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PSS SINCAL 6.

5 Protection Coordination
Protection Coordination in Electricity Networks

Published by SIEMENS AG Freyeslebenstrae 1, 91058 Erlangen


E D SE PTI SW

SIEMENS

PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Preface

Preface
The PSS SINCAL manuals can be divided into three parts: the PSS SINCAL System Manual technical manuals for electricity and flow networks the database description

The user can find the general principles for using the PSS SINCAL manual and the PSS SINCAL user interface in the PSS SINCAL System Manual. The technical manuals for electricity networks contain detailed descriptions of the various calculation methods for electricity networks - such as load flow, or short circuit calculations - and their input data. The technical manuals for pipe networks contain detailed descriptions of the various calculation methods for pipe networks - water, gas and heating - and their input data. The database description contains a complete description of the data models for electricity and flow networks.

Copyright
This manual and all the information and illustrations contained in it are copyrighted. SIEMENS retains all rights, in particular the right to publish, translate, reprint, photocopy, make microcopies or electronically store in a database. Previously expressed written permission from SIEMENS is required for any reproduction or use beyond the limits specified by copyright law.

Warranty
Even though our manuals are thoroughly checked for errors, no liability can be taken for errors found or any resulting problems or difficulties. Modifications are frequently made to the text and the software as a part of our routine updates.

PSS is a registered trademark of SIEMENS AG Copyright SIEMENS AG 2009 All Rights Reserved

SIEMENS

PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Table of Contents

1.

Introduction to Protection Coordination

2. 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.1.8 2.1.9 2.1.10 2.1.11 2.1.12 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 2.3.7 2.4

Protection Simulation OC Protection Devices Pickup OC Protection Devices Characteristic-Curve Tripping First Instantaneous Tripping Second instantaneous Tripping Third Instantaneous Tripping Measurement Transformer Influence Composition of the Characteristic Curve Determining Intersection for Double Logarithmic Coordinates Determining the State of Protection Devices Graphic Display with Diagrams Graphic Display with Legends Importing and Exporting Protection Device Settings Types of OC Protection Devices Creating a New OC Protection Device Type Editing OC Protection Device Types Creating and Configuring OC Protection Device Types Copying OC Protection Device Types Configuring OC Protection Device Types Assigning the OC Protection Device Type Distance-Protection Devices Shapes of Impedance Areas Pickup Distance Protection Devices Tripping with Distance Protection Devices Measurement Transformer Influence Impedance Loops Determining the State of Distance-Protection Device PSS SINCAL Diagrams Differential Protection Devices

4 9 9 12 14 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 22 25 25 25 28 29 30 43 44 44 47 49 49 50 53 53 55

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2.4.1 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5 2.7

Protection Zone Teleprotection Signals at OC Protection Devices Signals at Distance Protection Devices Example for Blocked Tripping Determining Tripping and Waiting Times for Protection Devices Sequence to Determine Times Determining Clearing Times for Faults Distance Protection Tripping due to Phase-Fault Setting Distance Protection Tripping due to Ground-Fault Setting Distance Protection Tripping for Load Current Recommendations and Warnings

55 56 57 57 58 59 60 61 61 61 62 62

3.

Protection Routes

63

4. 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9 4.1.10 4.1.11 4.1.12 4.1.13 4.1.14 4.1.15 4.1.16

Protection Device Settings Supported Protection Device Types How Distance Protection Devices Work Circular Tripping Areas Quadrilateral-Shaped Tripping Areas Common 7SA500, 7SA501 and 7SA502 7SA510, 7SA511 and 7SA513 7SA522 7SA610, 7SA611, 7SA612, 7SA631 and 7SA632 7SL13 7SL17, 7SL24, 7SL70 and 7SL73 EPAC3100, EPAC3400, EPAC3500, EPAC3600 and EPAC3700 LZ91 and LZ92 PD531 and PD551 PD532 and PD552 R1KZ4, R1KZ4A, RK4 and RK4A R1KZ7 and R1KZ7G

66 67 69 70 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Table of Contents

4.1.17 4.1.18 4.1.19 4.1.20 4.1.21 4.1.22 4.1.23 4.1.24 4.1.25 4.1.26 4.1.27 4.1.28 4.1.29 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.7 4.3 4.4

R1Z25, R1Z25A and R1Z23B R1Z27 RD10 REL316 REL521 and REL561 SD124 SD135 SD135A SD14, SD14A and SD14B SD34A SD35 SD35A and SD35C SD36 Calculation Method Entries for Determining Impedance Type of Measurement Selective Grading Factors DISTAL Strategy Line Impedance Strategy Line Impedance Strategy Connected Medium-Voltage Network Strategy Results of Settings Calculations Hints and Cautions

84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 97 103 109 110 115 117 117 120 121

5.

Fault Detection

122

6. 6.1

Dimensioning Calculation Methods

124 125

7. 7.1 7.1.1 7.1.2

Examples Example for Protection Coordination Presetting Calculation Settings Creating Protection Devices

132 132 133 133

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7.1.3 7.1.4 7.1.5 7.1.6 7.1.7 7.1.8 7.1.9 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3

Making Fault Observations Making Fault Events Determining Settings for DI Protection Devices Checking Tripping Behavior for Protection Devices Starting the Protection Simulation Displaying and Evaluating the Results Generating Protection-Route Diagrams Example for Creating Protection Documentation Selecting Grading Creating the Protection Documentation Inserting a Diagram

136 137 138 141 141 142 144 145 146 147 148

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Introduction to Protection Coordination

1.

Introduction to Protection Coordination


Faults can never be prevented completely in electrical transmission and distribution networks. PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination, however, has been designed to limit most of the effects of faults to assure continued operation of the network. The main goals of PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination are: To keep the network operational When there is a fault, you want to shut down only a minimum amount of equipment to isolate the fault. To prevent the problem from spreading When there is a fault, a lack of selectivity or overloading can cause the problem to spread. To protect the main equipment of the network Your priority is protecting the most important and most expensive equipment in the network (generators, transformers, etc.) from the fault.

PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination offers a wide range of procedures covering the complex field of protecting or examining electrical transmission and distribution networks. This manual contains the following chapters: Protection Simulation Protection Routes Protection Device Settings Fault Detection Dimensioning Examples

Protection Simulation
PSS SINCAL Protection Simulation calculates the amount of current, voltage, power and impedance in case of One-phase to ground, Two-phase to ground, Two-phase short circuit and Three-phase short circuit

and links these to the setting for the protection device. Calculations are based on VDE or IEC specifications. Simultaneously, PSS SINCAL accounts for initial load conditions. Currents from short circuit calculations and the calculated impedances are then used to determine the pickup protection devices.

Generating Diagrams of Protection Routes


PSS SINCAL can generate protection-route diagrams so that you can check that protection devices have been set properly.

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Determining Settings for Protection Devices


This simulation procedure determines how distance protection devices are set. The various types of protection-device types in the network and their selective grading factors are used to calculate the values actually set at the protection device.

Detecting Faults
PSS SINCAL fault detection lets you locate a fault in the supply network. PSS SINCAL calculates this position from the values registered at the protection device at the moment the fault takes place.

Dimensioning
Low-Voltage Dimensioning calculates minimum one-phase short circuit currents in low voltage networks. Load flow is determined in the load flow part of the program; minimum one-phase short circuit current is determined in the short circuit part of the program. The user must keep in mind that the rated fuse current must be larger than the load current yet smaller than the minimum permissible one-phase short circuit current in fuse records. PSS SINCAL shows the user any possible discrepancies in the VDE safeguards.

Protection Coordination Procedure


To process protection coordination or create special data for the protection coordination, the Calculation Method for Protection Device Coordination must first be switched ON. The following steps are necessary: Create and define the tripping behavior of protection devices Define the arc reserve to determine the settings in the network level data Create fault observations

Network Calculations
The speed with which network calculations can be made depends primarily on five factors: Network size Number of regulated elements Calculation type Available storage capacity

Using Load Flow to Determine Load Voltage


Before protection can be simulated, PSS SINCAL calculates the load flow to determine load voltage. One reason is that PSS SINCAL needs this load voltage to determine the direction in the protection simulation.

Determining Permanent Load Currents from Load Flow


Sometimes networks are displayed on a computer in such a way that the load flow problem is not solvable.

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Introduction to Protection Coordination

Displaying the Networks for the Calculations


For a detailed description of how the networks are displayed for the calculations, see the chapter Network Display in the Input Data Manual.

Definitions
Overcurrent Time Protection
PSS SINCAL Overcurrent Time Protection uses current as the criterion of protection, assuring that the maximum operating current for the equipment is not exceeded for a long period of time. This protects the network from thermal overloading, from fault currents and from excessive operating currents. In this manual, overcurrent time protection devices will also be called OC protection devices.

Distance Protection
PSS SINCAL distance protection determines the distance from the protection device to the fault location indirectly from the line impedance. The criterion of distance protection is impedance. PSS SINCAL determines impedance by measuring the current and voltage at the ends of the equipment to be protected. The amount of impedance is closer to the fault.

Selectivity
PSS SINCAL can detect a fault in the network and shut it off with minimum repercussions to the network as a whole.

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Simulation

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2.

Protection Simulation
PSS SINCAL Protection Simulation can be used to simulate electrical networks with serial and cross admittance, source voltages for generators, tripping characteristics for protection devices, and permissible short circuit currents for the equipment. These devices determine the maximum short circuit currents. PSS SINCAL searches for tripping sequences and times for protection devices when the network has overcurrents. PSS SINCAL can also simulate, at arbitrary intersection nodes or in lines, overcurrents caused by short circuits. PSS SINCAL Short Circuit calculates overcurrents with referred impedance (reference power 1 MVA) and uses symmetrical components to calculate one-phase faults.

General Remarks to Protection Simulation


PSS SINCAL can easily simulate a wide variety of problems in day-to-day network operations. The range of applications is not limited to the specific problems and needs of network operators. Like other PSS SINCAL calculation procedures, PSS SINCAL Overcurrent Protection can calculate the following types of networks in a single operation: Utility and industrial networks Meshed and/or radial networks Medium- and low-voltage networks Networks with several voltage levels Subnetworks with separate supply

PSS SINCAL Short Circuit calculates short circuit currents. PSS SINCAL Protection Simulation examines the following kinds of faults: One-phase to ground Two-phase to ground Two-phase short circuit Three-phase short circuit Currents with and without initial load Currents involving line couplings in the zero-phase-sequence Currents involving a neutrally connected transformer in the zero-phase-sequence

PSS SINCAL Protection Simulation can: Observe various types of protection devices (overcurrent protection, distance protection) Define faults anywhere in nodes or lines Augment protection-device catalogues to meet individual needs Observe more than one time interval to clear the fault Consider directional elements with freely definable ranges in its calculations Consider fault impedance Display tripping curves for protection devices, relative to their smallest node voltage, in a double logarithmic current-time diagram Display more than one subnetwork or network level in a double logarithmic current-time diagram Display the impedance of more than one protection device in more than one subnetwork in the R-X diagram

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Simulation

Use load current to check for tripping errors Display tripping characteristics, tripping currents and damage curves in a double logarithmic current-time diagram

PSS SINCAL Protection Simulation can be used to: Determine fault-clearing times at any of the fault locations Monitor the selectivity of protection devices Check selective gradings for protection devices Verify the thermal load of the equipment Investigate tripping errors occurring in normal network operation

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Calculation Procedures for Protection Simulation


Download and check all network data

Calculate load flow

Check, if protection devices get energized under load current Set protection devices to "not energized" and initialize loop counter to 1

Wait for the command "continue if loop counter is greater than 1"

Generate switches for all open protection devices

Calculate fault currents, voltages and impedances Assign fault currents, voltages and impedances to protection devices

Determine opening times for protection devices

Determine states of protection devices (tripped, energized, inactive)

Are there any more energized protection devices? No No Is current at fault observation equal to 0? Yes

Yes

Fault disconnected Illustration: Sequence diagram

Fault cannot be disconnected

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Simulation

Protection Devices
PSS SINCAL Protection Simulation recognizes the following kinds of protection devices:

OC Protection Devices
Circuit Breakers with Measurement Transformers Low-Voltage Circuit Breakers Fuses Bi-Metallic Circuit Breakers Contactors Trip Fuses

Distance Protection Devices


Distance Protection Devices

Differential Protection Devices


Differential Protection Devices

PSS SINCAL can simulate these protection devices at any of the network elements.

Available Protection Devices in Protection Simulation


In the current version, PSS SINCAL component protection simulation recognizes only the following types of components: All OC protection devices Distance protection devices

Checking Load Energizing


Because of the different load conditions, PSS SINCAL increases the current by a safety margin or reduces the impedance by a safety margin when it checks energizing from the load current. For network level data, these safety parameters are set in the Protection tab.

OC Protection Devices
PSS SINCAL calculates the load current margin as follows to check the energizing:

Iprf

Ilf

10 fI , 100,0

If the resulting test current passes through the protection devices current-time curve, the load is energized.

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Distance Protection Devices


PSS SINCAL reduces loop impedances from load voltage and load current as follows:

Zprf

Zlf

10 f Z , 100,0

PSS SINCAL uses an angle to create the following test impedance area from impedance and reduced loop impedance.
X

Zlf

Zprf + -

R Illustration: Test impedance area for load energizing

If the test impedance area superimposes a protection devices tripping area, the load is energized.

Energizing
The check PSS SINCAL makes depends on the type of the energizing. For current energizing without tripping, or in directional and non-directional current energizing, PSS SINCAL uses the admitted load current. For area energizing, PSS SINCAL uses the test impedance area.

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Simulation

2.1

OC Protection Devices
Each OC protection device has a characteristic curve made up of segments. Segments can be combined to create tripping characteristics for any type of protection device. Individual segments are active or inactive, depending on the type of protection device. PSS SINCAL Protection Simulation recognizes the following type of OC protection device. Circuit breakers with measurement transformers Low-voltage circuit breakers Fuses Bi-metallic circuit breakers Contactors Trip fuses

All protection devices will trip if the current through the protection device crosses the tripping curve of the protection device. PSS SINCAL recreates the characteristic tripping curve for all OC protection devices in the same way.

Characteristics
All protection devices have a segmented tripping characteristic curve. Individual segments are assigned separate tripping characteristics for phase and ground faults as follows: Characteristic-curve tripping First instantaneous tripping Second instantaneous tripping Third instantaneous tripping

PSS SINCAL automatically specifies the individual segments of the characteristic curve depending on the type of protection device. Switches can be used to deactivate individual segments. If the protection device is connected to the network via measurement transformer, the following can also influence how the device trips: Rated current for the primary measurement transformer Rated current for the secondary measurement transformer Incoming current at the protection device

Protection devices connected to the network via measurement transformers can also have directional elements. In this case, the direction set for the currents angle determines how the device trips. For all these options, PSS SINCAL considers directional elements, intermediate transformers, delays, percentages, etc.

2.1.1

Pickup OC Protection Devices


Modern protection devices can have various kinds of pickup conditions: Current pickup Underimpedance pickup Undervoltage pickup

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Impedance pickup area pickup

Each of these conditions also has an end time. If the device has not tripped before this time, then it trips automatically. For a detailed description of the pickup input data, see the section on Pickup in the chapter on Protection Coordination in the Input Data Manual.

Current Pickup
This condition is fulfilled when values drop below a minimum current. Simply going below this current fulfills the condition. PSS SINCAL supports three different types of current pickup: Directional current pickup (without tripping). This type of pickup considers the setting for the direction (forwards, backwards). There is no final time, so the protection device does not necessarily trip. Directional current pickup. This type of pickup considers the setting for the direction (forwards, backwards). Non-directional current pickup

Underimpedance Pickup
Several conditions have to be fulfilled before there is underimpedance pickup. Exceeding the limits of minimum current I> and Being below the voltages V> until V>> at a current of between I> and I>> Exceeding the current I>>
V
Inactive

V>> V>
Energized

I>

I>>

Illustration: Current and voltage in underimpedance pickup

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Simulation

Undervoltage Pickup
Falling below a minimum voltage and a minimum current fulfills the condition for this type of pickup.
V
Energized

V>
Inactive

I>

Illustration: Current and voltage in undervoltage pickup

Impedance Pickup Area Pickup


With impedance pickup, the impedance registered by the protection device must be within a prescribed impedance area to meet the pickup condition. A SIEMENS area describes this type of pickup. The pickup area can be assigned two different final times (directional and non-directional).

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2.1.2

Characteristic-Curve Tripping
The tripping characteristics are defined by a curve with double logarithmic current-time axes. Depending on the type of protection device, current and time values are shown as: Absolute values (fuses) Standard values (bi-metallic circuit breakers, circuit breakers with transformers, etc.)

Absolute values for tripping characteristics cannot be modified. When the operator enters a differently rated current, PSS SINCAL automatically selects other tripping characteristics.
t

IN1

IN2 I

Illustration: Tripping characteristics for fuses with different rated currents

Multiplying the settings for current or time changes the standard values for a characteristic curve, moving the characteristic curve either horizontally or vertically in the current-time diagram. When the operator enters different tripping characteristics, PSS SINCAL automatically selects a different standard characteristic curve. PSS SINCAL can display currents for standard characteristic curves: In amperes Relative to the rated current

The current for the tripping is then: Current = norm x setting Current = norm x setting x rated current

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Simulation

PSS SINCAL always displays the time value for the tripping as:
t

Norm x setting

I Illustration: Standard characteristic curve for a protection device t

I=I1

I=I2 I

Illustration: Standard characteristic curve with different settings for current t

I=I1

I=I2 I

Illustration: Standard characteristic curve with different settings for time

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2.1.3

First Instantaneous Tripping


Current and time values define the first instantaneous tripping. PSS SINCAL can display currents for the first instantaneous tripping: In amperes Relative to the rated current Relative to the setting for characteristic-curve tripping

The current for the tripping is then: Current = setting Current = setting x rated current Current = setting x current for the characteristic-curve tripping

PSS SINCAL assigns a fixed tripping time for the first short circuit.
t

I Illustration: Characteristic curve for first instantaneous tripping

2.1.4

Second instantaneous Tripping


Current and time values define the second instantaneous tripping. PSS SINCAL can display currents for the second instantaneous tripping: In amperes Relative to the rated current Relative to the setting for characteristic-curve tripping Relative to the setting for the first instantaneous tripping

The current for the tripping is then: Current = setting Current = setting x rated current Current = setting x current for the characteristic-curve tripping Current = setting x current for the first instantaneous tripping

PSS SINCAL assigns a fixed tripping time for the second short circuit.

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I Illustration: Characteristic curve for the second instantaneous tripping

2.1.5

Third Instantaneous Tripping


Current and time values define the third instantaneous tripping. PSS SINCAL can display currents for the third instantaneous tripping: In amperes Relative to the rated current Relative to the setting for characteristic-curve tripping Relative to the setting for the first instantaneous tripping Relative to the setting for the second instantaneous tripping

The current for the tripping is then: Current = setting Current = setting x rated current Current = setting x current for the characteristic-curve tripping Current = setting x current for the first instantaneous tripping Current = setting x current for the second instantaneous tripping

PSS SINCAL assigns a fixed tripping time for the third short circuit.
t

I Illustration: Characteristic curve for third instantaneous tripping

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2.1.6

Measurement Transformer Influence


The current through the protection device is influenced by the transmission ratio between the measurement transformers: Primary and secondary rated current

If the current entering the protection device is not the same as the measurement transformers secondary rated current, PSS SINCAL also has to consider the ratio between: The secondary rated current and the incoming current

Directional Element Settings


If there is a directional element, the preliminary settings for direction and range angle influence the behavior of a protection device. PSS SINCAL has the following settings for direction: Non-directional (current can have any angle) Forward (angle range towards the line) Reverse (angle range away from the line)

The settings for direction do not really depend on whether the current flows towards the line or away from it. They only set the range of angles used. The currents angle always refers to a voltage. This can be either: Current voltage (voltage remaining after the short circuit) Voltage from the load flow (voltage stored at the protection device)

If the current voltage is zero (protection devices located directly at the fault location), PSS SINCAL uses the voltage from the load flow.

Directional Elements, Intermediate Measurement Transformers, Delays and Percentages


PSS SINCAL uses multipliers to consider these ratings for: Measurement transformers Characteristic-curve tripping First instantaneous tripping Second instantaneous tripping Third instantaneous tripping

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2.1.7

Composition of the Characteristic Curve


Characteristic curves are made up of segments. PSS SINCAL considers only those segments that are switched on.
t t

Illustration: Segments of characteristic curve, first, second and third instantaneous tripping t

I Illustration: Characteristic curve with active curve and second instantaneous tripping

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I Illustration: Characteristic curve with active curve, first or third instantaneous tripping t

I Illustration: Characteristic curve with active first and second instantaneous tripping

2.1.8

Determining Intersection for Double Logarithmic Coordinates


Linear interpolation in a double logarithmic system of coordinates produces the wrong results. Linear interpolation assumes a linear system of coordinates.
tlog 10

0,1 1 10 100

Ilog

Illustration: Double logarithmic system

Double logarithmic systems must therefore be converted to double linear systems for linear interpolation. This is done using a base-ten logarithm. To prevent calculation errors, the results can be multiplied by a constant factor.

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Ilin F log10 (llog ) t lin F log10 ( t log )


tlin 1

-1 0 1 2

Ilin

Illustration: Double linear system

In this double linear system, linear interpolation can be made to find the point of intersection. The results of the linear interpolation are then converted back to the double logarithmic system.
t lin

t log

10 F

Direct linear interpolation in a double logarithmic system would produce an error of up to 10%.

2.1.9

Determining the State of Protection Devices


A protection device can have the following states: Inactive Picked-up Tripped

Inactive
A protection device is inactive if the current passing through it is less than the smallest current of its tripping characteristics or less than the smallest current of all the instantaneous tripping. The current passing through the protection device does not cross the tripping characteristic curve.

Picked-Up
A protection device has been picked up if the current passing through it is equal to, or greater than, the smallest current of its tripping characteristics or is equal to, or greater than, the current of all the instantaneous tripping. The tripping time is where the current passing through the protection device intersects with the tripping characteristic curve. This means that all picked-up protection devices can be assigned tripping times.

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Tripped Condition
In every simulation loop, PSS SINCAL trips the protection device that has the smallest tripping time. To allow for calculation errors, a safety time interval is added to the smallest tripping time. Within this interval, all the protection devices trip. If the smallest tripping time is 150 ms and the safety time interval is 0.5 ms, all the protection devices with tripping times less than 150.5 ms trip.

2.1.10 Graphic Display with Diagrams


PSS SINCAL provides two diagrams to display the results on the screen: Double logarithmic current-time diagram Linear R-X diagram

PSS SINCAL provides various diagram types so that settings and evaluations are easier for the user to handle. OC protection devices need an impedance area to be displayed as an R-X diagram. PSS SINCAL normally uses a circle to represent this area. PSS SINCAL uses the calculated currents and voltages at the protection device and determines the phase where the tripping current is flowing. To determine the radius for the circle, the minimum impedance can be calculated from: The phase-ground loop Both phase-loops

Advantages of a Double Logarithmic Current-Time Diagram


This proves the characteristic curves are unique. It is simple to compare these diagrams with the stair-shaped characteristic curves of distanceprotection devices. It shows the destruction limit.

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Illustration: Double logarithmic current-time diagram

Advantages of an R-X Diagram


This is a simple way to compare the areas. The impedance to the fault location can be shown as a cursor. It enables a comparison with protection devices for distance protection.

Illustration: R-X diagram

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2.1.11 Graphic Display with Legends


This function lets you create your own legends for ranges and input data for individual OC protection devices. Simply switch Insert Legend ON in the protection devices pop-up menu.

Illustration: Dialog box for Protection Device Legend

Use Select function to insert new legends or update existing ones. You can insert up to two legends per protection device. They can be defined with the options for Range and Input Data in the Insert Legend section. Update existing Legends assigns all existing legends the settings you have entered in Options. Use Options to define the legends layout (to either the right or the left of the protection device) as well as the distances from the protection device to the legends (for range and input data). When Use only selected protection devices is switched ON, PSS SINCAL uses all selected settings in the dialog box only for previously selected protection devices. If this is not switched ON, PSS SINCAL considers all the protection devices in the current view.

2.1.12 Importing and Exporting Protection Device Settings


PSS SINCAL can import or export OC protection device settings.

Importing Protection Device Settings


This function imports OC protection device settings from a DIGSI XML file. DIGSI has an import/export interface that lets you use the DIGSI XML file to exchange protection device settings. This file can read in protection device settings from DIGSI for use in PSS SINCAL. Click Import Settings in the pop-up menu of the protection device to activate this function.

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Illustration: Import Protection Device Settings

This opens the Import Protection Device Settings dialog box. In this dialog box the DIGSI XML file can be selected for import. The Import Options section specifies the group of settings from DIGSI you want to import: First setting: The first setting group from the DIGSI XML file is used automatically. Setting group name: This option is used to enter the name for the setting group you want to import.

When Use setting address for identification is switched ON, PSS SINCAL attempts to use the address of the setting to assign the settings for this type of protection device. When this option is switched OFF, PSS SINCAL uses the name of the setting to assign them.

Exporting Protection Device Settings


This function exports OC protection device settings to a DIGSI XML file. DIGSI has an import/export interface that lets you use the DIGSI XML to exchange protection device settings. This file can transfer protection device settings from PSS SINCAL to DIGSI. Click Export Settings in the pop-up menu of the protection device to switch this function ON.

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Illustration: Export Protection Device Settings

This opens the Export Protection Device Settings dialog box. In this dialog box the DIGSI XML file can be defined for export. If you have selected more than one protection devices, you need to select a directory for export. In the Export Options section you can select between two modes. Create reduced file: Only PSS SINCAL protection device settings are exported. Update existing file: If a DIGSI XML file exists, PSS SINCAL protection device settings can be updated without changing the other settings in the file.

If multiple protection devices are selected, this list of options is not available. In this case, PSS SINCAL creates a new DIGSI XML file with the name of the protection device for each protection device you have selected. Finally, you can define the DIGSI setting group for export: First setting: PSS SINCAL automatically uses the first setting group from the selected DIGSI XML file. This option is only available when you update the DIGSI file. None: No group of settings is created. PSS SINCAL only writes a value in the DIGSI XML file. This option is only available when you create a new file. Setting group name: This option is used to enter the name for the setting group you want to export.

When the option Use setting address for identification is switched ON, PSS SINCAL exports the setting address to the DIGSI XML file as an attribute for assigning settings. When this option is switched OFF, PSS SINCAL uses the name of the settings as an attribute for the assignment.

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2.2

Types of OC Protection Devices


PSS SINCAL uses segmented tripping characteristics to simulate the functions of OC protection devices. The scope and the functions of these individual segments are stored in a special database for protection device types. This lets you recreate different OC protection device types in PSS SINCAL without any problems. PSS SINCAL has a database for OC protection device types with approximately 2500 types. If you cannot find the OC protection device type you need in this global database, it can also be created and configured in a local database. OC protection device types are divided into the following types: Circuit breakers with measurement transformers Low-voltage circuit breakers Fuses Bi-metallic circuit breakers Contactors Trip fuses

2.2.1

Creating a New OC Protection Device Type


File Administration New Protection Database... in the menu creates an empty protection database that is not assigned to any network for the present (see the section on New Protection Database in the chapter on Basic Functions). In the Options dialog box you can assign the database.

2.2.2

Editing OC Protection Device Types


Insert Standard Type Overcurrent Time Protection opens the screen form for working on OC protection device types, if you have switched ON the calculation method for protection coordination.

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Illustration: Menu for opening the screen form for an OC protection device type

Illustration: Screen form for editing OC protection device types

The screen form for editing OC protection device types has two sections: Browser for type selection Data screen area

The browser for type selection has the type selected for editing. PSS SINCAL displays all settings for this type in the data screen area, where they can be modified. Note: The data for global types cannot be modified since this information is a standard part of PSS SINCAL and is maintained by Siemens. But data for local types can be modified, new types can be added and existing types can be deleted. The copy function simplifies adding new types.

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Toolbar
Use the toolbar to switch important functions of the browser ON to process the types. Create new OC protection device type Copy selected OC protection device type Insert copied OC protection device type Delete selected OC protection device type Define filter Clicking Create new OC protection device type creates a new OC protection device type. Note that new OC protection device types can only be created in the local protection device type database. Clicking Copy selected OC protection device type prepares the OC protection device type you have selected in the browser on the clipboard so it can be inserted in the local protection device type database. OC protection device types copied to the clipboard with the Copy function can be inserted with Insert copied OC protection device type to the current position in the browser (but only in the local protection device type database). Clicking Delete selected OC protection device type deletes the OC protection device type selected in the browser. Only local protection device types can be deleted. Click Define filter to define filters for limiting protection device types.

Pop-Up Menu
Click the right mouse button on an OC protection device type in the browser to display the pop-up menu.

Illustration: Pop-up menu in the OC protection device type browser

This pop-up menu lets you edit the OC protection device type directly. The functions Expand and Collapse open or close the tree.

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2.2.3

Creating and Configuring OC Protection Device Types


To create a new OC protection device type, first select the form for new type in the browser of the local database. Then select New in the pop-up menu.

Illustration: Pop-up menu for creating a new OC protection device type

Then configure the new OC protection device type in the data screen area.

Illustration: Screen form for configuring a OC protection device type

To edit an existing OC protection device type, simply select this in the browser and change its configuration accordingly in the data screen area.

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2.2.4

Copying OC Protection Device Types


When OC protection device types are very similar, it is easier just to copy them. Select the type you want to copy in the screen form and open the pop-up menu.

Illustration: Pop-up menu for copying an OC protection device type

Select Copy in the menu and insert the OC protection device type in the local database. You need to select the corresponding form (in this case a circuit breaker) in the browser of the local database and open the pop-up menu.

Illustration: Pop-up menu for inserting an OC protection device type

Select Paste to copy the OC protection device type to the local database. Before you can configure the new OC protection device type, you need to select it in the browser of the local database.

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2.2.5

Configuring OC Protection Device Types


OC protection device types are configured in different screen forms according to the functionality of the OC protection device.

Configuring General Data


You need to select the collective entry in the browser of the local database to configure the general data.

Illustration: Screen form for configuring general data for a OC protection device type

This defines the Name of the OC protection device type. PSS SINCAL displays this later within the legend for the network diagram. The Manufacturer and User Name are supplementary information, and as such are not needed later. Angle Determining sets the method used to determine the impedance angle for the direction decision. Rated Current (Phase) and Rated Current (Ground) are just supplementary information.

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Configuring a Tripping Type


Basic Data
This defines the behavior of the OC protection device for the particular segment.

Illustration: Screen form for configuring the basic data of a tripping type

Normally tripping types are made up of the type of OC protection device and the protection behavior. The following abbreviations for individual protection behavior according to IEC 255-3 can be found in the global protection database: Abbrev. DEF NOR VER EXT LTE OVO OVM O%% RES Protection behavior Definite-time characteristic Normal inverse characteristics Very inverse characteristics Extremely inverse characteristics Long time inverse characteristics Overload characteristics Overload memory characteristics Overload characteristics with pre-load in %, where %% = 29, 40, 60, 80, 99 (= 100%) Residual characteristics

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The following abbreviations for the individual protection behavior according to ANSI /IEEE can be found in the global protection database: Abbrev. INV SIV LIV MIV VIV EIV DIV I2T Protection behavior Inverse (AMZ inv) characteristics Short inverse (AMZ inv) characteristics Long inverse (AMZ inv) characteristics Massive inverse (AMZ inv) characteristics Strong inverse (AMZ inv) characteristics Extremely inverse (AMZ inv) characteristics Equal inverse (AMZ inv) characteristics Quadratic inverse (AMZ inv) characteristics

The following abbreviations for bi-metallic devices and circuit breakers can be found in the global protection database: Abbrev. K or C W Protection behavior Cold characteristics Warm characteristics

The following names for protection devices, whose settings depend on the secondary current transformer, can be found in the global protection database: Abbrev. _1 _5 Protection behavior 1 A current transformer (e.g.. 7SJ63_1.NOR) 5 A current transformer (e.g.. 7SJ63_5.NOR)

The following names analogous to the version number in the product catalog (e.g. 3WN1.4, 3WN6.D) for the low voltage circuit breaker 3WN can be found in the global protection database. The following names for fuses can be found in the global protection database: Abbrev. VDE_100 VDEu_... VDEo_... VDE-H_500 3N.._... 3G.._ Protection behavior 100 A low voltage fuses according to VDE (I-t characteristics with average operating time behavior) Low voltage fuses according to VDE (I-t characteristics with the fastest operating time behavior) Low voltage fuses according to VDE (I-t characteristics with the slowest operating time behavior) 500 A high voltage fuses according to VDE Siemens low voltage fuses Siemens high voltage fuses

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Ip Section for the Segment for Characteristic-Curve Tripping Phase Tripping and Ground Tripping determine whether the tripping type has a segment with current/time characteristic-curve tripping for phase currents or ground currents. The following values are available: None: No characteristic-curve tripping In: Characteristic-curve tripping with current related to rated transformer current A: Characteristic-curve tripping with current in amperes
2 2

Phase I t Limiting and Ground I t Limiting determine whether characteristic-curve tripping has 2 an I t current limit. The following values are available: None: 2 No I t current limit In: 2 I t current limit with current related to rated transformer current A: 2 I t current limit with current in amperes

I> Section for Segment with First Instantaneous Tripping Phase Tripping and Ground Tripping determine whether the current tripping type has a first instantaneous tripping for phase currents or ground currents. The following values are available: None: No first instantaneous tripping In: First instantaneous tripping with current related to rated transformer current A: First instantaneous tripping with current in amperes Ip: First instantaneous tripping with current related to the current for characteristic-curve tripping
2 2

Phase I t Limiting and Ground I t Limiting determine whether the first instantaneous tripping has 2 an I t current limit. The following values are available: None: 2 No I t current limit In: 2 I t current limit with current related to rated transformer current A: 2 I t current limit with current in amperes Ip: 2 I t current limit with current related to the current for characteristic-curve tripping

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I>> Section for Segment with Second Instantaneous Tripping Phase Tripping and Ground Tripping determine whether the current tripping type has a second instantaneous tripping for phase currents or ground currents. The following values are available: None: No second instantaneous tripping In: Second instantaneous tripping with current related to rated transformer current A: Second instantaneous tripping with current in amperes Ip: Second instantaneous tripping with current related to the current of the characteristic-curve tripping I>: Second instantaneous tripping with current related to the current for first instantaneous tripping
2 2

Phase I t Limiting and Ground I t Limiting determine whether the second instantaneous tripping 2 has an I t current limit. The following values are available: None: 2 No I t current limit In: 2 I t current limit with current related to rated transformer current A: 2 I t current limit with current in amperes Ip: 2 I t current limit with current related to the current for characteristic-curve tripping I>: 2 I t current limit with current related to the current for first instantaneous tripping

I>>> Section for Segment with Third Instantaneous Tripping Phase Tripping and Ground Tripping determine whether the current tripping type has a third instantaneous tripping for phase currents or ground currents. The following values are available: None: No third instantaneous tripping In: Third instantaneous tripping with current related to rated transformer current A: Third instantaneous tripping with current in amperes Ip: Third instantaneous tripping with current related to the current for characteristic-curve tripping I>: Third instantaneous tripping with current related to the current for first instantaneous tripping I>>: Third instantaneous tripping with current related to the current for second instantaneous tripping

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Phase I t Limiting and Ground I t Limiting determine whether the third instantaneous tripping 2 has an I t current limit. The following values are available: None: 2 No I t current limit In: 2 I t current limit with current related to rated transformer current A: 2 I t current limit with current in amperes Ip: 2 I t current limit with current related to the current for characteristic-curve tripping I>: 2 I t current limit with current related to the current for first instantaneous tripping I>>: 2 I t current limit with current related to the current for second instantaneous tripping

Section for Tripping Characteristics If there is characteristic-curve tripping, the appropriate tripping characteristics need to be entered. Enter characteristic-curve values as described in the chapter on Screen Form for Characteristics Input.

Illustration: Dialog box for editing current/time tripping characteristics

For the tripping characteristics, select I/t Curve in the Function field. For the Type, you normally enter IT1 or IT2. If the type contains a 1, PSS SINCAL uses these characteristics to determine the intersecting point that has the pickup current. If the type contains a 2, PSS SINCAL displays these characteristics in the current/time diagrams of Diagram View. Characteristic-curve tripping requires at the very least a characteristic curve for tripping with an entry for type containing a 1.

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The additional name in the basic data for the characteristic curve is usually the same as the protection behavior. There is, however, no explicit entry for this additional name.

Illustration: Fuse with an entry for two tripping characteristics

OC protection device types with K (Cold) and W (Warm) tripping have an unusual feature when this abbreviation has also been entered in the basic data of the characteristics as an additional name. In this case, PSS SINCAL displays both characteristic curves in the current/time diagrams of Diagram View.

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Illustration: Bimetal with cold and warm tripping characteristics

Tripping Function If characteristic curve tripping exists, enter the appropriate function for calculating tripping characteristics. Enter the parameters for the respective function as described in the chapter on Screen Form for Characteristics Input.

Illustration: Dialog box for editing the function for calculating tripping characteristics

For the tripping characteristics, select a value for a function, e.g. Function 1, in the Function field.

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Only one entry for tripping characteristics is allowed. Normally the protection behavior can be entered under Type and Name. PSS SINCAL does not, however, have specific entries for types or names.

Illustration: Circuit breaker (CT) with transformer and normal inverse tripping

Since the tripping characteristics calculated with this function are reference characteristics, you have to select In (= current entry for rated transformer current) in the Ip column.

Illustration: Protection device type with Function 1 with settings

You need to enter the appropriate settings for the function you have selected.

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To calculate tripping characteristics, this function proceeds from the initial value I/I p to the end value I/Ip. The result is a factor ft, which, multiplied by the time setting value for the characteristics tripping Tp, produces the tripping time t.
t Tp ft

PSS SINCAL needs to have the tripping time in seconds. If you want to have the time at the protection device in minutes, enter a factor of 60.0 in the function to convert from minutes to seconds. Function 1

ft I Ip

P1
P2

P3

Type 1 2 3 20 21 Function 2

Parameter Parameter P1 Parameter P2 Parameter P3 Initial value I/Ip End value I/Ip

P2

I ft P1 ln Ip
P6

P3 P4 I

P5

Ip

P7P8

Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 21

Parameter Parameter P1 (60.0 to convert to seconds) Parameter P2 Parameter P3 (initial load) Parameter P4 Parameter P5 Parameter P6 Parameter P7 Parameter P8 Initial value I/Ip End value I/Ip

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Settings
This defines the value ranges for entries for current and time of OC protection devices for the particular protection function.

Illustration: Screen form for configuring value ranges

Enter value ranges for the OC protection device type as described in the chapter on Screen Form for Characteristics Input.

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Illustration: Screen form for configuring a value range

This data screen form describes a setting at the OC protection device. Name is the abbreviation for the setting in the protection device description. The Unit of the setting is also found in the protection device description. Status is used to document a setting or switch this ON for input in the OC protection device screen form. Setting Address contains the setting at the protection device. Type defines the connection between setting according to description and how it is used in PSS SINCAL. PSS SINCAL has the following values for the configuration: Type SWp SW> SW>> SW>>> SWep SWe> SWe>> SWe>>> Ip I> I>> I>>> Iep Ie> Ie>> Function Characteristic-curve tripping phase switchable First instantaneous tripping phase switchable Second instantaneous tripping phase switchable Third instantaneous tripping phase switchable Characteristic-curve tripping ground switchable First instantaneous tripping ground switchable Second instantaneous tripping ground switchable Third instantaneous tripping ground switchable Current characteristic-curve tripping phase Current first instantaneous tripping phase Current second instantaneous tripping phase Current third instantaneous tripping phase Current characteristic-curve tripping ground Current first instantaneous tripping ground Current second instantaneous tripping ground

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Ie>>> F_Ip F_I> F_I>> F_I>>> F_Iep F_Ie> F_Ie>> F_Ie>>> Tp T> T>> T>>> Tep Te> Te>> Te>>> F_Tp F_T> F_T>> F_T>>> F_Tep F_Te> F_Te>> F_Te>>> I2Ip I2I> I2I>> I2I>>> I2Iep I2Ie> I2Ie>> I2Ie>>> I2TIp I2T> I2T>> I2T>>> I2Tep I2Te> I2Te>>

Current third instantaneous tripping ground Factor for current characteristic-curve tripping phase Factor for current first instantaneous tripping phase Factor for current second instantaneous tripping phase Factor for current third instantaneous tripping phase Factor for current characteristic-curve tripping ground Factor for current first instantaneous tripping ground Factor for current second instantaneous tripping ground Factor for current third instantaneous tripping ground Time characteristic-curve-tripping phase Time first instantaneous tripping phase Time second instantaneous tripping phase Time third instantaneous tripping phase Time characteristic-curve-tripping ground Time first instantaneous tripping ground Time second instantaneous tripping ground Time third instantaneous tripping ground Factor for time characteristic-curve tripping phase Factor for time first instantaneous tripping phase Factor for time second instantaneous tripping phase Factor for time third instantaneous tripping phase Factor for time characteristic-curve tripping ground Factor for time first instantaneous tripping ground Factor for time second instantaneous tripping ground Factor for time third instantaneous tripping ground Current I t limit characteristic-curve tripping phase Current I t limit first instantaneous tripping phase Current I t limit second instantaneous tripping phase Current I t limit third instantaneous tripping phase Current I t limit characteristic-curve tripping ground Current I t limit first instantaneous tripping ground Current I t limit second instantaneous tripping ground Current I t limit third instantaneous tripping ground Time I t limit characteristic-curve tripping phase Time I t limit first instantaneous tripping phase Time I t limit second instantaneous tripping phase Time I t limit third instantaneous tripping phase Time I t limit characteristic-curve tripping ground Time I t limit first instantaneous tripping ground Time I t limit second instantaneous tripping ground
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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I2Te>>>

Time I t limit third instantaneous tripping ground

All additional types are only for documentation and do not influence how the OC protection device type is configured.

2.2.6

Assigning the OC Protection Device Type


Once a new OC protection device has been created, PSS SINCAL displays a screen form where you can assign the OC protection device type. Before you can do this, you have to select Settings in the browser for the OC protection device. Select the filter button to preselect the OC protection device types.

Illustration: Dialog box for preselecting the OC protection device types

PSS SINCAL displays the OC protection device types you have selected as a list.

Illustration: Preselected OC protection device types

When you select a type, PSS SINCAL assigns this to the OC protection device for phase and ground tripping. If you want to use another type for ground tripping, assign this at ground. You can only select between the individual tripping types of OC protection devices.

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Illustration: Screen form for selecting the OC protection device type for ground tripping

2.3

Distance-Protection Devices
Impedance areas describe distance protection devices. Distance-protection devices trip when the impedance registered at the protection device is within a given impedance area. PSS SINCAL recognizes various kinds of impedance areas, from simple conductance circles to freely definable impedance areas, so that all distance protection devices in use can be simulated.

2.3.1

Shapes of Impedance Areas


PSS SINCAL represents real protection devices with the following types of tripping areas: Basic areas: Rectangular or circle SIEMENS Freely definable

Depending on the shape of the area, PSS SINCAL stipulates the following:

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Basic Areas
This is the simplest shape. To define a rectangular area, enter the following: Active resistance Reactive reactance Quadrant input: I (first quadrant) A (all quadrants)

Depending on the type of protection device, this area can be either a rectangle or a circle.
Type: I X Type: A X

R, X

R, X

-R, -X

Illustration: Rectangular impedance area

SIEMENS Areas
These areas have the typical SIEMENS shape for distance-protection devices. To define a SIEMENS area, enter the following: X+A (reactive reactance) X-A (reactive reactance) RA1 (active resistance) RA2 (active resistance) (angle)

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SIEMENS

SIEMENS areas always have the following shape:


X X+A

-RA2 -RA1

RA2 RA1 R

X-A

Illustration: SIEMENS impedance area

Freely Definable Areas


Here the user can simulate any kind of area. Ten straight lines and four circles define an area. The straight lines, the circles and the input sequence can be defined freely. The straight lines pass through a point that has been defined and are at an angle to the positive R axis. Straight lines are defined by the following: R (active resistance) X (reactive reactance) (angle)

Three points define circles: starting, arc and end points. Circles always begin at a starting point, go through the arc and end points and then back to the starting point. The procedure is important since it creates the limiting line. Circles can be lengthened or shortened in R and X directions or rotated at an angle to the positive R axis. Circles are defined by RA (active resistance at the starting point) XA (reactive reactance at the starting point) RB (active resistance at the arc point) XB (reactive reactance at the arc point) RE (active resistance at the end point) XE (reactive reactance at the end point) FR (factor for distortion in direction R) FX (factor for distortion in direction X) (angle for rotation)

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X G1 K1

R G2

Illustration: Example of a freely defined impedance area limited by two straight lines and a circle

If there are problems setting the limiting line, either: Change the beginning and end point Change the element sequence

2.3.2

Pickup Distance Protection Devices


Modern protection devices can have various kinds of pickup conditions: Current pickup Underimpedance pickup Undervoltage pickup Impedance pickup area pickup

Each of these conditions also has an end time. If the device has not tripped before this time, then it trips automatically. For a detailed description of the pickup input data, see the section on Pickup in the chapter on Protection Coordination in the Input Data Manual.

Current Pickup
This condition is fulfilled when values drop below a minimum current. Simply going below this current fulfills the condition. PSS SINCAL supports three different types of current pickup: Directional current pickup (without tripping): This type of pickup considers the setting for the direction (forwards, backwards). There is no final time, so the protection device does not necessarily trip. Directional current pickup: This type of pickup considers the setting for the direction (forwards, backwards). Non-directional current pickup

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Underimpedance Pickup
Several conditions have to be fulfilled before there is underimpedance pickup. Exceeding the limits of minimum current I> and Being below the voltages V> until V>> at a current of between I> and I>> Exceeding the current I>>
V
Inactive

V>> V>
Energized

I>

I>>

Illustration: Current and voltage in underimpedance pickup

Undervoltage Pickup
Falling below a minimum voltage and a minimum current fulfills the condition for this type of pickup.
V
Energized

V>
Inactive

I>

Illustration: Current and voltage in undervoltage pickup

Impedance Pickup Area Pickup


With impedance pickup, the impedance registered by the protection device must be within a prescribed impedance area to meet the pickup condition. A SIEMENS area describes this type of pickup.

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The pickup area can be assigned two different final times (directional and non-directional).

2.3.3

Tripping with Distance Protection Devices


In all kinds of tripping, the registered impedance of the protection device must be within a prescribed impedance area. Individual protection devices are assigned all kinds of areas with times for tripping. To determine tripping behavior, PSS SINCAL sorts all areas of a protection device according to tripping times (registered impedance within the area).
X X X

t
t3 t2 t1 R R R

Illustration: Constructing areas for a protection device

All areas are sorted by times (in ascending order), independent of their shape. This assures that the area that can trip fastest is always checked first and can trip.

2.3.4

Measurement Transformer Influence


Current and voltage transformers supply individual distance-protection devices with data. All protection devices measure impedance either on: The primary side The secondary side

Measurement Primary Side


Currents and voltages are not converted.

Measurement Secondary Side


All currents are assigned this transmission ratio: Rated current primary/rated current secondary times Factor for intermediate-current transformers

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All voltages are assigned this transmission ratio: Rated voltage primary/rated voltage secondary times Factor for intermediate-voltage transformers

Considering Directional Elements


The angle of the impedance registered for directional elements needs to be checked before checking whether the registered impedance is inside an area. Depending on the direction, the angle must be within its own angle range. PSS SINCAL accepts the following settings for the direction: Non-directional (angle range the same) Forward (angle range towards the line) Reverse (angle range back from the line)

The setting for the direction determines in which angle range the impedance must be picked up. The impedance angle always refers to a voltage. This voltage comprises the following parts: Current voltage (remaining voltage from short circuit) Voltage from load flow (voltage stored at the protection device) Voltage outside the fault (all phase voltage not affecting by the fault) rotated 90

Va VL
Vf

A percentage can be set for all the parts. The voltage determining the angle, however, is always the sum of all parts evaluated and comes, for example, from

100% Va
or

0% VL

0% V f

100% Va

20% VL

20% V f

The sum of the percentages does not have to be 100%!

2.3.5

Impedance Loops
The way the following impedance loops are treated differs for rectangular, SIEMENS or freely defined impedance areas. Phase 1 ground Phase 2 ground Phase 3 ground Phase 1 phase 2 Phase 2 phase 3 Phase 3 phase 1

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In rectangular impedance-areas, all impedances for all impedance loops are checked. In SIEMENS or freely defined impedance areas, all impedance loops to be checked must be defined. PSS SINCAL only considers impedances from active impedance loops.

Determining Impedance
The impedances of phase-phase loops have the reference

V1 V2

RL ( I1 I2 ) jXL ( I1 I2 )

V 2 V3
V3

RL ( I2 I3 ) jXL (I2 I3 )
I1) jXL ( I3 I1)

V1 RL ( I3

After these have been converted, PSS SINCAL shows the active resistances (R 12, R23, R31) and reactive reactances (X 12, X 23, X31) for the protection device.

R12

Re( I1 I2 ) Re( V1 V 2 ) Im( I1 I2 ) Im( V1 V 2 ) Re( I1 I2 )2 Im( I1 I2 )2

X12

Re( I1 I2 ) Im( V1 V 2 ) Im( I1 I2 ) Re( V1 V 2 ) Re( I1 I2 )2 Im( I1 I2 )2


Re( I2 I3 ) Re( V 2 Re( I2 Re( I2 I3 ) Im( V 2 Re( I2 Re( I3 I1) Re( V 3 Re( I3
Re( I3 I1) Im( V 3 Re( I3

R23

V 3 ) Im( I2 I3 )2 Im( I2

I3 ) Im( V 2 I3 )2

V3 )

X23

V 3 ) Im( I2 I3 ) Re( V 2 I3 )2 Im( I2 I3 )2 V1) Im( I3 I1)2 Im( I3


V1) Im( I3 I1)2 Im( I3

V3 )

R31

I1) Im( V 3 I1)


2

V1)

X31

I1) Re( V 3 I1)


2

V1)

The impedances of phase-ground loops have the references

V1

I1 (RL

jXL ) Ie

RL

Re RL

jXL

Xe XL

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V2

I2 (RL

jXL ) Ie

RL

Re RL Re RL

jXL

Xe XL Xe XL

V3

I3 (RL

jXL ) Ie

RL

jXL

After they have been converted, PSS SINCAL shows the active resistances (R1e, R2e, R3e) and reactive reactances (X 1e, X 2e, X3e) for the protection device.

Re I1 Ie R1e Re I1 Ie Re RL

Xe XL

Re( V1) Im I1 Ie Xe XL Im I1 Ie

Xe XL Re RL

Im( V1) Im I1 Ie Xe XL

Re I1 Ie

Re I1 Ie X1e Re I1 Ie Re RL

Re RL

Re Im( V1) Im I1 Ie RL Xe XL Im I1 Ie Re RL Xe XL Re RL
Re RL Re RL

Re( V1) Im I1 Ie Xe XL

Re I1 Ie

Re I2 R2e Re I2 Ie Re RL

Ie

Xe XL

Re( V 2 ) Im I2 Ie Xe XL Im I2

Ie Ie

Im( V 2 ) Im I2 Ie Xe XL

Re I2

Re I2 X2e Re I2 Ie Re RL

Ie

Re RL

Im( V 2 ) Im I2 Ie Xe XL Im I2

Ie Ie

Re( V 2 ) Im I2 Ie Xe XL

Re I2

Re I3 R 3e Re I3 Ie Re RL

Ie

Xe XL

Re( V 3 ) Im I3 Ie Xe XL Im I3

Ie Ie

Xe XL Re RL
Re RL Re RL

Im( V 3 ) Im I3 Ie Xe XL

Re I3

Re I3 X3 e Re I3 Ie Re RL

Ie

Re RL

Im( V 3 ) Im I3 Ie Xe XL Im I3

Ie Ie

Re( V 3 ) Im I3 Ie Xe XL

Re I3

The following references must be set at the protection device.

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Re RL

and

Xe XL

2.3.6

Determining the State of Distance-Protection Device


Distance-protection devices can have the following states: Inactive Picked-up Tripped

Because of the signal locks, protection devices that have already been tripped must be considered in the future clearing procedure.

Inactive
A distance-protection device is inactive if none of the pickup conditions are fulfilled. When no pickup conditions have been set, the impedance registered by the distance-protection device must be outside all impedance areas for the protection device to be inactive.

Picked-up
A distance-protection device has been picked up if one of the pickup conditions is fulfilled. When no pickup conditions have been set, the registered impedance of the distance-protection device must be inside at least one impedance area for the protection device to be picked up.

Tripped
In every simulation loop, the protection device with the smallest tripping time (either a distance protection device or OC device) is considered tripped. To allow for calculation errors, a safety time interval is added to the smallest tripping time. All protection devices within this interval trip. If the smallest tripping time is 150 ms and the safety time interval is 0.5 ms, all the protection devices with tripping times less than 150.5 ms trip.

2.3.7

PSS SINCAL Diagrams


PSS SINCAL has two types of diagram to display the results on the screen: Double logarithmic current-time diagram Linear R-X diagram

PSS SINCAL provides various diagram types so that settings and evaluations are easier for the user to handle. Current-time coordinates must be calculated from the impedance areas to a protection device to be displayed in the double logarithmic current-time diagram.

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A loop passing through all impedance areas, and sorted according to tripping times, determines these coordinates as follows: PSS SINCAL determines the impedance at the intersection of the straight lines and the limit of the impedance area

impedance

ZSp

The present current and the impedance registered are the impedance current
Z trip ZSp

ISp

Itrip

The tripping time for the current impedance is the same as the time tSp when the current ISp also trips. A pair of coordinates for the double logarithmic current-time diagram has been calculated completely.

These current-time coordinates in the double logarithmic current-time diagram are stair-shaped.

Advantages of an R-X Diagram


This is a simple way to compare the areas. The impedance up to the fault location is displayed as an arrow. They can be compared with OC protection devices.

Illustration: R-X diagram

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Advantages of a Double Logarithmic Current-Time Diagram


This is a simple way to compare these with the characteristic curves of distance-protection devices. It shows the destruction limit.

Illustration: Double logarithmic current-time diagram

2.4

Differential Protection Devices


In the current PSS SINCAL version, differential protection devices are used only to limit protection zones in reliability calculations.

Special Shape for Entering Differential Protection Devices


Entering a differential protection group lets you use OC and distance protection devices to limit the protection zone.

2.4.1

Protection Zone
To limit a protection zone, the topology of the protection device and the differential protection group are necessary. Depending on the entry, PSS SINCAL has the following protection zones:

Differential Protection for Nodes or Busbars


All differential protection devices in a differential protection group must have the same insert node. In PSS SINCAL, however, not all the node or busbar connections need a protection device. Only one device is necessary to define the differential protection zone.

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Differential Protection for Elements


All differential protection devices in a differential protection group must be placed at the same network element.

Differential Protection for Fields


Differential protection devices in a differential protection group must comprise an entire network area. These devices are placed at different elements in different nodes.

2.5

Teleprotection
In the real world, signal lines connect OC and distance-protection devices. Signals from other protection devices therefore can keep individual protection devices from pickup. There is no limit to the number of ways protection devices can block each other. OC protection device OC protection device OC protection device distance-protection device Distance-protection device OC protection device Distance-protection device distance-protection device

There is no limit to the number of signals, either. The following types of signals can be used to block protection devices. Activated: signal picked up Deactivated: signal inactive

Pickup is blocked when one or more signals prevent pickup. To define a signal for blocking, the following must be entered:

Protection Device Receiving the Signal (Protection Device 1)


Key protection device 1 Zone name for condition Tripping for zone to be locked (phase or ground)

Protection Device Sending the Signal (Protection Device 2)


Key protection device 2 Zone name Tripping for condition (phase or ground) Type of signal

Note: This only prevents the respective unit or area from being picked up.

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2.5.1

Signals at OC Protection Devices


A signal (picked-up or inactive) is sent to each OC protection device for the phase and ground setting at each tripping unit. If signals are blocked, PSS SINCAL treats a tripping unit at an overcurrent protection device like a zone for a distance protection device. PSS SINCAL has the following tripping units: Characteristic-curve tripping First short circuit current tripping Second short circuit current tripping Third short circuit current tripping

Note: With OC protection devices, all tripping units always produce a signal as follows: Current tripping units (phase and ground) send the signal PICKED-UP. Units with smaller tripping time (reserve protection for phase and ground) also send the signal PICKED-UP. Units with higher tripping time or inactive units send the signal INACTIVE.

OC protection devices with PICKED-UP characteristic-curve tripping and second short circuit current tripping send the following signals in second short circuit current tripping as an active tripping unit: Characteristic-curve tripping: PICKED-UP First short circuit current tripping: INACTIVE Second short circuit current tripping: PICKED-UP Third short circuit current tripping: INACTIVE

Note: OC protection devices tripping in one time step do not have any current in the following time steps. All tripping units of tripped OC protection devices therefore must always send the signal INACTIVE in the following time steps.

2.5.2

Signals at Distance Protection Devices


Each distance-protection device has a signal (picked-up/inactive) for phase and ground setting in each tripping area. PSS SINCAL has the following kinds of levels: FIRST LEVEL SECOND LEVEL THIRD LEVEL Pickup (impedance pickup pickup area) SIEMENS areas: Identified by the area name Freely definable areas: Identified by the area name

The tripping area and the impedance the protection device registers determine which tripping area produces which signals. PICKED-UP protection devices react to the following criteria: Impedance registered within the tripping area valid direction: PICKED-UP

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Impedance registered within the tripping area invalid direction: INACTIVE Impedance registered outside the tripping area: INACTIVE

All tripping areas for inactive protection devices send the signal INACTIVE. Note: Distance-protection devices tripping in one time step do not have any current in the following time steps and consequently do not register impedance. All tripping units of tripped distanceprotection devices therefore always send the signal INACTIVE in the following time steps:

2.5.3

Example for Blocked Tripping


Signals should ideally be blocked to trip faults in the first line to be protected. For reasons of simplification, this example shows a purely Ohmic line with a resistance of three Ohms.
R=3 Ohm K1 SG1 Illustration: Line with protection devices SG2 K2

Individual impedance areas register at different distances into the line. In this example, the following is true for both protection devices:

R1 R1B R2

2 Ohm 3.05 Ohm 4 Ohm

The fault occurs at a distance of 2.5 Ohm. The signal for the stipulated tripping level R 1B, t1B is always the tripping level R1, t1 of the protection device located opposite.
t SG2 SG1

R2, t2

R2, t2

R1B, t1B

R1, t1 K1 SG1

R1, t1 SG2 K2

R1B, t1B

Illustration: Range of tripping areas

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SG2

SG1

R1, t1 K1 SG1 SG2 K2

R1B, t1B

Signal of SG2 and level R1, t1 = ENERGIZED Illustration: Signal behavior Clearing time of the fault: t1B

t1B K1 SG1

t1 SG2 K2

Illustration: Protection devices with tripping times

In our example, the protection devices switching time must be greater than:

t1B

t1

2.6

Determining Tripping and Waiting Times for Protection Devices


Calculations for the tripping time of a protection device do not depend on the type of protection device. The following times are considered in the calculations:

Waiting Time
time from when the fault was encountered until the protection device was picked-up

Imaginary Waiting Time


waiting time calculated due to peculiarities in the algorithm to calculate the tripping time and waiting time for a protection device

Present Tripping Time


protection device tripping time determined from existing currents and voltages

Previous Fault-Clearing Time


clearing time for final calculations

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Present Fault-Clearing Time


clearing time for present calculations

2.6.1

Sequence to Determine Times


The time is determined as follows:

Tripping Conditions for Phase Faults


Values phase 1 Values phase 2 Values phase 3

Tripping Conditions for Ground Faults


Values phase 1 Values phase 2 Values phase 3

The tripping times are calculated as follows: The tripping time is calculated from setting ranges and phases If the tripping range changes for OC protection devices (characteristic-curve tripping, first short circuit current tripping) set the previous status of the protection device to inactive If the previous status is inactive set the waiting time the same as the previous clearing time If the previous status is picked-up and the tripping time is less than previous clearing time there is immediate tripping for an electronic protection device there is delayed tripping for a conventional protection device Calculate the present tripping time add up the waiting time, present tripping time and imaginary waiting time Compare this with the clearing time for all previous setting ranges and phases use the smallest time for each protection device

This algorithm can, however, create a problem with immediate or a delayed tripping. The present clearing time can be smaller than the previous clearing time. Since, however, this is impossible, the protection device must be given an imaginary waiting time.

Immediate Tripping
The imaginary waiting time for the protection device is the previous clearing time minus the present tripping time.

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Delayed Tripping
The imaginary waiting time must consider the effects of heat from the new current on the protection device. Differentiation must be made between the following two cases: Tripping time for the current from 1000.0 to 0.3 seconds The 0.3 seconds must be effectively run out before the protection device trips. Tripping time for the current from 0.7 to 0.3 seconds The tripping time for the current is between 0.3 and 0.7 seconds.

As can be seen in both cases, the algorithm for delayed tripping must consider both the previous time and the previous current.

2.6.2

Determining Clearing Times for Faults


PSS SINCAL calculates clearing times for faults as follows: PSS SINCAL makes these clearing times equal to the smallest tripping time of all other protection devices in the present simulation loop.

PSS SINCAL stops protection calculations automatically if: There are no more picked-up protection devices Current at the fault location is equal to zero

2.6.3

Distance Protection Tripping due to Phase-Fault Setting


For phase-fault tripping, all currents in all phases are used to fulfill the tripping conditions. The currents in the three phases do not need to be the same size. To fulfill the phase-tripping conditions, the current for each phase is observed separately. The tripping conditions for the phase faults are always checked separately from the actual faults in the network.

2.6.4

Distance Protection Tripping due to Ground-Fault Setting


Ground tripping occurs only when a ground current that does not equal zero is produced right at the protection device. The ground current is determined from
Ie I1 I2 I3

The current through the protection device is different in all three phases. To fulfill the groundtripping conditions, the current for each phase is observed separately. Ground-fault currents can also cause tripping due to phase-fault settings, so the characteristics for either the phase or ground can pickup the protection device.

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PSS SINCAL uses the minimum value from the following to determine pickup behavior: Current/voltage Phase 1 and settings ground faults Current/voltage Phase 2 and settings ground faults Current/voltage Phase 3 and settings ground faults Current/voltage Phase 1 Phase 2 and settings phase faults Current/voltage Phase 2 Phase 3 and settings phase faults Current/voltage Phase 3 Phase 1 and settings phase faults

2.6.5

Distance Protection Tripping for Load Current


Load current flowing through the protection device may not pickup the protection device for phasefault tripping. The load flow calculations only determine the current and the voltage for Phase 1. The currents and voltages in Phases current related to Two and Three are produced by rotating 120 or -120 degrees.

2.7

Recommendations and Warnings


The operator needs to consider the following when determining currents, times and tripping states: Protection devices always switch off all three phases simultaneously. One- or three-phase short circuit current is always determined as maximum short circuit current. If the short circuit does not occur during crossover (null), there is less present current and the tripping time is larger. If the damage curve of the network element crosses the tripping curve, it can lead to heat damage and even change the tripping sequence. If the tripping time is greater than the previous fault-clearing time, the tripping time can be reset so the protection devices that are already picked up do not reach maximum head load and shut down. Otherwise, this could damage network elements and even change the tripping sequence. When the safety-time interval entered is larger than the switching time, this gap produces another current distribution for the time between the networks switching time and safety-time interval. This condition can alter the tripping sequence.

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3.

Protection Routes
PSS SINCAL generates various diagrams for the network and the built-in protection devices. These diagrams are used to check the accuracy of the protection setting. If you only create specific routes in the network as a diagram, you need to have a Network Element Group of the type "protection route" for these elements. Note: PSS SINCAL only generates diagrams for protection devices if these have been switched ON in the selective grading diagram (see the section on Locating Protection Devices in the chapter on Data Description in the Input Data Manual). PSS SINCAL has the following diagrams: Tripping Behavior Ratio Impedances (Z) Ratio Reactances (X) Impedance and Tripping Areas

Tripping Behavior
This diagram shows the tripping behavior of protection devices over time, depending on the impedance registered. PSS SINCAL generates one diagram per protection route for each protection device. This diagram also contains protection devices located in the protection route being displayed so that selective tripping can be set and tripping times can be easily checked.

Illustration: Diagram Protection Routes Tripping Behavior

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Ratio Impedances (Z)


This diagram shows the impedance registered by the protection device compared to the amount of impedance in the protection route. The tripping levels of the protection device are shown as horizontal lines in the diagram. PSS SINCAL generates one diagram per protection route for each protection device.

Illustration: Diagram Protection Routes Ratio Impedances

Ratio Reactances (X)


This diagram shows the reactance registered by the protection device compared to the amount of reactance in the protection route. The tripping levels of the protection device are shown as horizontal lines in the diagram. PSS SINCAL generates one diagram per protection route for each protection device.

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Illustration: Diagram Protection Routes Ratio Reactances

Impedance and Tripping Areas


This diagram shows the impedance areas of the protection device. Impedance registered by the protection device (at the particular node) can also help you visualize the protection route. PSS SINCAL generates one diagram per protection route for each protection device.

Illustration: Diagram Protection Routes Impedance and Tripping Areas

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4.

Protection Device Settings


This simulation procedure determines the settings for distance protection devices. PSS SINCAL calculates the values actually set at the protection device from the types of protection devices in the network and their selective distance factors. In addition to settings, this simulation procedure also generates diagrams as selective tripping schedules. Larger high- and medium-voltage networks are updated all the time. This means that a lot of effort is required to maintain the tripping plans. Formerly, second and third selective tripping levels in meshed networks had to be calculated by hand. This meant a great deal of work and yielded calculations that were at best approximate. Now, however, PSS SINCAL can calculate these levels quickly and accurately.

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Basic Calculation Sequence for Protection Device Settings


Download and check all network data Depending on strategy, reconstruct the network to determine settings

Short circuit in new network calculate wandering short circuit in parallel lines

Loop steps Loop protection device

Set points for limits of bends Set minimum impedance for limits with the help of short circuits

Calculate settings and tripping area from measurement type, type of protection device and minimum impedance

Set intersections for protection device tripping area with network resistance curve (range of protection device)

Have all protection devices been calculated?

No

Have all steps been calculated? Yes Prepare results Illustration: Sequence diagram

No

4.1

Supported Protection Device Types


Modern distance-protection devices are like computers that trip and turn off if there is a fault, using internal programs that measure current and voltage values and their settings. Protection devices are so complex that they need to be simulated to understand them properly. A special module has been integrated into PSS SINCAL protection coordination that can simulate many kinds of distance-protection devices. Additional protection devices can easily be added to the module.

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PSS SINCAL supports the following types of protection devices: Type


Common 7SA500 7SA501 7SA502 7SA510 7SA511 7SA513 7SA522 7SA610 7SA611 7SA612 7SA631 7SA632 7SL13 7SL17 7SL24 7SL70 7SL73 EPAC3100 EPAC3400 EPAC3500 EPAC3600 EPAC3700 LZ91 LZ92 PD531 PD532 PD551 PD552 R1KZ4 R1KZ4A R1KZ7 R1KZ7G R1Z23B R1Z25 R1Z25A R1Z27 RD10 REL316 REL521 REL561 RK4 RK4A SD124 SD135 SD135A SD14 SD14A

Function group
Common 7SA 7SA 7SA 7SA 7SA 7SA 7SA 7SA 7SA 7SA 7SA 7SA 7SL 7SL 7SL 7SL 7SL PD5 PD5 PD5 PD5 PD5 LZ9 LZ9 PD5 PD5 PD5 PD5 R1KZ R1KZ R1KZ7 R1KZ7 R1Z25 R1Z25 R1Z25 R1Z27 SD1 PD5 PD5 PD5 R1KZ R1KZ SD1 SD3 SD3 SD1 SD1

Manufacturer
SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS ALSTOM ALSTOM ALSTOM ALSTOM ALSTOM

ALSTOM ALSTOM ALSTOM ALSTOM SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS ABB ABB ABB SIEMENS SIEMENS AEG AEG AEG AEG AEG

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SD14B SD34A SD35 SD35A SD35C SD36

SD1 SD34 SD3 SD3 SD3 SD36

AEG AEG AEG AEG AEG AEG

Some 50 protection device types are divided up into 10 groups, depending on how they work. Except for minor differences, PSS SINCAL simulates a particular groups protection devices in the same way.

4.1.1

How Distance Protection Devices Work


All distance protection devices work in the same way. They determine the impedances of all the impedance loops (conductor conductor and conductor ground) from current and voltage in the three-phase network. Then PSS SINCAL checks whether the registered loop impedance is inside one or more prescribed impedance areas. Each impedance area is assigned a constant tripping time. The constant time per step produces jumps in the tripping time (steps) if the loop impedances registered are in different areas. The settings at the protection device are used as parameters for the impedance area according to the current network. Depending on the type of protection device, impedance areas are based on circles or impedance quadrilaterals. All settings are secondary values at the protection device. The primary values are calculated from the factor of the current transformer,

curr

Ipri isec

from the factor of the voltage transformer

volt

Vpri Vs ec

and from the settings. All PSS SINCAL predefined protection device types are described below with the relevant parameters for PSS SINCAL. Protection device types in a group have the same parameters as used in PSS SINCAL.

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4.1.2

Circular Tripping Areas


To define a circle with the center at the origin of the coordinates, simply enter the radius. Additional entries can be made to move the center of the circle along the positive resistance axis. Depending on where the center is, the circle is known as: An Impedance Circle: The center is located in the origin of the coordinate. A Modified Impedance Circle: The center is located between origin of the coordinates and positive radius. The circle passes through the reactance axis of the impedance area. A Conductance Circle: The center of the circle is located right at the positive radius. Thus, the reactance axis is simply a tangent of the circle.

This type of protection device is technically known as an analogous protection device. Protection devices are complicated mechanical measurement devices.

4.1.3

Quadrilateral-Shaped Tripping Areas


The simplest form of the impedance quadrilateral is a rectangle. To define these, simply enter a value for resistance and reactance in the first quadrants. PSS SINCAL then constructs an area symmetrical to the resistance and reactance axes. Entering an angle changes the rectangle to a diamond. Unlike circles, the two different shapes have no special names: Rectangular impedance quadrilateral Diamond-shaped impedance quadrilateral

Technically, these protection devices are known as digital protection devices and resemble modern PCs. Since digital protection devices have become much cheaper to buy and maintain than analogous protection devices, digital devices are replacing analogous ones. To protect the network when devices are exchanged, the new devices must be assigned the same tripping area as the old devices. Newer digital protection devices can also simulate circular tripping areas (digital analogous protection).

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4.1.4

Common
How these devices work: Digital protection device with settings R, X, Z and angle phi

Measurement types supported: Impedance Circle Modified Impedance Circle Conductance Circle Impedance Quadrilateral Reactance Quadrilateral MHO Circle MHO Circle Polarized

Rated currents supported: PSS SINCAL does not check for a specific rated current. Zone
1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.001 to 9999.000 (step of 0.001) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.001 to 9999.000 (step of 0.001) -"-"-"-"-

Z [Ohm]
0.001 to 9999.000 (step of 0.001) -"-"-"-"-

Angle phi []
30 to 90 (step of 1) Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

Procedural Simulation
The primary value for R, X and Z is calculated from
Rpri Rsec volt curr

or
Xpri Xsec volt curr

or
Zpri Z sec volt curr

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4.1.5

7SA500, 7SA501 and 7SA502


How these devices work: Digital protection devices with settings R and X

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.05 to 65.32 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.05 to 65.32 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is a rectangular impedance quadrilateral.

Procedural Simulation
PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

int

In 10 ,

The primary value for R and X is calculated from


Rpri R sec volt curr int

or
Xpri Xsec volt curr int

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4.1.6

7SA510, 7SA511 and 7SA513


How these devices work: Digital protection devices with settings R and X

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.05 to 130.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.05 to 65.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is a rectangular impedance quadrilateral.

Procedural Simulation
PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

int

In 10 ,

The primary value for R and X is calculated from


Rpri R sec volt curr int

or
Xpri Xsec volt curr int

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4.1.7

7SA522
How these devices work: Digital protection device with settings R, X, Z and angle phi

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral MHO Circle MHO Circle Polarized

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere Zone


1

R [Ohm]
0.005 to 250.000 (step of 0.001) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.005 to 250.000 (step of 0.001) -"-"-"-"-

Z [Ohm]
0.005 to 200.000 (step of 0.001) -"-"-"-"-

Angle phi []
30 to 90 (step of 1)

2 3 IP PP

such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is a diamond-shaped impedance quadrilateral.

Procedural Simulation
PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

int

In 10 ,

The primary value for R, X and Z is calculated from


Rpri R sec volt curr int

or
Xpri Xsec volt curr int

or
Zpri Z sec volt curr int

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4.1.8

7SA610, 7SA611, 7SA612, 7SA631 and 7SA632


How these devices work: Digital protection devices with settings R, X and angle phi

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere 1 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.05 to 250.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.05 to 250.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

Angle phi []
30 to 90 (step of 1) Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

5 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.01 to 50.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.01 to 50.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

Angle phi []
30 to 90 (step of 1) Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The tripping area is a diamond-shaped impedance quadrilateral.

Procedural Simulation
The primary value for R and X is calculated from
Rpri R sec volt curr

or
Xpri Xsec volt curr

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4.1.9

7SL13
How these devices work: Digital protection device with settings X and RX

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

X [Ohm]
Resistance chain: 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.15, 0.30, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00, 8.00, 16.00 and 32.00 Resistance chain: 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.15, 0.30, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 2.00, 5.00, 10.00, 10.00 and 10.00 -"-"-"-

R/X [1]
2,00 -"-"-"-"-

Angle phi []
88 Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is a diamond-shaped impedance quadrilateral with sides that are always inclined by 2 degrees.

Procedural Simulation
Note that resistors must have the X value on the secondary side. PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

int

In 10 ,

Resistance chains of the individual zones have a serial connection with a base resistance of 0.1 ohm. PSS SINCAL automatically adds the base resistance to the indicated settings. When these settings are passed on in protection device configuration, you need to be very careful that the values are not reduced a second time by the base resistance. The primary value for R and X is calculated from
X1pri (0,1 X1sec ) 10 , tan(2,0) R/ X volt curr int tan(2,0) R/ X volt curr int

X2pri

(0,1 X1sec

X2 sec )

10 ,

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X3pri

(0,1 X1sec

X2 sec

X3 sec )

10 ,

tan(2,0) R/ X

volt curr int

or
R1pri R 2pri R3pri X1pri R / X X 2pri R / X X3pri R / X

4.1.10 7SL17, 7SL24, 7SL70 and 7SL73


How these devices work: Digital protection devices with settings X and R

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

X [Ohm]
Resistance chain: 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.15, 0.30, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00, 8.00, 16.00 and 32.00 -"-"-"-"-

R/X [1]
1.00 to 4,00 (step of 1) -"-"-"-"-

Angle phi []
88 Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is a diamond-shaped impedance quadrilateral with sides that are always inclined by 2 degrees.

Procedural Simulation
Note that resistors must have the X value on the secondary side. PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

int

In 10 ,

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Resistance chains of the individual zones have a serial connection with a base resistance of 0.1 ohm. PSS SINCAL automatically adds the base resistance to the indicated settings. When these settings are passed on in protection device configuration, you need to be very careful that the values are not reduced a second time by the base resistance. The primary value for R and X is calculated from
Xpri (0,1 Xsec ) 10 , tan(2,0) R/ X volt curr int

or
Rpri Xpri R / X

4.1.11 EPAC3100, EPAC3400, EPAC3500, EPAC3600 and EPAC3700


How these devices work: Digital protection devices with settings R and X

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere 1 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.01 to 200.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.01 to 200.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

5 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.02 to 40.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.02 to 40.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

The tripping area is a rectangular impedance quadrilateral.

Procedural Simulation
The primary value for R and X is calculated from

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Device Settings

Rpri

R sec

volt curr

or
Xpri Xsec volt curr

4.1.12 LZ91 and LZ92


How these devices work: Digital protection devices with settings M, N and R/X

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

M [1]
0.1, 0.5 or 5.0 0.1, 1.0 or 10.0 -"-"-"-

N [1]
1.0 to 99.0 (step of 1.0) -"-"-"-"-

R/X [1]
1.0 to 5.0 (step of 1.0) -"-"-"-"-

Angle phi []
85 Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is a diamond-shaped impedance quadrilateral with sides that are always inclined by 5 degrees.

Procedural Simulation
Note that resistors must have the X value on the secondary side. PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

int

In 10 ,

The primary value for R and X is calculated from


Xpri M 100 (1,0 tan(5,0)) volt N R / X curr int

or

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Rpri

Xpri R / X

4.1.13 PD531 and PD551


How these devices work: Digital protection devices with settings R and X

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere 1 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.10 to 10.00 (step of 0.01) and 10.0 to 200.0 (step of 0.1) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.10 to 10.00 (step of 0.01) and 10.0 to 200.0 (step of 0.1) -"-"-"-"-

5 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.02 to 10.00 (step of 0.002) and 10.0 to 40.0 (step of 0.02) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.02 to 10.00 (step of 0.002) and 10.0 to 40.0 (step of 0.02) -"-"-"-"-

The tripping area is a rectangular impedance quadrilateral.

Procedural Simulation
The primary value for R and X is calculated from
Rpri R sec volt curr

or
Xpri Xsec volt curr

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Device Settings

4.1.14 PD532 and PD552


How these devices work: Digital protection devices with settings R, X, Z and angle phi

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral Impedance Circle

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere 1 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.10 to 200.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.10 to 200.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

Z [Ohm]
0.05 to 200.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

Angle phi []
40.0 to 90.00 (step of 1.0) Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

5 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.02 to 40.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.02 to 40.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

Z [Ohm]
0.01 to 40.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

Angle phi []
40.0 to 90.00 (step of 1.0) Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The tripping area is a diamond-shaped impedance quadrilateral (settings R, X and angle phi) or an impedance circle (set at Z).

Procedural Simulation
The primary value for R, X and Z is calculated from
Rpri R sec volt curr

or
Xpri Xsec volt curr

or

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Zpri

Z sec

volt curr

4.1.15 R1KZ4, R1KZ4A, RK4 and RK4A


How these devices work: Analogous protection devices with the setting R and the measurement range c

Measurement types supported: Impedance Circle Modified Impedance Circle Conductance Circle

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
Resistance chain: 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 Resistance chain: 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 Resistance chain: 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 Resistance chain: 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 10.0, 20.0 and 962.7 -"-

c [1]
0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 or 10.0 Such as c1 -"-"-"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is an impedance circle, a modified impedance circle or a conductance circle.

Procedural Simulation
PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

int

In 5,0

Resistance chains of the individual zones have a serial connection with a base resistance of 1 ohm. PSS SINCAL automatically adds the base resistance to the indicated settings. When these settings are passed on in protection device configuration, you need to be very careful that the values are not reduced a second time by the base resistance. Set the diameter of the circle of the respective measurement type. The primary value for R is calculated from
R1pri volt c (1 R1sec ) cur int

or

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Device Settings

R2pri

c (1 R1sec

R2sec )

volt curr int

or
R3pri c (1 R1sec R2sec R3sec ) volt curr int

4.1.16 R1KZ7 and R1KZ7G


How these devices work: Analogous protection devices with the setting R, the measurement range c and the angle phi

Measurement types supported: Impedance Circle Modified Impedance Circle Conductance Circle

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere Zone


1 2 3

R [Ohm]
Resistance chain: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.3, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 3.0 Resistance chain: 0.2, 0.4, 0.4, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 3.0 -"-

c [1]
0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 Such as c1 -"-

Angle phi []
0.0, 20.0, 30.0, 40.0, 50.0 or 55.0 Such as phi1 -"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is an impedance circle, a modified impedance circle or a conductance circle.

Procedural Simulation
PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

int

In 5,0

Resistance chains of the individual zones have a serial connection with a base resistance of 1 ohm. PSS SINCAL automatically adds the base resistance to the indicated settings. When these settings are passed on in protection device configuration, you need to be very careful that the values are not reduced a second time by the base resistance. Set the diameter of the circle of the respective measurement type. The primary value for R is calculated from

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R1pri

volt c (1 R1sec ) curr int

or
R2pri c (1 R1sec R2sec ) volt curr int

or
R3pri c (1 R1sec R2sec R3sec ) volt curr int

4.1.17 R1Z25, R1Z25A and R1Z23B


How these devices work: Analogous protection devices with the setting R, the measurement range c, the correction factor C3 and the angle phi

Measurement types supported: Impedance Circle Modified Impedance Circle

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
Resistance chain: 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 Resistance chain: 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 -"-"-"-

c [1]
0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 or 10.0 Such as c1 -"-"-"-

Angle phi []
60.0, 64.0, 68.0, 71.0, 74.0, 76.0, 78.0 or 80.0 Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is either an impedance circle or a modified impedance circle.

Procedural Simulation
PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

int

In C3

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Device Settings

Resistance chains of the individual zones have a serial connection with a base resistance of 1 ohm. PSS SINCAL automatically adds the base resistance to the indicated settings. When these settings are passed on in protection device configuration, you need to be very careful that the values are not reduced a second time by the base resistance. Set the diameter of the circle of the respective measurement type. The primary value for R is calculated from
R1pri volt c (1 R1sec ) curr int

or
R2pri c (1 R1sec R2sec ) volt curr int

or
R3pri c (1 R1sec R2sec R3sec ) volt curr int

4.1.18 R1Z27
How these devices work: Analogous protection device with the setting R, the measurement range c and the angle phi

Measurement types supported: Impedance Circle Modified Impedance Circle

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
1.0000 to 2.50000 (step of 0.0001) -"-"-"-"-

c [1]
0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 20.0 or 50.0 -"-"-"-"-

Angle phi []
60.0, 65.0, 70.0, 75.0 or 80.0 Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is either an impedance circle or a modified impedance circle.

Procedural Simulation
PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

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SIEMENS

int

In 10 ,

For each zone, the resistance potentiometer must be assigned continuous values. The measurement range can be entered individually for each zone. Set the diameter of the circle of the respective measurement type. The primary value for R is calculated from
Rpri c R sec volt curr int

4.1.19 RD10
How these devices work: Analogous protection device with the setting R and the measurement range c

Measurement types supported: Impedance Circle

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere 1 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.25000 to 6.25000 (step of 0.00001) -"-"-"-"-

c [1]
1.0, 4.0 or 8.0 Such as c1 -"-"-"-

5 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.05000 to 1.25000 (step of 0.00001) -"-"-"-"-

c [1]
1.0, 4.0 or 8.0 Such as c1 -"-"-"-

The tripping area is an impedance circle.

Procedural Simulation
For each zone, the resistance potentiometer must be assigned continuous values. The primary value for R is calculated from

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Device Settings

Rpri

c R sec

volt curr

4.1.20 REL316
How these devices work: Digital protection device with settings R and X

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 2 ampere 5 ampere 1 or 2 ampere rated current Zone
1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.01 to 300.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.01 to 300.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

5 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.001 to 30.000 (step of 0.001) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.001 to 30.000 (step of 0.001) -"-"-"-"-

The tripping area is a rectangular impedance quadrilateral.

Procedural Simulation
The primary value for R and X is calculated from
Rpri R sec volt curr

or
Xpri Xsec volt curr

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4.1.21 REL521 and REL561


How these devices work: Digital protection devices with settings R and X

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere 1 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.10 to 400.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.10 to 400.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

5 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.02 to 80.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

X [Ohm]
0.02 to 80.00 (step of 0.01) -"-"-"-"-

The tripping area is a rectangular impedance quadrilateral.

Procedural Simulation
The primary value for R and X is calculated from
Rpri R sec volt curr

or
Xpri Xsec volt curr

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Device Settings

4.1.22 SD124
How these devices work: Analogous protection device with the setting R, the measurement range c and the angle phi

Measurement types supported: Impedance Circle Modified Impedance Circle

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere 1 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
1.00000 to 28.00000 (step of 0.00001) -"-"-"-"-

c [1]
0.25, 1.00 or 2.00 Such as c1 -"-"-"-

Angle phi []
10.00 to 90.00 (step of 0.01) Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

5 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.20000 to 5.60000 (step of 0.00001) -"-"-"-"-

c [1]
0.25, 1.00 or 2.00 Such as c1 -"-"-"-

Angle phi []
10.00 to 90.00 (step of 0.01) Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The tripping area is either an impedance circle or a modified impedance circle.

Procedural Simulation
For each zone, the resistance potentiometer must be assigned continuous values. Set the radius of the circle of the respective measurement type. The primary value for R is calculated from
Rpri c R sec volt curr

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4.1.23 SD135
How these devices work: Digital protection device with the setting R, the measurement range c and the angle phi

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere 1 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
1.00000 to 10.00000 (step of 0.00001) -"-"1.20, 1.35 or 1.50 -"-

c [1]
0.1, 1.0 and 6.0 -"-"Such as c1 -"-

Angle phi []
72 Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

5 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
1.00000 to 10.00000 (step of 0.00001) -"-"1.20, 1.35 or 1.50 -"-

c [1]
0.02, 0.20 and 1.20 -"-"Such as c1 -"-

Angle phi []
72 Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is a diamond-shaped impedance quadrilateral.

Procedural Simulation
PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

int

In 10 ,

PSS SINCAL calculates the primary value for R and X from the setting Z and the angle phi/2.
Xpri c Z sec volt curr int sin

or

90

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Device Settings

Rpri

c Z sec

volt curr int

cos

Xpri tan( )

4.1.24 SD135A
How these devices work: Digital protection device with the setting R, the measurement range c and the angle phi

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

Z [Ohm]
1.00000 to 10.00000 (step of 0.00001) -"-"1.20, 1.35, 1.50, 2.00 or 3.00 -"-

c [1]
0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 -"-"Such as c1 -"-

Angle phi []
72 Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is a diamond-shaped impedance quadrilateral.

Procedural Simulation
PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

int

In 10 ,

PSS SINCAL calculates the primary value for R and X from the setting Z and the angle phi/2.
Xpri c Z sec volt curr int sin

or
Rpri c Z sec volt curr int cos Xpri tan( )

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4.1.25 SD14, SD14A and SD14B


How these devices work: Analogous protection devices with the setting R and the measurement range c

Measurement types supported: Impedance Circle

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere 1 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.50000 to 12.50000 (step of 0.00001) -"-"-"-"-

c [1]
0.5, 1.0 or 4.0 Such as c1 -"-"-"-

5 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.10000 to 2.50000 (step of 0.00001) -"-"-"-"-

c [1]
0.5, 1.0 or 4.0 Such as c1 -"-"-"-

The tripping area is an impedance circle.

Procedural Simulation
For each zone, the resistance potentiometer must be assigned continuous values. Set the radius of the circle of the respective measurement type. The primary value for R is calculated from
Rpri c R sec volt curr

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Device Settings

4.1.26 SD34A
How these devices work: Analogous protection device with the setting R, the measurement range c and the angle phi

Measurement types supported: Impedance Circle

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere 1 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.50000 to 13.0000 (step of 0.00001) -"-"-"-"-

c [1]
0.5, 1.0 or 4.0 Such as c1 -"-"-"-

Angle phi []
10.0000 to 87.0000 (step of 0.0001) Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

5 ampere rated current Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.10000 to 2.6000 (step of 0.00001) -"-"-"-"-

c [1]
0.5, 1.0 or 4.0 Such as c1 -"-"-"-

Angle phi []
10.0000 to 87.0000 (step of 0.0001) Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The tripping area is an impedance circle.

Procedural Simulation
For each zone, the resistance potentiometer must be assigned continuous values. Set the radius of the circle of the respective measurement type. The primary value for R is calculated from
Rpri c R sec volt curr

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4.1.27 SD35
How these devices work: Digital protection devices with the setting Z, the measurement range c and the angle phi

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

Z [Ohm]
1.00000 to 10.00000 (step of 0.00001) -"-"1.20, 1.35 or 1.50 -"-

c [1]
0.1, 1.0 and 6.0 -"-"Such as c1 -"-

Angle phi []
90 Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is a diamond-shaped impedance quadrilateral.

Procedural Simulation
PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

int

In 10 ,

PSS SINCAL calculates the primary value for R and X from the setting Z and the angle phi/2.
Xpri c Z sec volt curr int sin

or
Rpri c Z sec volt curr int cos

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Device Settings

4.1.28 SD35A and SD35C


How these devices work: Digital protection devices with the setting Z, the measurement range c and the angle phi

Measurement types supported: Impedance Quadrilateral

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

Z [Ohm]
1.00000 to 10.00000 (step of 0.00001) -"-"1.20, 1.35 or 1.50 -"-

c [1]
0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 -"-"Such as c1 -"-

Angle phi []
90 Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is a diamond-shaped impedance quadrilateral.

Procedural Simulation
PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

int

In 10 ,

PSS SINCAL calculates the primary value for R and X from the setting Z and the angle phi/2.
Xpri c Z sec volt curr int sin

or
Rpri c Z sec volt curr int cos

April 2010

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4.1.29 SD36
How these devices work: Analogous protection device with the setting R and the angle phi

Measurement types supported: Impedance Circle

Rated currents supported: 1 ampere 5 ampere Zone


1 2 3 IP PP

R [Ohm]
0.10000 to 99.99000 (step of 0.00001) -"-"-"-"-

Angle phi []
10.00 to 87.00 (step of 0.01) Such as phi1 -"-"-"-

The setting range is true for devices with 1A rated current and for devices with 5A rated current. The tripping area is an impedance circle.

Procedural Simulation
PSS SINCAL determines an internal transformer factor using the rated current with

int

In 10 ,

For each zone, the resistance potentiometer must be assigned continuous values. Set the radius of the circle of the respective measurement type. The primary value for R is calculated from
Rpri R sec volt curr int

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Device Settings

4.2

Calculation Method
The task of this simulation procedure is to determine the settings for distance protection devices. PSS SINCAL first uses the protection devices and protection device types in the network to calculate minimum network impedance using a solution strategy. Since there are different concepts or philosophies for determining primary network impedance settings for protection devices, these are implemented as solution strategies in the simulation procedure. Currently PSS SINCAL can use the following solution strategies to determine network impedance: DISTAL Strategy: This strategy is based on DISTAL. The distance protection devices are set according to absolute selectivity. Line Impedance Strategy: This strategy determines the impedance areas of protection devices and their settings from the sum of the line impedances in the protection zones. Line Impedance Strategy Connected: This strategy determines the settings for protection devices from line impedances in the network. Medium-Voltage Network Strategy: This strategy determines the impedance areas of protection devices and their settings from loop impedances in the protection zones.

PSS SINCAL uses time sequence factors to calculate the primary bend impedance from the primary network impedance. The primary bend impedance can also be entered directly by the user. PSS SINCAL uses transformers, protection device types and the primary bend impedance in the network to calculate the secondary values actually set at the protection devices. PSS SINCAL always rounds off the settings to the next possible lower setting. Protection route simulation is a way to determine whether the tripping behavior you want can actually be achieved with the settings that have been calculated. All strategies that determine tripping times are identical to calculating impedance. PSS SINCAL uses preferred tripping times, tripping distance and the tripping times of the subordinate protection devices to calculate tripping time.

4.2.1

Entries for Determining Impedance


Entries in Calculation Settings, Network Levels and protection device data define how PSS SINCAL calculates primary network impedance data.

Defining with Protection Device Data


If the selective grading factor zone 2 is greater than 100 percent, PSS SINCAL uses the primary impedance from Zone 1. If the selective grading factor zone 3 is greater than 100 percent, PSS SINCAL uses the maximum network impedance from Zone 2.

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If the directional final time of the protection device is smaller than or equal to the tripping time of a particular zone, PSS SINCAL uses the primary impedance of the previous zone. This entry has higher priority than the entry for selective tripping factors.

General Definitions
PSS SINCAL uses the smallest impedance up to the location of the next protection device as the primary impedance from Zone 1. If the time difference between the tripping zone of the current protection device and that of the following protection device is greater than the minimum selective tripping, PSS SINCAL calculates the selective tripping factor for this zone. This means that this zone has an effect that goes beyond the next protection device. OC protection devices at a transformer limit the protection zone. PSS SINCAL does not, however, use the impedance up to this network point to determine the smallest impedance from Zone 1. PSS SINCAL uses the small impedance up to the bend of Zone 1 or Zone 2 from the next protection device as the primary impedance for Zone 2 or Zone 3, if the bend is located in Zone 2 or Zone 3. If the bend impedance of the second or third level is less than that of the preceding level, PSS SINCAL uses the impedance of the preceding level to calculate the settings. If the tripping time of a level is less than or equal to the tripping time for directional current energizing, PSS SINCAL sets the level equal to the prior level.

Defining with Calculation Settings


Protection Settings Calculation Settings determine the: Strategy used to calculate primary network impedance, Shortest distance of the second protection zone, Calculation sequence for the tripping levels, Additional information used to calculate primary network impedance Delay times

Treatment of Transformers
The attribute for Treatment of Transformers in the calculation settings for Protection Settings influences the protection zone in calculations for primary network impedance. PSS SINCAL provides the following options: Consider transformers Ignore radial transformers Ignore transformers

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Device Settings

In the network topology below the first protection device depends on the consideration of transformers.

Illustration: Network topology depending on user input

With Consider transformers, all network elements remain in the protection zone.

Illustration: Protection zone when transformers are considered

Ignore radial transformers ignores all transformers at the end of a radial network if there is no supply source.

Illustration: Protection zone without radial transformers

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Ignore transformers ignores all transformers.

Illustration: Protection zone without transformers

Treatment of Supply Nodes


The attribute for Treatment of Supply Nodes in the calculation settings for Protection Settings influences the protection zone in calculations for primary network impedance. PSS SINCAL provides the following options: None Slack node Slack node and transformer Slack and transformer opposite node

In the network topology below the first protection device depends on the treatment of supply nodes.

Illustration: Network topology with direct supply source depending on user input

Without special treatment all network elements remain in the protection zone. The protection device in the parallel feed limits the protection zone. The protection device is graded according to what has been entered for the individual zones.

Illustration: Protection zone without special treatment of supply nodes

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PSS SINCAL Protection Coordination Manual Protection Device Settings

When a slack node limits the protection zone, the protection zone ends at this node. The remaining network area is a radial network. The protection device is graded according to what has been entered for radial lines.

Illustration: Protection zone with limit at slack nodes

Since the supply source is attached directly at the network, any further setting possibilities will create the same protection zone as if limited by the slack node. There needs to be a feed by a transformer to have additional possibilities.

Illustration: Transformer-fed network topology depending on user input

When slack node and transformer limit the protection zone, the protection zone ends at these nodes or elements. The protection zone ends behind the transformer or at the protection device at the parallel feeder. The protection device is graded according to what has been entered for individual zones.

Illustration: Protection zone with limit at slack node and transformer

When the slack and transformer opposite node limits the protection zone, the protection zone ends at these nodes or elements. The remaining network area is a radial network. The protection device is graded according to what has been entered for radial lines.

Illustration: Protection zone with limit at slack node and transformer opposite node

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Delay Times
PSS SINCAL uses delay times as preferential tripping times, if the tripping time of the level is 0.0 seconds and the tripping distance is kept. If the tripping distance is greater than the tripping time entered in the minimum delay times, the tripping time of the second level is set to the desired tripping time.
t

tv2 t12 = tv2 ts tv1 t11 t21 Z

Z1

Z2

Example: Determining times when minimum tripping time is undercut

If the tripping distance is smaller than the tripping time entered in the minimum delay times, the time of the second level is set to the tripping time of the first level of the following protection device plus the minimum tripping time. The tripping time of the second level must be more than the desired tripping time.
t t12 = t21 + ts tv2 ts

tv1 t11 t21 Z

Z1

Z2

Example: Determining times when the minimum tripping time is undercut

Defining with Network Level Data


The network level defines the arcing reserve for individual voltage levels and for individual measurement types. Depending on what has been entered, PSS SINCAL calculates the arcing reserve before it determines the settings for bend impedance. Factor R from X

ZkSet

Rk

fR abs ( Xk )

jXk

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R Arc (primary)

ZkSet
Minimum R/X

Rk

RLB

jXk

for Rk/jXk < Minimum R/X:

ZkSet

Xk R / X

jXk

for Rk/jXk Minimum R/X:

ZkSet

Rk

jXk

ZkSet Bend impedance to determine setting Rk Xk RLB R/X fR Bend resistance according to strategy Bend reactance according to strategy Arcing resistance Minimum value for R/X ratio Factor for resistance

4.2.2

Type of Measurement
This is the impedance area (R/X) that can be set at the protection device. Depending on the type of distance protection device, PSS SINCAL supports different types of measurement and thus impedance areas. Older protection devices work in the same way and have a circular tripping area. Newer protection devices work digitally and can recreate both a circular-shaped tripping area and a quadrilateralshaped tripping area. PSS SINCAL provides the following types of measurement and impedance areas. Analogous Impedance Measurement Impedance Circle Analogous Measurement of Mixed Impedance Modified Impedance Circle Analogous Conductance Measurement Conductance Circle Digital Quadrilateral Impedance Quadrilateral (with/without Entering R/X > 1) Digital Reactance Measurement Reactance Quadrilateral Digital MHO MHO Circle Digital MHO Polarized MHO Circle Polarized

When it calculates settings for distance protection devices, PSS SINCAL constructs simplified areas from bend impedance and then uses the available settings to construct an area as similar to this as possible at the protection devices themselves.

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Summary of important formulas for calculating the settings: Formula sign R X Description Resistance Reactance Impedance Conductance (reciprocal conductance calculated as resistance) Measurement range

Z
1 G

R2 X2
Zk
c

X2 R

Impedance Circle
Impedance circles have their center at the origin of the coordinate of the R/X level. As the smallest primary network impedance, PSS SINCAL uses the one producing the smallest the smallest absolute value.
r 2 curr c volt R2 X2

or

r
X

2Zsec c

Illustration: Impedance area

Modified Impedance Circle


Modified impedance circles have their diameter on the R axis in the R/X level and passing through the x-axis at the bend reactance. As the smallest primary network impedance, PSS SINCAL uses the one producing the smallest absolute value.
r 2 curr c volt 1,05 X

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or

r
X

2,1Xsec c

Illustration: Modified impedance area

Conductance Circle
Conductance circles have their diameter on the R axis in the R/X level and touching the x-axis. As the smallest primary network impedance, PSS SINCAL uses the one producing the smallest conductance circle. PSS SINCAL determines the radius of the conductance circle as follows:

1 curr R c volt

X2 R

or

r
X

Zk sec c

Illustration: Conductance area

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Impedance Quadrilateral
This describes the impedance area with a quadrilateral. Entering the angle phi changes the shape of the R/X area. When PSS SINCAL determines the setting. it sees the impedance quadrilateral as a simplified rectangle. If it can have an angle, PSS SINCAL uses the angle of the bend impedance of the first level as the setting for distorting the quadrilateral. As the smallest primary network impedance, PSS SINCAL uses the one producing the smallest reactance value.

R Illustration: Impedance quadrilateral

Reactance Quadrilateral
The reactance quadrilateral is a rectangle in the R/X level that has a prescribed X Value. The R direction has no limit. The largest value becomes the R value. PSS SINCAL automatically adjusts the reactance quadrilateral during protection simulation. As the smallest primary network impedance, PSS SINCAL uses the one producing the smallest reactance value.
X

R Illustration: Reactance quadrilateral

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MHO Circle
MHO circles pass through the origin of the coordinate and have their diameter on the straight line. PSS SINCAL uses the angle of the bend impedance of the first level as the angle of the straight line. As the smallest primary network impedance, PSS SINCAL uses the one producing the smallest MHO circle with the straight line. To calculate the MHO circle from impedance with R and X, a straight line, normally at the impedance indicator, has to pass through the point R/X in the R/X level. The intersecting point becomes the diameter of the MHO circle.
X Z

R Illustration: MHO circle forward

Illustration: MHO circle backward

MHO Circle Polarized


The polarized MHO circle is a circle based on the MHO circle. The polarization increases or decreases the circle in the direction opposite to the fault. PSS SINCAL always uses the pre-fault voltage to calculate polarization voltage according to following formula:
Vp (10 k pre ) Vact , k pre Vpre

Vp

Polarization voltage

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kpre

Setting for evaluation factor for pre-fault polarization

Vact Current voltage of the impedance loop Vpre Pre-fault voltage of the impedance loop The setting for the evaluation factor for pre-fault polarization is for all levels. PSS SINCAL calculates any change in impedance from the polarization voltage and the current as follows:

Zpre

Vp Iact
Polarization voltage Present current of the impedance loop

Vp Iact

Zpre Change in impedance at pre-fault voltage polarization As the smallest primary network impedance, PSS SINCAL uses the one producing the smallest unpolarized MHO circle with the straight line. To calculate the unpolarized MHO circle from impedance with R and X, a straight line that is normally to the impedance indicator has to pass through the point R/X in the R/X level. The intersecting point becomes the diameter of the MHO circuit.
X Z

Zv

Illustration: MHO circle forward forward fault X Z

Zv

R Illustration: MHO circle forward backward fault

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4.2.3

Selective Grading Factors


Impedance characteristics are set in the protection device depending on circuit breaker locations and their selective protection zones in the network. Tripping is initiated if the measured impedance is within the set characteristic and after the corresponding delay time has elapsed. Tripping diagrams with impedance-time characteristics provide a good method to visualize protection device settings. The selective grading factors determine the reach of the protection zones, based on a percentage value of the line impedance.

ZR3 ZR2 ZR1

ZL1 ZR1'

ZL2

ZL3

ZR2' Illustration: Selective grading factors

If the zone no longer has any subordinate protection device, PSS SINCAL replaces the grading factor of the zone (st1, st2, and st3) with the grading factor for stub cables (stStich).

Zone 1
ZR1 st1 100 ZL1

Zone 2
ZR2 st1 ZL1 ZL2 100 st2 100

Zone 3
ZR3 ZL1 ZL2 ZL3 st1 100 st2 100 st3 100

Auto-Reclosure
Zint err ZL1 stint err 100

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Teleprotection
Zcomp ZL1 stcomp 100

Recommended Selective Grading Factors


st1 st2 st3
stcomp

90%
120%

stint err

Zones of the Next Protection Device


st1 ZR1' ZL2 100
ZR2' ZL2 ZL3 st1 100 st2 100

4.2.4

DISTAL Strategy
The DISTAL strategy sets the protection devices according to absolute selectivity. The following are true: PSS SINCAL observes all protection devices in the direction of the line. Except for the branch with the protection device, all branches leading away from protection devices are disconnected. A generator is created at the protection device location to determine the network impedance of the protection device. The real generators in the network can either be deactivated or considered in the calculations. A minimum value of R/X is entered for impedance quadrilaterals to assure there will be no unfavorable impedance areas (too long and narrow).

Types of Protection Zones


Distance protection devices determine the fault impedance from the line voltage and current at the location. Protection devices can measure the fault removal correctly only if the line connecting the protection device to the fault location is an unbranched radial line or if there is a tree with only one supply source at the location.

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JK Z4 Z1 Z2 Z3

Illustration: Protection zone as a radial line

ZR

V IK

Z1 Z2

Z3

Z4

JK Z1 Z2 Z3

Illustration: Protection zone as a tree

ZR

V IK

Z1 Z2

Z3

Each parallel path increases the range of the protection device, and the protection device "sees" the fault as being closer.

Z1

Z2 ZP

Illustration: Protection zone with parallel path

ZR

Z1

Z 2 ZP Z2 ZP

ZP Z1 Z 2 Z 2 ZP

Each intermediate supply source (between the protection device and fault location) shortens the range of the protection device; i.e. the protection device "sees" the fault as being farther away.

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~ J1 J2

V Illustration: Protection zone with intermediate supply source

I1 Z1 (I1 I2 ) Z2
V I1 Z1 I1 I2 I1 Z2

ZR

Normally, a meshed network has several supply sources. The following diagram shows a path in a meshed network where the range of the protection devices at the beginning of the route is to be checked:

3 1 2

~ Illustration: Protection zone in a meshed network

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Networks can be converted to the form below:


~ ~ ~ ~

Illustration: Converted meshed network

Normally meshed networks have: A supply source with pre-reactance at each station Parallel connections between all stations

All supply sources and parallel connections must be considered to find the exact setting of the protection device. This setting is correct only for this basic network condition. Changing feed ratios or switching lines ON/OFF, however, does change the impedance measured by the protection device. Particularly when intermediate supply sources are turned OFF, the protection device measures "too far". This means there is no selective tripping, and the devices are not turned OFF properly. To assure selective tripping for all feeding and switching conditions, you need to select the network condition where the protection device measures farthest. This means the protection device can only measure distances that are shorter than this and never measures beyond the permissible selective tripping limit. Protection devices have maximum range: If you have eliminated all intermediate supply sources that might shorten the range (as explained above) If there is a supply source at the protection device If you have considered all parallel paths (parallel paths starting from Station 1 are not considered since they are an intermediate supply source and NOT a parallel path for the short circuit current running through the protection device)

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The following is a network diagram that has been converted to determine the settings of Protection Device 1:

~ ZP1 1 2 3 ZP3 Illustration: Converted network diagram ZP2 4

ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3 are replacement impedances for the entire parallel subnetwork. (Parallel resistors of the subordinate network level are not considered since relatively high-resistance dead-end transformers block them). These tripping resistors guarantee the highest degree of selectivity. Even in worst-case network switching and feeding scenarios, tripping will be selective (worst case-selective tripping). Zone 2 must go beyond the remote station to include busbar faults with arcs. This is particularly important for busbars that are not protected.

Sequence for Calculating the Tripping Zones


Calculating Zone 1
Zone 1 can be calculated exactly. Since accurate calculations are unnecessary, a selective grading factor of 90% is recommended.

Calculating Zone 2
In the next zone, PSS SINCAL first considers all the parallel resistors. Then it checks whether the zone goes beyond the following station by a minimum percentage. This percentage can be set in the Calculation Settings. If Zone 2 does go beyond the next station by this amount, PSS SINCAL displays a warning message. This assures a good compromise between selectivity and tripping. PSS SINCAL prints a log of the actual range of Zone 2 as a percentage of the line with the protection device. This log should be checked if PSS SINCAL displays a warning message.

Calculating Zone 3 (Normal with Grading Factor < 100 %)


The Zone 3 checks all the parallel resistors for selectivity. PSS SINCAL automatically shuts down any line segments that Zone 3 does not reach. Selectivity is emphasized. Very rarely, however, a protection device or switch can fail in the meshed network, and there can be somewhat longer tripping times.

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Calculating Zone 3 (Normal with Grading Factor 100 %)


The Zone 3 has to reach past the second station away to avert larger network shutdowns.
ZR3

Z21 Z22 Z23 Illustration: Calculating Zone 3

Z31 Z32

ZR3

(Z1 Z2 max) st3

Here some additional lines can be turned OFF to prevent a larger network shutdown.

Calculating Zone 3 like Zone 2


The same impedance setting should be used for the Zone 2 and Zone 3.

4.2.5

Line Impedance Strategy


PSS SINCAL uses the line impedances in the network to calculate the settings of protection devices. The following is true: PSS SINCAL observes all protection devices in the direction of the line. Parallel paths are observed separately. Ends of protection zones are observed separately. For the settings, PSS SINCAL uses the impedance sum that creates the smallest conductance circle.

Types of Protection Zones


To determine the settings, PSS SINCAL simply adds up all the line impedances, similar to the way many energy suppliers do in real networks.

Z4 Z1 Z2 Z3

Illustration: Protection zone as a spur

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ZR

Z1 Z2

Z3

Z4
Z4 Z2 Z5

Z1 Z3 Z6 Z7 Illustration: Protection zone as a tree

ZR1 ZR2 ZR3 ZR4


Z1

Z1 Z2 Z1 Z2 Z1 Z3 Z1 Z3

Z4 Z5 Z6 Z7
Z2 Z3

Illustration: Protection zone with a parallel path

ZR1
ZR2

Z1 Z2
Z1 Z3

Determining the Conductance Circle


The conductance, or mho, circle is one whose diameter touches the r axis in the R/X level and the x axis. To determine the conductance circle from impedance with R and X, a straight line that normally goes to the impedance index through the point R/X in the R/X level has to intersect with the r axis. The point of intersection is used for the diameter of the conductance circle.

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X . ZRi d R

Illustration: Determining the diameter of a conductance circle

4.2.6

Line Impedance Strategy Connected


PSS SINCAL uses the line impedances connected in the network to calculate the settings of protection devices. The following is true: PSS SINCAL closes all switches PSS SINCAL observes all protection devices in the direction of the line Parallel paths are observed separately Ends of protection zones are observed separately For the settings, PSS SINCAL uses the impedance sum that creates the smallest conductance circle.

The only difference between this strategy and Line Impedance Strategy is that the switches are closed.

4.2.7

Medium-Voltage Network Strategy


Medium-Voltage Network Strategy uses minimal loop impedance at the protection device to determine protection device settings. The following is true: PSS SINCAL observes all protection devices in the direction of the line. No modifications are made to the network. If there is a short circuit in the protection zone, there must be current and voltage at the protection device. To determine minimum loop impedances for individual zones, PSS SINCAL calculates one short circuit each directly behind every protection device limiting the protection zone. Entering a minimum value of R/X for impedance quadrilaterals assures ideal impedance areas that are neither too narrow nor too high.

Types of Protection Zones


Distance protection devices investigate the fault impedance from line voltage and current found at the location.

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For protection devices to measure the impedance up to the fault location correctly, the current from the protection device has to create the remaining voltage at the protection device. If this does not happen (i.e., because there are parallel paths), the loop impedance will increase.

Protection Zone Zone 1 (without Parallel Paths to Create the Remaining Voltage)
The example below illustrates that the network acts as a radial network for the protection device. This is true for all faults in the protection zone during the first time period.
I1 VF, IF Z3 I2 Z1 IF

Z2

Illustration: Fault at a common node

VF

Z1 I1
UF I1 UF I2

Z2 I2
Z1 I1 I1 Z 2 I2 I2 Z1

ZLoop 1

ZLoop 2

Z2

Since both of these supply the same voltage, the protection device registers the correct impedance up to the fault location.
I1 VF, IF Z3 IF I2 Z21 Z22 Z1

Illustration: Fault in the middle of a parallel line

VF

I1 (Z1 Z22) I2
VF I1

Z21
Z1 Z 22

ZLoop 1

I1 ( Z1 Z 22 ) I1

ZLoop 2

VF I2

I2 Z 21 I2

Z 21

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Protection Zone Zone 2 (with Parallel Paths to Create the Remaining Voltage)
In the example below, note that there is no increase in loop impedance before the second time period.
I1 VF, IF Z3 I2 Z1 IF

Z2

Illustration: Fault at the end of the protection zone

VF

I1 Z1 IF Z3
VF I1

I2 Z2 IF Z3
Z1 IF I1 Z3

ZLoop 1

I1 Z1 IF Z 3 I1

ZLoop 2

VF I2

I2 Z 2 IF Z 3 I2

Z2

IF I2

Z3

IF

I1 I2
I1 I2 I1 I1 I2 I2 I2 I1 I1 I2

ZLoop 1

Z1

Z3

Z1

Z3

ZLoop 2

Z2

Z3

Z2

Z3

The loop impedance up to the fault location is no longer equal to the sum of the line impedances. Since the fault current is divided between Lines 1 and 2, the registered loop impedance must be greater than the sum of the line impedances.

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4.3

Results of Settings Calculations


This simulation procedure generates results as settings calculated for distance protection devices and diagrams (selective tripping schedules).

Calculated Settings

Illustration: Settings calculated for distance protection devices

PSS SINCAL lists the settings from the calculations in the data output form, If necessary, they can also be used directly as input parameters in the settings. For a detailed description of how this is done, see the example in Protection Device Settings.

Diagrams
For each protection device, PSS SINCAL generates two grading diagrams. These can be called up with DI Device Settings Grading Diagram (Z/t or X/t). The diagrams also have subordinate protection devices in the protection zone. These diagrams show tripping behavior of the protection devices over a period of time in dependence on the bend impedance calculated. The bends in the diagram are the intersecting points (Z or X) of the impedance area with lines through the origin of the coordinate and the bend that has been calculated. If directional current energizing has been entered, PSS SINCAL will show this after the last available level.

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Since the bend impedance does not have to agree with the registered loop impedance, this tripping behavior purely prognostic. Protection route simulation is used to determine whether the desired tripping behavior can actually be achieved. If the registered loop impedance of the protection device is not the same as the calculated bend impedance, this will produce different tripping behavior in protection route simulation. In this case, protection device settings will need to be calculated again using a different strategy, or modified by hand until the desired tripping behavior is achieved.

Illustration: Diagram of DI Device Settings Grading Diagram

Sometimes you also need to generate selective tripping diagrams for documentation without determining the settings. Click Calculate Protection Device Coordination DI Device Charts in the menu to start this function.

4.4

Hints and Cautions


Note the following: The procedure does NOT let you automatically switch measurement types. If the distance protection device cannot be set with this type, PSS SINCAL aborts the calculations and displays an error message. This also happens if a distance protection device supports different types of measurement and the required setting could be done with another type of measurement. If Zone 2 is less than Zone 1 PSS SINCAL gives Zone 2 the same setting as Zone 1. If Zone 3 is less than Zone 2 PSS SINCAL gives Zone 3 the same setting as Zone 2.

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5.

Fault Detection
This procedure localizes a fault at a protection device, determining the precise position of the fault in the supply network. Modern protection devices save the impedance that caused the tripping when there is a fault. These values let you calculate the position of the fault in the network.

Calculation Method
If there is a fault at a protection device (see the section on Protection Location in the chapter on Data Description in the Input Data Manual), enter the impedances registered by the protection device. PSS SINCAL then goes through the network in the direction of the line looking for every protection device that has these data. This search stops at the next or second to the next protection device in the same direction.

ZR L3 L1 L2

Illustration: Principle of fault detection

PSS SINCAL calculates short circuits along these lines, which have been divided up depending on detection accuracy. If the impedance measured is between the registered impedance of the following two short circuit calculations, PSS SINCAL records the impedance as a hit. It also records the distance from the starting node. In the above example, the fault is in Line L2. The impedance (Z R) for the fault was registered at the protection device. The simulation procedure indicates two possible locations of the fault in Lines L2 and L3 for the impedance registered. Fault detection accuracy can be set in the Calculation Settings. Note that higher detection accuracy increases calculation time.

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Results of Fault Detection


PSS SINCAL displays all the results in the message box, so you can identify the network elements that have faults (see the chapter on Messages in the System Manual). Message in the example: Fault detection by one protection device(s) between 350.0 and 400.0 meters from the starting node. (Line: L16, Protection Device: Dist in S9)

This message tells you how many protection devices registered the fault. It also lists the line where the fault is presumably located, the distance from the fault to the starting node and the protection devices that have registered the fault.

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6.

Dimensioning
PSS SINCAL calculates the minimum one-phase short circuit currents in low-voltage networks according to VDE 0102 Part 2/11.75 and determines the maximum permissible amount of rated fuse current for fuses. A differentiation must be made between a normal circuit-breaking examination and a circuitbreaking examination that is made after the load flow has been calculated. In the latter case, load currents from the load flow calculations produces the minimum rated fuse currents and examining the cut-off conditions produces the maximum rated fuse current. If the load current from the load flow calculations is greater than the permissible rated fuse current after the circuit-breaking condition, PSS SINCAL records this in the output log. Only fuses in network areas with a rated voltage less than 1 kV are accepted. PSS SINCAL does not check branches with short circuit currents less than 6 A. PSS SINCAL only accepts fuse areas with a maximum of 3 limited fuses.

Dimensioning Calculation Procedures


Unload and check all network data Create subnetwork using transformers

Determine fuse areas

Determine minimum short circuit power

Check tripping condition

Have all fuse areas been calculated? Yes Have all subnetworks been calculated? Yes Prepare results Illustration: Sequence diagram

No

No

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6.1

Calculation Methods

Creating Subnetworks
Typically, networks are medium- and low-voltage networks. These low-voltage networks are normally made up of several subnetworks.

Subnetwork1 Subnetwork2

Low-voltage network

Subnetworkn

Medium-voltage network Illustration: Network with various subnetworks

Since medium-voltage networks are recreated by the ensuing short circuit power at the transformer on the high-voltage side, they can be eliminated from the calculations. The pending short circuit power is entered in the field Short Circuit Alternating Power of Calculation Settings. Subnetworks can be found with the help of the network analysis in the low-voltage network. Since the neutral-point coupling between the subnetworks is ignored, each subnetwork can be calculated and observed separately. The maximum permissible rated fuse current must be determined separately for each fuse in the low-voltage network. The minimum one-phase short circuit current for each fuse area must also be determined. A fuse area is defined as the network up to the next fuse. A fuse area is also always limited by a fuse or stub end. PSS SINCAL searches for the location with the minimum total one-phase short circuit current I"kmin in each fuse area. This is the basis for Determining the Rated Fuse Current.

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Radiating Networks
In a radiating network, the nearest fuse or the end of the line recreates the least favorable fault location.

Trafo

Illustration: Radiating network

Meshed Networks
Meshed networks are recreated here for several time periods called time steps. In the first time step, all the fuses are still in the network and modifications to network topology have not yet been calculated. PSS SINCAL takes fuse melting is taken into consideration in the subsequent time steps. Since PSS SINCAL can calculate maximum fuse areas with three limiting fuses, there is a maximum of only three time steps:

IN3

Ik1

IN1

IN2

Illustration: First time period

PSS SINCAL determines the location with the smallest one-phase total short circuit current I k1 and calculates.

Ik1 k(IN1 IN2 IN3 )

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IN3

IN1

Ik21

Ik22

IN1

IN2

IN3

Ik23

IN2

Illustration: Second time period

In the second time step, PSS SINCAL recalculates the location with the smallest current I k again and recalculates Ik.

Ik21 k(IN1 IN3 ) Ik22 Ik23 k(IN1 IN2 ) k(IN2 IN3 )

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Ik31

IN1

Ik32

IN2

IN3

Ik33

Illustration: Third time period

In this third time step, only the stub ends and the installation locations of the fuses remain to be checked.

Ik31 k IN1 Ik32 Ik33 k IN2 k IN3

Location of Minimum Total Short Circuit Current


The location that produces the minimum total short circuit current is easily found for radiating networks and for the last time step for meshed networks. It is at the end of the fuse area (the stub end or the beginning of the new fuse area).

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In meshed networks, short circuits are simulated at the nodes along the lines of the fuse area, except for the last time step. The lines are divided into several imaginary sublines. Enter the number of short circuit locations or lines in the field Subdivisions in the Calculation Settings.

Minimum Total Short Circuit Current


The minimum initial short circuit alternating current I" k1p can be determined in the following manner according to VDE 0102 Part 2:

I"k1p

3 0.95 VNT 2z1 z0

I"k1p

Minimum one-phase total short circuit current Rated voltage of the low-voltage side of the transformer Positive-phase-sequence impedance Zero-phase-sequence impedance

VNT

z1 z0

0.95 * VNT is the driving voltage for calculating minimum one-phase total short circuit current. Enter this value in the Calculation Settings.

Determining Rated Fuse Current


PSS SINCAL determines the rated fuse current from the minimum one-phase total short circuit current and the number of picked-up protection devices using the following criteria: Safety factor (factor rated current) Conductor cross-section Thermal damage short circuit Thermal load time current and large control current Maximum breaking time

If one of the above criteria are violated, PSS SINCAL uses the next smaller of the rated currents possible for this type data.

Safety Factor (Factor Rated Current)


Each fuses safety factor (factor rated current) is found in the input data for this fuse.

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The following condition has to be met:

Ik "1p INS npickup


Minimum one-phase total short circuit current Safety factor (rated current factor) Rated current fuse

I"k1p k INS

nAnreg Number of picked-up protection devices

Conductor Cross-Section
Depending on the conductor cross-section, the rated fuse current strengths below cannot be exceeded at copper cables according to VDE 0636. Rated current INArea [A] 6 12 20 25 32 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 Conductor cross-section [mm ] 1 1,5 2,5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 185 240 300 400 500 600 800
2

PSS SINCAL calculates all lines of a protection zone for minimum short circuit current and the smallest cross-section for all the lines.

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The following condition has to be met:

INS

INArea

Thermal Damage Short Circuit


PSS SINCAL uses the characteristic curves of the type data and the minimum short circuit current to interpolate the tripping time for each rated fuse current. Current and time are used to determine 2 the thermal energy I t. If the maximum thermal energy is less than that of the network elements to be protected, PSS SINCAL selects the next smaller rated fuse current. The following condition has to be met:

I2t fuse I2t element

Thermal Load Time Current and Large Control Current


The tripping current of the protection device that is supposed to trip can, by international definition, be only 1.45 times the current maximum load of the lines. The large control current of the protection device has to be used as the tripping current. The current maximum load is the thermal limit current Ith found in the line data. The table below shows the large control current from the rated current according to VDE 0636: Rated current INS [A] Up to 4 5 to 10 11 to 25 Above 25 Factor for large control current fI2 [p.u.] 2.1 1.9 1.75 1.6

PSS SINCAL calculates all lines of a protection zone for minimum short circuit current and the smallest thermal limit current of all the lines. The following condition has to be met:

145 Ith ,

INS fl 2

Maximum Breaking Time According to VDE 0100


Installation networks must have a maximum breaking time of five seconds according to VDE 0100. PSS SINCAL uses type data characteristics and minimum short circuit current to interpolate the tripping time for each rated fuse current. If the time is more than five seconds, PSS SINCAL selects the next smaller rated fuse current. The following condition has to be met:
t tripping 5

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7.

Examples
This chapter contains Documentation. examples for Protection Coordination and Creating Protection

7.1

Example for Protection Coordination


Below is a simple example of how Protection Coordination works. The following descriptions show: Presetting Calculation Settings Creating Protection Devices Making Fault Observations Making Fault Events Determining Settings for DI Protection Devices Checking Tripping Behavior for Protection Devices Starting the Protection Calculations Displaying and Evaluating the Results Generating Protection-Route Diagrams

Basic Data
All descriptions are based on the following network.

Illustration: Protection network with input data

When you install PSS SINCAL, the program automatically provides a network ("Example Prot"), which can be used to check the simulation procedure. The names of protection devices in the network are chosen so that devices at the beginning and end of a protection route all have the same name and the device at the end has a "G". In the above example, devices "D1" and "D1G" are in the protection route between "K1" and "K3".

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To calculate protection coordination, Protection Device Coordination in the Calculate Methods... menu has to be activated (see Presetting Calculation Methods in the chapter on User Interface in the User Manual).

7.1.1

Presetting Calculation Settings


In the Calculation Settings screen form, click the Protection Settings tab to set parameters for the calculations. To open the screen form, click the menu item Calculate Settings...

Illustration: Data screen form for Calculation Settings Protection Settings

Important are the settings in the first part of this tab. The Strategy field sets which procedure PSS SINCAL uses. Enter the selective grading factor you want in Sel. Grading Factor 2nd Zone. If the distance is less than this value, PSS SINCAL will send a warning message. For a detailed description of all available calculation settings, see the section on Protection Settings Calculation Settings in the chapter on Calculation Settings in the Input Data Manual.

7.1.2

Creating Protection Devices


The following examples show only how to create and edit protection devices. The instructions describe how real networks are created (see the chapter on Using an Example to Work on a Network in the System Manual). The simplest way to create protection devices is to use the pop-up menu. To open it, right-click the terminal of that network element where you want to add the protection device.

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Illustration: Creating protection devices with the pop-up menu

Select in the pop-up menu the desired protection device type in the Insert Protection Device menu. PSS SINCAL displays a data input form where you enter the name of the new protection device.

Illustration: Entering the name of the protection device

For distance-protection devices, the type needs to be entered. PSS SINCAL differentiates between "predefined" and "user defined" distance-protection devices. A special model simulates the settings and the impedance areas of "predefined" devices. Impedance areas describe "user defined" devices. Click OK, and PSS SINCAL opens the screen form for protection devices.

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Illustration: Location of the protection device

The left side of the dialog box has a browser with the new distance protection device. When the new device is selected, PSS SINCAL displays the general data at the right side of the dialog box. General data show, among other things, where the protection device, its pre-switched current and voltage transformer and the directional element are located. See Protection Location for a detailed description of all the fields. General data can also be used to turn protection devices OFF (without deleting them). This switches Out of service ON. PSS SINCAL disregards this protection device in the calculations. A special protection device symbol shows that this has been switched OFF. The settings of the protection devices are both device- and type-specific. Click Settings in the browser to display and edit them.

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Illustration: Settings for impedance protection device

This screen form is used to define individual settings for the new impedance-protection device. With predefined distance protection devices, select the type of protection device and the type of measurement. Also enter the selective distance factors and the tripping times. With user-defined distance protection devices, define the impedance area. With OC protection devices, select the protection device type from the protection device database and enter the settings in the dialog box.

7.1.3

Making Fault Observations


Fault Observation is used to place "faults" at nodes and terminals of network elements in the network. Fault observation is used by the following simulation procedures: Protection simulation Multiple faults Stability

The simplest way to create fault observations is to use the pop-up menu. To open it, right-click the terminal of that network element where you want to add the fault observation.

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Illustration: Creating fault observations with the pop-up menu

PSS SINCAL displays a screen form for the fault observation.

Illustration: Data screen form for Fault Observation

For a detailed description of how to enter data for fault observations, see the section on the Fault Observation in the chapter on General Control and Input Data in the Input Data Manual.

7.1.4

Making Fault Events


Fault events let you group different fault observations. The protection coordination treat fault observations grouped in this way as simultaneous faults. Select Insert Additional Data Fault Event in the menu to define fault events.

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Illustration: Data screen form for Fault Event

Fault events only have a Fault Event Name and an Operating State. The status specifies whether or not PSS SINCAL considers the package in the calculations. You can assign individual fault observations to the fault events directly in the basic data of the fault observation. Simply select the package you want in the Fault Event field.

7.1.5

Determining Settings for DI Protection Devices


In the procedure to determine protection device settings, PSS SINCAL uses set grading factors and delay times to calculate settings for distance protection devices in individual protection areas. Note that PSS SINCAL only calculates time settings for distance levels when 0.0 seconds has been entered as the tripping time for the level.

Start to Determine Settings


To start DI device settings determination, click Calculate Protection Device Coordination DI Device Settings. If the calculations can be done without errors, PSS SINCAL displays the following dialog box.

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Illustration: Calculated Distance Protection Device Settings dialog box

This dialog box lists all the distance protection devices in the network. PSS SINCAL automatically selects all devices that have no settings (such as Device D5 here). You can also select additional devices from the list. Click Details to open a data screen form listing all the attributes of the element selected. You can also double-click an element in the list to open this data screen form. To simplify the selection of protection devices, PSS SINCAL provides the following control buttons: Select All: Selects all the displayed protection devices in the list. All Calculated: Selects protection devices that have the status Calculated. Deselect All: Resets the selection at all protection devices.

When the dialog box opens, protection devices are selected that have the status No data. Click Select to highlight the protection device in the network diagram selected in the list. Click Apply to close the dialog box. PSS SINCAL adds the calculated settings to the protection devices you have selected. PSS SINCAL then uses these results as input data (settings) for the protection device(s). This dialog box can be opened again later. You even can open this pop-up menu in a free area of the Graphics Editor and click Results DI-Protection Device Settings....

Results of Settings Calculations


PSS SINCAL calculates the settings for the protection device and then displays the following screen form:

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Illustration: Screen form for distance protection devices

The settings for protection device D5 were used, and the status in the Type of Input Data field is Calculated. The status of the Type of Input Data field can be: No data: This protection device still has no settings and no impedance areas for PSS SINCAL to use in the protection simulation. Calculated: PSS SINCAL has calculated the settings for this protection device. They can be overwritten. Manual: The settings were entered by hand. This procedure will not modify the values.

PSS SINCAL calculates the settings and displays these in Calculated for Device D5 in the browser. Click Calculated Settings to see the calculation results. These settings are always available, whether or not the settings are used for the particular protection device. In addition to settings, these calculation methods also generate diagrams as selective tripping schedules. PSS SINCAL provides these in Diagram View under Protection Device Coordination DI Device Settings.

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Illustration: DI device settings grading diagram

For a description of the calculation method, see the chapter on Calculation Procedure.

7.1.6

Checking Tripping Behavior for Protection Devices


PSS SINCAL simulates the starting and tripping behavior of all protection devices in the network. PSS SINCAL considers both distance protection and overcurrent protection devices. For a detailed description of this procedure, see the chapter on Protection Simulation.

Prerequisites
When checking tripping behavior, faults have to be observed in the network. Fault observations symbolize faults in the network, for which PSS SINCAL checks the protection setting accuracy. These can be connected to any network element (see the section on Making fault observations).

7.1.7

Starting the Protection Simulation


There are two types of calculations: Calculating all fault observations in the network Calculating a fault observation using the pop-up menu

To calculate all fault observations in the network, select the following menu items: Calculate Protection Device Coordination 3-Phase Short Circuit Calculate Protection Device Coordination 2-Phase Short Circuit Calculate Protection Device Coordination 2-Phase to Ground Calculate Protection Device Coordination 1-Phase to Ground Calculate Protection Device Coordination Fault Event

To observe a fault, open the pop-up menu for this fault observation and select the desired type of calculations in the menu item Calculation at Fault.

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Illustration: Starting protection simulation with the pop-up menu

PSS SINCAL has a special Fault Event function that lets you simulate different faults in the network simultaneously analogous to the multiple fault calculations. Manually defined Fault Events combine different fault observations and create a package.

7.1.8

Displaying and Evaluating the Results


PSS SINCAL calculates the settings for the protection device and then displays the following results in the Graphics Editor.

Illustration: Protection network with results

This example shows the results of the first loop for the fault observation in Line L8. Protection Device D5, at the beginning of the line, and Protection Device D5G, at the end of the line, have a "+". A plus means that the settings that have been entered could trip the devices. PSS SINCAL also displays both devices in red. This shows that both devices may also have tripped. PSS SINCAL uses the following colors to designate tripping and pickup: Red The protection device has tripped. Yellow The protection device has been picked-up within the selective tripping time. Green The protection device is picked-up.

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PSS SINCAL searches for protection devices that can trip in each fault examination. These comprise all protection devices that limit the fault going forward. In the network diagram, PSS SINCAL marks with a "+" all protection devices that can trip. This is independent of the current status of the protection device (not picked-up, picked-up, etc.). In the network diagram, PSS SINCAL marks with an "x" all protection devices that are not supposed to trip but do so.

Selection of the Results with Toolbar


PSS SINCAL has a special toolbar to simplify selecting results. In protection simulation, select the desired fault observation and flow in this toolbar. PSS SINCAL displays these results in the network graphics and in the protection devices dialog box. Activate this toolbar by clicking View Toolbars Results.

Illustration: Results toolbar

Information in the Message Box


In addition to the results displayed in the Graphics Editor, information can be obtained from Messages.

Illustration: Protection results in the message box

The button HTML Log displays, as an HTML log, which protection devices in the current fault observation and loop: May trip Have tripped Are picked-up or not picked-up

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Results in Diagrams
In addition to the results displayed in the Graphics Editor and the information box, PSS SINCAL generates results in diagram form. To view this information, click View Diagram View.

Illustration: Protection results in the diagram form

The diagrams for tripping area and tripping characteristics can be combined in the browser. Select the protection devices you want to display in the diagram. For a detailed description, see the section on Overlay Tripping Characteristics in the chapter on Diagram View in the System Manual.

7.1.9

Generating Protection-Route Diagrams


The network and its built-in protection devices are used to generate a wide variety of diagrams, which can be used to check the correctness of the protection setting. To generate protection-route diagrams, click Calculate Protection Device Coordination Routes. PSS SINCAL can create diagrams for 3- and 2-phase short circuits and 2- and 1-phase to ground. To view this information, click View Diagram View. The simulation procedure generates the following protection-route diagrams: Tripping Behavior Ratio Impedances (Z) Ratio Reactances (X) Impedance and Tripping Areas

Note: In the diagrams for protection devices, PSS SINCAL can generate these diagrams only when the output in the selective grading diagram is turned ON (see the section on Protection Location in the chapter on Data Description in the Input Data Manual).

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The calculation settings control how protection-route diagrams are displayed on the screen. You can define, for example, the displayed protection route, using the field zones for selective grading diagrams. For a detailed description, see the section on Protection Settings Calculation Settings in the chapter on Calculation Settings in the Input Data Manual. The following diagram shows the tripping behavior of Protection Device D5.

Illustration: Tripping behavior diagram

This diagram shows the impedance of the protection route, as well as the node and additional builtin protection devices in the x axis. The y axis contains the tripping time of the particular zone. Protection devices that face "forward" are displayed in the diagram with negative time (i.e. below the x axis). In the example above, these are devices D5G and D8G.

7.2

Example for Creating Protection Documentation


Below is a simple example of how Creating Protections Documentation works. The following descriptions show: Selecting Grading Creating the Protection Documentation Inserting a Diagram

Basic Data
This description is based on a medium size industrial network with both OC and DI protection devices. Generally speaking, however, protection documentation can be for any network.

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Illustration: Protection network with overcurrent protection devices

PSS SINCAL allows protection documentation for all types of elements. But if you need additional information such as, for example, input data and limits, the network has to have overcurrent protection devices. This is why we have included them in this example.

7.2.1

Selecting Grading
For protection documentation you first need to select a grading in an individual view. This can be done in a number of ways, such as, for example, manually, by selecting the route, etc.

Illustration: Grading selected in the network

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7.2.2

Creating the Protection Documentation


After you have selected the grading, it is possible to create protection documentation. Click Tools Create Protection Documentation in the Basic View to activate the function.

Illustration: Dialog box for Create Protection Documentation

Use the Name input field to define the name (in this case "Doc 1") for the new view. This dialog box has all appropriate views for the documentation, i.e. PSS SINCAL lists all empty and open views. In this example we chose the new created view. When Create legends for protection devices is switched ON, PSS SINCAL displays supplementary information (for range and input data) for OC protection devices of the selected grading. You can set the layout and the distances between legends and protection devices or modify it later in the Protection Device Legend dialog box. The Page settings section lets the user select the desired paper format and the basic unit for the new view. Press OK to close the dialog box, and PSS SINCAL creates the protection documentation in the new view.

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Illustration: Protection documentation without diagrams

7.2.3

Inserting a Diagram
Once the protection documentation is finished, you can add a diagram. Simply click Insert Objects Diagrams in the menu. Click on the position where you want to insert the diagram with the mouse to open a dialog box where you can select a diagram.

Illustration: Dialog box for Diagrams

In this example the Station 2 diagram was selected and the dialog box was closed with OK.

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Illustration: Protection documentation with a diagram

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