. If you had forgotten to write down how many glasses of water you drank on Thursday, what kind of graph would best help you guess? c. What kind of graph would be most helpful for quickly determining whether your water intake was the same for two or more days?

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 9 Day 1 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Report data - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Report data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Drawing conclusions about the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Making predictions based on the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Identifying sources of error and bias in the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Choosing appropriate summary statistics for the data(mean, median, mode and range) - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: The role of extremes in the data Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) Assessment: Report data Informal Resources: Writing books

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 9 Day 1 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 7 x 4 = (28) 7 x 3 = (21) 11 x 11 = (121) 3 x 4 = (12) 9 x 4 = (36) 11 x 6 = (66) 11 x 8 = (88) 8 x 12 = (96) 6 x 8 = (48) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,7 x 0,01 = (0,007) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Remember we started to collect data to solve a specific problem. We compiled a questionnaire to collect the data, then we organised and summarised the data using tallies and tables. With the tables we could calculate the mean and median, and establish the mode. We could also determine the range of the data. In this format it was still difficult for us to understand the data. We then used different types of graphs to represent our data. This helped us to interpret and analyse our data. The final and most important step in this process is to write a report on our research. During this step we can change our data into information. We can draw conclusions and make predictions. In this lesson we are going to look at: The basic outline of a report Drawing conclusions about the data Making predictions based on the data

Choosing appropriate summary statistics for the data (mean, median, mode, range)

Concept development

Ask learners what they think should be included in the report.

Make a list of their suggestions on the board and arrange it to form a content page. Here is a suggested outline: 1. Aim This is the general aim of the project.

Remember: for the conclusions to make sense to the reader, he/she must understand the aim of the research. Therefore always start the report with the aim of the research.

2. Hypothesis A specific statement or prediction that you can show to be true or false. 3. Plan What data do you need? Who will you get it from? How will you collect it? How will you record it? How will you make sure the data is reliable? Why? Give reasons for the choices you made.

4. Analysis This is where you do the calculations and draw charts. Compare groups with the mean and median. The range is a measure of how spread out the group is. Graphs are good for representing data visually.

Do you still remember the different terms and how to calculate them?

5. Conclusions Do your results agree with the hypothesis? How confident are you? What went wrong? How did you deal with it? What would you do differently if you did the research again?

6. Appendices It is good practice to include a copy of the questionnaire. The appendices may also include tables related to sample selection, instructions to interviewers, and so on.

7. References If you used any secondary data or research you must acknowledge your sources here. I love sport Homework: See problem solving.

Use the information from this favourite sport survey and write a report summarising the data and draw conclusions. Name Denise John Jason Matapelo Beatrix Opelo Favourite sport Tennis Rugby Soccer Soccer Rugby Tennis Name Elias Simon Edward Susan Philip Ben Favourite sport Squash Soccer Rugby Rugby Tennis Squash

Lisa

Gugu Sipho Lorato

Soccer

Tennis Soccer Squash

Lauren

Tefo Alicia Masa

Soccer

Rugby Soccer Soccer

Possible solution:

Sport Tennis

Tally

Frequency 4

Rugby

Soccer Squash Students' favourite sport

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

5

8 3

Tennis

Tennis

Rugby

Rugby

Soccer

Soccer

Squash

Squash

Squash 15%

Tennis 20%

Soccer 40%

Rugby 25%

Conclusion: In this survey 40% of the learners prefer soccer. The second most popular sport is rugby with 25% of the learners selecting rugby as their favourite sport. Only three learners (15%) preferred squash as their favourite sport. Most learners (65%) like playing an invasion sport (soccer 40% + rugby 25%), opposed to ball and racket sports, only 35% (tennis 20% + squash 15%).

Consolidation

Reporting on your data is the most important step of your research.

Suggested outline:

1. Aim 2. Hypothesis 3. Plan 4. Analysis 5. Conclusions 6. Appendices 7. References Learners who need support: Pair learners with competent peers and work together on their reports. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer support.

Boys prefer science and maths above social sciences. Use the following data set and write a report on your findings. Include your frequency table, graphs and conclusions. Also compare the favourite subjects of boys to those of girls. Name Denise John Jason Matapelo Beatrix Opelo Lisa Gugu Sipho Lorato Favourite subject Maths Arts History Sciences Sciences Maths History Arts Maths Maths Name Elias Simon Edward Susan Philip Ben Lauren Tefo Alicia Masa Favourite subject History Maths Sciences History Arts Maths Language Maths History Language

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 9 Day 2 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Data handling cycle - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 5:DATA HANDLING 8.5.1 Poses questions relating to human rights, social, economic, environmental and political issues in own environment. 8.5.2 Selects appropriate sources for the collection of data (including peers, family, newspapers, books, magazines, the Internet). 8.5.3 Designs and uses questionnaires with a variety of possible responses in order to collect data (alone and/or as a member of a group or team) to answer questions. 8.5.4 Performs simple experiments using random number generators, coins, spinners, dice and cards in order to collect data. 8.5.5 Organises (including grouping where appropriate) and records data using tallies, tables and stem-and-leaf displays. 8.5.6 Summarises grouped and ungrouped numerical data by determining mean, median and mode as measures of central tendency, and distinguishes between them. Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Data handling cycle - Pose questions relating to social, economic, and environmental issues - Select appropriate sources for the collection of data (including peers, family, newspapers, books, magazines), including distinguishing between samples and populations. - Design and use simple questionnaires to answer questions: - Organize (including grouping where appropriate) and record data using Tallies - Organize (including grouping where appropriate) and record data using Tables - Organize (including grouping where appropriate) and record data using Stem-and-leaf displays - Group data into intervals - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Mean

- Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) - Population - Samples - Tally - Table - Mean (or Average) - Median - Mode - Extreme Assessment: Data handling cycle Informal Resources: Board

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 9 Day 2 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 9 x 3 = (27) 11 x 4 = (44) 4 x 12 = (48) 7 x 11 = (77) 7 x 3 = (21) 8 x 7 = (56) 8 x 8 = (64) 12 x 6 = (72) 8 x 6 = (48) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,82 x 0,07 = (0,0574) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Data handling is a process of collecting, organising, representing, analysing and interpreting data. The visual representation of data is of major importance.

In the next two lessons we are going to revise the process by doing a practical research project.

Concept development

Write the following questions on the board. Boys in grade 8 are taller than girls in the same grade? Is there any link between a persons height and their hand span? Divide the class in groups (research teams). Each team must prepare a plan on how they will go about answering the above question. They must start with the aim of their research and hypothesis. Questions that might help them to plan: What data do you need? Who will you get it from? How will you collect it? How will you record it? How will you make sure the data is reliable? Why? Give reasons for the choices you made.

Each group gets an opportunity to present their aim, hypothesis and plan to the rest of the class.

Once all the research teams have presented their plans, they get the opportunity to change their plans based on what they heard from the other teams. Their plans are submitted and then they can start collecting and recording their data. Learners who need support: Make sure the groups are mixed. Learners who are more than competent: Peer support.

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 9 Day 3 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Data handling cycle - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 5:DATA HANDLING 8.5.1 Poses questions relating to human rights, social, economic, environmental and political issues in own environment. 8.5.2 Selects appropriate sources for the collection of data (including peers, family, newspapers, books, magazines, the Internet). 8.5.3 Designs and uses questionnaires with a variety of possible responses in order to collect data (alone and/or as a member of a group or team) to answer questions. 8.5.4 Performs simple experiments using random number generators, coins, spinners, dice and cards in order to collect data. 8.5.5 Organises (including grouping where appropriate) and records data using tallies, tables and stem-and-leaf displays. 8.5.6 Summarises grouped and ungrouped numerical data by determining mean, median and mode as measures of central tendency, and distinguishes between them. 8.5.7 Draws a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data including: 8.5.7.a bar graphs and double bar graphs; 8.5.7.b histograms with given and own intervals; 8.5.7.c pie charts; 8.5.7.d line and broken-line graphs; 8.5.8 Critically reads and interprets data presented in a variety of ways in order to draw conclusions and make predictions sensitive to the role of: 8.5.8.a context (e.g. rural or urban, national or provincial); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Data handling cycle - Pose questions relating to social, economic, and environmental issues

- Select appropriate sources for the collection of data (including peers, family, newspapers, books, magazines), including distinguishing between samples and populations. - Design and use simple questionnaires to answer questions: - Organize (including grouping where appropriate) and record data using Tallies - Organize (including grouping where appropriate) and record data using Tables - Organize (including grouping where appropriate) and record data using Stem-and-leaf displays - Group data into intervals - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Mean - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Median - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Mode - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Range - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Extremes - Draw a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data (grouped and ungrouped) including" Bar graphs and double bar graphs - Draw a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data (grouped and ungrouped) including" Histograms with given intervals - Draw a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data (grouped and ungrouped) including" Pie charts - Draw a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data (grouped and ungrouped) including" Broken-line graphs - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Words - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Bar graphs - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Double bar graphs - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Pie charts - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Histograms - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Broken-line graphs - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Data categories, including data intervals - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Data sources and contexts - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Central tendencies - (mean, mode, median - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Scales used on graphs - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Samples and populations - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Dispersion of data - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Error and bias in the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Drawing conclusions about the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Making predictions based on the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Identifying sources of error and bias in the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Choosing appropriate summary statistics for the data(mean, median, mode and range) - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: The role of extremes in the data Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) Assessment: Data handling cycle Informal

Resources:

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 9 Day 3 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 6 x 9 = (54) 4 x 9 = (36) 7 x 3 = (21) 3 x 11 = (33) 4 x 6 = (24) 7 x 8 = (56) 8 x 8 = (64) 12 x 8 = (96) 11 x 12 = (132) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,53 x 0,09 = (0,0477) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

In the previous lesson learners prepared a research project based on the following questions: Boys in grade 8 are taller than girls in the same grade? Is there any link between a persons height and their hand span? They presented their plan to the rest of the class and had the opportunity to refine their plan before starting with collecting and recording of data. In this lesson they will continue with the data handling cycle. Use the data collected in the previous lesson.

Concept development

Write the following questions on the board. Is the hand span of Grade 7 girls smaller than that of boys in the same grade? Is there any link between a persons height and their hand span? In your group/research teams, use the data you collected and recorded to: Organise your data in a frequency table.

Calculate the data range. Draw a stem-and-leaf display Represent your data in a graph. You may use more than one type of graph. Interpret you graphs and tables and write a report under the following headings: 1. Aim 2. Hypothesis 3. Plan 4. Analysis 5. Conclusions 6. Appendices 7. References Learners who need support: Make sure the groups are mixed. Learners who are more than competent: Peer support.

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 9 Day 4 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Data handling cycle - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 5:DATA HANDLING 8.5.1 Poses questions relating to human rights, social, economic, environmental and political issues in own environment. 8.5.2 Selects appropriate sources for the collection of data (including peers, family, newspapers, books, magazines, the Internet). 8.5.3 Designs and uses questionnaires with a variety of possible responses in order to collect data (alone and/or as a member of a group or team) to answer questions. 8.5.4 Performs simple experiments using random number generators, coins, spinners, dice and cards in order to collect data. 8.5.5 Organises (including grouping where appropriate) and records data using tallies, tables and stem-and-leaf displays. 8.5.6 Summarises grouped and ungrouped numerical data by determining mean, median and mode as measures of central tendency, and distinguishes between them. 8.5.7 Draws a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data including: 8.5.7.a bar graphs and double bar graphs; 8.5.7.b histograms with given and own intervals; 8.5.7.c pie charts; 8.5.7.d line and broken-line graphs; 8.5.8 Critically reads and interprets data presented in a variety of ways in order to draw conclusions and make predictions sensitive to the role of: 8.5.8.a context (e.g. rural or urban, national or provincial); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Data handling cycle - Pose questions relating to social, economic, and environmental issues

- Select appropriate sources for the collection of data (including peers, family, newspapers, books, magazines), including distinguishing between samples and populations. - Design and use simple questionnaires to answer questions: - Organize (including grouping where appropriate) and record data using Tallies - Organize (including grouping where appropriate) and record data using Tables - Organize (including grouping where appropriate) and record data using Stem-and-leaf displays - Group data into intervals - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Mean - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Median - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Mode - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Range - Summarize data using measures of dispersion, including Extremes - Draw a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data (grouped and ungrouped) including" Bar graphs and double bar graphs - Draw a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data (grouped and ungrouped) including" Histograms with given intervals - Draw a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data (grouped and ungrouped) including" Pie charts - Draw a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data (grouped and ungrouped) including" Broken-line graphs - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Words - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Bar graphs - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Double bar graphs - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Pie charts - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Histograms - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Broken-line graphs - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Data categories, including data intervals - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Data sources and contexts - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Central tendencies - (mean, mode, median - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Samples and populations - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Dispersion of data - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Error and bias in the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Drawing conclusions about the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Making predictions based on the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Identifying sources of error and bias in the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Choosing appropriate summary statistics for the data(mean, median, mode and range) - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: The role of extremes in the data Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) Assessment: Data handling cycle Informal

Resources: Board

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 9 Day 4 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 4 x 11 = (44) 6 x 11 = (66) 8 x 3 = (24) 12 x 11 = (132) 3 x 6 = (18) 12 x 8 = (96) 8 x 7 = (56) 7 x 12 = (84) 7 x 7 = (49) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,75 x 0,2 = (0,15) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Data handling is a process of collecting, organising, representing, analysing and interpreting data. The visual representation of data is of major importance.

In the next two lessons we are going to do a mini research project for assessment.

Concept development

Write the following questions on the board. The more time you spend doing homework, the better your school marks will be. Divide the class in groups (research teams). Each team must prepare a plan on how they will go about answering the above question. They must start with the aim of their research and hypothesis. Questions that might help them to plan: What data do you need? Who will you get it from? How will you collect it? How will you record it? How will you make sure the data is reliable? Why? Give reasons for the choices you made. Each group gets an opportunity to present their aim, hypothesis and plan to the rest of the class. Once all the research teams have presented their plans, they get the opportunity to change their plans based on what they heard from the other teams. Their plans are submitted and then they can start collecting and recording their data. Learners who need support: Make sure the groups are mixed. Learners who are more than competent: Peer support.

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 9 Day 5 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Data handling cycle - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); 5:DATA HANDLING 8.5.7 Draws a variety of graphs by hand/technology to display and interpret data including: 8.5.7.a bar graphs and double bar graphs; 8.5.7.b histograms with given and own intervals; 8.5.7.c pie charts; 8.5.7.d line and broken-line graphs; 8.5.8 Critically reads and interprets data presented in a variety of ways in order to draw conclusions and make predictions sensitive to the role of: 8.5.8.a context (e.g. rural or urban, national or provincial); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Data handling cycle - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Words - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Bar graphs - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Double bar graphs - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Pie charts - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Histograms - Critically read and interpret data represented in: Broken-line graphs - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Data categories, including data intervals - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Data sources and contexts - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Central tendencies - (mean, mode, median - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Scales used on graphs - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Samples and populations

- Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Dispersion of data - Critically analyze data by answering questions related to: Error and bias in the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Drawing conclusions about the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Making predictions based on the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Identifying sources of error and bias in the data - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: Choosing appropriate summary statistics for the data(mean, median, mode and range) - Summarize data in short paragraphs that includes: The role of extremes in the data Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) Assessment: Data handling cycle Formal Assessment task 2.2 All 100 Marks

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 9 Day 5 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 9 x 3 = (27) 7 x 11 = (77) 9 x 4 = (36) 6 x 3 = (18) 6 x 4 = (24) 12 x 8 = (96) 7 x 8 = (56) 8 x 12 = (96) 11 x 12 = (132) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,35 x 0,23 = (0,0805) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

In the previous lesson learners prepared a research project based on the following questions: The more time you spend doing homework, the better your school marks will be. They presented their plan to the rest of the class and had the opportunity to refine their plan before starting with collecting and recording of data. In this lesson they will continue with the data handling cycle. Use the data collected in the previous lesson.

Concept development

Write the following questions on the board. Is the hand span of Grade 7 girls smaller than that of boys in the same grade? Is there any link between a persons height and their hand span? In your group/research teams, use the data you collected and recorded to: Organise your data in a frequency table.

Calculate the data range. Draw a stem-and-leaf display Represent your data in a graph. You may use more than one type of graph. Interpret you graphs and tables and write a report under the following headings: 1. Aim 2. Hypothesis 3. Plan 4. Analysis 5. Conclusions 6. Appendices 7. References Learners who need support: Make sure the groups are mixed. Learners who are more than competent: Peer support.

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 10 Day 1 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Revision - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Revision Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) Assessment: Revision

Resources:

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 10 Day 1 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 12 x 9 = (108) 3 x 12 = (36) 9 x 12 = (108) 8 x 4 = (32) 3 x 11 = (33) 11 x 8 = (88) 12 x 8 = (96) 11 x 6 = (66) 8 x 8 = (64) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,45 x 0,05 = (0,0225) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduction: Revision

Tell learners that they are going to revise what they have learnt this term. They can use their previous work to help them.

Concept development

Week 1 Day 1 Week 1 Day 5

Multiply fractions Divide whole number by common fractions Fractions of squares, cubes, square and cube roots Fractions, decimals and percentages Homework: Week 2 Day 1 Week 3 Day 2.

Consolidation

In this lesson we revised the following: Week 1 Day 1 Week 1 Day 5 See bullet points above. Tell learners to identify the concepts that they are not clear about, write it on a piece of paper and put it on the teachers desk. Start the next lesson with those concepts. Learners who need support: Receive peer, group or teacher support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer or group support.

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 10 Day 2 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Revision - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Revision Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) Assessment: Revision

Resources:

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 10 Day 2 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 8 x 3 = (24) 8 x 11 = (88) 9 x 12 = (108) 4 x 9 = (36) 4 x 7 = (28) 11 x 12 = (132) 8 x 12 = (96) 8 x 6 = (48) 8 x 7 = (56) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,21 x 0,16 = (0,0336) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduction: Revision

Tell learners that they are going to revise what they have learnt this term. They can use their previous work to help them.

Concept development

Week 2 Day 1 Week 3 Day 2

Round off rational numbers Equivalence between common and decimal fractions Addition, subtraction and multiplication of decimal fractions Division Calculate the squares of rational numbers Homework: Week 3 Day 4 Week 4 Day 3.

Consolidation

In this lesson we revised the following: Week 2 Day 1 Week 3 Day 2 See bullet points above. Tell learners to identify the concepts that they are not clear about, write it on a piece of paper and put it on the teachers desk. Start the next lesson with those concepts. Learners who need support: Receive peer, group or teacher support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer or group support.

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 10 Day 3 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Revision - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Revision Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) Assessment: Revision

Resources:

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 10 Day 3 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 4 x 9 = (36) 6 x 4 = (24) 9 x 3 = (27) 4 x 4 = (16) 9 x 12 = (108) 7 x 12 = (84) 11 x 8 = (88) 6 x 6 = (36) 12 x 8 = (96) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,85 x 0,25 = (0,2125) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Introduction: Revision

Tell learners that they are going to revise what they have learnt this term. They can use their previous work to help them.

Concept development

Week 3 Day 4 Week 4 Day 3

Pythagoras

Theorem of Pythagoras Homework: Week 4 Day 5 Week 6 Day 4.

Consolidation

In this lesson we revised the following: Week 3 Day 4 Week 4 Day 3 See bullet points above.

Tell learners to identify the concepts that they are not clear about, write it on a piece of paper and put it on the teachers desk. Start the next lesson with those concepts.

Learners who need support: Receive peer, group or teacher support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer or group support.

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 10 Day 4 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Revision - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Revision Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) Assessment: Revision

Resources:

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 10 Day 4 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 3 x 6 = (18) 12 x 9 = (108) 3 x 4 = (12) 3 x 3 = (9) 4 x 4 = (16) 12 x 6 = (72) 8 x 7 = (56) 12 x 8 = (96) 12 x 7 = (84) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 216 = (6) Decimal Multiplication: 0,69 x 0,17 = (0,1173) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Tell learners that they are going to revise what they have learnt this term. They can use their previous work to help them.

Concept development

Week 4 Day 5 Week 6 Day 4

Area and perimeter of a rectangle Area and perimeter of a triangle Area and perimeter of a circle Area and perimeter problem solving Surface area, volume and capacity of a cube Surface area, volume and capacity of a prism Surface area, volume and capacity of a triangular prism Surface area, volume and capacity of cubes and prisms problems Surface area, volume: problems Homework: Week 7 Day 1 Week 9 Day 4.

Consolidation

In this lesson we revised the following: Week 4 Day 5 Week 6 Day 4 See bullet points above. Tell learners to identify the concepts that they are not clear about, write it on a piece of paper and put it on the teachers desk. Start the next lesson with those concepts. Learners who need support: Receive peer, group or teacher support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer or group support.

Problem solving

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 10 Day 5 Mental Maths - 10 Minutes Revision - 50 Minutes Curriculum: 1:NUMBERS, OPERATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 8.1.2 Recognises, classifies and represents the following numbers in order to describe and compare them: 8.1.2.c numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and their square and cube roots; 8.1.6 Estimates and calculates by selecting and using operations appropriate to solving problems that involve: 8.1.6.b multiple operations with rational numbers (including division with fractions and decimals); Milestone / Lesson Objective: Mental Maths - Use a rage of strategies to perform and check written and mental calculations with whole numbers including Adding, subtracting and multiplying in columns - Revise: Squares to at least 12 and their square roots. - Revise: Cubes to at least 6 and their cube roots - Multiply and divide with integers - Perform calculations involving all four operations with integers. - Revise Addition and subtraction of common fractions, including mixed numbers - Revise: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and of decimal fractions to at least 3 decimal places Revision Teacher Note: Keywords (See attached dictionary for definitions.) Assessment: Revision

Resources:

MATHEMATICS Grade 8: Term 3 Week 10 Day 5 Mental Mathematics - 10 Minutes Times Tables: 4 x 7 = (28) 4 x 8 = (32) 9 x 7 = (63) 8 x 9 = (72) 3 x 4 = (12) 12 x 12 = (144) 11 x 7 = (77) 7 x 12 = (84) 7 x 7 = (49) Square Root: Square root of 144 = (12) Cube Root: Cube root of 125 = (5) Decimal Multiplication: 0,69 x 0,17 = (0,1173) Fraction Addition:

Fraction Subtraction:

Fraction Multiplication:

Tell learners that they are going to revise what they have learnt this term. They can use their previous work to help them.

Concept development

Week 7 Day 1 Week 9 Day 4

Collect data

Organise data Summarise data Bar graphs Pie charts Histograms Represent data Analyse data Report data Homework: No homework.

Consolidation

In this lesson we revised the following: Week 7 Day 1 Week 9 Day 4 See bullet points above. Tell learners to identify the concepts that they are not clear about, write it on a piece of paper and put it on the teachers desk. Start the next lesson with those concepts. Learners who need support: Receive peer, group or teacher support. Learners who are more than competent: Provide peer or group support.

Problem solving