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Music-Picture: One Form of Synthetic Art Education

Okada, Masashi.

The Journal of Aesthetic Education, Volume 37, Number 4, Winter 2003, pp. 73-84 (Article) Published by University of Illinois Press DOI: 10.1353/jae.2003.0042

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Aesthetic Education in Japan Today


18.

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19. 20. 21.

Parsons states, The painting exists not between the two individual poles of the artist and the viewer but in the midst of an indefinite group of persons who are continually reconstructing it a community of viewers. Parsons, How We Understand Art, 84-85. Efland, Freedman, and Stuhr, Postmodern Art Education, 115-38. This is an example from a class of Seminar for Integrated Study in the Faculty of Education at Utsunomiya University, Japan, April-July 2001. See Art Project Kemiga Soushinjo 2000 [Kemigawa Transmitting Station 2000], available online at: <http://kemipro.e.chiba-u.ac.jp/2000/index.html>

Music-Picture: One Form of Synthetic Art Education Music-picture (a picture drawn through musical perception) has been widely accepted by art educators in Japan. The purpose of this essay is to propose the making of music-pictures as art education and to put it on a firm theoretical base. I first investigate three gestalt rules: adjacency, continuance, and resemblance, all of which are applicable to the senses of both seeing and hearing. Next I present research on color hearing as one version of synaesthesia, which is the comprehensive faculty that binds the five senses in various ways. The well-organized music-picture program by Kaoru Sasaki1 is introduced as an example.2 The synthetic art-educational value of musicpicture will become clearer through these examinations. The Interrelations between Visual Arts and Music It is exciting that the visual arts meet music in an art class, even if these subjects are entirely different in regard to media, expressive form, the category of perception, and mastery of techniques. Put simply, Picassos works are visible, whereas Stravinskys pieces are invisible. Nevertheless, both powerfully convey imaginative and often narrative messages. Relying on intuition alone, I firmly believe both are interchangeable. My research on common methods of organizing both recorded music and painting was my first observation of the mutual relationship between music and visual arts.3 But what I considered then would not be applied to art class directly because the research was based on my practical experience. It did not have any educational goals. Now I recognize that instructive approaches are necessary to lay the foundation for art classes dealing with interaction between two distinct modalities. In Japan, the Ministry of Education and Science provides the government curriculum guidelines nearly every ten years. It contains descriptions on two subjects: The visual arts and music taught in these classes are at an elementary school level and a junior high school level, both located within a compulsory education system. The new version has been in force since April 2002 (the new school term starts in April in Japan). Objectives in the two educational fields are similar and ideas of what art and music education ought to be are almost the same. The aim common to both in the government curriculum guidelines: Through expression and appreciation, we

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cultivate students sentiments invites the linking of music and the visual arts across the curriculum. Many art educators in Japan are interested in this sort of idea and have actually put it into practice.4 They are engaged in interrelating or even unifying music and the visual arts. Additionally I know other teachers who have designed and proposed many ideas toward this crossover. Listed below are general ideas that seek to combine visual arts with music in an art class. 1) Music-picture: to make a pictorial description of impressions received from music. 2) Sound map: to make a map of sounds heard at a given location. Each sound is visualized by simple marks like - - -, <<<, ~~~, ooo, and xxx. 3) Graphic notation: to write a score which directs the details, whole form, and progression of music by graphics instead of staff notation. Using onomatopoeias or instructions by words are common. It can be improvised, based on intuitively translating visual impacts into sounds. 4) Sound toy: to make an original musical instrument of familiar easil obtained materials. For instance, a corrugated cardboard ukulele whose strings are rubber bands, a pair of maracas made of empty cans and soybeans, and so forth. 5) Sound sculpture: to make sculpture producing interesting sounds (sometimes noises like creak or clatter). Extensive genres: wood sculpture, metal construction, assemblage (junk arts), kinetic arts, and so on. 6) Sound installation: to make a place where participants experience sounds generated by objects or equipment. 7) Multimedia: in the broad sense, to mix visuals with music; noises like jingle, tap, and bang! in daily life, or natural environmental sounds like a pit-a-pat of falling rain, a whisper of leaves, or a murmur of a stream. In the narrow sense, to join computer graphics to digital music. 8) Performance: to synthesize talks, songs, musical performances, acting, dancing, costumes, stage decorations, lighting, and so forth. Item 3 is related to 4. It is a pleasant experience for students to play tunes composed graphically by themselves on their handmade sound toys. Naoki Mizushima classifies principal ways to make sounds as follows: to flick, to blow, to beat, to rub, to shake.5 Voices also have immeasurable potential to create varied tones. This rest of this essay focuses only on the music-picture. This genre, supposedly the most popular in Japan, has been widely studied.6 Symbolism of Sounds and Lines Feelings or emotions tie music with visual imagery. For example, solemn Baroque music reminds us of awe-inspiring Renaissance temperas and frescoes, where angels play musical instruments like lute, viol, harp, psaltery,

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trumpet, and bombard. Millets landscapes communicate a gloomy atmosphere to viewers; phrases, harmonies, and even changed keys in Chopins nocturnes are melancholic. Furthermore, Delacroix thought of his works in musical terms.7 There are many similarities between Monets painting and Debussys music, both showing capabilities for awakening deep memories.8 In other words, painting as well as music takes root in common sensuous ground. Shinji Matsuda introduced a notable case of NHKs television program, Hello, my senior!: an extracurricular lesson.9 In this program, Atsuko Tenma (a violinist) held a music class at the school she graduated from. She asked students to express different emotions with only an Ah sound. Most of the students did well by controlling strength, volume, pitch, tone, length, inflection, and subtle changes of their voices. They learned of the voices symbolic function through their own trials. On the other hand, Betty Edwards devises analogs to express mental conditions and invisible concepts.10 Learners must follow a rule that analogs consist of only touches and strokes of pencil, without using any recognizable motif. She says, Use only the language of line: fast lines, slow lines, light, dark, smooth, rough, broken, or flowing whatever feels right for what you are trying to express.11 What is formed in this way is categorized as: anger, joy, serenity, depression, human energy, femininity, illness, and any other emotions. Results look like nonfigurative drawings and are full of meaning. Both Tenmas approach and Edwardss method are based on feelings beyond words, abstract ideas and imagery of something inexplicable. Sounds and lines can be bound together and music can interrelate with pictures at a nonverbal level. Philippe Herreweghe, who conducts Collegium Vocale, says about J.S. Bachs three religious pieces, St. Matthew Passion is light in Rembrandts painting, St. John Passion is shades in Drers engraving and Mass in B minor is sunlight in Italy.12 Underlying Premises of Music-Picture 1: Gestalt Rules In this section, I will show the cognitive bases of music-picture from the perspective of gestalt psychology. Psychologists proposed stimulating theory on the interrelation between visual sensation and auditory sense. There are three gestalt rules: adjacency, continuance, and resemblance.13 These are essential characteristics common to two kinds of senses. When we see several dots close to each other, we distinguish a line. And when we hear someone knocking on the door at short intervals, we receive sounds as a set. In both cases, it is almost impossible to perceive each individual dot or sound. They are tightly unified gestalt. This is the fundamental principle of relating sounds/auditory to dots/visual. Three quarter notes

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in simple triple measure can be transformed to dango (three skewered dumplings eaten in Japan) or an equilateral triangle. The extensive case of adjacency is continuance. Imagine peas juxtaposed in a regular fashion. We see a wavy, spiral, or organically curved form in this arrangement. One tends to pay attention to the whole continuous form, not each pea. Related to this, a quarter note is perceived as a dot and the sequence of musical notes in a sheet of music as rosary-like running dots. Though the progression of notes is like going up and down the stairs, we can recognize smoothly curved melody lines. Erunst Toch wrote, The internal substance of melody composition is wavelike movement in a broad sense, to put it simply, a billow.14 It is empirically true that melody is related to wave or billow. Observe rhythmic lines of Hokusais Great Wave off Kanagawa from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji of 1823-29. Overlapping curves may remind viewers of an elaborate polyphony consisting of multiple melodies in Baroque music. Similar imagery is often found in J.S. Bachs handwritten score in particular. Beautifully intertwined melodies by two flutes symbolize tears flowing on cheeks in Qui tollis peccata mundi of Mass in B minor. Pierre Boulez said, The auditory, but equally visual disposition of notes is often found in even Bachs score.15 The succession of points forms a line that has a variety of shapes. Straight and curve are part of the central vocabulary that can be observed in both music and painting. Actually every line has its own peculiarity and identity. Listen to two distinctive contrapuntal melodies that start at the forty-ninth measure allegro in No.1 Requiem of Mozarts Requiem. The bass dramatically starts to sing a rising-and-falling-at-steep-slope type of melody. On the heels of it, the altos delicate waving melody overlaps on the bass. One can receive an image of a complexly interlaced flow of a zigzagging thick rope and a wavy fine thread. Connected with this, Wassily Kandinsky showed a unique illustration, where zigzag and curly lines entangle, with the following commentary, the contrastive juxtaposition of bent line and a curve. Both characters acquire one reinforced sound.16 Kurth regarded musical space as the field where sounds move.17 In music criticism, to describe by words related to spatial movement is common. Hidekazu Yoshida, one of Japanese leading music critics, describes Maurizio Pollinis piano performance as serene tones running up quickly from the bottom, turning round and round at the same place, streaming slowly, jumping about jauntily in swarms.18 Going back to the third rule: resemblance, we can easily distinguish red or blue corrections done on a paper printed with black letters. In such a case, red or blue elements combine as gestalt. Elements of similar size or shape also tend to be unified. These facts correspond to what occurs in music. The contrast of contrapuntal passages in Mozarts Requiem is a good example. We can differentiate two parts clearly because the rule of resemblance

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functions at the level of pitch, voice tone, and phrase pattern. But if two parts are played by two pianos at near pitch, we find much difficulty in listening to two phrases separately. However, if the same passage is played by oboe and flute as a duet, differences become more distinct. Resemblance operates so intricately in such works as Botticellis La Primavera of ca. 1482 or J. S. Bachs Die Brandenburgischen Konzerte. A great variety of structures of both pictorial and musical pieces are organized by the three rules. For this reason I assume there is a high potential for developing young children through interaction between painting and music. Underlying Premises of Music-Picture 2: Synaesthesia Synaesthesia is the cross-relating of cognitive ability over different sensations. For example, a brilliant chorus reminds my eleven-year-old daughter of the seven colors of the rainbow. Conversely, its plaintive tone reminds her of a dull color made by mixing different paints. Most feel brass sounds like a metallically shining color such as gold or silver, because of the body colors and textures of the brass instruments. Strictly speaking, synaesthesia is pure recognition without this sort of association fostered by learning. However, from the educational viewpoint, it is accepted that association is a part of this special ability. Young childrens synaesthesia in the broad sense gains wide recognition. Visual experience stimulated by other sensual perception is called photism, our next topic. The properties of musical tones are often described by visual, spatial, or even tactual terms. Once my chorus teacher, Hiromi Suehiro (a bass singer) asked sopranos to sing sotto voce like silk in No. 6 Confutatis of Mozarts Requiem. A lively or a high-pitched phrase gives listeners the impression of brightness and lightness. The reverse is also true. Once on a radio program about classical music, I heard an episode about a conversation between Stravinsky and his mentor, Rimski Korsakov. A commentator said, Hearing it, others recognized that the two were talking about arts, because lots of graphical terms are used. In reference to this, the following items formed in the binomial confrontation were chosen in the experiment on photism by T.F. Karwoski, H.S. Odbert, and C.E. Osgood: big-small, near-far, thickthin, dark-bright, distinct-blurred, moving-stationary, squarish-round, updown.19 We know that other items like hard-soft, heavy-light, rough-smooth, high-low, dense-sparse are also often used at a tactile or spatial level in our talks on music and visual arts. Color hearing and Tnesehen [tone seeing] are two representatives of photism.20 In the visual-auditory-crossing area, the former is more popular. It is the ability (vivid for some, vague for others) to receive color itself or colorful impressions, from what is heard. The latter is also broadly observed. It is the ability to hear music directly or to recall sounds or phrases in mind by what is seen. Here are conceivable examples.

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1. When you see an elegant figure, you catch Mozarts music. 2. When you see colors like rose, lavender, or grass green, you become surrounded by melodies. 3. When you see a pastoral scene, you are reminded of some specific music. 4. When you see a triangle, square, or circle, you hear sounds suggested by these shapes. When you improvise by a graphic score, Tnesehen becomes a key. Erhard Karkoschka introduced Roman Haubenstock-Ramatis statement that Kandinskys diagrams were playable in principle.21 Matsudaira wrote that an even smudge on a glass window was playable for David Tudor, which may seem extreme.22 By the way, in both color hearing and Tnesehen, reactions vary widely among individuals. Regarding color hearing, Kandinsky is one of prominent figures who researched new pictorial possibilities in this area. According to his analysis of timbres, trumpet is yellow and tuba is vermilion. Flute is light blue, oboe is violet, and bassoon is gloomy purple.23 These correspondences bear reference to the results of K. Zietzs experiment on interaction between pitch and color.24 When subjects saw yellow cards in low-pitched frequency for a second, they felt yellowish brown. In the case of blue, they felt bluish violet. On the whole, hues turn lighter in high-pitched frequency and turn deeper in the opposite case. In Kandinskys opinion, the low register of violin is green, to the contrary, its high register is red. His conclusions of course depend on his personal, therefore subjective judgment, but make sense to us to some degree. His abstract visions might be located in the descent of colorful orchestration by Russian composers such as Tchaikovsky, Skryabin, and Stravinsky. Color hearing is not only the ability to link ears to eyes, but a form of imagination. It has creative and art-educational value. I investigate this ability among university students who attend my lectures. First I blow a toy bugle to make a long tone that gradually fades out at the end. Its streetvendors-flute-like timbre is a little comical. Students must close their eyes while concentrating on hearing it. After this, they fill out a worksheet which asks: Did you see color? What color? If you saw or felt color by hearing tone, describe its name and what happened. Describe your experience: 1. I saw real color; 2. I strongly felt color; 3. I somehow felt color: or 4. I didnt feel any color. The results showed that most most checked numbers 2 or 3. Students belong to a generation communing with the synchronism of pictures and phonetic sounds in rapidly growing audiovisual media like screen, video including DVD, television, TV games, computer, internet, a cellular phone with a built-in camera, or even pop music (especially rock) concerts with high-tech visuals. Young childrens sensibility is also affected by these every day in Japan. Here are two comments by Kazumi Nikaidou who checked 3 and Manami Nishi who checked 2:

Aesthetic Education in Japan Today Nikaidou: Brownish Yellow. I felt a bit of metallic gloss like brass. Some parts were reddish. Transparency and polish. A sweet taste like a caramel. Stickiness like honey. Nishi: Yellow. Silvery color of iron or lead was moving toward me with vigor. What I saw first is yellow, which was vivid as erupting magma. I felt as if I was pierced by its keen speed.

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Nikaidous response is beyond vision. It extends to the sense of taste and touch. Nishi perceived not only color but moving figurative images from what she heard. In this research, most of responses were marked by strong individuality and some reached the unconscious layer of perception. Diverse images inspired by sound become the fertile imaginative sources for artworks of visualizing deep, mostly inexplicable messages. From Sound-Picture to Music-Picture The next subject in the worksheet is sound-picture. The following sentence is shown to my students: Lets draw a picture of what you hear. I pick up a toy accordion that has no musical scale. A pair of bellows makes a funny baa-boo sound. For the purpose of cutting off any visual influence, they must close their eyes and carefully listen to it. Varied results are observed. Abstract styles symbolizing repetitious sounds by dots, lines, or geometric marks appear more often than representational ones like ambulances blowing a siren. All are different, but common points exist. The noteworthy fact to me was that they gave full scope to their creativity in their works. This sort of trail to visualize tonal experience makes music-picture possible. In fact, music has historically been the source of inspiration in every art genre.25 Next I focus on music-picture at various ages. Yuriko Ishikawa reported on music-picture at a kindergarten attached to the Education Faculty of Kumamoto University.26 Assisted by her, I began directing its kindergarten workshop in 1988. The children really enjoyed making pictures or collage-like works using crayon and other materials to music, Childrens Morning, Afternoon, and Evening which I had made in collaboration with my younger brother by multi-track-recording. But music seemed not to be directly translated into their works but to serve as a pleasant background in which their creativity was comfortably stimulated. Their pictorial responses to musical stimuli are generally illustrations which are identical with what they draw every day. After this, all of them started to dance to my composition. Sasaki also practiced music-picture for second-grade pupils at Setagaya elementary school attached to Tokyogakugei University. Main materials were crayon and colored paper, which was cut and pasted on a sheet of cartridge paper. Pupils reactions to music, which was the same as a piece used at Kumamoto, were narrative. Fanciful story-telling-types of pictures in representational style appeared. They enjoyed this subject. Making good use of

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its experience, she practiced music-picture again for the first grade at Koganei junior high school attached to Tokyogakugei University. Students made imaginative works like the scene of rotating coffee cups at an amusement park, based on memories awakened by music. Accordingly, she formed another program to let her students recognize the expressive potential of a variety of touches, strokes, and what was called modern techniques in Japan such as dripping, spattering (made by brushing mesh with a toothbrush and paint), stamping, dcalcomanie, and so forth.27 The programs goal was: 1. To show students several types of samples of dots and lines as primary formal elements to transform music into pictures. 2. To listen to musical pieces: Erik Saties Gymnopdies, the third movement of Beethovens Piano Sonata no. 14 in C sharp minor, op. 27 no. 2 Moonlight, Badinerie from J.S. Bachs Suite fr Orchester Nr. 2 h-moll BWV 1067, Mozarts Divertimento no. 17 and Die Walkre from Richard Wagners Der Ring des Nibelungen. 3. To select the design which best matches the music among the samples. 4. To respond graphically using only black dots, lines, or planes to the following sounds: cymbals, a triangle, a wood block, a big drum, turning a potters wheel, and scratching an LP record with a fingernail. 5. To draw pictures from the mixed sound of students playing all instruments together at the final stage. 6. To learn various techniques as visual languages to help tell about musical feelings. 7. To make music-pictures in abstract style, listening to four pieces: Clair de Lune from Debussys Suite Bergamasque no. 3, Stravinskys Le Sacre du Printemps, Moussorgskys Pictures at an Exhibition and my abovementioned piece. 8. To hold a time for appreciating students work and friendly commenting on one another. Each student created a beautiful music-picture. According to Sasaki, answers to questionnaires indicated, I like art class.28 Junior high school students are at so-called realism stage where an appraisal standard strictly works. Many feel disappointed with their limitations in making art. But a music-picture was enthusiastically welcomed, maybe because this subject was exempt from rules on how to represent objects. It can set students bound by prejudice and discouragement free and improves self-confidence. Students understood also abstract approaches, which were conventionally judged as too difficult. Music-picture gives them good opportunities to prepare for artworks by Kandinsky and Klee, Franois Kupka, James Abott McNeil Whistler, Gustav Klimt, Raoul Dufy, and so forth. Through its many possibilities in this subject, they will learn the importance and even the historical survey of abstract or quasi-abstract art, which was greatly indebted to music.

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The expansion of students creative lives must be considered from synthetic art-educational viewpoints. Music-picture gave me this thought. Although they enjoy their lives sensuously or physically in the pop culture, filled with artificial audio-visual stimuli, building an essentially rich life by means of art and music ought to be significant. One precedent which actualized this theme was the European tradition of Christian arts and music. The root of both is of course what is described in the Bible. Many artists and musicians were inspired by its marvelous stories and their own faith. Our own life is full of the free gifts of colors, shapes, textures, smells, tastes, and sounds. To let students see this cognitive richness in a new light becomes the kernel of synthetic art education proposed here. In Japan, people used to appreciate natural phenomena through all seasons. In spring, they enjoy seeing the cherry blossoms at parties filled with songs and dances. In summer, they grow colorful morning bells and hear the refreshing jingle of wind-bells. In fall, they find delight in hills decorated by tinted leaves or insects singing in the evening. Then in winter, they celebrate the New Year with colorful ornaments and sacred music or dance. These customs still exist. Ukiyoe (a color print of everyday life in the Edo period) by Katsushika Hokusai, Utagawa Hiroshige, and others describes above-mentioned traditions in detail. Similarly, when you see Pieter Bruegel the Elders impressive pictures, you may say the same. You can find the excellent combinations of varied types of sensations, some of which are truly music-pictures. Sesame Street is my favorite television program for infants. Very young audiences can learn many things with media-literacy through a great variety of music and images. In addition, though careful choice is necessary promotional music videos also can be attractive examples integrating both effectively. Still I fear the homogenization and numbness of young childrens sensibility in too many sensual diversions under the strong influence of hightech. So art educators must foster their creativity to make their lives rich in the true sense. Integrated subjects such as music-picture must play a role in balancing all sorts of sensations. Synthetic art education, where visual arts encounter music, can be one effective measure for developing personalities and overcoming the current cultural disorder.29 Masashi Okada Shinshu University

NOTES 1. See Kaoru Sasaki, Ongakukanshouga no nakade ikiru kodomotachi [Young Children Living in Music-Picture], Biiku Bunka [Magazine for Art Education], November 1989, 36-40.

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2. See Masashi Okada, Ongakukansouga no kousatsu: Kaiga to ongaku ryouhyougen no soukan [Making Painting, Listening to Music: A Study on the Mutual Relation between Painting and Music] Bijutsu Kyouikugaku [The Journal for the Society of Art Education] 11 (1990): 249-61 and Oto no keitaika no kisoriron [A Basic Theory of Forming Sounds into Visual Images], Bijutsu Kyouikugaku [The Journal for the Society of Art Education] 12 (1991): 77-94. 3. Masashi Okada, What I Consider through my Experience of Both Making Painting and Making Music, M.F.A. diss., Brooklyn: Pratt Institute, 1985. 4. See Naoki Mizushima, Shokankaku no tougou o mezashita zoukeikyouiku ni kansuru kousatsu (2): Fukugouteki-hyougenkatsudou o megutte [A Study on Art Education for the Integration of Senses (2): Activities in Multimedia Expressions]; Bijutsu Kyouikugaku [The Journal for the Society of Art Education] 9 (1987): 379-87 and Kodomo no zoukeihyougen to karikyuramu [Childrens Art Productions and a Curriculum], Ato Edyukashon [Art Education] 19 (1993): 22-27. Masashi Okada, Ongaku to kaiga [Music and Painting], in Oto to ningen [A Sound and a Human Being], ed. Manabu Watanabe (Kumamoto, Japan: Kumamoto University, 1988), 127-45; Ongaku to kaiga no sougokouryu ni kansuru shiron: Ongakukanshouga o chushin ni [An Essay on an Interchange between Music and Painting: Music-Picture as a Central Issue], Biiku Bunka [Magazine for Art Education] (November 1989): 18-23; Collage-kaiga to rokuonongaku no ryousakuhinkouzou no hikakukentou [A Comparative and Analytical Study on the Structure of Both Collage-Painting and Recorded Music], Bijutsu Kyouikugaku [The Journal for the Society of Art Education] 10 (1989): 26376 and Bijutsukyouiku no katsudou-han-i no kakuchou [The Expansion of the Range of Activities in Art Education], Daigaku Bijutsu Kyouiku Gakkaishi [The Journal for Society of Art Education in University] 34 (1994): 89-99. Taninaka Suguru, Sousaku-ongu ni tsuite no saikou [Reconsideration on Handmade Sound Toys], Biiku Bunka [Magazine for Art Education] (November 1989): 32-35 and Souzousei o hagukumu zoukei no sekai: Shikaku to choukaku no hazama de [Nursing Creativity in the Art World: Between Seeing and Hearing], Biiku Bunka [Magazine for Art Education] (September 2001): 26-31. Yoshio Hoshino, Tsukutte hyougensuru ongakugakushu: Oto no kankyoukyouiku no shiten kara [Creation-Expression-Based Music Learning: From the Point of View of Sound-Environmental Education] (Tokyo: Ongaku-no-tomosha, 1993). Takeshi Ishikawa, Geijutsukyouiku: Sougou-kyouka toshite no geijutsu no kanousei ni tsuite [Art Education: The Potentialities of Art as a Synthetic Subject], Ato Edyukashon [Art Education] 20 (1993): 4-12. Fumishige Yamamoto, Hyougenka kousou no seika to mondai: Monbushou-kenkyu-kaihatsu-gakkou, Kinkashou model no kentou o tosite [Results and Problems in the Expression Class Plan: Through Examining the Model of Kinka Elementary School, One of the Research and Development Schools Appointed by the Ministry of Education], Ato Edyukashon [Art Education] 20 (1993): 13-20. Keiko Torigoe, Oto no fukei o asobu [Playing with soundscape], Biiku-Bunka [Magazine for Art Education] (September 2001): 13-17. Yukio Tamura, Oto o tsukuri, oto to asobu: Kodomotachi ni tsukuru yorokobi o [Making Sounds and Having Fun with Them: Delivering Much Pleasure in Creation to Children], Biiku Bunka [Magazine for Art Education] (September 2001): 32-35. Morihiro Ikehara, Oto to eizou de arawasu Okinawa: Ongaku (sakkyoku) to shashin o kumiawase hyougenshita promotion-video-fu sakuhin [Expressing Okinawa by Sounds and Images: Promotion-Video-Like Works Made by Mixing Composed Music and Photographs], Biiku Bunka [Magazine for Art Education] (September 2001): 40-43. 5. Naoki Mizushima, Zoukeikyouiku ni okeru oto o megutte [On Sounds in Art Education], Biiku Bunka [Magazine for Art Education] (November 1989): 12-17. 6. See: Izumi Akiyama and Masashi Okada, Kaigakyouiku ni kansuru kousatsu to teigen: Syotouka-zugakousaku, Kaiga A no jugyounaiyou o chushin ni [Some Opinions and Suggestions of Fundamental Painting Education: Painting A in an Elementary Course], Yamaguhi Daigaku Kyoikugakubu Kiyo [Bulletin of

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the Faculty of Education in Yamaguchi University] 38 (1988): 133-46. Shinji Matsuda, Ongaku o moto ni egaku kokoromi [An Attempt to Draw under Music], Daigaku Bijutsu Kyouiku Gakkaishi [The Journal for Society of Art Education in University] 26 (1994): 271-80 and Bijutsu to ongaku no yugoutekisougoutekina gakushu [Harmonic and Synthetic Learning of Art and Music], Kyouiku Bijutsu [Art in Education] (August 1997): 79-92. Motohiro Umeda, Ongaku ni motozuku shikisaihyougen no kousatsu [A Study on Color Expression Based on Music], Daigaku Bijutsu Kyouiku Gakkaishi [The Journal for Society of Art Education in University] 33 (2000): 69-76. Shouji Asawa, Chugakkou ni okeru oto o tanoshimu bijutsu no jugyou to sono tenkai: Sound design [The Progress of Art Class Where Junior High School Students Enjoy Sounds: Sound Design], Biiku Bunka [Magazine for Art Education] (September 2001): 36-39. 7. Edward Lockspeiser, Kaiga to ongaku: Turner kara Schenberg ni itaru kaiga to ongaku no hikakubigaku [Music and Painting: A Study in Comparative Ideas from Turner to Schenberg], trans. Masaaki Nakamura (Tokyo: Hakusuisha, 1986), 70-92. 8. Takao Nakajima and Masashi Okada, Inshouhaki ni okeru ongaku to kaiga no soukan (1): Debussy to Monet no gensetsu ni motozuku kousatsu [The Interrelation between Music and Painting in the Impressionism Era (1): A Comparative Study Based on Analyses of Statements by Claude Debussy and Claude Monet], Shinshu Daigaku Kyoikugakubu Kiyo [Journal of the Faculty of Education, Shinshu University] 105 (2002): 29-40. 9. Shinji Matsuda, Oto, ongaku o egaku: Itsutsu no jissen [Drawing Sound and Music: Five Practices], Biiku Bunka [Magazine for Art Education] (August 2001): 44-49. 10. Betty Edwards, Drawing on the Artist Within: An Inspirational and Practical Guide to Increasing Your Creative Powers (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), 66-95. 11. Ibid., 67. 12. Philippe Herreweghe, Genten wa sakkyokuka eno sonkei [The Starting Point is My Respect for a Composer], The Asahi Shinbun [Asahi News], 1 June 2000. 13. See Diana Deutsch, ed., Ongaku no shinrigaku [The Psychology of Music], trans. Tatetoshi Teranishi, Kengo Ogushi, and Ken-ichi Miyazaki (Niigata, Japan: Nishimura Shoten, 1987) and Kurt Koffka, Gestalt shinrigaku no genri [Principles of Gestalt Psychology], trans. Masaya Suzuki et al. (Tokyo: Fukumura Shuppan, 1988). 14. Erunst Toch, Senritsugaku [Melodiology], trans. Hiromi Takekawa (Tokyo: Ongaku-no-tomosha, 1953), 24. 15. Pierre Boulez, Klee no e to ongaku [Le pays fertile Paul Klee], trans. Eiko Kasaba (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobou, 1994), 70. 16. Wassily Kandinsky, Ten, sen, men: chushougeijutsu no kiso [Point and Line to Plane], trans. Hideho Nishida (Tokyo: Bijutsu Shuppansha, 1979), 103. 17. Quoted in Mamoru Watanabe, Ongakubi no kouzou [The Structure of Musical Beauty] (Tokyo: Ongaku-no-tomosha, 1969), 102. 18. Hidekazu Yoshida, Ongaku Tenbou [Views on Music], The Asahi Shinbun [Asahi News], 20 June 1989. 19. A list was quoted in Takao Umemoto, Ongaku Shinrigaku [Music Psychology] (Tokyo: Seishin Shobou, 1966), 185. 20. Umemoto, Ongaku Shinrigaku, 170-88. Also see Masashi Okada, Oto to iro no soukan ni kansuru kisotekikousatsu [A Basic Study on the Relation between Sound and Color], Geijutsu Kyouikugaku [Bulletin of the Study on Art and Design Education] 3 (1990): 27-35. 21. Erhard Karkoschka, Gendai ongaku no kifu [Notation of New Music], trans. Yoshiro Irino (Tokyo: Zen-ongakufu Shuppansha, 1978), 4. 22. Yoriaki Matsudaira, Ongaku: Shindousuru kenchiku [Music: Vibrating Architecture] (Tokyo: Seidosha, 1982), 357. 23. Wassily Kandinsky, Chushou Geijutsuron: Geijutsu ni okeru seishintekina mono [ber das Geistige in der Kunst: Insbesondere in der Malerei], trans. Hideho Nishida (Tokyo: Bijutsu Shuppansha, 1979), 65-121.

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24. 25.

Symposium
Introduced in Jun-ichi Nomura, Shikisai kouyouron: Gaia no iro [The Theory of Color Utilities: Colors of Gaia] (Tokyo: Jutaku Shimpousha, 1988), 80. See Lockspeiser, Kaiga to ongaku, 15-69, Susumu Kashima, E to ongaku no taiwa: Meiga ni miru gakki [A Conversation between Painting and Music: Musical Instruments in Old Master Paintings] (Tokyo: Geijutsu Gendaisha, 1977); Hajime Shinoda and Makoto Moroi, Seikimatsu-geijutsu to ongaku [Arts at the End of a Century and Music] (Tokyo: Ongaku-no-tomosha, 1983); and Reiko Harada, Manierisme geijutsu to ongaku [Mannerism Art and Music] (Tokyo: Ongaku-notomosha, 1992) Yuriko Ishikawa, Ongaku to zoukei o yugousaseta hyougen katsudou [Expression to unite music to arts], Biiku Bunka [Magazine for Art Education] (November 1989): 24-27. Sasaki, Ongakukanshouga no nakade ikiru kodomotachi, 37. Ibid., 40. This essay is part of the following study: Masashi Okada and Takao Nakajima, To Develop New Teaching Materials to Connect Music and Painting and to Prepare a Basic Theory for It: Houga Kenkyu [Germinating Study] 14658065 in the Heisei 14 [2002] fiscal year in a grant-in-aid of the Ministry of Education and Science for scientific research.

26. 27. 28. 29.

Arthur Wesley Dows Address in Kyoto, Japan (1903) Researchers concerned with the historical development of American art education cannot help but acknowledge Arthur Wesley Dows significant contribution to the field. Although many writers have recognized him as one of greatest figures in art education,1 it was not until the end of the twentieth century that art historians discovered his impact on the early development of modernist American art. Several exhibitions of Dows work have been shown recently, most notably: Arthur Wesley Dow and American Art and Crafts, in Stanford, Chicago, and Fort Dodge, Iowa (1999 and 2000) and Harmony of Reflected Light: The Photographs of Arthur Wesley Dow, at the New Mexico Museum of Fine Arts (2001).2 In addition, two galleries in New York showed exhibitions of Dows work in 1999 and 2000, respectively. These exhibitions indicate a rediscovery of Dows work and his role, as well as a wider interest in the integral aspects of modernism in American artworks. Joseph Masheck recognized Dows post-impressionistic aesthetic of flat surface design as influential on modernism in painting and the graphic arts.3 Nancy Green sees Dow as one of the first Western artists who did not simply imitate Japanese art, but who actually used the traditional Japanese woodcut techniques to create modernist prints.4 Leah Ollman writes, Those who credit Dow as a conduit to American modernism see his traces everywhere because Dow is revealed at the end of the rainbow, as the common ancestor who spread his theory and practice of art and art education.5 James Enyeart states that Dow can now receive appropriate critical assessment of his work as a photographer and his impact on pictorial and modernist photography.6